Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 102

Search results for: cardiopulmonary resuscitation

102 The Key Role of a Bystander Improving the Effectiveness of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performed in Extra-Urban Areas

Authors: Leszek Szpakowski, Daniel Celiński, Sławomir Pilip, Grzegorz Michalak


The aim of the study was to analyse the usefulness of the 'E-rescuer' pilot project planned to be implemented in a chosen area of Eastern Poland in the cases of suspected sudden cardiac arrests in the extra-urban areas. Inventing an application allowing to dispatch simultaneously both Medical Emergency Teams and the E-rescuer to the place of the accident is the crucial assumption of the mentioned pilot project. The E-rescuer is defined to be the trained person able to take effective basic life support and to use automated external defibrillator. Having logged in using a smartphone, the E-rescuer's readiness is reported online to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation exactly at the given location. Due to the accurately defined location of the E-rescuer, his arrival time is possible to be precisely fixed, and the substantive support through the displayed algorithms is capable of being provided as well. Having analysed the medical records in the years 2015-2016, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was considered to be effective when an early indication of circulation was provided, and the patient was taken to hospital. In the mentioned term, there were 2.291 cases of a sudden cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was taken in 621 patients in total including 205 people in the urban area and 416 in the extra-urban areas. The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the extra-urban areas was much lower (33,8%) than in the urban (50,7%). The average ambulance arrival time was respectively longer in the extra-urban areas, and it was 12,3 minutes while in the urban area 3,3 minutes. There was no significant difference in the average age of studied patients - 62,5 and 64,8 years old. However, the average ambulance arrival time was 7,6 minutes for effective resuscitations and 10,5 minutes for ineffective ones. Hence, the ambulance arrival time is a crucial factor influencing on the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, especially in the extra-urban areas where it is much longer than in the urban. The key role of trained E-rescuers being nearby taking basic life support before the ambulance arrival can effectively support Emergency Medical Services System in Poland.

Keywords: basic life support, bystander, effectiveness, resuscitation

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101 The Influence of Applying Mechanical Chest Compression Systems on the Effectiveness of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Slawomir Pilip, Michal Wasilewski, Daniel Celinski, Leszek Szpakowski, Grzegorz Michalak


The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation taken by Medical Emergency Teams (MET) at the place of an accident including the usage of mechanical chest compression systems. In the period of January-May 2017, there were 137 cases of a sudden cardiac arrest in a chosen region of Eastern Poland with 360.000 inhabitants. Medical records and questionnaires filled by METs were analysed to prove the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitations that were considered to be effective when an early indication of spontaneous circulation was provided and the patient was taken to hospital. A chest compression system used by METs was applied in 60 cases (Lucas3 - 34 patients; Auto Pulse - 24 patients). The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among patients who were employed a chest compression system was much higher (43,3%) than the manual cardiac massage (36,4%). Thus, the usage of Lucas3 chest compression system resulted in 47% while Auto Pulse was 33,3%. The average ambulance arrival time could have had a significant impact on the subsequent effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in these cases. Ambulances equipped with Lucas3 reached the destination within 8 minutes, and those with Auto Pulse needed 12,1 minutes. Moreover, taking effective basic life support (BLS) by bystanders before the ambulance arrival was much more frequent for ambulances with Lucas3 than Auto Pulse. Therefore, the percentage of BLS among the group of patients who were employed Lucas3 by METs was 26,5%, and 20,8% for Auto Pulse. The total percentage of taking BLS by bystanders before the ambulance arrival resulted in 25% of patients who were later applied a chest compression system by METs. Not only was shockable cardiac rhythm obtained in 47% of these cases, but an early indication of spontaneous circulation was also provided in all these patients. Both Lucas3 and Auto Pulse were evaluated to be significantly useful in improving the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by 97% of Medical Emergency Teams. Therefore, implementation of chest compression systems essentially makes the cardiopulmonary resuscitation even more effective. The ambulance arrival time, taking successful BLS by bystanders before the ambulance arrival and the presence of shockable cardiac rhythm determine an early indication of spontaneous circulation among patients after a sudden cardiac arrest.

Keywords: cardiac arrest, effectiveness, mechanical chest compression systems, resuscitation

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100 The Characteristics of Withhold Resuscitation in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: An-Yi Wang, Wei-Fong Kao, Shin-Han Tsai


Introduction: Information as patient characteristics, resuscitation scene, resuscitation provider perspectives and families wish affects on resuscitation decision-making for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). There is no consistency consensus on how families and emergency physicians approach this decision. The main purpose of our study is to evaluate the characteristics of withholding resuscitation efforts arrival at the hospital. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with OHCA without pre-hospital return-of-spontaneous circulation (ROSC) who was sent to our emergency department (ED) between January 2014 and December 2015. Baseline characteristics, pre-hospital course, and causes of the cardiopulmonary arrest among patients were compared. Results: In 2 years, total 155 arrest patients without pre-hospital ROSC was included. 33(21.3%) patients withhold the resuscitation efforts in ED with mean resuscitation duration 4.45 ± 7.04 minutes after ED arrival. In withholding group, the initial rhythm of arrests was all non-shockable. 9 of them received endotracheal intubation before decision-making. None of the patients in withhold resuscitation group survived to discharge. There was no significant difference among gender, underlying cardiovascular disease, malignancy, chronic renal disease, nor witness collapse between withhold and continue resuscitation groups. Univariate analysis showed there was lower percentage of bystander resuscitation (32.3% vs. 50.4%, p=0.071), and the lower percentage of transport via emergency medical service (EMS) (78.8% vs. 91.8%, p=0.054) in withholding group. Multivariate analysis showed old age (adjusted odds ratio=1.06, 95% C.I.=[1.02-1.11], p<0.05), with underlying respiratory insufficiency (adjusted odds ratio=12.16, 95% C.I.=[3.34-44.29], p<0.05), living at home compared with nursing home (adjusted odds ratio=37.75, 95% C.I.=[1.09-1110.70], p<0.05) were more likely to withhold resuscitation. Transport via EMS was more likely to continue resuscitation (adjusted odds ratio=0.11, 95% C.I.=[0.02-0.71], p<0.05). Conclusion: The decision-making for families and emergency physicians to withhold or continue resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is complex and multi-factorial. Continue resuscitation efforts in nursing home residents is high, and further study among this population is warranted.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, termination resuscitation, withhold resuscitation

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99 Analyzing the Readiness of Resuscitation Team during Cardiac Arrest

Authors: J. Byimana, I. A. Muhire, J. E. Nzabahimana, A. Nyombayire


Introduction: A successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation during a sudden cardiac arrest can be delayed by different components including new hospital setting, lack of adequate training, lack of pre-established resuscitation team and ineffective communication and lead to an unexpected outcome which is death. The main objective of the study was to assess the readiness of resuscitation teams during cardiac arrest and the organizational approaches that would best support their functioning in a new hospital facility, and to detect any factor that may have contributed to responses. This study analyses the readiness of Resuscitation Team (RT) during cardiac arrest. —Material and methods: A prospective Analytic design was carried out at a newly established United Nations level 2 hospital facility, on four RTM (resuscitation team member). A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data. —Results: This study highlights indicate that the response time during cardiac arrest simulation meet both American heart association (AHA) and European resuscitation council guidelines. The study offers useful evidence about the impact of a new facility on RTM performance and provides an exposure of staff to emergency events within the Work setting.

Keywords: cardiac arrest, code blue, simulation, resuscitation team member

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98 Impact of a Training Course in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Primary Care Professionals

Authors: Luiz Ernani Meira Jr., Antônio Prates Caldeira, Gilson Gabriel Viana Veloso, Jackson Andrade


Background: In Brazil, primary health care (PHC) system has developed with multidisciplinary teams in facilities located in peripheral areas, as the entrance doors for all patients. So, professionals must be prepared to deal with patients with simple and complex problems. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and the skills of physicians and nurses of PHC on cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) before and after training in Basic Life Support. Methods: This is a before-and-after study developed in a Simulation Laboratory in Montes Claros, Brazil. We included physicians and nurses randomly chosen from PHC services. Written tests on CRA and CPR were carried out and performances in a CPR simulation were evaluated, based on the American Heart Association recommendations. Training practices were performed using special manikins. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon’s test to compare before and after scores. Results: Thirty-two professionals were included. Only 38% had previous courses and updates on emergency care. Most of professionals showed poor skills to attend to CRA in a simulated situation. Subjects showed an increased in knowledge and skills about CPR after training (p-value=0.003). Conclusion: Primary health care professionals must be continuously trained to assist urgencies and emergencies, like CRA.

Keywords: primary health care, professional training, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiorespiratory, emergency

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97 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performance Efficacy While Wearing a Powered Air-Purifying Respirator

Authors: Jun Young Chong, Seung Whan Kim


Introduction: The use of personal protective equipment for respiratory infection control in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a physical burden to healthcare providers. It matters how long CPR quality according to recommended guidelines can be maintained under these circumstances. It was investigated whether chest compression time was appropriate for a 2-minute shift and how long it was maintained in accordance with the guidelines under such conditions. Methods: This prospective crossover simulation study was performed at a single center from September 2020 to October 2020. Five indicators of CPR quality were measured during the first and second sessions of the study period. All participants wore a Level D powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), and the experiment was conducted using a Resusci Anne manikin, which can measure the quality of chest compressions. Each participant conducted two sessions. In session one, 2-minutes of chest compressions followed by a 2-minute rest was repeated twice; in session two, 1-minute of chest compressions followed by a 1-minute rest was repeated four times. Results: All 34 participants completed the study. The deep and sufficient compression rate was 65.9 ± 13.1 mm in the 1-minute shift group and 61.5 ± 30.5 mm in the 2-minute shift group. The mean depth was 52.8 ±4.3 mm in the 1-minute shift group and 51.0 ± 6.1 mm in the 2-minute shift group. In these two values, there was a statistically significant difference between the two sessions. There was no statistically significant difference in the other CPR quality values. Conclusions: It was suggested that the different standard of current 2-minute to 1-minute cycles due to a significant reduction in the quality of chest compression in cases of CPR with PAPR.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, chest compression, personal protective equipment, powered air-purifying respirator

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96 The Effect of an e-Learning Program of Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Students of an Emergency Medical Technician Program

Authors: Itsaree Padphai, Jiranan Pakpeian, Suksun Niponchai


This study is a descriptive research which aims to: 1) Compare the difference of knowledge before and after using the e-Learning program entitled “Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Students in an Emergency Medical Technician Diploma Program”, and 2) Assess the students’ satisfaction after using the said program. This research is a kind of teaching and learning management supplemented with the e-Learning system; therefore, the purposively selected samples are 44 first-year and class-16 students of an emergency medical technician diploma program who attend the class in a second semester of academic year 2012 in Sirindhorn College of Public Health, Khon Kaen province. The research tools include 1) the questionnaire for general information of the respondents, 2) the knowledge tests before and after using the e-Learning program, and 3) an assessment of satisfaction in using the e-Learning program. The statistics used in data analysis percentage, include mean, standard deviation, and inferential statistics: paired t-test. 1. The general information of the respondents was mostly 37 females representing 84.09 percent. The average age was 19.5 years (standard deviation was 0.81), the maximum age was 21 years, and the minimum age was 19 years respectively. Students (35 subjects) admitted that they preferred the methods of teaching and learning by using the e-Learning systems. This was totally 79.95 percent. 2. A comparison on the difference of knowledge before and after using the e-Learning program showed that the mean before an application was 6.64 (standard deviation was 1.94) and after was 18.84 (standard deviation 1.03), which was higher than the knowledge of students before using the e-Learning program with the statistical significance (P value < 0.001). 3. For the satisfaction after using the e-Learning program, it was found that students’ satisfaction was at a very good level with the mean of 4.93 (standard deviation was 0.11).

Keywords: e-Learning, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, diploma program, Khon Kaen Province

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95 Analyzing the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Clinicians’ Perceptions of Resuscitation and Escalation Decision-Making Processes: Cross-Sectional Survey of Hospital Clinicians in the United Kingdom

Authors: Michelle Hartanto, Risheka Suthantirakumar


Introduction Staff redeployment, increased numbers of acutely unwell patients requiring resuscitation decision-making conversations, visiting restrictions, and varying guidance regarding resuscitation for patients with COVID-19 disrupted clinicians’ management of resuscitation and escalation decision-making processes. While it was generally accepted that the COVID-19 pandemic disturbed numerous aspects of the Recommended Summary Plan for Emergency Care and Treatment (ReSPECT) process in the United Kingdom, a process which establishes a patient’s CPR status and treatment escalation plans, the impact of the pandemic on clinicians’ attitudes towards these resuscitation and decision-making conversations was unknown. This was the first study to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinicians’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards the ReSPECT process. Methods A cross-sectional survey of clinicians at one acute teaching hospital in the UK was conducted. A questionnaire with a defined five-point Likert scale was distributed and clinicians were asked to recall their pre-pandemic views on ReSPECT and report their current views at the time of survey distribution (May 2020, end of the first COVID-19 wave in the UK). Responses were received from 171 clinicians, and self-reported views before and during the pandemic were compared. Results Clinicians reported they found managing ReSPECT conversations more challenging during the pandemic, especially when conducted over the telephone with relatives, and they experienced an increase in negative emotions before, during, and after conducting ReSPECT conversations. Our findings identified that due to the pandemic there was now a need for clinicians to receive training and support in conducting resuscitation and escalation decision-making conversations over the telephone with relatives and managing these processes.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, COVID-19 pandemic, DNACPR discussion, education, recommended summary plan for emergency care and treatment, resuscitation order

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94 Relationship between Left Ventricle Position and Hemodynamic Parameters during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Pig Model

Authors: Hyun Chang Kim, Yong Hun Jung, Kyung Woon Jeung


Background: From the viewpoint of cardiac pump theory, the area of the left ventricle (LV) subjected to compression increases as the LV lies closer to the sternum, possibly resulting in higher blood flow in patients with LV closer to the sternum. However, no study has evaluated LV position during cardiac arrest or its relationship with hemodynamic parameters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The objectives of this study were to determine whether the position of the LV relative to the anterior-posterior axis representing the direction of chest compression shifts during cardiac arrest and to examine the relationship between LV position and hemodynamic parameters during CPR. Methods: Subcostal view echocardiograms were obtained from 15 pigs with the transducer parallel to the long axis of the sternum before inducing ventricular fibrillation (VF) and during cardiac arrest. Computed tomography was performed in three pigs to objectively observe LV position during cardiac arrest. LV position parameters including the shortest distance between the anterior-posterior axis and the mid-point of the LV chamber (DAP-MidLV), the shortest distance between the anterior-posterior axis and the LV apex (DAP-Apex), and the area fraction of the LV located on the right side of the anterior-posterior axis (LVARight/LVATotal) were measured. Results: DAP-MidLV, DAP-Apex, and LVARight/LVATotal decreased progressively during untreated VF and basic life support (BLS), and then increased during advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS). A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant time effects for these parameters. During BLS, the end-tidal carbon dioxide and systolic right atrial pressure were significantly correlated with the LV position parameters. During ACLS, systolic arterial pressure and systolic right atrial pressure were significantly correlated with DAP-MidLV and DAP-Apex. Conclusions: LV position changed significantly during cardiac arrest compared to the pre-arrest baseline. LV position during CPR had significant correlations with hemodynamic parameters.

Keywords: heart arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, heart ventricle, hemodynamics

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93 Nurse-Led Codes: Practical Application in the Emergency Department during a Global Pandemic

Authors: F. DelGaudio, H. Gill


Resuscitation during cardiopulmonary (CPA) arrest is dynamic, high stress, high acuity situation, which can easily lead to communication breakdown, and errors. The care of these high acuity patients has also been shown to increase physiologic stress and task saturation of providers, which can negatively impact the care being provided. These difficulties are further complicated during a global pandemic and pose a significant safety risk to bedside providers. Nurse-led codes are a relatively new concept that may be a potential solution for alleviating some of these difficulties. An experienced nurse who has completed advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), and additional training, assumed the responsibility of directing the mechanics of the appropriate ACLS algorithm. This was done in conjunction with a physician who also acted as a physician leader. The additional nurse-led code training included a multi-disciplinary in situ simulation of a CPA on a suspected COVID-19 patient. During the CPA, the nurse leader’s responsibilities include: ensuring adequate compression depth and rate, minimizing interruptions in chest compressions, the timing of rhythm/pulse checks, and appropriate medication administration. In addition, the nurse leader also functions as a last line safety check for appropriate personal protective equipment and limiting exposure of staff. The use of nurse-led codes for CPA has shown to decrease the cognitive overload and task saturation for the physician, as well as limiting the number of staff being exposed to a potentially infectious patient. The real-world application has allowed physicians to perform and oversee high-risk procedures such as intubation, line placement, and point of care ultrasound, without sacrificing the integrity of the resuscitation. Nurse-led codes have also given the physician the bandwidth to review pertinent medical history, advanced directives, determine reversible causes, and have the end of life conversations with family. While there is a paucity of research on the effectiveness of nurse-led codes, there are many potentially significant benefits. In addition to its value during a pandemic, it may also be beneficial during complex circumstances such as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary arrest, COVID-19, nurse-led code, task saturation

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92 The Use of Simulation-Based Training to Improve Team Dynamics during Code in Critical Care Units

Authors: Akram Rasheed


Background: Simulation in the health care field has been increasingly used over the last years in the training of resuscitation and life support practices. It has shown the advantage of improving the decision-making and technical skills through deliberate practice and return demonstration. Local Problem: This article reports on the integration of simulation-based training (SBT) in the training program about proper team dynamics and leadership skills during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Method and Intervention: Training of 180 critical care nurses was conducted using SBT between 1st January and 30th 2020. We had conducted 15 workshops, with the integration of SBT using high fidelity manikins and using demonstration and return-demonstration approach to train the nursing staff about proper team dynamics and leadership skills during CPR. Results: After completing the SBT session, all 180 nurses completed the evaluation form. The majority of evaluation items were rated over 95% for the effectiveness of the education; four items were less than 95% (88–94%). Lower rated items considered training and practice time, improved competency, and commitment to apply to learn. The team dynamics SBT was evaluated as an effective means to improve team dynamics and leadership skills during CPR in the intensive care unit (ICU). Conclusion: The use of simulation-based training to improve team dynamics and leadership skills is an effective method for better patient management during CPR. Besides skills competency, closed-loop communication, clear messages, clear roles, and assignments, knowing one’s limitations, knowledge sharing, constructive interventions, re-evaluating and summarizing, and mutual respect are all important concepts that should be considered during team dynamics training. However, participants reported the need for a repeated practice opportunity to build competency.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, high fidelity manikins, simulation-based training, team dynamics

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91 Early Vasopressor and De-resuscitation in Steven Johnson Syndrome with Septic Shock: A Case Report

Authors: Darma Putra Sitepu, Dewi Larasati, Yohanes Wolter Hendrik George


Sepsis is a life-threatening medical emergency frequently observed in intensive care unit (ICU). Surviving Sepsis Campaign in 2018 has recommended the administration of early vasopressor in the first hour of sepsis or septic shock but has not yet included de-resuscitation protocol. De-resuscitation in acute management of septic shock is where patient received active removal of accumulated fluid. It has been proposed by some studies and ongoing clinical trials. Here we present a case with early vasopressor and de-resuscitation. Male, 27 years old presenting to the emergency room with shortness of breath, altered mental status, and widespread blisters on his body and lips started a few hours prior, after receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug through intravenous injection. Patient was hypotensive, tachycardic, and tachypneic at admission, diagnosed with Steven Johnson Syndrome with Septic Shock. Patient received fluid resuscitation, early vasopressor, and diuresis agent aimed to actively remove fluid after the initial phase of resuscitation. Patient was admitted to ICU and progressively recovering. At day-10, patient was stabilized and was transferred to general ward. Early vasopressor and de-resuscitation are beneficial for the patient.

Keywords: sepsis, shock, de-resuscitation, vasopressor, fluid, case report

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90 Computational Model of Human Cardiopulmonary System

Authors: Julian Thrash, Douglas Folk, Michael Ciracy, Audrey C. Tseng, Kristen M. Stromsodt, Amber Younggren, Christopher Maciolek


The cardiopulmonary system is comprised of the heart, lungs, and many dynamic feedback mechanisms that control its function based on a multitude of variables. The next generation of cardiopulmonary medical devices will involve adaptive control and smart pacing techniques. However, testing these smart devices on living systems may be unethical and exceedingly expensive. As a solution, a comprehensive computational model of the cardiopulmonary system was implemented in Simulink. The model contains over 240 state variables and over 100 equations previously described in a series of published articles. Simulink was chosen because of its ease of introducing machine learning elements. Initial results indicate that physiologically correct waveforms of pressures and volumes were obtained in the simulation. With the development of a comprehensive computational model, we hope to pioneer the future of predictive medicine by applying our research towards the initial stages of smart devices. After validation, we will introduce and train reinforcement learning agents using the cardiopulmonary model to assist in adaptive control system design. With our cardiopulmonary model, we will accelerate the design and testing of smart and adaptive medical devices to better serve those with cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: adaptive control, cardiopulmonary, computational model, machine learning, predictive medicine

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89 Savinglife®: An Educational Technology for Basic and Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support

Authors: Naz Najma, Grace T. M. Dal Sasso, Maria de Lourdes de Souza


The development of information and communication technologies and the accessibility of mobile devices has increased the possibilities of the teaching and learning process anywhere and anytime. Mobile and web application allows the production of constructive teaching and learning models in various educational settings, showing the potential for active learning in nursing. The objective of this study was to present the development of an educational technology (Savinglife®, an app) for learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation and advanced cardiovascular life support training. Savinglife® is a technological production, based on the concept of virtual learning and problem-based learning approach. The study was developed from January 2016 to November 2016, using five phases (analyze, design, develop, implement, evaluate) of the instructional systems development process. The technology presented 10 scenarios and 12 simulations, covering different aspects of basic and advanced cardiac life support. The contents can be accessed in a non-linear way leaving the students free to build their knowledge based on their previous experience. Each scenario is presented through interactive tools such as scenario description, assessment, diagnose, intervention and reevaluation. Animated ECG rhythms, text documents, images and videos are provided to support procedural and active learning considering real life situation. Accessible equally on small to large devices with or without an internet connection, Savinglife® offers a dynamic, interactive and flexible tool, placing students at the center of the learning process. Savinglife® can contribute to the student’s learning in the assessment and management of basic and advanced cardiac life support in a safe and ethical way.

Keywords: problem-based learning, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, nursing education, advanced cardiac life support, educational technology

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88 Learning the C-A-Bs: Resuscitation Training at Rwanda Military Hospital

Authors: Kathryn Norgang, Sarah Howrath, Auni Idi Muhire, Pacifique Umubyeyi


Description : A group of nurses address the shortage of trained staff to respond to critical patients at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH) by developing a training program and a resuscitation response team. Members of the group who received the training when it first launched are now trainer of trainers; all components of the training program are organized and delivered by RMH staff-the clinical mentor only provides adjunct support. This two day training is held quarterly at RMH; basic life support and exposure to interventions for advanced care are included in the test and skills sign off. Seventy staff members have received the training this year alone. An increased number of admission/transfer to ICU due to successful resuscitation attempts is noted. Lessons learned: -Number of staff trained 2012-2014 (to be verified). -Staff who train together practice with greater collaboration during actual resuscitation events. -Staff more likely to initiate BLS if peer support is present-more staff trained equals more support. -More access to Advanced Cardiac Life Support training is necessary now that the cadre of BLS trained staff is growing. Conclusions: Increased access to training, peer support, and collaborative practice are effective strategies to strengthening resuscitation capacity within a hospital.

Keywords: resuscitation, basic life support, capacity building, resuscitation response teams, nurse trainer of trainers

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87 Intrarenal Injection of Pentobarbital Sodium for Euthanasia in Cats: 131 Cases, 2010-2011

Authors: Kathleen Cooney, Jennifer Coates, Lesley Leach, Kristin Hrenchir


The objective of this retrospective study was to determine whether intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium is a practicable method of euthanasia in client-owned cats. 131 Cats were anesthetized using a combination of tiletamine, zolazepam, and acepromazine given by of subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Once an appropriate plane of anesthesia was reached, 6 ml of pentobarbital sodium was injected into either the left or right kidney. The patient’s age, sex, estimated weight, presenting condition, estimated dehydration level, palpable characteristics of the kidney pre and post injection, physical response of the cat, and time to cardiopulmonary arrest were recorded. Analysis of 131 records revealed that cats receiving an intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium had an average time to cardiopulmonary arrest of 1 minute. The great majority (79%) experienced cardiopulmonary arrest in less than one minute with the remainder experiencing cardiopulmonary arrest between 1 and 8 minutes of the injection. 95% of cats had no observable reaction to intrarenal injection other than cardiopulmonary arrest. In the 19% of cases where kidney swelling was not palpable upon injection, average time to cardiopulmonary arrest increased from 0.9 to 1.6 min. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Intrarenal injections of pentobarbital sodium are similar in effect to intravenous methods of euthanasia. Veterinarians who elect to use intrarenal injections can expect cardiopulmonary arrest to occur quickly in the majority of patients with few agonal reactions. Intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium in anesthetized cats has ideally suited for cases of owner observed euthanasia when obtaining intravenous access would difficult or disruptive.

Keywords: euthanasia, injection, intrarenal, pentobarbital sodium

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86 Magnitude and Outcome of Resuscitation Activities at Rwanda Military Hospital for the Period of April 2013-September 2013

Authors: Auni Idi Muhire


Background: Prior to April 2012, resuscitations were often ineffective resulting in poor patient outcomes. An initiative was implemented at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH) to review root causes and plan strategies to improve patient outcomes. An interdisciplinary committee was developed to review this problem. Purpose: Analyze the frequency, obstacles, and outcome of patient resuscitation following cardiac and/or respiratory arrest. Methods: A form was developed to allow recording of all actions taken during resuscitation including response times, staff present, and equipment and medications used. Results:-The patient population requiring the most resuscitation effort are the intensive care patients, most frequently the neonatal the intensive care patients (42.8%) -Despite having trained staff representatives, not all resuscitations follow protocol -Lack of compliance with drug administration guidelines was noted, particularly in initiating use of drugs despite the drug being available (59%). Lesson Learned: Basic Life Support training for interdisciplinary staff resulted in more effective response to cardiac and/or respiratory arrest at RMH. Obstacles to effective resuscitation included number of staff, knowledge and skill level of staff, availability of appropriate equipment and medications, staff communication, and patient Do not Attempt Resuscitation (DNR) status.

Keywords: resuscitation, case analysis of knowledge versus practice, intensive care, critical care

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85 Capnography for Detection of Return of Spontaneous Circulation Pseudo-Pea

Authors: Yiyuan David Hu, Alex Lindqwister, Samuel B. Klein, Karen Moodie, Norman A. Paradis


Introduction: Pseudo-Pulseless Electrical Activity (p-PEA) is a lifeless form of profound cardiac shock characterized by measurable cardiac mechanical activity without clinically detectable pulses. Patients in pseudo-PEA carry different prognoses than those in true PEA and may require different therapies. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ET-CO2) is a reliable indicator of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in ventricular fibrillation and true-PEA but has not been studied p-PEA. Hypothesis: ET-CO2 can be used as an independent indicator of ROSC in p-PEA resuscitation. Methods: 30kg female swine (N = 14) under intravenous anesthesia were instrumented with aortic and right atrial micromanometer pressure. ECG and ET-CO2 were measured continuously. p-PEA was induced by ventilation with 6% oxygen in 94% nitrogen and was defined as a systolic Ao less than 40 mmHg. The statistical relationships between ET-CO2 and ROSC are reported. Results: ET-CO2 during resuscitation strongly correlated with ROSC (Figure 1). Mean ET-CO2 during p-PEA was 28.4 ± 8.4, while mean ET-CO2 in ROSC for 100% O2 cohort was 42.2 ± 12.6 (p < 0.0001), mean ET-CO2 in ROSC for 100% O2 + CPR was 33.0 ± 15.4 (p < 0.0001). Analysis of slope was limited to one minute of resuscitation data to capture local linearity; assessment began 10 seconds after resuscitation started to allow the ventilator to mix 100% O2. Pigs who would recover with 100% O2 had a slope of 0.023 ± 0.001, oxygen + CPR had a slope of 0.018 ± 0.002, and oxygen + CPR + epinephrine had a slope of 0.0050 ± 0.0009. Conclusions: During resuscitation from porcine hypoxic p-PEA, a rise in ET-CO2 is indicative of ROSC.

Keywords: ET-CO2, resuscitation, capnography, pseudo-PEA

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84 The Impact of an Educational Program on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Healthcare Professionals towards Family Presence during Resuscitation in an Emergency Department at a Tertiary Care Setting, in Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Shaista Meghani, Rozina Karmaliani, Khairulnissa Ajani, Shireen Shahzad, Nadeem Ullah Khan


Background: The concept of Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR) is gradually gaining recognition in western countries, however, it is rarely considered in South Asian countries including Pakistan. Over time, patients’ and families’ rights have gained recognition and healthcare has progressed to become more patient-family centered. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an educational program on the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) of healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards FPDR in Emergency Department (ED), at a tertiary care setting, in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This was a Pre-test and Post-test study design. A convenient universal sampling was done, and all ED nurses and physicians with more than one year of experience were eligible. The intervention included one-hour training sessions for physicians (three sessions) and nurses (eight sessions), The KAP of nurses and physicians were assessed immediately after (post-test I), and two weeks(post-test II) after the intervention using a pretested questionnaire. Results: The findings of the study revealed that the mean scores of knowledge and attitude of HCPs at both time points were statistically significant (p-value=<0.001), however, an insignificant difference was found on practice of FPDR (p-value=>0.05). Conclusion: The study findings recommend that the educational program on FPDR for HCPs needs to be offered on an ongoing basis. Moreover, training modules need to be developed for the staff, and formal guidelines need to be proposed for FPDR, through a multidisciplinary team approach.

Keywords: family presence, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, attitude, education, practices, health care professionals

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83 Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Army Soldiers on Prehospital Trauma Care in Matara District

Authors: Hatharasinghe Liyanage Saneetha Chathaurika, Shreenika De Silva Weliange


Background and Significance of the Study: Natural and human-induced disasters have become more common due to rapid development and climate change. Therefore hospitalization due to injuries has increased in the midst of advancement in medicine. Prehospital trauma care is critical in reducing morbidity and mortality following injury. Army soldiers are one of the first responder categories after a major disaster causing injury. Thus, basic life support measures taken by trained lay first responders is life-saving, it is important to build up their capacities by updating their knowledge and practices while cultivating positive attitudes toward it. Objective: To describe knowledge, attitudes and practices on prehospital trauma care among army soldiers in Matara District. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among army soldiers in Matara district. The whole population was studied belonging to the above group during the study period. Self-administered questionnaire was used as the study instrument. Cross tabulations were done to identify the possible associations using chi square statistics. Knowledge and practices were categorized in to two groups as “Poor” and “Good” taking 50% as the cut off. Results: The study population consists of 266 participants (response rate 97.79%).The overall level of knowledge on prehospital trauma care is poor (78.6%) while knowledge on golden hour of trauma (77.1%), triage system (74.4%), cardio pulmonary resuscitation (92.5%) and transportation of patients with spinal cord injury (69.2%) was markedly poor. Good knowledge is significantly associated with advance age, higher income and higher level of education whereas it has no significant association with work duration. More than 80% of them had positive attitudes on most aspects of prehospital trauma care while majority thinks it is good to have knowledge on this topic and they would have performed better in disaster situations if they were trained on pre-hospital trauma care. With regard to the practice, majority (62.8%) is included in the group of poor level of practice. They lack practice on first-aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and safe transportation of the patients. Moreover, they had less opportunity to participate in drills/simulation programs done on disaster events. Good practice is significantly associated with advance age and higher level of education but not associated with level of income and working duration of army soldiers. Highly significant association was observed between the level of knowledge and level of practice on prehospital trauma care of army soldiers. It is observed that higher the knowledge practices become better. Conclusion: A higher proportion of army soldiers had poor knowledge and practice on prehospital trauma care while majority had positive attitudes regarding it. Majority lacks knowledge and practice in first-aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Due to significant association observed between knowledge and practice it can be recommended to include a training session on prehospital trauma care in the basic military curriculum which will enhance the ability to act as first responders effectively. Further research is needed in this area of prehospital trauma care to enhance the qualitative outcome.

Keywords: disaster, prehospital trauma care, first responders, army soldiers

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82 Comparing the Quality of Electronic and Paper Do-Not-Resucscitate Forms in Hosptail

Authors: Anmol Patel


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is medical intervention which should be considered for all inpatients; with a patient centred approach, open communication and accurate documentation of clinical decisions. National enquiries have shown that in a significant number of cases CPR was attempted when it was considered inappropriate. In these circumstances attempting to prevent a natural death and subjecting a patient to trauma at the end of life would deprive them of a dignified death. Anticipatory “do not attempt CPR (DNACPR)” decisions aim to prevent this for those considered appropriate. As a legal document, these forms are required to be completed accurately and thoroughly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in quality of DNACPR forms completed using electronic versus paper formats. A retrospective review of DNACPR forms and related documentation was completed in two District General Hospitals in South-East England, one of which uses electronic forms, while the other uses paper red forms. 50 completed forms from each hospital were analysed to assess for legibility, and quality of completion of all subsections of the form, including communications with family, relatives and the Multidisciplinary team. The hospital using paper forms showed a 40-44% rate of completion of sections relating to communication with patients and family, compared to 70% with the hospital using electronic forms. Similar trends were observed with other sections of the form. Conclusion: This study suggests that the implementation of electronic DNACPR forms significantly improves clinical practice and promotes better open communication with patients, family and the MDT.

Keywords: DNACPR, resuscitation, DNAR, patient communication

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81 M-Number of Aortic Cannulas Applied During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Won-Gon Kim


A standardized system to describe the pressure-flow characteristics of a given cannula has recently been proposed and has been termed ‘the M-number’. Using three different sizes of aortic cannulas in 50 pediatric cardiac patients on hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, we analyzed the correlation between experimentally and clinically derived M-numbers, and found this was positive. Clinical M-numbers were typically 0.35 to 0.55 greater than experimental M-numbers, and correlated inversely with a patient's temperature change; this was most probably due to increased blood viscosity, arising from hypothermia. This inverse relationship was more marked in higher M-number cannulas. The clinical data obtained in this study suggest that experimentally derived M-numbers correlate strongly with clinical performance of the cannula, and that the influence of temperature is significant.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary bypass, M-number, aortic cannula, pressure-flow characteristics

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80 Audit Outcome Cardiac Arrest Cases (2019-2020) in Emergency Department RIPAS Hospital, Brunei Darussalam

Authors: Victor Au, Khin Maung Than, Zaw Win Aung, Linawati Jumat


Background & Objectives: Cardiac arrests can occur anywhere or anytime, and most of the cases will be brought to the emergency department except the cases that happened in at in-patient setting. Raja IsteriPangiran Anak Saleha (RIPAS) Hospital is the only tertiary government hospital which located in Brunei Muara district and received all referral from other Brunei districts. Data of cardiac arrests in Brunei Darussalam scattered between Emergency Medical Ambulance Services (EMAS), Emergency Department (ED), general inpatient wards, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU). In this audit, we only focused on cardiac arrest cases which had happened or presented to the emergency department RIPAS Hospital. Theobjectives of this audit were to look at demographic of cardiac arrest cases and the survival to discharge rate of In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (IHCA) and Out-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA). Methodology: This audit retrospective study was conducted on all cardiac arrest cases that underwent Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in ED RIPAS Hospital, Brunei Muara, in the year 2019-2020. All cardiac arrest cases that happened or were brought in to emergency department were included. All the relevant data were retrieved from ED visit registry book and electronic medical record “Bru-HIMS” with keyword diagnosis of “cardiac arrest”. Data were analyzed and tabulated using Excel software. Result: 313 cardiac arrests were recorded in the emergency department in year 2019-2020. 92% cases were categorized as OHCA, and the remaining 8% as IHCA. Majority of the cases were male with age between 50-60 years old. In OHCA subgroup, only 12.4% received bystander CPR, and 0.4% received Automatic External Defibrillator (AED) before emergency medical personnel arrived. Initial shockable rhythm in IHCA group accounted for 12% compare to 4.9% in OHCA group. Outcome of ED resuscitation, 32% of IHCA group achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with a survival to discharge rate was 16%. For OHCA group, 12.35% achieved ROSC, but unfortunately, none of them survive till discharge. Conclusion: Standardized registry for cardiac arrest in the emergency department is required to provide valid baseline data to measure the quality and outcome of cardiac arrest. Zero survival rate for out hospital cardiac arrest is very concerning, and it might represent the significant breach in cardiac arrest chains of survival. Systematic prospective data collection is needed to identify contributing factors and to improve resuscitation outcome.

Keywords: cardiac arrest, OHCA, IHCA, resuscitation, emergency department

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79 Train-The-Trainer in Neonatal Resuscitation in Rural Uganda: A Model for Sustainability and the Barriers Faced

Authors: Emilia K. H. Danielsson-Waters, Malaz Elsaddig, Kevin Jones


Unfortunately, it is well known that neonatal deaths are a common and potentially preventable occurrence across the world. Neonatal resuscitation is a simple and inexpensive intervention that can effectively reduce this rate, and can be taught and implemented globally. This project is a follow-on from one in 2012, which found that neonatal resuscitation simulation was valuable for education, but would be better improved by being delivered by local staff. Methods: This study involved auditing the neonatal admission and death records within a rural Ugandan hospital, alongside implementing a Train-The-Trainer teaching scheme to teach Neonatal Resuscitation. One local doctor was trained for simulating neonatal resuscitation, whom subsequently taught an additional 14 staff members in one-afternoon session. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires to assess their knowledge and confidence pre- and post-simulation, and a survey to identify barriers and drivers to simulation. Results: The results found that the neonatal mortality rate in this hospital was 25% between July 2016- July 2017, with birth asphyxia, prematurity and sepsis being the most common causes. Barriers to simulation that were identified predominantly included a lack of time, facilities and opportunity, yet all members stated simulation was beneficial for improving skills and confidence. The simulation session received incredibly positive qualitative feedback, and also a 0.58-point increase in knowledge (p=0.197) and 0.73-point increase in confidence (0.079). Conclusion: This research shows that it is possible to create a teaching scheme in a rural hospital, however, many barriers are in place for its sustainability, and a larger sample size with a more sensitive scale is required to achieve statistical significance. This is undeniably important, because teaching neonatal resuscitation can have a direct impact on neonatal mortality. Subsequently, recommendations include that efforts should be put in place to create a sustainable training scheme, for example, by employing a resuscitation officer. Moreover, neonatal resuscitation teaching should be conducted more frequently in hospitals, and conducted in a wider geographical context, including within the community, in order to achieve its full effect.

Keywords: neonatal resuscitation, sustainable medical education, train-the-trainer, Uganda

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78 Capnography in Hypoxic Pseudo-Pea May Correlate to the Amount of Required Intervention for Resuscitation

Authors: Yiyuan David Hu, Alex Lindqwister, Samuel B. Klein, Karen Moodie, Norman A. Paradis


Introduction: Pseudo-Pulseless Electrical Activity (p-PEA) is a lifeless form of profound cardiac shock characterized by measurable cardiac mechanical activity without clinically detectable pulses. Patients in pseudo-PEA carry different prognoses than those in true PEA and may require different therapies. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ET-CO2) has been studied in ventricular fibrillation and true PEA but in p-PEA. We utilized an hypoxic porcine model to characterize the performance of ET-CO2 in resuscitation from p-PEA. Hypothesis: Capnography correlates to the number of required interventions for resuscitation from p-PEA. Methods: Female swine (N = 14) under intravenous anesthesia were instrumented with aortic and right atrial micromanometer pressure. ECG and ET-CO2 were measured continuously. p-PEA was induced by ventilation with 6% oxygen in 94% nitrogen and was defined as a systolic aortic (Ao) pressure less than 40 mmHg. Pigs were grouped based on the interventions required to achieve ROSC: 100%O2, 100%O2 + CPR, 100%O2 + CPR + epinephrine. Results: End tidal CO2 reliably predicted O2 therapy vs CPR-based interventions needed for resuscitation (Figure 1). Pigs who would recover with 100%O2 only had a mean ET-CO2 slope of 0.039 ± 0.013 [ R2 = 0.68], those requiring oxygen + CPR had a slope of -0.15 ± 0.016 [R2 = 0.95], and those requiring oxygen + CPR + epinephrine had a slope of -0.12 ± 0.031 [R2 = 0.79]. Conclusions: In a porcine model of hypoxic p-PEA, measured ET-CO2 appears to be strongly correlated with the required interventions needed for ROSC. If confirmed clinically, these results indicate that ET-CO2 may be useful in guiding therapy in patients suffering p-PEA cardiac arrest.

Keywords: pseudo-PEA, resuscitation, capnography, hypoxic pseudo-PEA

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77 Roller Pump-Induced Tubing Rupture during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: W. G. Kim, C. H. Jo


We analyzed the effects of variations in the diameter of silicone rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubings on the likelihood of tubing rupture during modeling of accidental arterial line clamping in cardiopulmonary bypass with a roller pump. A closed CPB circuit constructed with a roller pump was tested with both PVC and silicone rubber tubings of 1/2, 3/8, and 1/4 inch internal diameter. Arterial line pressure was monitored, and an occlusive clamp was placed across the tubing distal to the pressure monitor site to model an accidental arterial line occlusion. A CCD camera with 512(H) x 492(V) pixels was installed above the roller pump to measure tubing diameters at pump outlet, where the maximum deformations (distension) of the tubings occurred. Quantitative measurement of the changes of tubing diameters with the change of arterial line pressure was performed using computerized image processing techniques. A visible change of tubing diameter was generally noticeable by around 250 psi of arterial line pressure, which was already very high. By 1500 psi, the PVC tubings showed an increase of diameter of between 5-10 %, while the silicone rubber tubings showed an increase between 20-25 %. Silicone rubber tubings of all sizes showed greater distensibility than PVC tubings of equivalent size. In conclusion, although roller-pump induced tubing rupture remains a theoretical problem during cardiopulmonary bypass in terms of the inherent mechanism of the pump, in reality such an occurrence is impossible in real clinical conditions.

Keywords: roller pump, tubing rupture, cardiopulmonary bypass, arterial line

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76 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi


Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, autopsy, histological examination

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75 Basic Life Support Training in Rural Uganda: A Mixed Methods Study of Training and Attitudes towards Resuscitation

Authors: William Gallagher, Harriet Bothwell, Lowri Evans, Kevin Jones


Background: Worldwide, a third of adult deaths are caused by cardiovascular disease, a high proportion occurring in the developing world. Contributing to these poor outcomes are suboptimal assessments, treatments and monitoring of the acutely unwell patient. Successful training in trauma and neonates is recognised in the developing world but there is little literature supporting adult resuscitation. As far as the authors are aware no literature has been published on resuscitation training in Uganda since 2000 when a resuscitation training officer ran sessions in neonatal and paediatric resuscitation. The aim of this project was to offer training in Basic Life Support ( BLS) to staff and healthcare students based at Villa Maria Hospital in the Kalungu District, Central Uganda. This project was undertaken as a student selected component (SSC) offered by Swindon Academy, based at the Great Western Hospital, to medical students in their fourth year of the undergraduate programme. Methods: Semi-structured, informal interviews and focus groups were conducted with different clinicians in the hospital. These interviews were designed to focus on the level of training and understanding of BLS. A training session was devised which focused on BLS (excluding the use of an automatic external defribrillator) involving pre and post-training questionnaires and clinical assessments. Three training sessions were run for different cohorts: a pilot session for 5 Ugandan medical students, a second session for a group of 8 nursing and midwifery students and finally, a third was devised for physicians. The data collected was analysed in excel. Paired T-Tests determined statistical significance between pre and post-test scores and confidence before and after the sessions. Average clinical skill assessment scores were converted to percentages based on the area of BLS being assessed. Results: 27 participants were included in the analysis. 14 received ‘small group training’ whilst 13 received’ large group training’ 88% of all participants had received some form of resuscitation training. Of these, 46% had received theory training, 27% practical training and only 15% received both. 12% had received no training. On average, all participants demonstrated a significant increase of 5.3 in self-assessed confidence (p <0.05). On average, all participants thought the session was very useful. Analysis of qualitative date from clinician interviews in ongoing but identified themes identified include rescue breaths being considered the most important aspect resuscitation and doubts of a ‘good’ outcome from resuscitation. Conclusions: The results of this small study reflect the need for regular formal training in BLS in low resource settings. The active engagement and positive opinions concerning the utility of the training are promising as well as the evidence of improvement in knowledge.

Keywords: basic life support, education, resuscitation, sub-Saharan Africa, training, Uganda

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74 The Use of Emergency Coronary Angiography in Patients Following Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Subsequent Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation

Authors: Scott Ashby, Emily Granger, Mark Connellan


Objectives: 1) To identify if emergency coronary angiography improves outcomes in studies examining OHCA from assumed cardiac aetiology? 2) If so, is it indicated in all patients resuscitated following OHCA, and if not, who is it indicated for? 3) How effective are investigations for screening for the appropriate patients? Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is one of the leading mechanisms of death, and the most common causative pathology is coronary artery disease. In-hospital treatment following resuscitation greatly affects outcomes, yet there is debate over the most effective protocol. Methods: A literature search was conducted over multiple databases to identify all relevant articles published from 2005. An inclusion criterion was applied to all publications retrieved, which were then sorted by type. Results: A total of 3 existing reviews and 29 clinical studies were analysed in this review. There were conflicting conclusions, however increased use of angiography has shown to improve outcomes in the majority of studies, which cover a variety of settings and cohorts. Recommendations: Currently, emergency coronary angiography appears to improve outcomes in all/most cases of OHCA of assumed cardiac aetiology, regardless of ECG findings. Until a better tool for screening is available to reduce unnecessary procedures, the benefits appear to outweigh the costs/risks.

Keywords: out of hospital cardiac arrest, coronary angiography, resuscitation, emergency medicine

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73 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among Medical Students Regarding Basic Life Support

Authors: Sumia Fatima, Tayyaba Idrees


Cardiac Arrest and Heart Failures are an important causes of mortality in developed and developing countries and even a second spent without Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) increases the risk of mortality. Youngs doctors are expected to partake in CPR from the first day and if they are not taught basic life support (BLS) skills during their studies. They have next to no opportunity to learn them in clinical settings. To determine the exact level of knowledge of Basic Life Support among medical students. To compare the degree of knowledge among 1st and 2nd year medical students of RMU (Rawalpindi Medical University), using self-structured questionnaires. A cross sectional, qualitative primary study was conducted in March 2020 in order to analyse theoretical and practical knowledge of Basic Life Support among Medical Students of 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Self-Structured Questionnaires were distributed among 300 students, 150 from 1st year and 150 from 2nd year. Data was analysed using SPSS v 22. Chi Square test was employed. The results showed that only 13 (4%) students had received formal BLS training.129 (42%) students had encountered accidents in real life but had not known how to react. Majority responded that Basic Life Support should be made part of medical college curriculum (189 students), 194 participants (64%) had moderate knowledge of both theoretical and practical aspects of BLS. 75-80% students of both 1st and 2nd year had only moderate knowledge, which must be improved for them to be better healthcare providers in future. It was also found that male students had more practical knowledge than females, but both had almost the same proficiency in theoretical knowledge. The study concluded that the level of knowledge of BLS among the students was not up to the mark, and there is a dire need to include BLS training in the medical colleges’ curriculum.

Keywords: basic cardiac life support, cardiac arrest, awareness, medical students

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