Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3727

Search results for: narrative theory

3727 The Genre Narrative in Beethoven's E-Flat Piano Sonata, Op.31/3

Authors: Yan Zou

Abstract:

Approach to the theory of Musical Narrative, as well as the three criteria of the 'explicit narrative', 'potential narrative' and 'image narrative' which are used to analyze the music, the author put Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in E-flat major, Op.31/3, into the context of the music genre and Western music history, and interpreted the programmatic contents that were embodied and hid in the special music genres.

Keywords: analysis, genre, narrative, rhetoric

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3726 Narrative Psychology and Its Role in Illuminating the Experience of Suffering

Authors: Maureen Gibney

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The examination of narrative in psychology has a long tradition, starting with psychoanalytic theory and embracing over time cognitive, social, and personality psychology, among others. Narrative use has been richly detailed as well in medicine, nursing, and social service. One aspect of narrative that has ready utility in higher education and in clinical work is the exploration of suffering and its meaning. Because it is such a densely examined topic, suffering provides a window into identity, sense of purpose, and views of humanity and of the divine. Storytelling analysis permits an exploration of a host of specific manifestations of suffering such as pain and illness, moral injury, and the impact of prolonged suffering on love and relationships. This presentation will review the origins and current understandings of narrative theory in general, and will draw from psychology, medicine, ethics, nursing, and social service in exploring the topic of suffering in particular. It is suggested that the use of narrative themes such as meaning making, agency and communion, generativity, and loss and redemption allows for a finely grained analysis of common and more atypical sources of suffering, their resolution, and the acceptance of their continuation when resolution is not possible. Such analysis, used in professional work and in higher education, can enrich one’s empathy and one’s sense of both the fragility and strength of everyday life.

Keywords: meaning making, narrative theory, suffering, teaching

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3725 Postmodernism and Metanarrative: Deconstruction of Narrative in a Song of Ice and Fire Fantasy TV Series

Authors: Narjes Azimi

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It has been a while that narrative and storytelling turned to be the inevitable part of media. The narrative has so many aspects and among those entire aspects, the fantasy genre is consciously challenging one as fantasy readers are used to reading narratives like good versus evil plot. This paper will analyze the ASOIF TV series as a Meta narrative cultural production that deconstructs the elements of a traditional narrative. This study will shade on a grand narrative perspective from poststructuralism point of view. The theoretical framework is structuralism and post structuralism. Lyotard and Barthes are two main poststructuralists and focus of the study. Lyotard grand narrative elements will analyze in this research study. Fantasy genre generated a number of outstanding authors that explore innovative perspectives. Among all these leading authors George R.R Martin is one of the best. George R. R. Martin’s Fantasy a Song of Ice and Fire picturized the brutal world that seven kingdoms struggling for the power. Since 2011 this production has been followed and watched by millions of audiences all around the world. The methodology is the textual analysis of selected scenes. Martin’s distinctive fantasy style which makes it different from other fantasies, yet this shift does not negate how the previous fantasy writers represent the mentioned concepts of war, and etc., but Martin’ fantasy and left the mature audiences full of uncertainty.

Keywords: narrative theory, metanarrative, deconstruction, post-structuralism, Lyotard, Barthes

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3724 Focalization Used as a Narrative Strategy Mirroring Fadia Faqir’s Ideology in Pillars of Salt 1996

Authors: Malika Hammouche

Abstract:

The novel Pillars of Salt, written by Fadia Faqir in 1996, is a good example where storytelling is utilized as a traditional material to underline the author’s womanist ideology. A study of narrative could be fruitfully combined with that of ideology in this case. This combination could be demonstrated through the narrative technique used by Fadia Faqir in Pillars of Salt (1996), reflecting her anti-colonial ideology. The first step of this work will highlight the storyteller’s narrative in the novel representing, on the one hand, the imperial voice, and on the other exoticism and orientalism. The second step will demonstrate how Faqir’s narrative technique uses focalization as a narratological tool to negotiate her space. Faqir gives a voice to the female protagonist of the novel within the androcentric bias of Arab narrative theory to point to and amend the orientalist discourse typical to colonial literature. The orientalist discourse is represented through the voice of the storyteller in the novel. The juxtaposition of the storyteller’s and the female protagonist narratives is borrowed from the Arab literary background. It is a postcolonial counter-discursive strategy used by the author as a traditional material to underline her Arabo Islamic Womanist ideology in this novel.

Keywords: Arabo Islamic womanism, focalization, ideology, narrative technique, orientalist

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3723 The Narrative Coherence of Autistic Children’s Accounts of an Experienced Event over Time

Authors: Fuming Yang, Telma Sousa Almeida, Xinyu Li, Yunxi Deng, Heying Zhang, Michael E. Lamb

Abstract:

Twenty-seven children aged 6-15 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 32 typically developing children were questioned about their participation in a set of activities after a two-week delay and again after a two-month delay, using a best-practice interview protocol. This paper assessed the narrative coherence of children’s reports based on key story grammar elements and temporal features included in their accounts of the event. Results indicated that, over time, both children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children decreased their narrative coherence. Children with ASD were no different from TD peers with regards to story length and syntactic complexity. However, they showed significantly less coherence than TD children. They were less likely to use the gist of the story to organize their narrative coherence. Interviewer prompts influenced children’s narrative coherence. The findings indicated that children with ASD could provide meaningful and reliable testimony about an event they personally experienced, but the narrative coherence of their reports deteriorates over time and is affected by interviewer prompts.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, delay, eyewitness testimony, narrative coherence

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3722 Industrial Relations as Communication: The Strange Case of the FCA-UAW Agreement

Authors: Francesco Nespoli

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After having posed a theoretical framework combining framing theory and new rhetoric, the paper analyze the shift in communication both adopted by UAW and FCA during the negotiations in fall 2015. The paper argues that mistakes and adjustments played a determinant role respectively in the rejection of the first tentative agreement and in the ratification of the contract. The purpose of the paper is to set a new theoretical framework for the analysis of communication in industrial relations, by describing a narrative construction of reality from the perspective of the new rhetoric. The paper thus analyze all public text, speeches, tweets and Facebook posts by the union reading them as part of the narrative set by the organization condensed by the slogan 'it’s our time'. That narrative tried to gain consensus from the members matching the expectations due to the industry recovery after more than five years of workers' sacrifices. In doing so, the analysis points out a shift in the communication strategy of the union after the first rejection of a tentative agreement in 15 years. The findings suggest that, from the communication point of view, consultation in industrial relations can be conceived as a particular kind of political communication where identification with the audience through deliberate narrative may not be effective if it is not preceded by a listening campaign.

Keywords: communication, consultation, automotive, FCA

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3721 Understanding Narrative Transformations of Ebola in Negotiations of Epidemic Risk

Authors: N. W. Paul, M. Banerjee

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Discussing the nexus between global health policy and local practices, this article addresses the recent Ebola outbreak as a role model for narrative co-constructions of epidemic risk. We will demonstrate in how far a theory-driven and methodologically rooted analysis of narrativity can help to improve mechanisms of prevention and intervention whenever epidemic risk needs to be addressed locally in order to contribute to global health. Analyzing the narrative transformation of Ebola, we will also address issues of transcultural problem-solving and of normative questions at stake. In this regard, we seek to contribute to a better understanding of a key question of global health and justice as well as to the underlying ethical questions. By highlighting and analyzing the functions of narratives, this paper provides a translational approach to refine our practices by which we address epidemic risk, be it on the national, the transnational or the global scale.

Keywords: ebola, epidemic risk, medical ethics, medical humanities

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3720 Earnings Management and Tone Management: Evidence from the UK

Authors: Salah Kayed Kayed, Jessica Hong Yang

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This study investigates, whether earnings management in the audited financial statements is associated with tone management in the narrative sections of the annual report in the UK. Earnings management and narrative disclosure are communication strategies used from managers to communicate with investors or other users. Because earnings management and narrative disclosure stem from managers, they can exploit this by doing manipulation in their earnings, and simultaneously disclosing qualitative text (narrative information) in their reports as a tone of words, which will affect users’ perception, and hence users will be misinformed. The association between earnings and tone management can be explained by the self-serving, through cognitive reference points, theory. The sample period lasts from 2010 to 2015, and the sample comprises all non-financial firms that consider under FTSE 350 in any year during the sample period. A list of words from previous research is used to measure the tone in the narrative sections of the annual report. Because this study focuses on the managerial strategic choice and the subjective issues that come from management, it uses the abnormal tone to capture the managerial discretion on tone, and a number of different discretionary accruals proxies to measure earnings management, where accruals management is considered as a manipulation tool from managers to change the users' perception. This research is motivated to fulfil the literature gap by examining the association between earnings and tone management. Moreover, if firms that apply earnings management use tone management to mislead investors, it is beneficial for investors, policy makers, standard setters, or other users to know whether there is an association between earnings management and tone management. Clearly, we believe that this study is fundamental in the accounting context, where it evaluates the communication strategies that are used in firms' financial reports. Consistent with prior research, it is expected that tone management is positively associated with earnings management. This means that firms that use earnings management have incentives to manipulate in their narrative disclosure through tone of words, to reflect a good perception for users, which will conceal the earnings management techniques used in their reporting.

Keywords: earnings management, FTSE 350, narrative disclosure, tone management

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3719 The Making of a Male: Narrative Analysis of the Protagonist in Cholera District

Authors: Behre O. Ozalp

Abstract:

Cinema is a reflection of the society, as much as it captures the social codes. These codes are learned within the society; and through movies these practices of the gender order are reproduced as well. One of the best examples engendering these codes is a modern classic of Turkish cinema, Cholera District (1997), originally Ağır Roman in Turkish. It is a coming of age movie of a teenage boy in an old neighborhood of Istanbul, where he learns to be a 'man' through the hegemonic masculinity codes of the society. The corporal and verbal practices that are used in the representation of the male protagonist's portrayal is based on his performativity. This paper, through narrative analysis of the aforementioned movie, reviews how gender and narrative are intertwined within the context of queer theory. The methodology follows the protagonist's object of desire while evaluating his heterosexuality which requires affirmative performances. The framework of the study firstly focuses on the protagonist's own life and his interactions with the males of his kinship. Later, the focus gravitates towards his interactions with the female object of desire while evaluating how this relationship shapes his status in society. Lastly, the study focuses on the relationship between the protagonist and non-relative males of the neighborhood. The journey of a young male becoming a man by copying the other males delivers a clear representation of how heterosexuality is favored in terms of gender order.

Keywords: hegemonic masculinity, performativity, queer theory, Turkish cinema

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3718 Elderly Blacks: Exception Narrative in Soap Operas

Authors: Valmir Moratelli

Abstract:

This paper discusses the construction of the narrative of television fiction from the point of view of the invisibility of the representation of elderly black characters. Through the appointment of social and contemporary elements, we analyze why the theme of old age of black people is practically non-existent in brazilian soap operas of TV Globo. By raising characteristic aspects of the leaflet narrative, we want to discuss how the cancellation of identity discourses about elderly blacks and their relationship with aspects of social life is constructed.

Keywords: audiovisual, black, erderly, television

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3717 Narrative Study to Resilience and Adversity's Response

Authors: Yun Hang Stanley Cheung

Abstract:

In recent years, many educators and entrepreneurs have often suggested that students’ and workers’ ability of the adversity response is very important, it would affect problem-solving strategies and ultimate success in their career or life. The meaning of resilience is discussed as the process of bouncing back and the ability to adapt well in adversity’s response, being resilient does not mean to live without any stress and difficulty, but to grow and thrive under pressure. The purpose of this study is to describe the process of resilience and adversity’s response. The use of the narrative inquiry aims for understanding the experiential process of adversity response, and the problem-solving strategies (such as emotion control, motivation, decisions making process), as well as making the experience become life story, which may be evaluated by its teller and its listeners. The narrative study describes the researcher’s self-experience of adversity’s response to the recovery of the seriously burnt injury from a hill fire at his 12 years old, as well as the adversities and obstacles related to the tragedy after the physical recovery. Sense-Making Theory and McCormack’s Lenses were used for constructive perspective and data analyzing. To conclude, this study has described the life story of fighting the adversities, also, those narratives come out some suggestions, which point out positive thinking is necessary to build up resilience and the ability of immediate adversity response. Also, some problem-solving strategies toward adversities are discussed, which are helpful for resilience education for youth and young adult.

Keywords: adversity response, life story, narrative inquiry, resilience

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3716 Narrative Function of Public Meeting Places in Uzalo Soap Opera

Authors: Michelle Micah Augustine

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Soap opera narrative creates a sense of community. Uzalo is a South African local soap opera television series. It is unique because Uzalo tells the story of black people and their everyday struggle centered in KwaMashu township community, which is an excellent example of how moving image culture has contributed in portraying township community that was once marginalized by the apartheid regime in contemporary South Africa. While soap opera importance and promotion of social change and behaviours have been extensively studied throughout history, little research has examined the importance of space and place in its narrative. This study explored the conventional community space and place, the core elements that drive soap opera narrative. By means of qualitative content analysis, the study investigated the construction of public meeting places in Uzalo, using a purposive sampling technique to collect data by choosing episodes. The result indicates that characters convergence in public meeting places in soap opera creates disequilibrium which drives the narrative; reveals that construction of a public meeting place is an important way of creating a minimum of homogeneousness among disparate characters, gives a sense of unified experience drawing on the notion of the particular characteristics or attitude generated from such place. The result shows that the use of camera angles, movements, editing, music and usual tricks (mise-en-scene) applied in the narrative setting function as a guide for viewers comprehension of emotional responses of the story and to connect with the space in which the narrative is set.

Keywords: community, narrative, place, space, soap opera

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3715 Narrative Family Therapy and the Treatment of Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Authors: Jamie E. Banker

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For many families, pregnancy and the postpartum time are filled with both anticipation and change. For some pregnant or postpartum women, this time is marked by the onset of a mood or anxiety disorder. Experiencing a mood or anxiety disorders during this time of life differs from depression or anxiety at other times of life. Not only because of the physical changes occurring in the mother’s body but also the mental and physical preparation necessary to redefine family roles, responsibilities, and develop new identities in the life transition. The presence of a mood or anxiety disorder can influence the way in which a mother defines herself and can complicate her understanding of her abilities and competencies as a mother. The complexity of experiencing a mood or anxiety disorder in the midst of these changes necessitates specific treatment interventions to match both the symptomatology and psychological adjustments. This study explores the use of narrative family therapy techniques when treating a mother who is experiencing postpartum depression. Externalization is a common technique used in narrative family therapy and can help client’s separate their identity from the problems they are experiencing. This is crucial to a new mom who is in the middle of defining her identity during her transition to parenthood. The goal of this study is to examine how the use of externalization techniques help postpartum women separate their mood and anxiety symptoms from their identity as a mother. An exploratory case study design was conducted in a single setting, private practice therapy office, and explored how a narrative family therapy approach can be used to treat perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. The therapy sessions were audio recorded and transcribed. Constructivism and narrative theory are used as theoretical frameworks and data from the therapy sessions, and a follow-up survey was triangulated and analyzed. During the course of the treatment, the participant reports using the new externalizing labels for her symptoms. Within one month of treatment, the participant reports that she could stop herself from thinking the harmful thoughts faster, and within three months, the harmful thoughts went away. The main themes in this study were building courage and less self-blame. This case highlights the role narrative family therapy can play in the treatment of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders and the importance of separating a women’s mood from her identity as a mother. This conceptual framework was beneficial to the postpartum mother when treating perinatal mood and anxiety disorder symptoms.

Keywords: externalizing techniques, narrative family therapy, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, postpartum depression

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3714 Coping with Incompatible Identities in Russia: Case of Orthodox Gays

Authors: Siuzan Uorner

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The era of late modernity is characterized, on the one hand, by social disintegration, values of personal freedom, tolerance, and self-expression. Boundaries between the accessible and the elitist, normal and abnormal are blurring. On the other hand, traditional social institutions, such as religion (especially Russian Orthodox Church), exist, criticizing lifestyle and worldview other than conventionally structured canons. Despite the declared values and opportunities in late modern society, people's freedom is ambivalent. Personal identity and its aspects are becoming a subject of choice. Hence, combinations of identity aspects can be incompatible. Our theoretical framework is based on P. Ricoeur's concept of narrative identity and hermeneutics, E. Goffman’s theory of social stigma, self-presentation, discrepant roles and W. James lectures about varieties of religious experience. This paper aims to reconstruct ways of coping with incompatible identities of Orthodox gays (an extreme sampling of a combination of sexual orientation and religious identity in a heteronormative society). This study focuses on the discourse of Orthodox gay parishioners and ROC gay priests in Russia (sampling ‘hard to reach’ populations because of the secrecy of gay community in ROC and sensitivity of the topic itself). We conducted a qualitative research design, using in-depth personal semi-structured online-interviews. Recruiting of informants took place in 'Nuntiare et Recreare' (Russian movement of religious LGBT) page in VKontakte through the post with an invitation to participate in the research. In this work, we analyzed interview transcripts using axial coding. We chose the Grounded Theory methodology to construct a theory from empirical data and contribute to the growing body of knowledge in ways of harmonizing incompatible identities in late modern societies. The research has found that there are two types of conflicts Orthodox gays meet with: canonic contradictions (postulates of Scripture and its interpretations) and problems in social interaction, mainly with ROC priests and Orthodox parishioners. We have revealed semantic meanings of most commonly used words that appear in the narratives (words such as ‘love’, ‘sin’, ‘religion’ etc.). Finally, we have reconstructed biographical patterns of LGBT social movements’ involvement. This paper argues that all incompatibilities are harmonizing in the narrative itself. As Ricoeur has suggested, the narrative configuration allows the speaker to gather facts and events together and to compose causal relationships between them. Sexual orientation and religious identity are getting along and harmonizing in the narrative.

Keywords: gay priests, incompatible identities, narrative identity, Orthodox gays, religious identity, ROC, sexual orientation

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3713 An Eastern Philosophical Dimension of an English Language Teacher's Professionalism: A Narrative Analysis

Authors: Siddhartha Dhungana

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This article primarily explores dimensions in English language teacher's professionalism so that a teacher could reflect and make a strategic professional devotion to implement effective educational programs for the present and the future. The paper substantially incorporates the eastern Hindu practices, especially life values from the Bhagavad Gita, as a basis of teacher’s professional enrichment. Basically, it applies three categorical practices, i.e., Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Bhakti Yoga, in teachers’ professionality to illustrate, ignite further ahead and sharpen academic journey, professional journey, and professional devotion reflecting common practices. In this journey, a teacher comes to a stage of professional essence as s/he surpasses Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Bhakti Yoga with their basic quality formation. To illustrate their essence-making process, the three narrative stories for each category mentioned above are analyzed. The data collected from a research participant who has a high level of professional success and who inspires all English Language teachers in Nepal to develop stories for narrative analysis. The narrative analysis is based on eastern themes that are supported by Vygotsky's concept of developmental psychology. Moreover, the structural analysis is based on Gary Barkhuizen's narrative analysis.

Keywords: Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Vygotsky's concepts, narrative analysis

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3712 Rewriting, Reframing, and Restructuring the Story: A Narrative and Solution Focused Therapy Approach to Family Therapy

Authors: Eman Tadros

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Solution Focused Therapy sheds a positive light on a client’s problem(s) by instilling hope, focusing on the connection with the client, and describing the problem in a way to display change being possible. Solution focused therapists highlight clients’ positive strengths, reframe what clients say, do, or believe in a positive statement, action, or belief. Narrative Therapy focuses on the stories individuals tell about their past in which shape their current and future lives. Changing the language used aids clients in reevaluating their values and views of themselves, this then constructs a more positive way of thinking about their story. Both therapies are based on treating each client as an individual with a problem rather than that the individual is a problem and being able to give power back to the client. The purpose of these ideologies is to open a client to alternative understandings. This paper displays how clinicians can empower and identify their clients’ positive strengths and resiliency factors. Narrative and Solution-Focused Techniques will be integrated to instill positivity and empowerment in clients. Techniques such as deconstruction, collaboration, complimenting, miracle/exception/scaling questioning will be analyzed and modeled. Furthermore, bridging Solution Focused Therapy and Narrative Therapy gives a voice to unheard client(s).

Keywords: solution focused therapy, narrative therapy, empowerment, resilience

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3711 Mediating Effect of Hopefulness on the Effect of Underdog Narratives to Subjective Well-Being among Local State University of Cavite

Authors: Quiza Pearl Senilla, Hannah Mercado, Francis Angelo Erosa

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Underdog narratives not only provides viewers with models of determination and hard work but that inducing hope may increase the likelihood that viewers will pursue their own goals in life. Although it has been proven that underdog narratives not only create a positive motivational state to the viewers but can also induce hope, little attention has been given to know if this underdog narrative affect the health outcomes or the subjective well-being of the viewers and if their hopefulness mediates on it. To address this gap, using underdog narratives as a predictor and hope as mediator, this study determined the effect of underdog narratives to the subjective well-being of the respondents, the relationship of hope and subjective well-being and last is the mediating effect of hopefulness. This study is an experimental research that uses a between subject design. Purposeful random sampling was used wherein the respondents must meet the following criteria to be part of the study. One hundred and twenty (N=120) Local State University students were assigned to different treatment conditions— underdog narrative, comedy, nature scenes—and a no exposure control group. Results show that there is a minimal difference on the subjective well-being of the respondents when exposed to different treatment condition although it is not significant. A moderate positive correlation between hope and subjective well-being also reveals in this study. And last the result also shows that there is no mediating effect of hopefulness to the subjective well-being of the subjects through exposure to underdog narrative.

Keywords: hope, hope theory, subjective well-being, underdog narratives

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3710 An Ideational Grammatical Metaphor of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe's 'There Was a Country'

Authors: Muhammed-Badar Salihu Jibrin, Chibabi Makedono Darlington

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This paper studied Ideational Grammatical Metaphor (IGM) of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe’s There Was a Country. It started with a narrative historical style as a recent genre out of the conventional historical writings. In order to explore the linguistic phenomenon using a particular lexico-grammatical tool of IGM, the theoretical background was examined based on Hallidayan Systemic Functional Linguistics. Furthermore, the study considered the possibility of applying IGM to the Part 4 of Achebe’s historical text with recourse to the concept of congruence in IGM and research questions before formulating a working methodology. The analysis of Achebe’s memoir was, thus, presented in tabular forms to account for the quantitative content analysis with qualitative research technique, as well as the metaphorical and congruent wording through nominalization and process types with samples. The frequencies and percentage were given appropriately with respect to each subheadings of the text. To this end, the findings showed that material and relational types indicated dominance. The discussion and implications were that the findings confirmed earlier study by MAK Halliday and C.I.M.I.M. Matthiessen’s suggestion that IGM should show dominance of material type process. The implication is that IGM can be an effective tool for the analysis of a narrative historical text. In conclusion, it was observed that IGM does not only carry grammatical function but also an ideological role in shaping the historical discourse within the narrative mode between writers and readers.

Keywords: ideational grammatical metaphor, nominalization, narrative history, memoire, dominance

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3709 University Level Spanish Heritage Language Students' Use of Metaphor in Writing: Exploring Auto-Biographical Linguistic Narratives

Authors: Lorraine Ramos

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The question of heritage language learners in foreign language classrooms has been widely debated in second language education, especially with Spanish in a U.S. Instructors of Spanish as a foreign language have brought pedagogical focus to Spanish heritage language students in order to retain, develop and maintain their first language. This paper proposes a thorough examination of the use of conceptual metaphors within autobiographical linguistic narratives as a key indicator of the writing development of advanced Spanish-language students. By pairing genre theory from Systemic Functional Linguistics with metaphor theory, this paper will examine the metaphors used by 3rd and 4th year university Spanish students within the narrative genre from a corpus of 16, 091 words. The investigation has found that heritage language students use a variety of bicultural metaphors, transferred from both languages to conceptualize their linguistic development, in addition to using metaphor in specific narrative stages as a literary strategy. Since it has been found that the metaphors used were transcultural, the use of conceptual metaphors in heritage language learners can be further examined to help these students achieve their linguistic and academic goals in the Spanish by transferring from their knowledge in English. In conclusion, by closely examining the function of student discourse through their multicultural metaphoric competence, this study provides important insights on how to enable instructors to best further their students’ writing development in the target language.

Keywords: academic writing development, heritage language learners, language attitudes and ideologies, metaphor

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3708 The Representation of Female Characters by Women Directors in Surveillance Spaces in Turkish Cinema

Authors: Berceste Gülçin Özdemir

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The representation of women characters in cinema has been discussed for centuries. In cinema where dominant narrative codes prevail and scopophilic views exist over women characters, passive stereotypes of women are observed in the representation of women characters. In films shot from a woman’s point of view in Turkish Cinema and even in the films outside the main stream in which the stories of women characters are told, the fact that women characters are discussed on the basis of feminist film theories triggers the question: ‘Are feminist films produced in Turkish Cinema?’ The spaces that are used in the representation of women characters are observed to be used as spaces that convert characters into passive subjects on the basis of the space factor in the narrative. The representation of women characters in the possible surveillance spaces integrates the characters and compresses them in these spaces. In this study, narrative analysis was used to investigate women characters representation in the surveillance spaces. For the study framework, firstly a case study films are selected, and in the second level, women characters representations in surveillance spaces are argued by narrative analysis using feminist film theories. Two questions are argued with feminist film theories: ‘Why do especially women directors represent their female characters to viewers by representing them in surveillance spaces?’ and ‘Can this type of presentation contribute to the feminist film practice and become important with regard to feminist film theories?’ The representation of women characters in a passive and observed way in surveillance spaces of the narrative reveals the questioning of also the discourses of films outside of the main stream. As films that produce alternative discourses and reveal different cinematic languages, those outside the main stream are expected to bring other points of view also to the representation of women characters in spaces. These questionings are selected as the baseline and Turkish films such as Watch Tower and Mustang, directed by women, were examined. This examination paves the way for discussions regarding the women characters in surveillance spaces. Outcomes can be argued from the viewpoint of representation in the genre by feminist film theories. In the context of feminist film theories and feminist film practice, alternatives should be found that can corporally reveal the existence of women in both the representation of women characters in spaces and in the usage of the space factor.

Keywords: feminist film theory, representation, space, women directors

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3707 The Representation of J. D. Salinger’s Views on Changes in American Society in the 1940s in The Catcher in the Rye

Authors: Jessadaporn Achariyopas

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The objectives of this study aim to analyze both the protagonist in The Catcher in the Rye in terms of ideological concepts and narrative techniques which influence the construction of the representation and the relationship between the representation and J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s. This area of study might concern two theories: namely, a theory of representation and narratology. In addition, this research is intended to answer the following three questions. Firstly, how is the production of meaning through language in The Catcher in the Rye constructed? Secondly, what are J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s? Lastly, how is the relationship between the representation and J. D. Salinger’s views? The findings showed that the protagonist’s views, J. D. Salinger’s views, and changes in American society in the 1940s are obviously interrelated. The production of meaning which is the representation of the protagonist’s views was constructed of narrative techniques. J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s were the same antisocial perspectives as Holden Caulfield’s which are phoniness, alienation and meltdown.

Keywords: representation, construction of the representation, systems of representation, phoniness, alienation, meltdown

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3706 Teaching in the Post Truth Era: A Narrative Analysis of Modern Anti-Scientific Discourses in the Classroom

Authors: Jason T. Hilton

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The ‘post-truth era’ is marked by a shift toward a period in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief. Applying narrative analysis techniques to current public discourses in education that run counter to scientific findings, it becomes possible to identify weakness in modern pedagogy and suggest ways to counter false narratives in the classroom. Results of this study indicate that a failure to engage with popular narratives lessens teachers’ ability to be convincing in the classroom, even when presenting information supported by scientific evidence. This study seeks to empower teachers by illustrating the influence of story within the post-truth era and the ways in which narrative and rhetorical elements take hold in social media contexts. Equipped with this knowledge, teachers can create a shift in pedagogy, away from transmission of knowledge toward the crafting of powerful narratives, built upon evidence, and connected to the lives of modern learners.

Keywords: 21st century learner, critical pedagogy, culture, narrative, post-truth era, social media

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3705 A Narrative of Monks: Culture Heroes in Songkhla Province

Authors: Kuntalee Vaitayavanich

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This study aimed to look into roles of culture heroes of monks in Buddhism in Songkhla province during the last 50 years. Qualitative study, in-depth interviews, participatory observation and non-participatory observation were employed for this study. The results of the study indicated that culture heroes in Songkhla province would act as the followings. 1) For secular matters, monks would do something beneficial to the community. 2) For religious matters, monks would behave to follow Buddhism discipline strictly and unambitiously. At the same time, monks would not neglect to teach Buddhists to give respect to Lord Buddha by doing meditation and praying. However, when some of those culture heroes passed away, villagers in the community would show gratitude and appreciation by arranging a religious death anniversary ceremony, having icon, or having narrative to recognize those, continuously.

Keywords: narrative of monks, culture heroes, Songkhla province, social sustainability

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3704 Life Stories: High Quality of Life until the End with the Narrative Medicine and the Storytelling

Authors: Danila Zuffetti, Lorenzo Chiesa

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Background: A hospice narrative interview aims at putting the sick at the core of disease and treatment allowing them to explore their most intimate facets. The aim of this work is to favor authentic narration by leading towards awareness and acceptance of terminality and to face death with serenity. Narration in palliative care aims at helping to reduce the chaos generated by the disease and to elaborate interpretations on the course of reality, besides, the narration delivered to the doctor is fundamental and communicates the meaning given to symptoms. Methods: The narrative interview has become a regular activity in the Castellini Foundation since 2017. Patients take part every week, and for more days, in one hour sessions, in a welcoming and empathic setting and the interaction with the operator leads to a gradual awareness of their terminality. Patients are submitted with free answer questions with the purpose of facilitating and stimulating self-narration. Narration has not always been linear, but patients are left free to shift in time to revisit their disease process by making use of different tools, such as digital storytelling. Results: The answers provided by the patients show to which extent the narrative interview is an instrument allowing the analysis of the stories and gives the possibility to better understand and deepen the different implications of patient and caregiver’s background. Conclusion: The narration work in the hospice demonstrates that narrative medicine is an added value. This instrument has proven useful not only in the support of patients but also for the palliative doctor to identify wishes for accompanying them to the end with dignity and serenity. The narrative interview favors the construction of an authentic therapeutic relationship. The sick are taken wholly in charge, and they are guaranteed a high quality of life until their very last instant.

Keywords: construction of an authentic therapy relationship, gradual awareness of their terminality, narrative interview, reduce the chaos generated by the desease

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3703 Narrative Identity Predicts Borderline Personality Disorder Features in Inpatient Adolescents up to Six Months after Admission

Authors: Majse Lind, Carla Sharp, Salome Vanwoerden

Abstract:

Narrative identity is the dynamic and evolving story individuals create about their personal pasts, presents, and presumed futures. This storied sense of self develops in adolescence and is crucial for fostering a sense of self-unity and purpose in life. A growing body of work has shown that several characteristics of narrative identity are disturbed in adults suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD). Very little research, however, has explored the stories told by adolescents with BPD features. Investigating narrative identity early in the lifespan and in relation to personality pathology is crucial; BPD is a developmental disorder with early signs appearing already in adolescence. In the current study, we examine narrative identity (focusing on themes of agency and communion) coded from self-defining memories derived from the child attachment interview in 174 inpatient adolescents (M = 15.12, SD = 1.52) at the time of admission. The adolescents’ social cognition was further assessed on the basis of their reactions to movie scenes (i.e., the MASC movie task). They also completed a trauma checklist and self-reported BPD features at three different time points (i.e., at admission, at discharge, and 6 months after admission). Preliminary results show that adolescents who told stories containing themes of agency and communion evinced better social cognition, and lower emotional abuse on the trauma checklist. In addition, adolescents who disclosed stories containing lower levels of agency and communion demonstrated more BPD symptoms at all three time points, even when controlling for the occurrence of traumatic life events. Surprisingly, social cognitive abilities were not significantly associated with BPD features. These preliminary results underscore the importance of narrative identity as an indicator, and potential cause, of incipient personality pathology. Thus, focusing on diminished themes of narrative-based agency and communion in early adolescence could be crucial in preventing the development of personality pathology over time.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder, inpatient adolescents, narrative identity, follow-ups

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3702 The Development of Iranian Theatrical Performance through the Integration of Narrative Elements from Western Drama

Authors: Azadeh Abbasikangevari

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Theatre and performance are two separate themes. What is presented in Iran as a performance is the species and ritual and traditional forms of the play. The Iranian performance has its roots in myth and ritual. Drama is essentially a Western phenomenon that has gradually entered Iran and influenced Iranian performance. A theatre is based on antagonism (axis) and protagonism (anti-axis), while performance has a monotonous and steady motion. The elements of Iranian performance include field, performance on the stage, and magnification in performance, all of which are based on narration. This type of narration has been present in Iranian modern drama. The objective of this study was to analyze the drama structure according to narration elements by a comparison between the Western theater and the Iranian performance and determining the structural differences in the type of narrative. Materials and Methods: In this study, the elements of the drama were analyzed using the library method among the available library resources. The review of the literature included research articles and textbooks which focused on Iranian plays, as well as books and articles which encompassed narrative and drama element. Data were analyzed in the comparative-descriptive method. Results: Examining and studying different kinds of Iranian performances, showed that the narrative has always been a characteristic feature of Iranian plays. Iranians have narrated the stories and myths and have had a particular skill of oral literature. Over time, they slowly introduced narrative culture into their art, where this element is the most important structural element in Iran's dramatic art. Considering the fact that narration in Iranian traditional play, such as Ta'ziyeh and Naghali, was oral and consequently, it was slowly forgotten and excluded from written theatrical texts. Since the drama has entered in its western form in Iran, the plays written by the authors were influenced by narrative elements existing in western plays. Conclusions: The narrative’s element has undoubtedly had an impact on modern Iranian drama and Iranian contemporary drama. Therefore, the element of narration is an integral part of the Iranian traditional play structure.

Keywords: drama methodology, Iranian performance, Iranian modern drama, narration

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3701 The Practices Perspective in Communication, Consumer and Cultural Studies: A Post-Heideggerian Narrative

Authors: Tony Wilson

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This paper sets out a practices perspective or practices theory, which has become pervasive from business to sociological studies. In doing so, it locates the perspective historically (in the work of the philosopher Heidegger) and provides a contemporary illustration of its application to communication, consumer and cultural studies as central to this conference theme. The structured account of practices (as articulated in eight ‘axioms’) presented towards the conclusion of this paper is an initial statement - planned to encourage further detailed qualitative and systematic research in areas of interest to the conference. Practice theories of equipped and situated construction of participatory meaning (as in media and marketing consuming) are frequently characterized as lacking common ground, or core principles. This paper explores whether by retracing a journey to earlier philosophical underwriting, a shared territory promoting new research can be located as current philosophical hermeneutics. Moreover, through returning to hermeneutic first principles, the paper shows that a series of spatio-temporal metaphors become available - appropriate to analyzing communication as a process across disciplines in which it is considered. Thus one can argue, for instance, that media users engage (enter) digital text from their diverse ‘horizons of expectation’, in a productive enlarging ‘fusion’ of horizons of understanding, thereby ‘projecting’ a new narrative, integrated in a ‘hermeneutic circle’ of meaning. A politics of communication studies may contest a horizon of understanding - so engaging in critical ‘distancing’. Marketing’s consumers can occupy particular places on a horizon of understanding. Media users pass over borders of changing, revised perspectives. Practices research can now not only be discerned in multiple disciplines but equally crosses disciplines. The ubiquitous practice of media use by managers and visitors in a shopping mall - the mediatization of malls - responds to investigating not just with media study expertise, but from an interpretive marketing perspective. How have mediated identities of person or place been changed? Emphasizing understanding of entities in a material environment as ‘equipment’, practices theory enables the quantitative correlation of use and demographic variable as ‘Zeug Score’. Human behavior is fundamentally habitual - shaped by its tacit assumptions - occasionally interrupted by reflection. Practices theory acknowledges such action to be minimally monitored yet nonetheless considers it as constructing narrative. Thus presented in research, ‘storied’ behavior can then be seen to be (in)formed and shaped from a shifting hierarchy of ‘horizons’ or of perspectives - from habituated to reflective - rather than a single seamless narrative. Taking a communication practices perspective here avoids conflating tacit, transformative and theoretical understanding in research. In short, a historically grounded and unifying statement of contemporary practices theory will enhance its potential as a tool in communication, consumer and cultural research, landscaping interpretative horizons of human behaviour through exploring widely the culturally (in)formed narratives equipping and incorporated (reflectively, unreflectively) in people’s everyday lives.

Keywords: communication, consumer, cultural practices, hermeneutics

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3700 The Combination of Narrative News and VR Games-Comparison of Various Forms of News Games

Authors: Xiaohan Feng, Makoto Murakami

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The information explosion makes it easier to ignore information that requires social attention, and news games can make that information stand out. There is also considerable research that shows that people are more likely to remember narrative content. Virtual environments can also increase the amount of information a person can recall. If these elements are blended together, it may help people remember important information. This research aims to provide directional results for researchers interested in combining VR and narrative, enumerating the advantages and limitations of using text or non-text plot prompts in news games. It also provides hints for the use of virtual environments as learning platforms in news games. The research method is to first derive a theoretical derivation, then create a sample of news games, and then compare the experimental data of the sample to prove the theory. The research compares the survey data of a VR game that presents a story in non-text format (Group VR), a game that presents the story in non-text format (Group NVR), a VR game that presents the story in text (Group VRIT), and a game that presents the story in text (Group NVRIT) will be compared and analyzed. This paper describes the experiment. The results of the experiment show that among the four groups, the means that can make subjects remember the most information is a VR news game with a storyline. And there is a positive correlation between subjects' experience and confidence in recognizing memories, and empathy is positively correlated with the correctness of memories. In addition, the effects of "VR," "experience," and "presenting a story from text or video" on the percentage of correct answers differed depending on the type of question.

Keywords: virtual reality, interactive, narratology, news games

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3699 Sustainable Enterprise Theory: A Starting Point for Reporting Sustainable Business Values

Authors: Arne Fagerstrom, Gary Cunningham, Fredrik Hartwig

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In this paper, a theory of sustainable enterprises, sustainable enterprise theory (SET), is developed. The sustainable enterprise theory can only be a valid theory if knowledge about life and nature is complete. Knowledge limitations should not stop enterprises from doing business with a goal of better long-term life on earth. Life demands stewardship of the resources used during one’s lifetime. This paper develops a model influenced by (the classical) enterprise theory and resource theory that includes more than money in the business activities of an enterprise. The sustainable enterprise theory is then used in an analysis of accountability and in discussions about sustainable businesses.

Keywords: sustainable business, sustainability reporting, sustainable values, theory of the firm

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3698 Redeeming the Self-Settling Scores with the Nazis by the Means of Poetics

Authors: Liliane Steiner

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Beyond the testimonial act, that sheds light on the feminine experience in the Holocaust, the survivors' writing voices first and foremost the abjection of the feminine self brutally inflicted by the Nazis in the Holocaust, and in the same movement redeems the self by the means of poetics, and brings it to an existential state of being a subject. This study aims to stress the poetics of this writing in order to promote the Holocaust literature from the margins to the mainstream and to contribute to the commemoration of the Holocaust in the next generations. Methodology: The study of the survivors' redeeming of self is based on Julia Kristeva's theory of the abject: the self-throws out everything that threatens its existence and Liliane Steiner's theory of the post- abjection of hell: the belated act of vomiting the abject experiences settles cores with the author of the abject to redeem the self. The research will focus on Ruth Sender's trilogy The Cage, To Life and The Holocaust Lady as a case study. Findings: The binary mode that characterizes this writing reflects the experience of Jewish women, who were subject(s), were treated violently as object(s), debased, defeminized and, eventually turned into abject by the Nazis. In a tour de force, this writing re-enacts the postponed resistance, that vomited the abject imposed on the feminine self by the very act of narration, which denounces the real abject, the perpetrators. The post-abjection of self is acted out in constructs of abject, relating the abject experience of the Holocaust as well as the rehabilitation of the surviving self (subject). The transcription of abject surfaces in deconstructing the abject through self- characterization, and in the elusive rendering of bad memories, having recourse to literary figures. The narrative 'I' selects, obstructs, mends and tells the past events from an active standpoint, as would a subject in control of its (narrative) fate. In a compensatory movement, the narrating I tells itself by reconstructing the subject and proving time and again that I is other. Moreover, in the belated endeavor to revenge, testify and narrate the abject, the narrative I defies itself, and represents itself as a dialectical I, splitting and multiplying itself in a deconstructing way. The dialectical I is never (one) I. It voices not only the unvoiced but also and mainly the other silenced 'I's. Drawing its nature and construct from traumatic memories, the dialectical I transgresses boundaries to narrate her story, and in the same breath, the story of Jewish women doomed to silence. In this narrative feat, the dialectical I stresses its essential dialectical existence with the past, never to be (one) again. Conclusion: The pattern of I is other generates patterns of subject(s) that defy, transgress and repudiate the abject and its repercussions on the feminine I. The feminine I writes itself as a survivor that defies the abject (Nazis) and takes revenge. The paradigm of metamorphosis that accompanies the journey of the Holocaust memoirist engenders life and surviving as well as a narration that defies stagnation and death.

Keywords: abject, feminine writing, holocaust, post-abjection

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