Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 218

Search results for: heel lift

218 Kinematic Analysis of Heel Height Effect on Knee Direction Correction in a Patient with Genu Recurvatum: A Case Study

Authors: Parya Salimitari, Farhad Tabatabai Ghomsheh, Siyamak Khorramymehr, Hossein Taghadosi, Mohammad Hossein Dashti

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heel height on the knee joint direction in Genu recurvatum patients compared to normal state. The test was performed on a patient with Genu recurvatum and a healthy person with similar and match biomechanical conditions. Subjects were tested under six different positions of shoes with heels 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm after marking during the gate. The results of the spatial temporal geometry obtained from Vicon Motion System (six-camera T10 model, Oxford Metrics Ltd., Oxford, UK), and were used to compute and analyze the kinematic results. In this study, we tried to determine the effect of shoe heel intervention on knee joint direction correction. The results indicate that the 1 cm heel has been optimized and significantly improved in knee joint flexion and flexion-extension angle so that the difference in knee flexion-extension angle between the patient and the healthy person at some stages of walking has reached zero (good posture). The 3 cm heel compared with the 0 cm heel has reduced the knee recurvatum index (KRI) by up to 21.74% in the patient (from 219.233 mm to 47.6714 mm). According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that heel increase is effective in correcting knee joints in Genu recurvatum and the optimum heel height is 1 cm.

Keywords: joint alignment of knee, gait analysis, genu recurvatum, heel lift, kinematics, motion-analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
217 Effect of Two Types of Shoe Insole on the Dynamics of Lower Extremities Joints in Individuals with Leg Length Discrepancy during Stance Phase of Walking

Authors: Mansour Eslami, Fereshte Habibi

Abstract:

Limb length discrepancy (LLD), or anisomeric, is defined as a condition in which paired limbs are noticeably unequal. Individuals with LLD during walking use compensatory mechanisms to dynamically lengthen the short limb and shorten the long limb to minimize the displacement of the body center of mass and consequently reduce body energy expenditure. Due to the compensatory movements created, LLD greater than 1 cm increases the odds of creating lumbar problems and hip and knee osteoarthritis. Insoles are non-surgical therapies that are recommended to improve the walking pattern, pain and create greater symmetry between the two lower limbs. However, it is not yet clear what effect insoles have on the variables related to injuries during walking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of internal and external heel lift insoles on pelvic kinematic in sagittal and frontal planes and lower extremity joint moments in individuals with mild leg length discrepancy during the stance phase of walking. Biomechanical data of twenty-eight men with structural leg length discrepancy of 10-25 mm were collected while they walked under three conditions: shoes without insole (SH), with internal heel lift insoles (IHLI) in shoes, and with external heal lift insole (EHLI). The tests were performed for both short and long legs. The pelvic kinematic and joint moment were measured with a motion capture system and force plate. Five walking trials were performed for each condition. The average value of five successful trials was used for further statistical analysis. Repeated measures ANCOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test were used for between-group comparisons (p ≤ 0.05). In both internal and external heel lift insoles (IHLI, EHLI), there was a significant decrease in the peak values of lateral and anterior pelvic tilts of the long leg, hip, and knee moments of a long leg and ankle moment of short leg (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, significant increases in peak values of lateral and anterior pelvic tilt of short leg in IHLI and EHLI were observed as compared to Shoe (SH) condition (p ≤ 0.01). In addition, a significant difference was observed between the IHLI and EHLI conditions in peak anterior pelvic tilt of long leg and plantar flexor moment of short leg (p=0.04; p= 0.04 respectively). Our findings indicate that both IHLI and EHLI can play an important role in controlling excessive pelvic movements in the sagittal and frontal planes in individuals with mild LLD during walking. Furthermore, the EHLI may have a better effect in preventing musculoskeletal injuries compared to the IHLI.

Keywords: kinematic, leg length discrepancy, shoe insole, walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
216 Gas Lift Optimization Using Smart Gas Lift Valve

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, M. Babaie

Abstract:

Gas lift is one of the most common forms of artificial lift, particularly for offshore wells because of its relative down hole simplicity, flexibility, reliability, and ability to operate over a large range of rates and occupy very little space at the well head. Presently, petroleum industry is investing in exploration and development fields in offshore locations where oil and gas wells are being drilled thousands of feet below the ocean in high pressure and temperature conditions. Therefore, gas-lifted oil wells are capable of failure through gas lift valves which are considered as the heart of the gas lift system for controlling the amount of the gas inside the tubing string. The gas injection rate through gas lift valve must be controlled to be sufficient to obtain and maintain critical flow, also, gas lift valves must be designed not only to allow gas passage through it and prevent oil passage, but also for gas injection into wells to be started and stopped when needed. In this paper, smart gas lift valve has been used to investigate the effect of the valve port size, depth of injection and vertical lift performance on well productivity; all these aspects have been investigated using PROSPER simulator program coupled with experimental data. The results show that by using smart gas lift valve, the gas injection rate can be controlled which leads to improved flow performance.

Keywords: Effect of gas lift valve port size, effect water cut, vertical flow performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
215 Investigation of the Turbulent Cavitating Flows from the Viewpoint of the Lift Coefficient

Authors: Ping-Ben Liu, Chien-Chou Tseng

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the lift coefficient and dynamic behaviors of cavitating flow around a two-dimensional Clark Y hydrofoil at 8° angle of attack, cavitation number of 0.8, and Reynolds number of 7.10⁵. The flow field is investigated numerically by using a vapor transfer equation and a modified turbulence model which applies the filter and local density correction. The results including time-averaged lift/drag coefficient and shedding frequency agree well with experimental observations, which confirmed the reliability of this simulation. According to the variation of lift coefficient, the cycle which consists of growth and shedding of cavitation can be divided into three stages, and the lift coefficient at each stage behaves similarly due to the formation and shedding of the cavity around the trailing edge.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, cavitation, turbulence, lift coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
214 Gas Lift Optimization to Improve Well Performance

Authors: Mohamed A. G. H. Abdalsadig, Amir Nourian, G. G. Nasr, Meisam Babaie

Abstract:

Gas lift optimization is becoming more important now a day in petroleum industry. A proper lift optimization can reduce the operating cost, increase the net present value (NPV) and maximize the recovery from the asset. A widely accepted definition of gas lift optimization is to obtain the maximum output under specified operating conditions. In addition, gas lift, a costly and indispensable means to recover oil from high depth reservoir entails solving the gas lift optimization problems. Gas lift optimization is a continuous process; there are two levels of production optimization. The total field optimization involves optimizing the surface facilities and the injection rate that can be achieved by standard tools softwares. Well level optimization can be achieved by optimizing the well parameters such as point of injection, injection rate, and injection pressure. All these aspects have been investigated and presented in this study by using experimental data and PROSPER simulation program. The results show that the well head pressure has a large influence on the gas lift performance and also proved that smart gas lift valve can be used to improve gas lift performance by controlling gas injection from down hole. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection reduces production rate and consequently increases the operation cost.

Keywords: optimization, production rate, reservoir pressure effect, gas injection rate effect, gas injection pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
213 Thread Lift: Classification, Technique, and How to Approach to the Patient

Authors: Panprapa Yongtrakul, Punyaphat Sirithanabadeekul, Pakjira Siriphan

Abstract:

Background: The thread lift technique has become popular because it is less invasive, requires a shorter operation, less downtime, and results in fewer postoperative complications. The advantage of the technique is that the thread can be inserted under the skin without the need for long incisions. Currently, there are a lot of thread lift techniques with respect to the specific types of thread used on specific areas, such as the mid-face, lower face, or neck area. Objective: To review the thread lift technique for specific areas according to type of thread, patient selection, and how to match the most appropriate to the patient. Materials and Methods: A literature review technique was conducted by searching PubMed and MEDLINE, then compiled and summarized. Result: We have divided our protocols into two sections: Protocols for short suture, and protocols for long suture techniques. We also created 3D pictures for each technique to enhance understanding and application in a clinical setting. Conclusion: There are advantages and disadvantages to short suture and long suture techniques. The best outcome for each patient depends on appropriate patient selection and determining the most suitable technique for the defect and area of patient concern.

Keywords: thread lift, thread lift method, thread lift technique, thread lift procedure, threading

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
212 The Effect of Impact on the Knee Joint Due to the Shocks during Double Impact Phase of Gait Cycle

Authors: Jobin Varghese, V. M. Akhil, P. K. Rajendrakumar, K. S. Sivanandan

Abstract:

The major contributor to the human locomotion is the knee flexion and extension. During heel strike, a huge amount of energy is transmitted through the leg towards knee joint, which in fact is damped at heel and leg muscles. During high shocks, although it is damped to a certain extent, the balance force transmits towards knee joint which could damage the knee. Due to the vital function of the knee joint, it should be protected against damage due to additional load acting on it. This work concentrates on the development of spring mass damper system which exactly replicates the stiffness at the heel and muscles and the objective function is optimized to minimize the force acting at the knee joint. Further, the data collected using force plate are put into the model to verify its integrity and are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: spring, mass, damper, knee joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
211 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis and Optimization of the Coanda Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platform

Authors: Nigel Q. Kelly, Zaid Siddiqi, Jin W. Lee

Abstract:

It is known that using Coanda aerosurfaces can drastically augment the lift forces when applied to an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform. However, Coanda saucer UAVs, which commonly use a dish-like, radially-extending structure, have shown no significant increases in thrust/lift force and therefore have never been commercially successful: the additional thrust/lift generated by the Coanda surface diminishes since the airstreams emerging from the rotor compartment expand radially causing serious loss of momentums and therefore a net loss of total thrust/lift. To overcome this technical weakness, we propose to examine a Coanda surface of straight, cylindrical design and optimize its geometry for highest thrust/lift utilizing computational fluid dynamics software ANSYS Fluent®. The results of this study reveal that a Coanda UAV configured with 4 sides of straight, cylindrical Coanda surface achieve an overall 45% increase in lift compared to conventional Coanda Saucer UAV configurations. This venture integrates with an ongoing research project where a Coanda prototype is being assembled. Additionally, a custom thrust-stand has been constructed for thrust/lift measurement.

Keywords: CFD, Coanda, lift, UAV

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
210 Application of Co-Flow Jet Concept to Aircraft Lift Increase

Authors: Sai Likitha Siddanathi

Abstract:

Present project is aimed at increasing the amount of lift produced by typical airfoil. This is achieved by its modification into the co-flow jet structure where a new internal flow is created inside the airfoil from well-designed apertures on its surface. The limit where produced excess lift overcomes the weight of pumping system inserted in airfoil upper portion, and drag force is converted into thrust is discussed in terms of airfoil velocity and angle of attack. Two normal and co-flow jet models are numerically designed and experimental results for both fabricated normal airfoil and CFJ model have been tested in low subsonic wind tunnel. Application has been made to subsonic NACA 652-415 airfoil. Produced lift in CFJ airfoil indicates a maximum value up to a factor of 5 above normal airfoil nearby flow separation ie in relatively weak flow distribution.

Keywords: flow Jet, lift coefficient, drag coefficient, airfoil performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
209 Effect of a Stepwise Discontinuity on a 65 Degree Delta Wing

Authors: Nishit L. Sanil, Raza M. Khan

Abstract:

Increasing lift effectively at higher angles of attack has always been a daunting challenge in aviation especially on a delta wing. These are used on military jet fighter planes and has some undesirable characteristics, notably flow separation at high angles of attack and high drag at low speeds. In order to solve this problem, a design modification is modeled on a delta wing which would increase the lift so that we can improve maneuverability. To attain an increase in the lift of a 65 degree delta wing at higher angles of attack, a step-wise discontinuity is created at the upper surface of the delta wing. A normal delta wing is validated for comparison which would thereby give us a measure of flow separation and coefficient of lift affected by the modification. The results obtained deliver a significant increase in lift at higher angles of attack thereby delaying stall. Hence the benefits of the modification would aid the potential designs of aircraft’s in the time to come.

Keywords: coefficient of lift, delta wing, flow separation, step-wise discontinuity

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
208 Investigation of Static Stability of Soil Slopes Using Numerical Modeling

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Elham Ghanbari Alamooti

Abstract:

Static stability of soil slopes using numerical simulation by a finite element code, ABAQUS, has been investigated, and safety factors of the slopes achieved in the case of static load of a 10-storey building. The embankments have the same soil condition but different loading distance from the slope heel. The numerical method for estimating safety factors is 'Strength Reduction Method' (SRM). Mohr-Coulomb criterion used in the numerical simulations. Two steps used for measuring the safety factors of the slopes: first is under gravity loading, and the second is under static loading of a building near the slope heel. These safety factors measured from SRM, are compared with the values from Limit Equilibrium Method, LEM. Results show that there is good agreement between SRM and LEM. Also, it is seen that by increasing the distance from slope heel, safety factors increases.

Keywords: limit equilibrium method, static stability, soil slopes, strength reduction method

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
207 Computation of Drag and Lift Coefficients on Submerged Vanes in Open Channels

Authors: Anshul Jain, P. Deepak Kumar, P. K. S. Dikshit

Abstract:

To stabilize the riverbanks in the curved reaches of alluvial channels due to erosion and to stop sediment transportation, many models and theories have been put forth. One among such methods is to install flat vanes on the channel bed in predetermined manner. In practical, a relatively small no of vanes can produce bend flows which are practically uniform across the channel. The objective of the present study is to measure the drag and lift on such submerged vanes in open channels. Experiments were performed and the data collected have been presented and analyzed. Using the data collected herein, predictors for the coefficients of drag and lift have been developed. Such predictors yield the value of these coefficients for the known fluid properties and flow characteristic of the channel.

Keywords: drag, lift, vanes, open channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
206 Numerical Simulation of the Flow around Wing-In-Ground Effect (WIG) Craft

Authors: A. Elbatran, Y. Ahmed, A. Radwan, M. Ishak

Abstract:

The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will support in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future. This paper investigates the aerodynamic characteristic of compound wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model. Drag coefficient, lift coefficient and Lift and drag ratio were studied numerically with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The modifications of the wing has been done in order to investigate the most suitable wing configuration that can increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. A numerical investigation was carried out in this research work using finite volume Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANSE) code ANSYS CFX, Validation was carried out by using experiments. The experimental and the numerical results concluded that the lift to drag ratio decreased with the increasing of the ground clearance.

Keywords: drag Coefficient, ground clearance, navier-stokes, WIG

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
205 A CFD Study of the Performance Characteristics of Vented Cylinders as Vortex Generators

Authors: R. Kishan, R. M. Sumant, S. Suhas, Arun Mahalingam

Abstract:

This paper mainly researched on influence of vortex generator on lift coefficient and drag coefficient, when vortex generator is mounted on a flat plate. Vented cylinders were used as vortex generators which intensify vortex shedding in the wake of the vented cylinder as compared to base line circular cylinder which ensures more attached flow and increases lift force of the system. Firstly vented cylinders were analyzed in commercial CFD software which is compared with baseline cylinders for different angles of attack and further variation of lift and drag forces were studied by varying Reynolds number to account for influence of turbulence and boundary layer in the flow. Later vented cylinders were mounted on a flat plate and variation of lift and drag coefficients was studied by varying angles of attack and studying the dependence of Reynolds number and dimensions of vortex generator on the coefficients. Mesh grid sensitivity is studied to check the convergence of the results obtained It was found that usage of vented cylinders as vortex generators increased lift forces with small variation in drag forces by varying angle of attack.

Keywords: CFD analysis, drag coefficient, FVM, lift coefficient, modeling, Reynolds number, simulation, vortex generators, vortex shedding

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
204 Aerodynamic Investigation of Baseline-IV Bird-Inspired BWB Aircraft Design: Improvements over Baseline-III BWB

Authors: C. M. Nur Syazwani, M. K. Ahmad Imran, Rizal E. M. Nasir

Abstract:

The study on BWB UV begins in UiTM since 2005 and three designs have been studied and published. The latest designs are Baseline-III and inspired by birds that have features and aerodynamics behaviour of cruising birds without flapping capability. The aircraft featuring planform and configuration are similar to the bird. Baseline-III has major flaws particularly in its low lift-to-drag ratio, stability and issues regarding limited controllability. New design known as Baseline-IV replaces straight, swept wing to delta wing and have a broader tail compares to the Baseline-III’s. The objective of the study is to investigate aerodynamics of Baseline-IV bird-inspired BWB aircraft. This will be achieved by theoretical calculation and wind tunnel experiments. The result shows that both theoretical and wind tunnel experiments of Baseline-IV graph of CL and CD versus alpha are quite similar to each other in term of pattern of graph slopes and values. Baseline-IV has higher lift coefficient values at wide range of angle of attack compares to Baseline-III. Baseline-IV also has higher maximum lift coefficient, higher maximum lift-to-drag and lower parasite drag. It has stable pitch moment versus lift slope but negative moment at zero lift for zero angle-of-attack tail setting. At high angle of attack, Baseline-IV does not have stability reversal as shown in Baseline-III. Baseline-IV is proven to have improvements over Baseline-III in terms of lift, lift-to-drag ratio and pitch moment stability at high angle-of-attack.

Keywords: blended wing-body, bird-inspired blended wing-body, aerodynamic, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
203 Influence of Propeller Blade Lift Distribution on Whirl Flutter Stability Characteristics

Authors: J. Cecrdle

Abstract:

This paper deals with the whirl flutter of the turboprop aircraft structures. It is focused on the influence of the blade lift span-wise distribution on the whirl flutter stability. Firstly it gives the overall theoretical background of the whirl flutter phenomenon. After that the propeller blade forces solution and the options of the blade lift modelling are described. The problem is demonstrated on the example of a twin turboprop aircraft structure. There are evaluated the influences with respect to the propeller aerodynamic derivatives and finally the influences to the whirl flutter speed and the whirl flutter margin respectively.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, flutter, propeller blade force, whirl flutter

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
202 Half Model Testing for Canard of a Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft

Authors: Anwar U. Haque, Waqar Asrar, Ashraf Ali Omar, Erwin Sulaeman, Jaffer Sayed Mohamed Ali

Abstract:

Due to the interference effects, the intrinsic aerodynamic parameters obtained from the individual component testing are always fundamentally different than those obtained for complete model testing. Consideration and limitation for such testing need to be taken into account in any design work related to the component buildup method. In this paper, the scaled model of a straight rectangular canard of a hybrid buoyant aircraft is tested at 50 m/s in IIUM-LSWT (Low-Speed Wind Tunnel). Model and its attachment with the balance are kept rigid to have results free from the aeroelastic distortion. Based on the velocity profile of the test section’s floor; the height of the model is kept equal to the corresponding boundary layer displacement. Balance measurements provide valuable but limited information of the overall aerodynamic behavior of the model. Zero lift coefficient is obtained at -2.2o and the corresponding drag coefficient was found to be less than that at zero angles of attack. As a part of the validation of low fidelity tool, the plot of lift coefficient plot was verified by the experimental data and except the value of zero lift coefficient, the overall trend has under-predicted the lift coefficient. Based on this comparative study, a correction factor of 1.36 is proposed for lift curve slope obtained from the panel method.

Keywords: wind tunnel testing, boundary layer displacement, lift curve slope, canard, aerodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
201 Lobbying Regulation in the EU: Transparency’s Achilles’ Heel

Authors: Krambia-Kapardis Maria, Neophytidou Christina

Abstract:

Lobbying is an inherent aspect within the democratic regimes across the globe. Although it can provide decision-makers with valuable knowledge and grant access to stakeholders in the decision-making process, it can also lead to undue influence and unfair competition at the expense of the public interest if it not transparent. Given the multi-level governance structure of the EU, it is no surprise that the EU policy-making arena has become a place-to-be for lobbyists. However, in order to ensure that influence is legitimate and not biased of any business interests, lobbying must be effectively regulated. A comparison with the US and Canadian lobbying regulatory framework and utilising some good practices from EU countries it is apparent that lobbying is the Achilles’ heel to transparency in the EU. It is evident that EU institutions suffer from ineffective regulations and could in fact benefit from a more robust, mandatory and better implemented system of lobbying regulation.

Keywords: EU, lobbying regulation, transparency, democratic regimes

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
200 Concept and Design of a Biomimetic Single-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV)

Authors: S. Thomas, D. Ho, A. Kerroux, L. Lixi, N. Rackham, S. Rosenfeld

Abstract:

In this first paper, the different concepts and designs to build a single-wing MAV are discussed. Six scratch-building prototypes using three different designs have been tested regarding sufficient lift and weight distribution, of which various configurations were explored. Samare prototypes achieved wireless control over the motor and flap whilst obtaining data from the IMU, though obtaining an increase in lift was the key issue due to insufficient thrust. The final prototype was able to demonstrate an improvement in weight distribution.

Keywords: SAMARE, micro aerial vehicle (MAV), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), mono-copter, single-wing, mono-wing, flight control, aerofoil, lift

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
199 Effect of Palatal Lift Prosthesis on Speech Clarity in Flaccid Dysarthria

Authors: Firas Alfwaress, Abdelraheem Bebers Abdelhadi Hamasha, Maha Abu Awaad

Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Palatal Lift Prosthesis (PLP) on speech clarity in patients with Flaccid Dysarthria. Five speech measures were investigated including Nasalance Scores, Diadchokinetic (DDK), Vowel Duration, airflow, and Sound Intensity. Participants: Twelve (7 Males and 5 females) native speakers of Jordanian Arabic with Flaccid Dysarthria following stroke, traumatic brain injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were included. The age of the participants ranged from 8–65 years with an average of 31.75 years. Design: Nasalance Scores, Diadchokinetic rate, Vowel Duration, and Sound Intensity were obtained using the Nasometer II, Model 6450 in three conditions. The first condition included obtaining the five measures without wearing the customized Palatal Lift Prosthesis. The second and third conditions included obtaining the five measures immediately after wearing the Palatal Lift Prosthesis and three months later. Results: Palatal lift prosthesis was found to be effective in individuals with flaccid dysarthria. Results showed decrease in the Nasalance Scores for the syllable repetition tasks and vowel prolongation tasks when comparing the means in the pre PLP with the post PLP at p≤0.001 except for the /m/ prolongation task. Results showed increased DDK repetition task, airflow amount, and sound intensity, and a decrease in vowel length at p≤0.001. Conclusions: The use of palatal lift prosthesis is effective in improving the speech of patients with flaccid dysarthria.

Keywords: palatal lift prosthesis, flaccid dysarthria, hypernasality, speech clarity, diadchokinetic rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
198 Using Fuzzy Logic Decision Support System to Predict the Lifted Weight for Students at Weightlifting Class

Authors: Ahmed Abdulghani Taha, Mohammad Abdulghani Taha

Abstract:

This study aims at being acquainted with the using the body fat percentage (%BF) with body Mass Index (BMI) as input parameters in fuzzy logic decision support system to predict properly the lifted weight for students at weightlifting class lift according to his abilities instead of traditional manner. The sample included 53 male students (age = 21.38 ± 0.71 yrs, height (Hgt) = 173.17 ± 5.28 cm, body weight (BW) = 70.34 ± 7.87.6 kg, Body mass index (BMI) 23.42 ± 2.06 kg.m-2, fat mass (FM) = 9.96 ± 3.15 kg and fat percentage (% BF) = 13.98 ± 3.51 %.) experienced the weightlifting class as a credit and has variance at BW, Hgt and BMI and FM. BMI and % BF were taken as input parameters in FUZZY logic whereas the output parameter was the lifted weight (LW). There were statistical differences between LW values before and after using fuzzy logic (Diff 3.55± 2.21, P > 0.001). The percentages of the LW categories proposed by fuzzy logic were 3.77% of students to lift 1.0 fold of their bodies; 50.94% of students to lift 0.95 fold of their bodies; 33.96% of students to lift 0.9 fold of their bodies; 3.77% of students to lift 0.85 fold of their bodies and 7.55% of students to lift 0.8 fold of their bodies. The study concluded that the characteristic changes in body composition experienced by students when undergoing weightlifting could be utilized side by side with the Fuzzy logic decision support system to determine the proper workloads consistent with the abilities of students.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, body mass index, body fat percentage, weightlifting

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
197 Computational Analysis of Cavity Effect over Aircraft Wing

Authors: P. Booma Devi, Dilip A. Shah

Abstract:

This paper seeks the potentials of studying aerodynamic characteristics of inward cavities called dimples, as an alternative to the classical vortex generators. Increasing stalling angle is a greater challenge in wing design. But our examination is primarily focused on increasing lift. In this paper, enhancement of lift is mainly done by introduction of dimple or cavity in a wing. In general, aircraft performance can be enhanced by increasing aerodynamic efficiency that is lift to drag ratio of an aircraft wing. Efficiency improvement can be achieved by improving the maximum lift co-efficient or by reducing the drag co-efficient. At the time of landing aircraft, high angle of attack may lead to stalling of aircraft. To avoid this kind of situation, increase in the stalling angle is warranted. Hence, improved stalling characteristic is the best way to ease landing complexity. Computational analysis is done for the wing segment made of NACA 0012. Simulation is carried out for 30 m/s free stream velocity over plain airfoil and different types of cavities. The wing is modeled in CATIA V5R20 and analyses are carried out using ANSYS CFX. Triangle and square shapes are used as cavities for analysis. Simulations revealed that cavity placed on wing segment shows an increase of maximum lift co-efficient when compared to normal wing configuration. Flow separation is delayed at downstream of the wing by the presence of cavities up to a particular angle of attack.

Keywords: lift, drag reduce, square dimple, triangle dimple, enhancement of stall angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
196 Analysis of Lift Arm Failure and Its Improvement for the Use in Farm Tractor

Authors: Japinder Wadhawan, Pradeep Rajan, Alok K. Saran, Navdeep S. Sidhu, Daanvir K. Dhir

Abstract:

Currently, research focus in the development of agricultural equipment and tractor parts in India is innovation and use of alternate materials like austempered ductile iron (ADI). Three-point linkage mechanism of the tractor is susceptible to unpredictable load conditions in the field, and one of the critical components vulnerable to failure is lift arm. Conventionally, lift arm is manufactured either by forging or casting (SG Iron) and main objective of the present work is to reduce the failure occurrences in the lift arm, which is achieved by changing the manufacturing material, i.e ADI, without changing existing design. Effect of four pertinent variables of manufacturing ADI, viz. austenitizing temperature, austenitizing time, austempering temperature, austempering time, was investigated using Taguchi method for design of experiments. To analyze the effect of parameters on the mechanical properties, mean average and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was calculated based on the design of experiments with L9 orthogonal array and the linear graph. The best combination for achieving the desired mechanical properties of lift arm is austenitization at 860°C for 90 minutes and austempering at 350°C for 60 minutes. Results showed that the developed component is having 925 MPA tensile strength, 7.8 per cent elongation and 120 joules toughness making it more suitable material for lift arm manufacturing. The confirmatory experiment has been performed and found a good agreement between predicted and experimental value. Also, the CAD model of the existing design was developed in computer aided design software, and structural loading calculations were performed by a commercial finite element analysis package. An optimized shape of the lift arm has also been proposed resulting in light weight and cheaper product than the existing design, which can withstand the same loading conditions effectively.

Keywords: austempered ductile iron, design of experiment, finite element analysis, lift arm

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
195 Design and Numerical Study on Aerodynamics Performance for F16 Leading Edge Extension

Authors: San-Yih Lin, Hsien-Hao Teng

Abstract:

In this research, we use commercial software, ANSYS CFX, to carry on the simulation the F16 aerodynamics performance flow field. The flight with a modified Leading Edge Extension (LEX) is proposed to increase the lift/drag ratio. The Shear Stress Transport turbulent model is used. The unstructured grid system is generated by the ICEM CFD. The prism grid around the wall surface is generated to simulate boundary layer viscosity flow field and Tetrahedron Mesh is used for the other computation domain. The lift, drag, and pitch moment are computed. The strong vortex structures upper the wing and vortex bursts under different sweep angle of LEX are investigated.

Keywords: LEX, lift/drag ratio, pitch moment, vortex burst

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
194 Aerodynamic Performance of a Pitching Bio-Inspired Corrugated Airfoil

Authors: Hadi Zarafshani, Shidvash Vakilipour, Shahin Teimori, Sara Barati

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In the present study, the aerodynamic performance of a rigid two-dimensional pitching bio-inspired corrugate airfoil was numerically investigated at Reynolds number of 14000. The Open Field Operations And Manipulations (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamic tool is used to solve flow governing equations numerically. The k-ω SST turbulence model with low Reynolds correction (k-ω SST LRC) and the pimpleDyMFOAM solver are utilized to simulate the flow field around pitching bio-airfoil. The lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil are calculated at reduced frequencies k=1.24-4.96 and the angular amplitude of A=5°-20°. Results show that in a fixed reduced frequency, the absolute value of the sectional lift and drag coefficients increase with increasing pitching amplitude. In a fixed angular amplitude, the absolute value of the lift and drag coefficients increase as the pitching reduced frequency increases.

Keywords: bio-inspired pitching airfoils, OpenFOAM, low Reynolds k-ω SST model, lift and drag coefficients

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193 Aerodynamic Interference of Propellers Group with Adjustable Mutual Position

Authors: Michal Biały, Krzysztof Skiba, Zdzislaw Kaminski

Abstract:

The research results of the influence of the adjustable mutual position of the propellers for getting optimal lift force on a specially designed bench. The bench consists of frame with electric motors and with attached propellers. Engines were arranged in a matrix of two columns and three rows. The distance between the columns averages from 0 to 20”, while the engine was placed at a height of 8”, 15.5” and 23.6”. By adjusting the tilt of an electric motor, an angle of the propeller in the range of 0° to 60°, by 15° was controlled. Propellers with a diameter of 8" and pitch of 4.5” were driven by brushless model engines Roxxy BL-Outrunner 2827/26 with a power of 110W (each). Rotational speed control of electric motors were realized parallel for all propellers. The speed adjustment was realized using an aggregate of radio-controlled regulators. Electric power supplied to the engines from zero to maximum power, by the setting for every 14W, was controlled by radio system. Measurement system was placed on a laboratory scale. The lift was measured and recorded by an electronic scale. The lift force for different configurations of propellers arrangement was recorded during the test. All propellers were driven in one rotational direction and in different directions when they were in the same pairs. Propellers were driven concurrently and contra-concurrently along one of the columns and along the selected rows. During the tests, except the lift, parameters such as: rotational speed of propellers, voltage and current to the electric engines were recorded. The main aim of the research was to show the influence of aerodynamic interference between the propellers to receive lift force depending on the drive configuration of individual propellers. The research has shown that, this interference exists. The increase of the lift force for a distance between columns above 26.6” was noticed during the driving propellers in different directions. The optimum tilt angle of the propeller was 45°. Furthermore there has been also approx. 12% increase of the lift for propellers driven alternately in column and contra-concurrently in relation to the contra-rotating drive in the row.

Keywords: aerodynamic, interference, lift force, propeller, propulsion system

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192 Combination of Plantar Pressure and Star Excursion Balance Test for Evaluation of Dynamic Posture Control on High-Heeled Shoes

Authors: Yan Zhang, Jan Awrejcewicz, Lin Fu

Abstract:

High-heeled shoes force the foot into plantar flexion position resulting in foot arch rising and disturbance of the articular congruence between the talus and tibiofibular mortice, all of which may increase the challenge of balance maintenance. Plantar pressure distribution of the stance limb during the star excursion balance test (SEBT) contributes to the understanding of potential sources of reaching excursions in SEBT. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic posture control while wearing high-heeled shoes using SEBT in a combination of plantar pressure measurement. Twenty healthy young females were recruited. Shoes of three heel heights were used: flat (0.8 cm), low (4.0 cm), high (6.6 cm). The testing grid of SEBT consists of three lines extending out at 120° from each other, which were defined as anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Participants were instructed to stand on their dominant limb with the heel in the middle of the testing grid and hands on hips and to reach the non-stance limb as far as possible towards each direction. The distal portion of the reaching limb lightly touched the ground without shifting weight. Then returned the reaching limb to the beginning position. The excursion distances were normalized to leg length. The insole plantar measurement system was used to record peak pressure, contact area, and pressure-time integral of the stance limb. Results showed that normalized excursion distance decreased significantly as heel height increased. The changes of plantar pressure in SEBT as heel height increased were more obvious in the medial forefoot (MF), medial midfoot (MM), rearfoot areas. At MF, the peak pressure and pressure-time integral of low and high shoes increased significantly compared with that of flat shoes, while the contact area decreased significantly as heel height increased. At MM, peak pressure, contact area, and pressure-time integral of high and low shoes were significantly lower than that of flat shoes. To reduce posture instability, the stance limb plantar loading shifted to medial forefoot. Knowledge of this study identified dynamic posture control deficits while wearing high-heeled shoes and the critical role of the medial forefoot in dynamic balance maintenance.

Keywords: dynamic posture control, high-heeled shoes, plantar pressure, star excursion balance test.

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191 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an RC Airplane Wing Using a NACA 2412 Profile at Different Angle of Attacks

Authors: Huseyin Gokberk, Shian Gao

Abstract:

CFD analysis of the relationship between the coefficients of lift and drag with respect to the angle of attack on a NACA 2412 wing section of an RC plane is conducted. Both the 2D and 3D models are investigated with the turbulence model. The 2D analysis has a free stream velocity of 10m/s at different AoA of 0°, 2°, 5°, 10°, 12°, and 15°. The induced drag and drag coefficient increased throughout the changes in angles even after the critical angle had been exceeded, whereas the lift force and coefficient of lift increased but had a limit at the critical stall angle, which results in values to reduce sharply. Turbulence flow characteristics are analysed around the aerofoil with the additions caused due to a finite 3D model. 3D results highlight how wing tip vortexes develop and alter the flow around the wing with the effects of the tapered configuration.

Keywords: CFD, turbulence modelling, aerofoil, angle of attack

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190 The Effect of Development of Two-Phase Flow Regimes on the Stability of Gas Lift Systems

Authors: Khalid. M. O. Elmabrok, M. L. Burby, G. G. Nasr

Abstract:

Flow instability during gas lift operation is caused by three major phenomena – the density wave oscillation, the casing heading pressure and the flow perturbation within the two-phase flow region. This paper focuses on the causes and the effect of flow instability during gas lift operation and suggests ways to control it in order to maximise productivity during gas lift operations. A laboratory-scale two-phase flow system to study the effects of flow perturbation was designed and built. The apparatus is comprised of a 2 m long by 66 mm ID transparent PVC pipe with air injection point situated at 0.1 m above the base of the pipe. This is the point where stabilised bubbles were visibly clear after injection. Air is injected into the water filled transparent pipe at different flow rates and pressures. The behavior of the different sizes of the bubbles generated within the two-phase region was captured using a digital camera and the images were analysed using the advanced image processing package. It was observed that the average maximum bubbles sizes increased with the increase in the length of the vertical pipe column from 29.72 to 47 mm. The increase in air injection pressure from 0.5 to 3 bars increased the bubble sizes from 29.72 mm to 44.17 mm and then decreasing when the pressure reaches 4 bars. It was observed that at higher bubble velocity of 6.7 m/s, larger diameter bubbles coalesce and burst due to high agitation and collision with each other. This collapse of the bubbles causes pressure drop and reverse flow within two phase flow and is the main cause of the flow instability phenomena.

Keywords: gas lift instability, bubbles forming, bubbles collapsing, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
189 Structural and Modal Analyses of an s1223 High-Lift Airfoil Wing for Drone Design

Authors: Johnson Okoduwa Imumbhon, Mohammad Didarul Alam, Yiding Cao

Abstract:

Structural analyses are commonly employed to test the integrity of aircraft component systems in the design stage to demonstrate the capability of the structural components to withstand what it was designed for, as well as to predict potential failure of the components. The analyses are also essential for weight minimization and selecting the most resilient materials that will provide optimal outcomes. This research focuses on testing the structural nature of a high-lift low Reynolds number airfoil profile design, the Selig S1223, under certain loading conditions for a drone model application. The wing (ribs, spars, and skin) of the drone model was made of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer and designed in SolidWorks, while the finite element analysis was carried out in ANSYS mechanical in conjunction with the lift and drag forces that were derived from the aerodynamic airfoil analysis. Additionally, modal analysis was performed to calculate the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the wing structure. The structural strain and stress determined the minimal deformations under the wing loading conditions, and the modal analysis showed the prominent modes that were excited by the given forces. The research findings from the structural analysis of the S1223 high-lift airfoil indicated that it is applicable for use in an unmanned aerial vehicle as well as a novel reciprocating-airfoil-driven vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) drone model.

Keywords: CFRP, finite element analysis, high-lift, S1223, strain, stress, VTOL

Procedia PDF Downloads 104