Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 616

Search results for: goal-question-metric paradigm

616 Open Innovation Strategy (OIS) Paradigm and an OIS Capabilities Model

Authors: Anastasis D. Petrou

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Innovation and strategy discussions do highlight open innovation as a new paradigm in business. Yet, a number of stumbling blocks in the form of closed innovation principles weaved into the fabric of a traditional business model stand in the way of the new paradigm’s momentum to increase value in various business contexts. The paper argues that businesses considering an engagement with the open innovation paradigm would need to take steps to improve their multiplicative, absorptive and relational capabilities, respectively. The needed improvements would amount to a business model evolutionary transformation and eventually bring about a paradigm overhaul in business. The transformation is worth staging over time to ensure that open innovation is developed across interconnected and partnered areas of strategic importance. This article develops an open innovation strategy (OIS) capabilities model, and employs examples from different industries to briefly discuss OIS’s potential to augment business value in a number of suggested areas for future research.

Keywords: close innovation, open innovation paradigm, open innovation strategy (OIS) paradigm, OIS capabilities model, multiplicative capability, absorptive capability, relational capability

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615 An Extended Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning: Impact of New International Business Processes

Authors: D. De Matías Batalla

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This paper develops and extended eclectic paradigm to fit the firm internationalization process with the real international business world. The approach is based on Dunning´s, introducing new concepts like mode of entry, international joint venture o international mergers and acquisitions. At the same time is presented a model to describe the Spanish international mergers and acquisitions in order to determinate the most important factor that influence in this type of foreign direct investment.

Keywords: dunning, eclectic paradigm, foreign direct investment, IJV, international business, international management, multinational firms, firm internationalization process, M&A

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614 Devising a Paradigm for the Assessment of Guilt across Species

Authors: Trisha S. Malhotra

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While there exist frameworks to study the induction, manifestation, duration and general nature of emotions like shame, guilt, embarrassment and pride in humans, the same cannot be said for other species. This is because such 'complex' emotions have situational inductions and manifestations that supposedly vary due to differences between and within different species' ethology. This paper looks at the socio-adaptive functions of guilt to posit why this emotion might be observed across varying species. Primarily, the experimental paradigm of guilt-assessment in domesticated dogs is critiqued for lack of ethological consideration in its measurement and analysis. It is argued that a paradigm for guilt-assessment should measure the species-specific prosocial approach behavior instead of the immediate feedback of the 'guilty'. Finally, it is asserted that the origin of guilt is subjective and if it must be studied across a plethora of species, its definition must be tailored to fit accordingly.

Keywords: guilt, assessment, dogs, prosocial approach behavior, empathy, species, ethology

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613 Financial Statement Fraud: The Need for a Paradigm Shift to Forensic Accounting

Authors: Ifedapo Francis Awolowo

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The unrelenting series of embarrassing audit failures should stimulate a paradigm shift in accounting. And in this age of information revolution, there is need for a constant improvement on the products or services one offers to the market in order to be relevant. This study explores the perceptions of external auditors, forensic accountants and accounting academics on whether a paradigm shift to forensic accounting can reduce financial statement frauds. Through Neo-empiricism/inductive analytical approach, findings reveal that a paradigm shift to forensic accounting might be the right step in the right direction in order to increase the chances of fraud prevention and detection in the financial statement. This research has implication on accounting education on the need to incorporate forensic accounting into present day accounting curriculum. Accounting professional bodies, accounting standard setters and accounting firms all have roles to play in incorporating forensic accounting education into accounting curriculum. Particularly, there is need to alter the ISA 240 to make the prevention and detection of frauds the responsibilities of bot those charged with the management and governance of companies and statutory auditors.

Keywords: financial statement fraud, forensic accounting, fraud prevention and detection, auditing, audit expectation gap, corporate governance

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612 A Paradigm for Characterization and Checking of a Human Noise Behavior

Authors: Himanshu Dehra

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This paper presents a paradigm for characterization and checking of human noise behavior. The definitions of ‘Noise’ and ‘Noise Behavior’ are devised. The concept of characterization and examining of Noise Behavior is obtained from the proposed paradigm of Psychoacoustics. The measurement of human noise behavior is discussed through definitions of noise sources and noise measurements. The noise sources, noise measurement equations and noise filters are further illustrated through examples. The theory and significance of solar energy acoustics is presented for life and its activities. Human comfort and health are correlated with human brain through physiological responses and noise protection. Examples of heat stress, intense heat, sweating and evaporation are also enumerated.

Keywords: human brain, noise behavior, noise characterization, noise filters, physiological responses, psychoacoustics

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611 Virtual Container Yard: A Paradigm Shift in Container Inventory Management

Authors: Lalith Edirisinghe, Zhihong Jin, A.W. Wijeratne, Hansa Edirisinghe, Lakshmi Ranwala Rashika Mudunkotuwa

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A paradigm shift in container inventory management (CIM) is a long-awaited industry need. Virtual container yard (VCY) is a concept developed in 2013 and its primary objective is to minimize shipping transport cost through implementing container exchange between carriers. Shipping lines always try to maintain lower container idle time and provide higher customer satisfaction. However, it is disappointing to note that carriers turn a blind eye to the escalating cost resulted from the present inefficient CIM mechanism. The cost of empty container management is simply transferred to the importers and exporters as freight adjustments. It also creates an environmental hazard. Therefore, it has now become a problem for the society. Therefore, a paradigm shift may be required as the present CIM system is not working for common interests of human beings as it should be.

Keywords: collaboation, inventory, shipping, virtual container yard

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610 The Phenomenon of Nutrition as a 'Trading Zone' Approach in the Paradigm Shift between Humoral Theory and Modern Medicine

Authors: Dilay Merve Temur

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How knowledge is produced and how scientific knowledge progress are questions that science philosophers have investigated for centuries. When the scientific and technological developments reached the 20th century, Kuhn proposed a completely new view among all the approaches. In this article, firstly, Kuhn's theory is represented. Secondly, the criticisms of Kuhn's theory directed to him are examined, and Galison's proposal for the trade area term of the incommensurability thesis is shared. The interaction of Humoral Theory with nutrition has been illustrated extensively, and the transition to modern medicine has been described historically by including scientific and technological developments in the field of medicine. This paper will seek to see how the concept of nutrition is positioned as a trading zone within the medicine paradigm, which has experienced a revolution within the framework of the paradigm concept introduced by Kuhn.

Keywords: food studies, incommensurability, nutrition and dietetics, trading zone

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609 The Ethical Healthcare Paradigm with in Corporate Framework: CSR for Equitable Access to Drugs

Authors: Abhay Vir Singh Kanwar

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The pharmaceutical industry today is a multi-billion dollar business and yet disadvantages people in many corners of the globe who are still dying in large numbers from curable illnesses for lack of access to drugs. The astronomical prices of essential and life-saving drugs is not just an economic problem that can be settled through clever market strategies but is an ethical issue, given the accumulated wealth of today’s humanity and the sense of global justice that it increasingly comes to share. In this paper, I make a very practical argument for what I shall call ‘the ethical healthcare paradigm’, which, I propose, can replace the economistic paradigm that can still drive the healthcare sector without creating spillover effects on the market. Taking off from the ethical-philosophical argument for recognizing every individual’s right to capability to be healthy, I shall come to the focused practical proposal of the cost-rationalization and universal availability of essential, life-saving drugs through the undertaking of research and development funding for drug innovation by the business establishment as such in terms of the concept of CSR. The paper will first expose the concepts of basic and fundamental capabilities in relation to education and health, after which it will focus on the right to capability to be healthy of every person. In the third section, it will discuss the ‘ethical healthcare paradigm’ as opposed to the economistic health paradigm and will argue that the patient will have to be considered the primary stakeholder of this paradigm or the very ‘subject’ of healthcare. The next section will be on an ethical-historical critique of the pharmaceutical industry’s profit driven economism. The section after that will look at the business operation and the stages in the life cycle of a drug that comes to the market in order to understand the risks, strengths and problems of the pharmaceutical industry. Finally, the paper will discuss the concept of CSR in relation to the ethical healthcare paradigm in order to propose CSR funding in research and development for innovation on drugs so that life-saving drugs can be made available to every sick person cost-effectively.

Keywords: capability approach, healthcare, CSR, patient

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608 Software Engineering Revolution Driven by Complexity Science

Authors: Jay Xiong, Li Lin

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This paper introduces a new software engineering paradigm based on complexity science, called NSE (Nonlinear Software Engineering paradigm). The purpose of establishing NSE is to help software development organizations double their productivity, half their cost, and increase the quality of their products in several orders of magnitude simultaneously. NSE complies with the essential principles of complexity science. NSE brings revolutionary changes to almost all aspects in software engineering. NSE has been fully implemented with its support platform Panorama++.

Keywords: complexity science, software development, software engineering, software maintenance

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607 Handling Complexity of a Complex System Design: Paradigm, Formalism and Transformations

Authors: Hycham Aboutaleb, Bruno Monsuez

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Current systems' complexity has reached a degree that requires addressing conception and design issues while taking into account environmental, operational, social, legal, and financial aspects. Therefore, one of the main challenges is the way complex systems are specified and designed. The exponentially growing effort, cost, and time investment of complex systems in modeling phase emphasize the need for a paradigm, a framework, and an environment to handle the system model complexity. For that, it is necessary to understand the expectations of the human user of the model and his limits. This paper presents a generic framework for designing complex systems, highlights the requirements a system model needs to fulfill to meet human user expectations, and suggests a graph-based formalism for modeling complex systems. Finally, a set of transformations are defined to handle the model complexity.

Keywords: higraph-based, formalism, system engineering paradigm, modeling requirements, graph-based transformations

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606 Paradigm Shift of the World Is Globalization: Identity Crisis, Violence and Cultural War

Authors: Shahla Bukhtair

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A paradigm presents a consensus view of a particular or collective community, accepted into by the members of that community, either consciously pronounced or, more likely, simply assumed and not intentionally acknowledged but is articulated. Paradigm shift is based on the behavioral attitude of the community. Change is inexorable. The world is suffering with the innovative creation of globalization. Media boosted this paradigm shift all over the world. Globalization is a vigorous process which impacts differentially on various cultures around the world. The outcome of the globalization is permeates cultural boundaries and in the process results in the spread of Western ideologies and values across the world. The term flourished in 20th century. Globalization is regarded as having substantial impact on such crises through its encouragement of conflicts rather than conciliation; through opportunities of expression, various groups get benefit with it. Identity crisis refers to inflexible mechanism i.e. cultural and political conflicts among polarized groups, which struggle with each other over the definition of a national identity. Violence is not only a kind of physical but it also psychological as well. Due to identity crisis, a person is having an issue of fear, anxiety, and lack of security. Everything has negative and positive aspects. Newspaper columns, magazine articles, films, made-for-TV movies, television special reports, and talk shows are all public arenas where images of political agenda of their own interest are constructed, debated, and reproduced. From these resources, individuals construct their own conceptions of what is normal and acceptable. This bias affects images in the media, and in turn has a negative effect on public development in a society. This paper investigates the relationship between globalization and cultural war, identity crisis and the role of violence. Objectives: - To determine which type of media plays an important role in shaping perceptions and attitudes of public negatively; - To analyze the impact of globalization on identity crisis, violence and global culture (positive and negative).

Keywords: paradigm shift, globalization, identity crisis, cultural war

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605 Presenting Internals of Networks Using Bare Machine Technology

Authors: Joel Weymouth, Ramesh K. Karne, Alexander L. Wijesinha

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Bare Machine Internet is part of the Bare Machine Computing (BMC) paradigm. It is used in programming application ns to run directly on a device. It is software that runs directly against the hardware using CPU, Memory, and I/O. The software application runs without an Operating System and resident mass storage. An important part of the BMC paradigm is the Bare Machine Internet. It utilizes an Application Development model software that interfaces directly with the hardware on a network server and file server. Because it is “bare,” it is a powerful teaching and research tool that can readily display the internals of the network protocols, software, and hardware of the applications running on the Bare Server. It was also demonstrated that the bare server was accessible by laptop and by smartphone/android. The purpose was to show the further practicality of Bare Internet in Computer Engineering and Computer Science Education and Research. It was also to show that an undergraduate student could take advantage of a bare server with any device and any browser at any release version connected to the internet. This paper presents the Bare Web Server as an educational tool. We will discuss possible applications of this paradigm.

Keywords: bare machine computing, online research, network technology, visualizing network internals

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604 Aesthetic Preference and Consciousness in African Theatre: A Performance Appraisal of Tyrone Terrence's a Husband's Wife

Authors: Oluwatayo Isijola

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The destructive influence of Europe on Africa has also taken a tow on the aesthetic essence of the African Art, which centres on morality and value for human life. In a parallel vein, the adverse turn of this influence on the dramaturgy of some contemporary African plays, poses impedance to audience consciousness in performance engagements. Through the spectrum of African Aesthetics, this study attempts a performance appraisal of A Husband’s wife; an unpublished play written by Tyrone Terence for the African audience. The researcher proffers two variant textual interpretations of the play to evaluate performance engagement in its default realistic mode, which holds an unresolved 'Medean-impulse', and another wherein the resolution is treated to a paradigm shift for aesthetic preference. The investigation employs the mixed method, which combines the quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Keen observation on the reactions and responses of audience members that were engaged in both performances, and on-the-spot interview with selected audience members, were the primary sources for the qualitative data. However, quantitative data was captured in an on-the-spot survey with the instrument of the questionnaire served to a sample population of the audience. The study observes that the preference for African aesthetics as exemplified in the second performance which deployed a paradigm shift did enhance audience consciousness. Hinging on performance aesthetic theory, the paper recommends that all such African plays bestowed with the shortcoming of African aesthetics, should be appropriately treated to paradigm shifts for performance engagement, in the interest of enhancing audience consciousness in the Nigerian Theatre.

Keywords: African aesthetics, audience consciousness, paradigm shift, median-impulse

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603 The Effects of Techno-Economic Paradigm on Social Evolution

Authors: Derya Güler Aydin, Bahar Araz Takay

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Two different forms of competition theories can be distinguished: Those theories that emphasize the equilibrating forces created by competition, and those emphasizing the disequilibrating forces. This difference can be attributed, among other things, to the differences regarding the functioning of the market economy; that is to say, the basic problem here is whether competition should be understood as a static state or a dynamic process. This study aims to analyze the dynamic competition theories by K. Marx and J. A. Schumpeter and neo- Schumperians all of which focus on the dynamic role played by competition through creating disequilibria, endogenous structural change and social transformation as a distinguishing characteristic of the market system. With this aim, in the first section, after examining the static, neoclassical competition theory, both Marx‟s theory, which is based on profit rate differentials, and Schumpeter‟s theory, which is based on the notion of “creative destruction”, will be discussed. In the second section, the long-term fluctuations, based on creative gales of destruction, the concept will be examined under the framework of techno-economic paradigm. It is argued that the dynamic, even disequilibrium tendencies created by the competition process should be regarded in both understanding the working of capitalism and social transformation of the system.

Keywords: competition, techno-enomic paradigm, Schumpeter, social evolution

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602 A Theoretical Framework of Multifactor Systematic Risks in Equity Market: Behavioral Finance Paradigm

Authors: Jasman Tuyon, Zamri Ahmad

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Behavioral asset pricing research has been gaining momentum since in 1990s. However, it is still incomplete and has been criticized for some philosophical, theoretical and model specification limitations. Due to these drawbacks, investors’ behaviors as a source of risk in behavioral asset pricing modeling still remains disputable. This paper aims to address these issues with an alternative perspective based on behavioral finance paradigm. Specifically, this paper proposes a theoretical linkages of both fundamental and behavioral risks on stock prices formation and an extension of the multifactor stock pricing model by combining multi-factor fundamentals and behavioral risks factors.

Keywords: behavioral finance, multifactor asset pricing, behavioral risks, fundamental risks

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601 An Assessment of the Risk and Protective Factors Impacting Criminal Gang Involvement among At-Risk Boys Resident at a Juvenile Home in Trinidad and Tobago: The Peer/Individual Domain of the Risk Factor Prevention ParadIGM

Authors: Dianne Williams

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This study examined the peer/individual domain of the Risk Factor Prevention Paradigm (RFPP) to assess the risk and protective factors that impact criminal gang involvement among at-risk males residing in a juvenile home in Trinidad and Tobago. The RFPP allows for the identification of both risk and protective factors in a single, holistic framework to identify the relationship between risk factors, protective factors, and criminal gang involvement among at-risk male adolescents. Findings showed that having anti-social peers was the most significant risk factor associated with criminal gang involvement, while the most significant protective factor was having a positive social attitude. Moreover, while 65% of the boys reported never having been in a gang, 70% reported having hit, struck or used a weapon against someone, while 52% reported being involved in other violent incidents on more than two occasions. This suggests that while involvement with criminal gangs may not be common among this population, predisposing behavioral patterns are present. Results are expected to assist in the development of targeted strategies to reduce the attractiveness of gang membership.

Keywords: risk factor prevention paradigm, risk factors, protective factors, peer/individual domain, gang involvement, at-risk youth, trinidad and tobago, juvenile home

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600 Urban Waste Water Governance in South Africa: A Case Study of Stellenbosch

Authors: R. Malisa, E. Schwella, K. I. Theletsane

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Due to climate change, population growth and rapid urbanization, the demand for water in South Africa is inevitably surpassing supply. To address similar challenges globally, there has been a paradigm shift from conventional urban waste water management “government” to a “governance” paradigm. From the governance paradigm, Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) principle emerged. This principle emphasizes efficient urban waste water treatment and production of high-quality recyclable effluent. In so doing mimicking natural water systems, in their processes of recycling water efficiently, and averting depletion of natural water resources.  The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of shifting the current urban waste water management approach from a “government” paradigm towards “governance”. The study was conducted through Interactive Management soft systems research methodology which follows a qualitative research design. A case study methodology was employed, guided by realism research philosophy. Qualitative data gathered were analyzed through interpretative structural modelling using Concept Star for Professionals Decision-Making tools (CSPDM) version 3.64.  The constructed model deduced that the main drivers in shifting the Stellenbosch municipal urban waste water management towards IUWM “governance” principles are mainly social elements characterized by overambitious expectations of the public on municipal water service delivery, mis-interpretation of the constitution on access to adequate clean water and sanitation as a human right and perceptions on recycling water by different communities. Inadequate public participation also emerged as a strong driver. However, disruptive events such as draught may play a positive role in raising an awareness on the value of water, resulting in a shift on the perceptions on recycled water. Once the social elements are addressed, the alignment of governance and administration elements towards IUWM are achievable. Hence, the point of departure for the desired paradigm shift is the change of water service authorities and serviced communities’ perceptions and behaviors towards shifting urban waste water management approaches from “government” to “governance” paradigm.

Keywords: integrated urban water management, urban water system, wastewater governance, wastewater treatment works

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599 Complexity Leadership and Knowledge Management in Higher Education

Authors: Prabhakar Venugopal G.

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Complex environments triggered by globalization have necessitated new paradigms of leadership – complexity leadership that encompasses multiple roles that leaders need to take upon. The success of higher education institutions depends on how well leaders can provide adaptive, administrative and enabling leadership. Complexity leadership seems all the more relevant for institutions that are knowledge-driven and thrive on knowledge creation, knowledge storage and retrieval, knowledge sharing and knowledge applications. In this paper are the elements of globalization, the opportunities and challenges that are brought forth by globalization are discussed. The complexity leadership paradigm in a knowledge-based economy and the need for such a paradigm shift for higher education institutions is presented. Further, the paper also discusses the support the leader requires in a knowledge-driven economy through knowledge management initiatives.

Keywords: globalization, complexity leadership, knowledge management

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598 Rupture in the Paradigm of the International Policy of Illicit Drugs in the Field of Public Health and within the Framework of the World Health Organization, 2001 to 2016

Authors: Emy Nayana Pinto, Denise Bomtempo Birche De Carvalho

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In the present study, the harmful use of illicit drugs is seen as a public health problem and as one of the expressions of the social question, since its consequences fall mainly on the poorer classes of the population. This perspective is a counterpoint to the dominant paradigm on illicit drug policy at the global level, whose centrality lies within the criminal justice arena. The 'drug problem' is internationally combated through fragmented approaches that focus its actions on banning and criminalizing users. In this sense, the research seeks to answer the following key questions: What are the influences of the prohibitionism in the recommendations of the United Nations (UN), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the formulation of drug policies in member countries? What are the actors that have been provoking the prospect of breaking with the prohibitionist paradigm? What is the WHO contribution to the rupture with the prohibitionist paradigm and the displacement of the drug problem in the field of public health? The general objective of this work is to seek evidence from the perspective of rupture with the prohibitionist paradigm in the field of drugs policies at the global and regional level, through analysis of documents of the World Health Organization (WHO), between the years of 2001 to 2016. The research was carried out in bibliographical and documentary sources. The bibliographic sources contributed to the approach with the object and the theoretical basis of the research. The documentary sources served to answer the research questions and evidence the existence of the perspective of change in drug policy. Twenty-two documents of the UN system were consulted, of which fifteen had the contribution of the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the documents that directly relate to the subject of the research, documents from various agencies, programs, and offices, such as the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), which also has drugs as the central or transversal theme of its performance. The results showed that from the 2000s it was possible to find in the literature review and in the documentary analysis evidence of the critique of the prohibitionist paradigm parallel to the construction of a new perspective for drug policy at the global level and the displacement of criminal justice approaches for the scope of public health, with the adoption of alternative and pragmatic interventions based on human rights, scientific evidence and the reduction of social damages and health by the misuse of illicit drugs.

Keywords: illicit drugs, international organizations, prohibitionism, public health, World Health Organization

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597 Inclusive, Just and Effective Transition: Comparing Market-Based and Redistributive Approaches to Sustainability

Authors: Karen Bell

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While there is broad agreement among governments and civil society globally about the need to develop more sustainable societies, the best way to achieve this is still contested. In particular, there are differences regarding whether to continue to implement market-based approaches or to move to alternative redistributive-based approaches. In this paper, ‘Green Economy’ and ‘Living Well’ strategies are compared as examples of these two different strategies for achieving social, ecological and economic sustainability. The paper is based on a 3-year ESRC funded project on transitions to sustainability which examines the implementation of the ‘Green Economy’ paradigm in South Korea and the 'Living Well' paradigm in Bolivia. As well as outlining and analysing secondary data, the paper also draws on over 100 interviews with a range of local stakeholders in these countries carried out by the author between and including 2016 and 2018. The work indicates that the Living Well paradigm seems to better integrate social, ecological and economic concerns and may better deliver sustainability in the time frame necessary than the dominant Green Economy paradigm. This seems to be primarily because Living Well emphasises redistribution to reduce inequality and ensure human needs are met; living in harmony with nature, taking into account natural limits and cycles; respecting traditional values and practices where these support sustainability and human well-being; sovereignty and local control of natural resources; and participative decision-making, based on grassroots community organising. It is, therefore, argued that to achieve inclusive, just and effective transitions to sustainability we should aim to foster equality, respect planetary limits, build on local traditions, bring resources into public ownership and enhance participatory democracy. This will require a radically different approach to that offered within the market-based agenda currently dominating global sustainability debates and activities.

Keywords: environmental transition, green economy, inclusive sustainability, living well, sustainable transition

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596 Internalising Islamic Principles of Theocracy as a Pedestal for Good Governance in Nigeria

Authors: Busari Moshood Olanyi

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Good governance remains the expectation of every political party in power, especially in this democratic dispensation of the Nigerian Nation. The need to ensure that the citizenry enjoys the dividends of democracy as often promised during various electioneering campaigns is envisioned to be the motif for different agendas and political slogans by different administrations. Unfortunately, different political agendas towards the security of lives and properties, halting the pillage of the economy by corrupt public officials and creation of employment opportunities for the youths, have a record of setback in the history of political leadership and governance in Nigeria. Therefore, the paper examined the principles of Islamic theocracy in its advocacy for a paradigm shift in the Nigerian political system, with a view to engendering good governance. Islamic political terms such as Shūrā (mutual consultation), ‘Adālah (equality and justice), Khilāfah (succession and stewardship) Majlis ash-Shūrā (consultative forum) and Muḥāsabah (accountability) were espoused as sacrosanct to implementing Islamic theocracy as an alternative system of government in Nigeria. The paper concluded by being flexible on the nomenclature of the suggested political system, considering the multi-religious nature of the country as a political entity. Among other recommendations, infusion of politics into our moral/religious system and not the other way round was considered a good step in the direction of a political paradigm shift for ensuring good governance and guaranteeing its sustainability in Nigeria.

Keywords: Nigerian nation, democracy, good governance, Islamic theocracy, paradigm shift

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595 A Conflict of Relations in Toni Morrison’s New World Fiction

Authors: Rajeswar Pal

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Toni Morrison’s novels belong to present day relations of Africans with the White peoples and tangible man-woman relations. Her literary criticism can be seen as a contribution to the debate over the revision of the canon that dominated much of the scholarship of the 1980s and 1990s. New Criticism began to give way to theories of cultural studies, feminist scholarship, postcolonial revisions and investigations of race and ethnicity. Morrison is concerned with the definition of the American literature whether it reflects an eternal, universal or transcending paradigm – a paradigm that separates it clearly and unequivocally Chicano or African-American or Asian-American or Native American literature. She sees evidence on an incursion of third world or so-called minority literature into a Eurocentric stronghold, which threatens power structures and leads to an upheaval of existing norms. We see women more aligned, cross-culturally, with nature; however, the very critical distinction is that within a white world, the alignment seems to lead towards individuation for women yet separation from white male culture, and within a black world the alignment leads towards individuation and connection to a ownership of a racial consciousness. Whether externally or internally, the characters of Morrison are marked with a sense of incompleteness and mutual conflict, which drives them towards some force of wholeness. Present study fucusses to elucidate and enunciate the man-woman relations and an individual cataclysmic conflict in their minds.

Keywords: tangible, postcolonial, ethnicity, paradigm, upheaval, alignment, elucidate, cataclysmic

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594 A Biomimetic Structural Form: Developing a Paradigm to Attain Vital Sustainability in Tall Architecture

Authors: Osama Al-Sehail

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This paper argues for sustainability as a necessity in the evolution of tall architecture. It provides a different mode for dealing with sustainability in tall architecture, taking into consideration the speciality of its typology. To this end, the article develops a Biomimetic Structural Form as a paradigm to attain Vital Sustainability. A Biomimetic Structural Form, which is derived from the amalgamation of biomimicry as an approach for sustainability defining nature as source of knowledge and inspiration in solving humans’ problems and a Structural Form as a catalyst for evolving tall architecture, is a dynamic paradigm emerging from a conceptualizing and morphological process. A Biomimetic Structural Form is a flow system whose different forces and functions tend to be “better”, more "fit", to “survive”, and to be efficient. Through geometry and function—the two aspects of knowledge extracted from nature—the attributes of the Biomimetic Structural Form are formulated. Vital Sustainability is the survival level of sustainability in natural systems through which a system enhances the performance of its internal working and its interaction with the external environment. A Biomimetic Structural Form, in this context, is a medium for evolving tall architecture to emulate natural models in their ways of coexistence with the environment. As an integral part of this article, the sustainable super tall building 3Ts is discussed as a case study of applying Biomimetic Structural Form.   

Keywords: biomimicry, design in nature, high-rise buildings, sustainability, structural form, tall architecture, vital sustainability

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593 Theoretical Paradigms for Total Quality Environmental Management (TQEM)

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Khasmafkan Nezam, Nader Chavoshi Boroujeni, Mohamad Reza Veshaghi

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Quality management is dominated by rational paradigms for the measurement and management of quality, but these paradigms start to ‘break down’, when faced with the inherent complexity of managing quality in intensely competitive changing environments. In this article, the various theoretical paradigms employed to manage quality are reviewed and the advantages and limitations of these paradigms are highlighted. A major implication of this review is that when faced with complexity, an ideological stance to any single strategy paradigm for total quality environmental management is ineffective. We suggest that as complexity increases and we envisage intensely competitive changing environments there will be a greater need to consider a multi-paradigm integrationist view of strategy for TQEM.

Keywords: total quality management (TQM), total quality environmental management (TQEM), ideologies (philosophy), theoretical paradigms

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592 The Internet of Things: A Survey of Authentication Mechanisms, and Protocols, for the Shifting Paradigm of Communicating, Entities

Authors: Nazli Hardy

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Multidisciplinary application of computer science, interactive database-driven web application, the Internet of Things (IoT) represents a digital ecosystem that has pervasive technological, social, and economic, impact on the human population. It is a long-term technology, and its development is built around the connection of everyday objects, to the Internet. It is estimated that by 2020, with billions of people connected to the Internet, the number of connected devices will exceed 50 billion, and thus IoT represents a paradigm shift in in our current interconnected ecosystem, a communication shift that will unavoidably affect people, businesses, consumers, clients, employees. By nature, in order to provide a cohesive and integrated service, connected devices need to collect, aggregate, store, mine, process personal and personalized data on individuals and corporations in a variety of contexts and environments. A significant factor in this paradigm shift is the necessity for secure and appropriate transmission, processing and storage of the data. Thus, while benefits of the applications appear to be boundless, these same opportunities are bounded by concerns such as trust, privacy, security, loss of control, and related issues. This poster and presentation look at a multi-factor authentication (MFA) mechanisms that need to change from the login-password tuple to an Identity and Access Management (IAM) model, to the more cohesive to Identity Relationship Management (IRM) standard. It also compares and contrasts messaging protocols that are appropriate for the IoT ecosystem.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), authentication, protocols, survey

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591 Believing in a Just-World: The Neoliberal Rationality and the Everyday Legitimation of Social Inequality

Authors: Mónica Catarina Soares

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Neoliberal rationality is currently changing the ways concepts like freedom or equality are framed. As an omnipresent and context-sensitive paradigm, homo oeconomicus is continuously taking place in realms of life previously insulated from economic and market-driven principles. This presentation is based on the argument that, more than ever, this paradigm is nowadays framing institutional and everyday discourses in regard to social problems. Although neoliberal rationality is based on the putative ideological basis that everyone is equal, equality seems to be reshaped by specific meanings apprehended by this rationality. In this sense, an illusion of equality seems to be relevant to legitimize different social inequalities (e.g., access to health care or to habitation). Political psychology has studied how ideology is relevant to legitimize market and unequal systems, but still the specific relation between markets, (in)equality and neoliberal languages is not widely addressed. The goal is to discuss the smithereens of the neoliberal rationality when it comes to legitimizing social inequalities by contesting the arguments of meritocracy, progressive freedom and minimal guarantees obeying to market-rules and principles. This analysis can be helpful to grasp for instance the continuously dismantlement of the welfare-state in different countries of the global north and how it is turning the regulation/emancipation tension inside out. The ultimate goal is to contribute to the breaking up of a paradigm that is still too big to capture, too depoliticized and chameleonic to fully acknowledge the biopolitics of power that is helping to create it.

Keywords: discourses, legitimacy, neoliberal rationality, social inequality

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590 The Inattentional Blindness Paradigm: A Breaking Wave for Attentional Biases in Test Anxiety

Authors: Kritika Kulhari, Aparna Sahu

Abstract:

Test anxiety results from concerns about failure in examinations or evaluative situations. Attentional biases are known to pronounce the symptomatic expression of test anxiety. In recent times, the inattentional blindness (IB) paradigm has shown promise as an attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) for anxiety by overcoming practice and expectancy effects which preexisting paradigms fail to counter. The IB paradigm assesses the inability of an individual to attend to a stimulus that appears suddenly while indulging in a perceptual discrimination task. The present study incorporated an IB task with three critical items (book, face, and triangle) appearing randomly in the perceptual discrimination task. Attentional biases were assessed as detection and identification of the critical item. The sample (N = 50) consisted of low test anxiety (LTA) and high test anxiety (HTA) groups based on the reactions to tests scale scores. Test threat manipulation was done with pre- and post-test assessment of test anxiety using the State Test Anxiety Inventory. A mixed factorial design with gender, test anxiety, presence or absence of test threat, and critical items was conducted to assess their effects on attentional biases. Results showed only a significant main effect for test anxiety on detection with higher accuracy of detection of the critical item for the LTA group. The study presents promising results in the realm of ABMT for test anxiety.

Keywords: attentional bias, attentional bias modification treatment, inattentional blindness, test anxiety

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589 Defining a Holistic Approach for Model-Based System Engineering: Paradigm and Modeling Requirements

Authors: Hycham Aboutaleb, Bruno Monsuez

Abstract:

Current systems complexity has reached a degree that requires addressing conception and design issues while taking into account all the necessary aspects. Therefore, one of the main challenges is the way complex systems are specified and designed. The exponential growing effort, cost and time investment of complex systems in modeling phase emphasize the need for a paradigm, a framework and a environment to handle the system model complexity. For that, it is necessary to understand the expectations of the human user of the model and his limits. This paper presents a generic framework for designing complex systems, highlights the requirements a system model needs to fulfill to meet human user expectations, and defines the refined functional as well as non functional requirements modeling tools needs to meet to be useful in model-based system engineering.

Keywords: system modeling, modeling language, modeling requirements, framework

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588 Measuring How Brightness Mediates Auditory Salience

Authors: Baptiste Bouvier

Abstract:

While we are constantly flooded with stimuli in daily life, attention allows us to select the ones we specifically process and ignore the others. Some salient stimuli may sometimes pass this filter independently of our will, in a "bottom-up" way. The role of the acoustic properties of the timbre of a sound on its salience, i.e., its ability to capture the attention of a listener, is still not well understood. We implemented a paradigm called the "additional singleton paradigm", in which participants have to discriminate targets according to their duration. This task is perturbed (higher error rates and longer response times) by the presence of an irrelevant additional sound, of which we can manipulate a feature of our choice at equal loudness. This allows us to highlight the influence of the timbre features of a sound stimulus on its salience at equal loudness. We have shown that a stimulus that is brighter than the others but not louder leads to an attentional capture phenomenon in this framework. This work opens the door to the study of the influence of any timbre feature on salience.

Keywords: attention, audition, bottom-up attention, psychoacoustics, salience, timbre

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587 Challenges and Opportunities of Cloud-Based E-Learning Systems

Authors: Kashif Laeeq, Zubair A. Shaikh

Abstract:

The paradigm of education is drastically changing from conventional to e-learning model. Due to ease of learning with various other benefits, several educational institutions are adopting the e-learning models. Some institutions are still willing to transform their educational system on to e-learning, but due to limited resources, they are still compromising on the old traditional system. The cloud computing could be one of the best solutions to overcome this problem by providing hardware, software, and infrastructure resources with cost efficient manner. The adoption of cloud computing in education will bring revolution in this paradigm. This paper introduces various positive features of e-learning and presents a way how cloud computing technology can be provisioned e-learning model. This paper also investigates the numerous challenges and opportunities that would be observed in cloud computing adoption in e-learning domain. The concept and knowledge present in this paper may create a new direction of research in the domain of cloud-based e-learning.

Keywords: cloud-based e-learning, e-learning, cloud computing application, smart learning

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