Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2117

Search results for: fault location

2117 Influence of the Line Parameters in Transmission Line Fault Location

Authors: Marian Dragomir, Alin Dragomir


In the paper, two fault location algorithms are presented for transmission lines which use the line parameters to estimate the distance to the fault. The first algorithm uses only the measurements from one end of the line and the positive and zero sequence parameters of the line, while the second one uses the measurements from both ends of the line and only the positive sequence parameters of the line. The algorithms were tested using a transmission grid transposed in MATLAB. In a first stage it was established a fault location base line, where the algorithms mentioned above estimate the fault locations using the exact line parameters. After that, the positive and zero sequence resistance and reactance of the line were calculated again for different ground resistivity values and then the fault locations were estimated again in order to compare the results with the base line results. The results show that the algorithm which uses the zero sequence impedance of the line is the most sensitive to the line parameters modifications. The other algorithm is less sensitive to the line parameters modification.

Keywords: estimation algorithms, fault location, line parameters, simulation tool

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2116 Fault Location Detection in Active Distribution System

Authors: R. Rezaeipour, A. R. Mehrabi


Recent increase of the DGs and microgrids in distribution systems, disturbs the tradition structure of the system. Coordination between protection devices in such a system becomes the concern of the network operators. This paper presents a new method for fault location detection in the active distribution networks, independent of the fault type or its resistance. The method uses synchronized voltage and current measurements at the interconnection of DG units and is able to adapt to changes in the topology of the system. The method has been tested on a 38-bus distribution system, with very encouraging results.

Keywords: fault location detection, active distribution system, micro grids, network operators

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
2115 ANFIS Approach for Locating Faults in Underground Cables

Authors: Magdy B. Eteiba, Wael Ismael Wahba, Shimaa Barakat


This paper presents a fault identification, classification and fault location estimation method based on Discrete Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for medium voltage cable in the distribution system. Different faults and locations are simulated by ATP/EMTP, and then certain selected features of the wavelet transformed signals are used as an input for a training process on the ANFIS. Then an accurate fault classifier and locator algorithm was designed, trained and tested using current samples only. The results obtained from ANFIS output were compared with the real output. From the results, it was found that the percentage error between ANFIS output and real output is less than three percent. Hence, it can be concluded that the proposed technique is able to offer high accuracy in both of the fault classification and fault location.

Keywords: ANFIS, fault location, underground cable, wavelet transform

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2114 A New Method Presentation for Locating Fault in Power Distribution Feeders Considering DG

Authors: Rahman Dashti, Ehsan Gord


In this paper, an improved impedance based fault location method is proposed. In this method, online fault locating is performed using voltage and current information at the beginning of the feeder. Determining precise fault location in a short time increases reliability and efficiency of the system. The proposed method utilizes information about main component of voltage and current at the beginning of the feeder and distributed generation unit (DGU) in order to precisely locate different faults in acceptable time. To evaluate precision and accuracy of the proposed method, a 13-node is simulated and tested using MATLAB.

Keywords: distribution network, fault section determination, distributed generation units, distribution protection equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2113 Presentation of HVA Faults in SONELGAZ Underground Network and Methods of Faults Diagnostic and Faults Location

Authors: I. Touaїbia, E. Azzag, O. Narjes


Power supply networks are growing continuously and their reliability is getting more important than ever. The complexity of the whole network comprises numerous components that can fail and interrupt the power supply for the end user. Underground distribution systems are normally exposed to permanent faults, due to specific construction characteristics. In these systems, visual inspection cannot be performed. In order to enhance service restoration, accurate fault location techniques must be applied. This paper describes the different faults that affect the underground distribution system of SONELGAZ (National Society of Electricity and Gas of Algeria), and cable fault location procedure with impulse reflection method (TDR), based in the analyses of the cable response of the electromagnetic impulse, allows cable fault prelocation. The results are obtained from real test in the underground distribution feeder from electrical network of energy distribution company of Souk-Ahras, in order to know the influence of cable characteristics in the types and frequency of faults.

Keywords: distribution networks, fault location, TDR, underground cable

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2112 Development of Fault Diagnosis Technology for Power System Based on Smart Meter

Authors: Chih-Chieh Yang, Chung-Neng Huang


In power system, how to improve the fault diagnosis technology of transmission line has always been the primary goal of power grid operators. In recent years, due to the rise of green energy, the addition of all kinds of distributed power also has an impact on the stability of the power system. Because the smart meters are with the function of data recording and bidirectional transmission, the adaptive Fuzzy Neural inference system, ANFIS, as well as the artificial intelligence that has the characteristics of learning and estimation in artificial intelligence. For transmission network, in order to avoid misjudgment of the fault type and location due to the input of these unstable power sources, combined with the above advantages of smart meter and ANFIS, a method for identifying fault types and location of faults is proposed in this study. In ANFIS training, the bus voltage and current information collected by smart meters can be trained through the ANFIS tool in MATLAB to generate fault codes to identify different types of faults and the location of faults. In addition, due to the uncertainty of distributed generation, a wind power system is added to the transmission network to verify the diagnosis correctness of the study. Simulation results show that the method proposed in this study can correctly identify the fault type and location of fault with more efficiency, and can deal with the interference caused by the addition of unstable power sources.

Keywords: ANFIS, fault diagnosis, power system, smart meter

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2111 A Practical Protection Method for Parallel Transmission-Lines Based on the Fault Travelling-Waves

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ebrahimi


In new restructured power systems, swift fault detection is very important. The parallel transmission-lines are vastly used in this kind of power systems because of high amount of energy transferring. In this paper, a method based on the comparison of two schemes, i.e., i) maximum magnitude of travelling-wave (TW) energy ii) the instants of maximum energy occurrence at the circuits of parallel transmission-line is proposed. Using the travelling-wave of fault in order to faulted line identification this method has noticeable operation time. Moreover, the algorithm can cover for identification of faults as external or internal faults. For an internal fault, the exact location of the fault can be estimated confidently. A lot of simulations have been done with PSCAD/EMTDC to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: travelling-wave, maximum energy, parallel transmission-line, fault location

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2110 A Double Ended AC Series Arc Fault Location Algorithm Based on Currents Estimation and a Fault Map Trace Generation

Authors: Edwin Calderon-Mendoza, Patrick Schweitzer, Serge Weber


Series arc faults appear frequently and unpredictably in low voltage distribution systems. Many methods have been developed to detect this type of faults and commercial protection systems such AFCI (arc fault circuit interrupter) have been used successfully in electrical networks to prevent damage and catastrophic incidents like fires. However, these devices do not allow series arc faults to be located on the line in operating mode. This paper presents a location algorithm for series arc fault in a low-voltage indoor power line in an AC 230 V-50Hz home network. The method is validated through simulations using the MATLAB software. The fault location method uses electrical parameters (resistance, inductance, capacitance, and conductance) of a 49 m indoor power line. The mathematical model of a series arc fault is based on the analysis of the V-I characteristics of the arc and consists basically of two antiparallel diodes and DC voltage sources. In a first step, the arc fault model is inserted at some different positions across the line which is modeled using lumped parameters. At both ends of the line, currents and voltages are recorded for each arc fault generation at different distances. In the second step, a fault map trace is created by using signature coefficients obtained from Kirchhoff equations which allow a virtual decoupling of the line’s mutual capacitance. Each signature coefficient obtained from the subtraction of estimated currents is calculated taking into account the Discrete Fast Fourier Transform of currents and voltages and also the fault distance value. These parameters are then substituted into Kirchhoff equations. In a third step, the same procedure described previously to calculate signature coefficients is employed but this time by considering hypothetical fault distances where the fault can appear. In this step the fault distance is unknown. The iterative calculus from Kirchhoff equations considering stepped variations of the fault distance entails the obtaining of a curve with a linear trend. Finally, the fault distance location is estimated at the intersection of two curves obtained in steps 2 and 3. The series arc fault model is validated by comparing current registered from simulation with real recorded currents. The model of the complete circuit is obtained for a 49m line with a resistive load. Also, 11 different arc fault positions are considered for the map trace generation. By carrying out the complete simulation, the performance of the method and the perspectives of the work will be presented.

Keywords: indoor power line, fault location, fault map trace, series arc fault

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2109 A Novel Approach of Power Transformer Diagnostic Using 3D FEM Parametrical Model

Authors: M. Brandt, A. Peniak, J. Makarovič, P. Rafajdus


This paper deals with a novel approach of power transformers diagnostics. This approach identifies the exact location and the range of a fault in the transformer and helps to reduce operation costs related to handling of the faulty transformer, its disassembly and repair. The advantage of the approach is a possibility to simulate healthy transformer and also all faults, which can occur in transformer during its operation without its disassembling, which is very expensive in practice. The approach is based on creating frequency dependent impedance of the transformer by sweep frequency response analysis measurements and by 3D FE parametrical modeling of the fault in the transformer. The parameters of the 3D FE model are the position and the range of the axial short circuit. Then, by comparing the frequency dependent impedances of the parametrical models with the measured ones, the location and the range of the fault is identified. The approach was tested on a real transformer and showed high coincidence between the real fault and the simulated one.

Keywords: transformer, parametrical model of transformer, fault, sweep frequency response analysis, finite element method

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2108 A Review of HVDC Modular Multilevel Converters Subjected to DC and AC Faults

Authors: Jude Inwumoh, Adam P. R. Taylor, Kosala Gunawardane


Modular multilevel converters (MMC) exhibit a highly scalable and modular characteristic with good voltage/power expansion, fault tolerance capability, low output harmonic content, good redundancy, and a flexible front-end configuration. Fault detection, location, and isolation, as well as maintaining fault ride-through (FRT), are major challenges to MMC reliability and power supply sustainability. Different papers have been reviewed to seek the best MMC configuration with fault capability. DC faults are the most common fault, while the probability that AC fault occurs in a modular multilevel converter (MCC) is low; though, AC faults consequence are severe. This paper reviews several MMC topologies and modulation techniques in tackling faults. These fault control strategies are compared based on cost, complexity, controllability, and power loss. A meshed network of half-bridge (HB) MMC topology was optimal in rendering fault ride through than any other MMC topologies but only when combined with DC circuit breakers (CBS), AC CBS, and fault current limiters (FCL).

Keywords: MMC-HVDC, DC faults, fault current limiters, control scheme

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2107 Wavelet Based Signal Processing for Fault Location in Airplane Cable

Authors: Reza Rezaeipour Honarmandzad


Wavelet analysis is an exciting method for solving difficult problems in mathematics, physics, and engineering, with modern applications as diverse as wave propagation, data compression, signal processing, image processing, pattern recognition, etc. Wavelets allow complex information such as signals, images and patterns to be decomposed into elementary forms at different positions and scales and subsequently reconstructed with high precision. In this paper a wavelet-based signal processing algorithm for airplane cable fault location is proposed. An orthogonal discrete wavelet decomposition and reconstruction algorithm is used to eliminate the noise in the aircraft cable fault signal. The experiment result has shown that the character of emission pulse and reflect pulse used to test the aircraft cable fault point are reserved and the high-frequency noise are eliminated by means of the proposed algorithm in this paper.

Keywords: wavelet analysis, signal processing, orthogonal discrete wavelet, noise, aircraft cable fault signal

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2106 Improved Traveling Wave Method Based Fault Location Algorithm for Multi-Terminal Transmission System of Wind Farm with Grounding Transformer

Authors: Ke Zhang, Yongli Zhu


Due to rapid load growths in today’s highly electrified societies and the requirement for green energy sources, large-scale wind farm power transmission system is constantly developing. This system is a typical multi-terminal power supply system, whose structure of the network topology of transmission lines is complex. What’s more, it locates in the complex terrain of mountains and grasslands, thus increasing the possibility of transmission line faults and finding the fault location with difficulty after the faults and resulting in an extremely serious phenomenon of abandoning the wind. In order to solve these problems, a fault location method for multi-terminal transmission line based on wind farm characteristics and improved single-ended traveling wave positioning method is proposed. Through studying the zero sequence current characteristics by using the characteristics of the grounding transformer(GT) in the existing large-scale wind farms, it is obtained that the criterion for judging the fault interval of the multi-terminal transmission line. When a ground short-circuit fault occurs, there is only zero sequence current on the path between GT and the fault point. Therefore, the interval where the fault point exists is obtained by determining the path of the zero sequence current. After determining the fault interval, The location of the short-circuit fault point is calculated by the traveling wave method. However, this article uses an improved traveling wave method. It makes the positioning accuracy more accurate by combining the single-ended traveling wave method with double-ended electrical data. What’s more, a method of calculating the traveling wave velocity is deduced according to the above improvements (it is the actual wave velocity in theory). The improvement of the traveling wave velocity calculation method further improves the positioning accuracy. Compared with the traditional positioning method, the average positioning error of this method is reduced by 30%.This method overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional method in poor fault location of wind farm transmission lines. In addition, it is more accurate than the traditional fixed wave velocity method in the calculation of the traveling wave velocity. It can calculate the wave velocity in real time according to the scene and solve the traveling wave velocity can’t be updated with the environment and real-time update. The method is verified in PSCAD/EMTDC.

Keywords: grounding transformer, multi-terminal transmission line, short circuit fault location, traveling wave velocity, wind farm

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2105 Effect of Fault Depth on Near-Fault Peak Ground Velocity

Authors: Yanyan Yu, Haiping Ding, Pengjun Chen, Yiou Sun


Fault depth is an important parameter to be determined in ground motion simulation, and peak ground velocity (PGV) demonstrates good application prospect. Using numerical simulation method, the variations of distribution and peak value of near-fault PGV with different fault depth were studied in detail, and the reason of some phenomena were discussed. The simulation results show that the distribution characteristics of PGV of fault-parallel (FP) component and fault-normal (FN) component are distinctly different; the value of PGV FN component is much larger than that of FP component. With the increase of fault depth, the distribution region of the FN component strong PGV moves forward along the rupture direction, while the strong PGV zone of FP component becomes gradually far away from the fault trace along the direction perpendicular to the strike. However, no matter FN component or FP component, the strong PGV distribution area and its value are both quickly reduced with increased fault depth. The results above suggest that the fault depth have significant effect on both FN component and FP component of near-fault PGV.

Keywords: fault depth, near-fault, PGV, numerical simulation

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2104 Estimation of the Length and Location of Ground Surface Deformation Caused by the Reverse Faulting

Authors: Nader Khalafian, Mohsen Ghaderi


Field observations have revealed many examples of structures which were damaged due to ground surface deformation caused by the faulting phenomena. In this paper some efforts were made in order to estimate the length and location of the ground surface where large displacements were created due to the reverse faulting. This research has conducted in two steps; (1) in the first step, a 2D explicit finite element model were developed using ABAQUS software. A subroutine for Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion with strain softening model was developed by the authors in order to properly model the stress strain behavior of the soil in the fault rapture zone. The results of the numerical analysis were verified with the results of available centrifuge experiments. Reasonable coincidence was found between the numerical and experimental data. (2) In the second step, the effects of the fault dip angle (δ), depth of soil layer (H), dilation and friction angle of sand (ψ and φ) and the amount of fault offset (d) on the soil surface displacement and fault rupture path were investigated. An artificial neural network-based model (ANN), as a powerful prediction tool, was developed to generate a general model for predicting faulting characteristics. A properly sized database was created to train and test network. It was found that the length and location of the zone of displaced ground surface can be accurately estimated using the proposed model.

Keywords: reverse faulting, surface deformation, numerical, neural network

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2103 Distributed Generation Connection to the Network: Obtaining Stability Using Transient Behavior

Authors: A. Hadadi, M. Abdollahi, A. Dustmohammadi


The growing use of DGs in distribution networks provide many advantages and also cause new problems which should be anticipated and be solved with appropriate solutions. One of the problems is transient voltage drop and short circuit in the electrical network, in the presence of distributed generation - which can lead to instability. The appearance of the short circuit will cause loss of generator synchronism, even though if it would be able to recover synchronizing mode after removing faulty generator, it will be stable. In order to increase system reliability and generator lifetime, some strategies should be planned to apply even in some situations which a fault prevent generators from separation. In this paper, one fault current limiter is installed due to prevent DGs separation from the grid when fault occurs. Furthermore, an innovative objective function is applied to determine the impedance optimal amount of fault current limiter in order to improve transient stability of distributed generation. Fault current limiter can prevent generator rotor's sudden acceleration after fault occurrence and thereby improve the network transient stability by reducing the current flow in a fast and effective manner. In fact, by applying created impedance by fault current limiter when a short circuit happens on the path of current injection DG to the fault location, the critical fault clearing time improve remarkably. Therefore, protective relay has more time to clear fault and isolate the fault zone without any instability. Finally, different transient scenarios of connection plan sustainability of small scale synchronous generators to the distribution network are presented.

Keywords: critical clearing time, fault current limiter, synchronous generator, transient stability, transient states

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2102 Application of Support Vector Machines in Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Power Transmission Lines

Authors: I. A. Farhat, M. Bin Hasan


A developed approach for the protection of power transmission lines using Support Vector Machines (SVM) technique is presented. In this paper, the SVM technique is utilized for the classification and isolation of faults in power transmission lines. Accurate fault classification and location results are obtained for all possible types of short circuit faults. As in distance protection, the approach utilizes the voltage and current post-fault samples as inputs. The main advantage of the method introduced here is that the method could easily be extended to any power transmission line.

Keywords: fault detection, classification, diagnosis, power transmission line protection, support vector machines (SVM)

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2101 Inverter IGBT Open–Circuit Fault Detection Using Park's Vectors Enhanced by Polar Coordinates

Authors: Bendiabdellah Azzeddine, Cherif Bilal Djamal Eddine


The three-phase power converter voltage structure is widely used in many power applications but its failure can lead to partial or total loss of control of the phase currents and can cause serious system malfunctions or even a complete system shutdown. To ensure continuity of service in all circumstances, effective and rapid techniques of detection and location of inverter fault is to be implemented. The present paper is dedicated to open-circuit fault detection in a three-phase two-level inverter fed induction motor. For detection purpose, the proposed contribution addresses the Park’s current vectors associated to a polar coordinates calculation tool to compute the exact value of the fault angle corresponding directly to the faulty IGBT switch. The merit of the proposed contribution is illustrated by experimental results.

Keywords: diagnosis, detection, Park’s vectors, polar coordinates, open-circuit fault, inverter, IGBT switch

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2100 Fault Detection and Isolation of a Three-Tank System using Analytical Temporal Redundancy, Parity Space/Relation Based Residual Generation

Authors: A. T. Kuda, J. J. Dayya, A. Jimoh


This paper investigates the fault detection and Isolation technique of measurement data sets from a three tank system using analytical model-based temporal redundancy which is based on residual generation using parity equations/space approach. It further briefly outlines other approaches of model-based residual generation. The basic idea of parity space residual generation in temporal redundancy is dynamic relationship between sensor outputs and actuator inputs (input-output model). These residuals where then used to detect whether or not the system is faulty and indicate the location of the fault when it is faulty. The method obtains good results by detecting and isolating faults from the considered data sets measurements generated from the system.

Keywords: fault detection, fault isolation, disturbing influences, system failure, parity equation/relation, structured parity equations

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2099 Algorithmic Fault Location in Complex Gas Networks

Authors: Soban Najam, S. M. Jahanzeb, Ahmed Sohail, Faraz Idris Khan


With the recent increase in reliance on Gas as the primary source of energy across the world, there has been a lot of research conducted on gas distribution networks. As the complexity and size of these networks grow, so does the leakage of gas in the distribution network. One of the most crucial factors in the production and distribution of gas is UFG or Unaccounted for Gas. The presence of UFG signifies that there is a difference between the amount of gas distributed, and the amount of gas billed. Our approach is to use information that we acquire from several specified points in the network. This information will be used to calculate the loss occurring in the network using the developed algorithm. The Algorithm can also identify the leakages at any point of the pipeline so we can easily detect faults and rectify them within minimal time, minimal efforts and minimal resources.

Keywords: FLA, fault location analysis, GDN, gas distribution network, GIS, geographic information system, NMS, network Management system, OMS, outage management system, SSGC, Sui Southern gas company, UFG, unaccounted for gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 507
2098 Actuator Fault Detection and Fault Tolerant Control of a Nonlinear System Using Sliding Mode Observer

Authors: R. Loukil, M. Chtourou, T. Damak


In this work, we use the Fault detection and isolation and the Fault tolerant control based on sliding mode observer in order to introduce the well diagnosis of a nonlinear system. The robustness of the proposed observer for the two techniques is tested through a physical example. The results in this paper show the interaction between the Fault tolerant control and the Diagnosis procedure.

Keywords: fault detection and isolation FDI, fault tolerant control FTC, sliding mode observer, nonlinear system, robustness, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
2097 Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Fault Detectors

Authors: Seong Woo Kwak, Jung-Min Yang


A strategy of fault diagnosis and tolerance for asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. With no synchronizing clock, it is difficult to diagnose an occurrence of permanent or stuck-in faults in the operation of asynchronous machines. In this paper, we present a fault detector comprised of a timer and a set of static functions to determine the occurrence of faults. In order to realize immediate fault tolerance, corrective control theory is applied to designing a dynamic feedback controller. Existence conditions for an appropriate controller and its construction algorithm are presented in terms of reachability of the machine and the feature of fault occurrences.

Keywords: asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, fault diagnosis and tolerance, fault detector

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2096 DGA Data Interpretation Using Extension Theory for Power Transformer Diagnostics

Authors: O. P. Rahi, Manoj Kumar


Power transformers are essential and expensive equipments in electrical power system. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is one of the most useful techniques to detect incipient faults in power transformers. However, the identification of the faulted location by conventional method is not always an easy task due to variability of gas data and operational variables. In this paper, an extension theory based power transformer fault diagnosis method is presented. Extension theory tries to solve contradictions and incompatibility problems. This paper first briefly introduces the basic concept of matter element theory, establishes the matter element models for three-ratio method, and then briefly discusses extension set theory. Detailed analysis is carried out on the extended relation function (ERF) adopted in this paper for transformer fault diagnosis. The detailed diagnosing steps are offered. Simulation proves that the proposed method can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional three-ratio method, such as no matching and failure to diagnose multi-fault. It enhances diagnosing accuracy.

Keywords: DGA, extension theory, ERF, fault diagnosis power transformers, fault diagnosis, fuzzy logic

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2095 Analysis of Microstructure around Opak River Pleret Area, Bantul Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, as a Result of Opak Fault Reactivation, Using Stereographic Method

Authors: Gayus Pratama Polunggu, Pamela Felita Adibrata, Hafidh Fathur Riza


Opak Fault is a large fault that extends from the northeast to the southwest of Yogyakarta Special Region. Opak Fault allegedly re-active after the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake, about eleven years ago. Opak Fault is a big fault, therefore the activation will bring up the microstructure around the Opak River. This microstructure will reveal a different direction of force from the Opak Fault because the trigger for the emergence of the microstructure is the reactivation of the Opak Fault. In other words, this microstructure is a potentially severe weak area during a tectonic disaster. This research was conducted to find out the impact from the reactivation of Opak Fault that triggered the emergence of microstructure around Opak River which is very useful for disaster mitigation information around research area. This research used the approach from literature study in the form of the journal of structural geology and field study. The method used is a laboratory analysis in the form of stereographic analysis.

Keywords: Opak fault, reactivation, microstructure, stereographic

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2094 Cross Project Software Fault Prediction at Design Phase

Authors: Pradeep Singh, Shrish Verma


Software fault prediction models are created by using the source code, processed metrics from the same or previous version of code and related fault data. Some company do not store and keep track of all artifacts which are required for software fault prediction. To construct fault prediction model for such company, the training data from the other projects can be one potential solution. The earlier we predict the fault the less cost it requires to correct. The training data consists of metrics data and related fault data at function/module level. This paper investigates fault predictions at early stage using the cross-project data focusing on the design metrics. In this study, empirical analysis is carried out to validate design metrics for cross project fault prediction. The machine learning techniques used for evaluation is Naïve Bayes. The design phase metrics of other projects can be used as initial guideline for the projects where no previous fault data is available. We analyze seven data sets from NASA Metrics Data Program which offer design as well as code metrics. Overall, the results of cross project is comparable to the within company data learning.

Keywords: software metrics, fault prediction, cross project, within project.

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2093 Voltage Profile Enhancement in the Unbalanced Distribution Systems during Fault Conditions

Authors: K. Jithendra Gowd, Ch. Sai Babu, S. Sivanagaraju


Electric power systems are daily exposed to service interruption mainly due to faults and human accidental interference. Short circuit currents are responsible for several types of disturbances in power systems. The fault currents are high and the voltages are reduced at the time of fault. This paper presents two suitable methods, consideration of fault resistance and Distributed Generator are implemented and analyzed for the enhancement of voltage profile during fault conditions. Fault resistance is a critical parameter of electric power systems operation due to its stochastic nature. If not considered, this parameter may interfere in fault analysis studies and protection scheme efficiency. The effect of Distributed Generator is also considered. The proposed methods are tested on the IEEE 37 bus test systems and the results are compared.

Keywords: distributed generation, electrical distribution systems, fault resistance

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2092 Fault Location Identification in High Voltage Transmission Lines

Authors: Khaled M. El Naggar


This paper introduces a digital method for fault section identification in transmission lines. The method uses digital set of the measured short circuit current to locate faults in electrical power systems. The digitized current is used to construct a set of overdetermined system of equations. The problem is then constructed and solved using the proposed digital optimization technique to find the fault distance. The proposed optimization methodology is an application of simulated annealing optimization technique. The method is tested using practical case study to evaluate the proposed method. The accurate results obtained show that the algorithm can be used as a powerful tool in the area of power system protection.

Keywords: optimization, estimation, faults, measurement, high voltage, simulated annealing

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2091 Study on Seismic Response Feature of Multi-Span Bridges Crossing Fault

Authors: Yingxin Hui


Understanding seismic response feature of the bridges crossing fault is the basis of the seismic fortification. Taking a multi-span bridge crossing active fault under construction as an example, the seismic ground motions at bridge site were generated following hybrid simulation methodology. Multi-support excitations displacement input models and nonlinear time history analysis was used to calculate seismic response of structures, and the results were compared with bridge in the near-fault region. The results showed that the seismic response features of bridges crossing fault were different from the bridges in the near-fault region. The design according to the bridge in near-fault region would cause the calculation results with insecurity and non-reasonable if the effect of cross the fault was ignored. The design of seismic fortification should be based on seismic response feature, which could reduce the adverse effect caused by the structure damage.

Keywords: bridge engineering, seismic response feature, across faults, rupture directivity effect, fling step

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2090 Root Mean Square-Based Method for Fault Diagnosis and Fault Detection and Isolation of Current Fault Sensor in an Induction Machine

Authors: Ahmad Akrad, Rabia Sehab, Fadi Alyoussef


Nowadays, induction machines are widely used in industry thankful to their advantages comparing to other technologies. Indeed, there is a big demand because of their reliability, robustness and cost. The objective of this paper is to deal with diagnosis, detection and isolation of faults in a three-phase induction machine. Among the faults, Inter-turn short-circuit fault (ITSC), current sensors fault and single-phase open circuit fault are selected to deal with. However, a fault detection method is suggested using residual errors generated by the root mean square (RMS) of phase currents. The application of this method is based on an asymmetric nonlinear model of Induction Machine considering the winding fault of the three axes frame state space. In addition, current sensor redundancy and sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) are adopted to ensure safety operation of induction machine drive. Finally, a validation is carried out by simulation in healthy and faulty operation modes to show the benefit of the proposed method to detect and to locate with, a high reliability, the three types of faults.

Keywords: induction machine, asymmetric nonlinear model, fault diagnosis, inter-turn short-circuit fault, root mean square, current sensor fault, fault detection and isolation

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2089 Geological Structure as the Main Factor in Landslide Deployment in Purworejo District Central Java Province Indonesia

Authors: Hilman Agil Satria, Rezky Naufan Hendrawan


Indonesia is vulnerable to geological hazard because of its location in subduction zone and have tropical climate. Landslide is one of the most happened geological hazard in Indonesia, based on Indonesia Geospasial data, at least 194 landslides recorded in 2013. In fact, research location is placed as the third city that most happened landslide in Indonesia. Landslide caused damage of many houses and wrecked the road. The purpose of this research is to make a landslide zone therefore can be used as one of mitigation consideration. The location is in Bruno, Porworejo district Central Java Province Indonesia at 109.903 – 109.99 and -7.59 – -7.50 with 10 Km x 10 Km wide. Based on geological mapping result, the research location consist of Late Miocene sandstone and claystone, and Pleistocene volcanic breccia and tuff. Those landslide happened in the lithology that close with fault zone. This location has so many geological structures: joints, faults and folds. There are 3 thrust faults, 1 normal faults, 4 strike slip faults and 6 folds. This geological structure movement is interpreted as the main factor that has triggered landslide in this location. This research use field data as well as samples of rock, joint, slicken side and landslide location which is combined with DEM SRTM to analyze geomorphology. As the final result of combined data will be presented as geological map, geological structure map and landslide zone map. From this research we can assume that there is correlation between geological structure and landslide locations.

Keywords: geological structure, landslide, Porworejo, Indonesia

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2088 Fault Detection and Isolation in Attitude Control Subsystem of Spacecraft Formation Flying Using Extended Kalman Filters

Authors: S. Ghasemi, K. Khorasani


In this paper, the problem of fault detection and isolation in the attitude control subsystem of spacecraft formation flying is considered. In order to design the fault detection method, an extended Kalman filter is utilized which is a nonlinear stochastic state estimation method. Three fault detection architectures, namely, centralized, decentralized, and semi-decentralized are designed based on the extended Kalman filters. Moreover, the residual generation and threshold selection techniques are proposed for these architectures.

Keywords: component, formation flight of satellites, extended Kalman filter, fault detection and isolation, actuator fault

Procedia PDF Downloads 317