Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 805

Search results for: Million Meshesha

805 Data Mining Model for Predicting the Status of HIV Patients during Drug Regimen Change

Authors: Ermias A. Tegegn, Million Meshesha

Abstract:

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a major cause of death for most African countries. Ethiopia is one of the seriously affected countries in sub Saharan Africa. Previously in Ethiopia, having HIV/AIDS was almost equivalent to a death sentence. With the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), HIV/AIDS has become chronic, but manageable disease. The study focused on a data mining technique to predict future living status of HIV/AIDS patients at the time of drug regimen change when the patients become toxic to the currently taking ART drug combination. The data is taken from University of Gondar Hospital ART program database. Hybrid methodology is followed to explore the application of data mining on ART program dataset. Data cleaning, handling missing values and data transformation were used for preprocessing the data. WEKA 3.7.9 data mining tools, classification algorithms, and expertise are utilized as means to address the research problem. By using four different classification algorithms, (i.e., J48 Classifier, PART rule induction, Naïve Bayes and Neural network) and by adjusting their parameters thirty-two models were built on the pre-processed University of Gondar ART program dataset. The performances of the models were evaluated using the standard metrics of accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. The most effective model to predict the status of HIV patients with drug regimen substitution is pruned J48 decision tree with a classification accuracy of 98.01%. This study extracts interesting attributes such as Ever taking Cotrim, Ever taking TbRx, CD4 count, Age, Weight, and Gender so as to predict the status of drug regimen substitution. The outcome of this study can be used as an assistant tool for the clinician to help them make more appropriate drug regimen substitution. Future research directions are forwarded to come up with an applicable system in the area of the study.

Keywords: HIV drug regimen, data mining, hybrid methodology, predictive model

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804 Biohydrogen Production Derived from Banana Pseudo Stem of Agricultural Residues by Dark Fermentation

Authors: Kholik

Abstract:

Nowadays, the demand of renewable energy in general is increasing due to the crisis of fossil fuels. Biohydrogen is an alternative fuel with zero emission derived from renewable resources such as banana pseudo stem of agricultural residues. Banana plant can be easily found in tropical and subtropical areas, so the resource is abundant and readily available as a biohydrogen substrate. Banana pseudo stem has not been utilised as a resource or substrate of biohydrogen production and it mainly contains 45-65% cellulose (α-cellulose), 5-15% hemicellulose and 20-30% Lignin, which indicates that banana pseudo stem will be renewable, sustainable and promising resource as lignocellulosic biomass. In this research, biohydrogen is derived from banana pseudo stem by dark fermentation. Dark fermentation is the most suitable approach for practical biohydrogen production from organic solid wastes. The process has several advantages including a fast reaction rate, no need of light, and a smaller footprint. 321 million metric tonnes banana pseudo stem of 428 million metric tonnes banana plantation residues in worldwide for 2013 and 22.5 million metric tonnes banana pseudo stem of 30 million metric tonnes banana plantation residues in Indonesia for 2015 will be able to generate 810.60 million tonne mol H2 and 56.819 million tonne mol H2, respectively. In this paper, we will show that the banana pseudo stem is the renewable, sustainable and promising resource to be utilised and to produce biohydrogen as energy generation with high yield and high contain of cellulose in comparison with the other substrates.

Keywords: banana pseudo stem, biohydrogen, dark fermentation, lignocellulosic

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803 Assessment of the Egyptian Agricultural Foreign Trade with Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Countries

Authors: Doaa H. I. Mahmoud, El-Said M. Elsharkawy, Saad Z. Soliman, Soher E. Mustfa

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The opening of new promising foreign markets is one of the objectives of Egypt’s foreign trade policies, especially for agricultural exports. This study aims at the examination of the commodity structure of the Egyptian agricultural imports and exports with the COMESA countries. In addition, estimation of the surplus/deficit of the Egyptian commodities and agricultural balance with these countries is made. Time series data covering the period 2004-2016 is used. Estimation of the growth function along with the derivation of the annual growth rates of the study’s variables is made. Some of the results of the study period display the following: (1) The average total Egyptian exports to the COMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa) countries is estimated at 1,491 million dollars, with an annual growth rate of 14.4% (214.7 million dollars). (2) The average annual Egyptian agricultural exports to these economies is estimated at 555 million dollars, with an annual growth rate of 19.4% (107.7 million dollars). (3) The average annual value of agricultural imports from the COMESA countries is set at 289 Million Dollars, with an annual growth rate of 14.4% (41.6 million dollars). (4) The study shows that there is a continuous surplus in the agricultural balance with these economies, whilst having a deficit in the raw-materials agricultural balance, as well as the balance of input requirements with these countries.

Keywords: COMESA, Egypt, growth rates, trade balance

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802 The Incidence of Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody Positive Myasthenia Gravis in South Africa

Authors: Mombaur Busisiwe, Lesosky Maia, Liebenberg Lisa, Heckmann Jeannine

Abstract:

Introduction: To assess age- and gender-specific incidence rates (IR) of acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-antibody positive myasthenia gravis (MG) in South Africa, and geographical variation in incidence. Methods: IRs were calculated from positive AChR antibody laboratory data between 2011 and 2012, using 2011 population census data. Results:890 individuals were seropositive, for an annual IR of 8.5 per million. Age-standardized IR for early- (< 50) and late-onset (≥ 50) MG were 4.1 and 24 per million, respectively, and for juveniles, 4.3 per million. The IR between provinces ranged from 1 to 19 per million. Conclusions: In this Southern hemisphere African population, the overall IR and peak IR (in older men) for seropositive MG is comparable to that in Europe and North America, arguing against environmental factors. However, IRs may be higher among children with African genetic ancestry. Geographical variation in incidence underscores the importance of outreach programs for regions with limited resources.

Keywords: incidence rates (IR), acetylcholine receptor (AChR), myasthenia gravis (MG), South Africa

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801 Author Name Disambiguation for Biomedical Literature

Authors: Parthiban Srinivasan

Abstract:

PubMed provides online access to the National Library of Medicine database (MEDLINE) and other publications, which contain close to 25 million scientific citations from 1865 to the present. There are close to 80 million author name instances in those close to 25 million citations. For any work of literature, a fundamental issue is to identify the individual(s) who wrote it, and conversely, to identify all of the works that belong to a given individual. Due to the lack of universal standards for name information, there are two aspects of name ambiguity: name synonymy (a single author with multiple name representations), and name homonymy (multiple authors sharing the same name representation). In this talk, we present some results from our extensive work in author name disambiguation for PubMed citations. Information will be presented on the effectiveness and shortcomings of different aspects of successful name disambiguation such as parsing, validation, standardization and normalization.

Keywords: disambiguation, normalization, parsing, PubMed

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800 Redefining Urban Landfills – Transformation of a Sanitary Landfill in Indian Cities

Authors: N. L. Divya Gayatri

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In India, over 377 million urban people generate 62 million tons of municipal solid waste per annum. Forty-three million tons are collected, 11.9 million are treated and 31 million tons is dumped in landfill sites. The study aims to have an overall understanding of the working and functioning of a sanitary landfill from the siting to the closure stage and identifying various landscape design techniques that can be implemented in a landfill site and come up with a set of guidelines by analyzing the existing policies and guidelines pertaining to landfills. Constituents of municipal solid waste, methods of landfilling, issues, impacts, Mitigation strategies, Landscape design strategies, design approaches towards a landfill, infrastructure requirements, end-use opportunities have been discussed. The objective is to study the ecological and environmental degradation prevention methods, compare various techniques in remediation, study issues in landfill sites in India, analyze scope and opportunities and explore various landscape design strategies. The understanding of the function of landfills with respect to Municipal solid waste and landscaping is conveyed through this study. The study is limited to Landscape design factors in landfill design guidelines and policies mentioned with regard to the issues and impacts specific to the Indian context.

Keywords: sanitary landfill landscaping, environmental impact, municipal solid waste, guidelines, landscape design strategies, landscape design approaches

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799 Treated Wastewater Reuse in Algeria: Overview, Mobilization Potential and Challenges

Authors: Dairi Sabri, Mrad Dounia, Djebbar Yassine, Abida Habib

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Food security, which may be ensured by important agricultural production, needs huge amounts of water for irrigation. Recognizing this, the Algerian government made enormous efforts to mobilize water resources. Every drop of water collected, regardless of its origin, is needed to strengthen agricultural production. The present irrigated area in Algeria is about 1 million hectares while the potential agricultural area all over the country exceeds 9 million ha. This clearly shows the need for non-conventional water resources in Algeria, especially treated wastewater reuse. The use of treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation is still at the experimental stage in Algeria. While 20 million hectares worldwide are irrigated with treated wastewater, only 2300 hectares in Algeria are irrigated on an experimental basis in the regions of Setif, Constantine, Mila Telemcen, Tougourt and Boumerdès. The volume of wastewater discharged nationwide is estimated to be around 750 million cubic meters and is expected to exceed 1.5 billion m3 in 2020. An ambitious program of providing treatment facilities has been initiated in this direction to increase the treatment capacity to 2.5 million m3 per day in 2030. In order to optimize the use of this resource, specific research actions interested in defining treated wastewater reuse opportunities and standards are undertaken. The objective of this study is basically to examine the different components of treated wastewater reuse, including standards, treatment processes, agricultural opportunities and potentials as well as technical and economic aspects governing the feasibility of this technology in Algeria based on Geographic Information System (GIS).

Keywords: wastewater reuse, integrated management, irrigation, GIS

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798 The Internal Migration in Jiangxi Province, China after the Migrating Decision

Authors: Gourida Siham

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Chinese society has witnessed a continuing trend of nationwide rural to urban migration since the 1970's. Before that age, under restricted hukou systems, peasants were kept still and fixed in the farm land. The year 1978 and later years saw the control of migration in China was relaxed gradually, freeing peasants to start their own businesses and reach out to work also in urban areas. Since then the “floating population” (migrants without local hukou) took great momentum and drew great attention from both the media and academia. The scale of such internal migration is enormous –the floating population has reached to a number of 79 million in 2000, and as of 2010, the number of migrant workers from rural China amounts to over 221 million and according to the annual survey results projections by National Bureau of Statistics; the total migrant workers in china in 2012 amounted to 262.61 million, which refers to an increase of 9.83 million compared with the previous year with increase percentage by 3.9%. Using China’s Jiangxi Province as a case, this paper examines patterns of internal migration as a response of emigrations in the context of high emigration communities. Our findings suggest that emigration of individuals initially deterred both inter-provincial and intra- provincial migration of other family members, and yet, overtime they had an increasing propensity to migrate internally at both scales.

Keywords: internal migration, jiangxi, nanchang, remittances

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797 Transforming Ganges to be a Living River through Waste Water Management

Authors: P. M. Natarajan, Shambhu Kallolikar, S. Ganesh

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By size and volume of water, Ganges River basin is the biggest among the fourteen major river basins in India. By Hindu’s faith, it is the main ‘holy river’ in this nation. But, of late, the pollution load, both domestic and industrial sources are deteriorating the surface and groundwater as well as land resources and hence the environment of the Ganges River basin is under threat. Seeing this scenario, the Indian government began to reclaim this river by two Ganges Action Plans I and II since 1986 by spending Rs. 2,747.52 crores ($457.92 million). But the result was no improvement in the water quality of the river and groundwater and environment even after almost three decades of reclamation, and hence now the New Indian Government is taking extra care to rejuvenate this river and allotted Rs. 2,037 cores ($339.50 million) in 2014 and Rs. 20,000 crores ($3,333.33 million) in 2015. The reasons for the poor water quality and stinking environment even after three decades of reclamation of the river are either no treatment/partial treatment of the sewage. Hence, now the authors are suggesting a tertiary level treatment standard of sewages of all sources and origins of the Ganges River basin and recycling the entire treated water for nondomestic uses. At 20million litres per day (MLD) capacity of each sewage treatment plant (STP), this basin needs about 2020 plants to treat the entire sewage load. Cost of the STPs is Rs. 3,43,400 million ($5,723.33 million) and the annual maintenance cost is Rs. 15,352 million ($255.87 million). The advantages of the proposed exercise are: we can produce a volume of 1,769.52 million m3 of biogas. Since biogas is energy, can be used as a fuel, for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. It is possible to generate about 3,539.04 million kilowatt electricity per annum from the biogas generated in the process of wastewater treatment in Ganges basin. The income generation from electricity works out to Rs 10,617.12million ($176.95million). This power can be used to bridge the supply and demand gap of energy in the power hungry villages where 300million people are without electricity in India even today, and to run these STPs as well. The 664.18 million tonnes of sludge generated by the treatment plants per annum can be used in agriculture as manure with suitable amendments. By arresting the pollution load the 187.42 cubic kilometer (km3) of groundwater potential of the Ganges River basin could be protected from deterioration. Since we can recycle the sewage for non-domestic purposes, about 14.75km3 of fresh water per annum can be conserved for future use. The total value of the water saving per annum is Rs.22,11,916million ($36,865.27million) and each citizen of Ganges River basin can save Rs. 4,423.83/ ($73.73) per annum and Rs. 12.12 ($0.202) per day by recycling the treated water for nondomestic uses. Further the environment of this basin could be kept clean by arresting the foul smell as well as the 3% of greenhouse gages emission from the stinking waterways and land. These are the ways to reclaim the waterways of Ganges River basin from deterioration.

Keywords: Holy Ganges River, lifeline of India, wastewater treatment and management, making Ganges permanently holy

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796 Environmental Sustainability: A Renewable Energy Prospect with a Biofuel Alternative

Authors: Abul Quasem Al-Amin, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Walter Leal Filho

Abstract:

With regard to the future energy strategy and vision, this study aimed to find the drawbacks of proposed energy diversification policy for 2020. To have a clear picture of the drawback and competitive alternative, this study has explored two scenarios, namely Scenario a and Scenario b. The Scenario a indicates that in the year 2020 the GHG emissions would be 823,498.00 million tons (Mt) with a 2020 final demand and proposed fuel mix such as by the Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy. In contrast, as an alternative, the Scenario b with biofuel potentials indicates that the substitution of coal energy by 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, with biofuel, would reduce the GHG emissions from 374,551.00, 405,118.00, and 823,498.00 million tons to 339,964.00, 329,834.00, and 305,288.00 million tons, respectively, by the present fuel mix, business-as-usual fuel mix, and proposed fuel mix up to the year 2020. Therefore, this study has explored a healthy alternative by introducing biofuel renewable energy option instead of conventional energy utilization in the power generation with environmental aspect in minds. This study effort would lessen the gap between GHG mitigation and future sustainable development and would useful to formulate effective renewable energy strategy in Malaysia.

Keywords: energy, environmental impacts, renewable energy, biofuel, energy policy

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795 A Study on Solutions to Connect Distribution Power Grid up to Renewable Energy Sources at KEPCO

Authors: Seung Yoon Hyun, Hyeong Seung An, Myeong Ho Choi, Sung Hwan Bae, Yu Jong Sim

Abstract:

In 2015, the southern part of the Korean Peninsula has 8.6 million poles, 1.25 million km power lines, and 2 million transformers, etc. It is the massive amount of distribution equipments which could cover a round-trip distance from the earth to the moon and 11 turns around the earth. These distribution equipments are spread out like capillaries and supplying power to every corner of the Korean Peninsula. In order to manage these huge power facility efficiently, KEPCO use DAS (Distribution Automation System) to operate distribution power system since 1997. DAS is integrated system that enables to remotely supervise and control breakers and switches on distribution network. Using DAS, we can reduce outage time and power loss. KEPCO has about 160,000 switches, 50%(about 80,000) of switches are automated, and 41 distribution center monitoring&control these switches 24-hour 365 days to get the best efficiency of distribution networks. However, the rapid increasing renewable energy sources become the problem in the efficient operation of distributed power system. (currently 2,400 MW, 75,000 generators operate in distribution power system). In this paper, it suggests the way to interconnect between renewable energy source and distribution power system.

Keywords: distribution, renewable, connect, DAS (Distribution Automation System)

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794 Comparison Study on Characterization of Various Fly Ashes for Heavy Metal Adsorption

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, N. Baran Acarali, A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Fly ash is a waste material of coal firing thermal plants that is released from thermal power plants. It was defined as very fine particles that are drifted upward which are taken up by the flue gases. The emerging amount of fly ash in the world is approximately 600 million tons per year. In our country, it is expected that will be occurred 50 million tons of waste ash per year until 2020. The fly ashes can be evaluated by using as adsorbent material. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of use of various fly ashes (Tuncbilek, Catalagzi, Orhaneli) like low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal adsorption. First of all, fly ashes were characterized. For this purpose; analyses such as XRD, XRF, SEM and FT-IR were performed.

Keywords: adsorbent, fly ash, heavy metal, waste

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793 Evaluation of the Costs and Benefits of Mumbai Sewage Disposal Project, India

Authors: Indrani Gupta, Leena Vachasiddha, Rakesh Kumar

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Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai intends to undertake Mumbai Sewage Disposal (MSDP) for improvement of environment in and around Mumbai city. Sewage generated from the city currently gets partly into the inadequate collection system for treatment and the rest into nearby marine water body through drains. This paper addresses the cost benefit analysis of MSDP works for better compliance of sewage treatment and disposal. Cost benefit analysis indicates that the investment in sewage treatment is economically beneficial and will provide immense social, environmental, health and economic benefits. Monetary values of positive benefits such as avoided health costs, enhanced fish catches and improved tourism have been quantified. The total capital cost of the project is estimated to be about INR 51,510 million and operation and maintenance cost is about INR 2240.6 million per year. The cost benefit analysis indicates that a benefit of about 25,882 million per year can be achieved due to the implementation of this project. Other than these benefits, better marine ecosystem quality; higher property cost; improved recreational opportunities were not included because of lack of information.

Keywords: waste water treatment, cost-benefit analysis, health, tourism, fisheries

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792 Development of a Mathematical Model to Characterize the Oil Production in the Federal Republic of Nigeria Environment

Authors: Paul C. Njoku, Archana Swati Njoku

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The study deals with the development of a mathematical model to characterize the oil production in Nigeria. This is calculated by initiating the dynamics of oil production in million barrels revenue plan cost of oil production in million nairas and unit cost of production from 1974-1982 in the contest of the federal Republic of Nigeria. This country export oil to other countries as well as importing specialized crude. The transport network from origin/destination tij to pairs is taking into account simulation runs, optimization have been considered in this study.

Keywords: mathematical oil model development dynamics, Nigeria, characterization barrels, dynamics of oil production

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791 Woodfuels as Alternative Source of Energy in Rural and Urban Areas in the Philippines

Authors: R. T. Aggangan

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Woodfuels continue to be a major component of the energy supply mix of the Philippines due to increasing demand for energy that are not adequately met by decreasing supply and increasing prices of fuel oil such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene. The Development Academy of the Philippines projects the demand of woodfuels in 2016 as 28.3 million metric tons in the household sector and about 105.4 million metric tons combined supply potentials of both forest and non-forest lands. However, the Revised Master Plan for Forestry Development projects a demand of about 50 million cu meters of fuelwood in 2016 but the capability to supply from local sources is only about 28 million cu meters indicating a 44 % deficiency. Household demand constitutes 82% while industries demand is 18%. Domestic household demand for energy is for cooking needs while the industrial demand is for steam power generation, curing barns of tobacco: brick, ceramics and pot making; bakery; lime production; and small scale food processing. Factors that favour increased use of wood-based energy include the relatively low prices (increasing oil-based fuel prices), availability of efficient wood-based energy utilization technology, increasing supply, and increasing population that cannot afford conventional fuels. Moreover, innovations in combustion technology and cogeneration of heat and power from biomass for modern applications favour biomass energy development. This paper recommends policies and strategic directions for the development of the woodfuel industry with the twin goals of sustainably supplying the energy requirements of households and industry.

Keywords: biomass energy development, fuelwood, households and industry, innovations in combustion technology, supply and demand

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790 A Range of Steel Production in Japan towards 2050

Authors: Reina Kawase

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Japan set the goal of 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. To consider countermeasures for reducing GHG emission, the production estimation of energy intensive materials, such as steel, is essential. About 50% of steel production is exported in Japan, so it is necessary to consider steel production including export. Steel productions from 2005-2050 in Japan were estimated under various global assumptions based on combination of scenarios such as goods trade scenarios and steel making process selection scenarios. Process selection scenarios decide volume of steel production by process (basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace) with considering steel consumption projection, supply-demand balance of steel, and scrap surplus. The range of steel production by process was analyzed. Maximum steel production was estimated under the scenario which consumes scrap in domestic steel production at maximum level. In 2035, steel production reaches 149 million ton because of increase in electric arc furnace steel. However, it decreases towards 2050 and amounts to 120 million ton, which is almost same as a current level. Minimum steel production is under the scenario which assumes technology progress in steel making and supply-demand balance consideration in each region. Steel production decreases from base year and is 44 million ton in 2050.

Keywords: goods trade scenario, steel making process selection scenario, steel production, global warming

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789 Physico-Chemical Quality Study of Geothermal Waters of the Region DjéRid-Tunisia

Authors: Anis Eloud, Mohamed Ben Amor

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Tunisia is a semi-arid country on ¾ of its territory. It is characterized by the scarcity of water resources and accentuated by climate variability. The potential water resources are estimated at 4.6 million m3 / year, of which 2.7 million m3 / year represent surface water and 1.9 million m3 / year feed all the layers that make up the renewable groundwater resources. Water available in Tunisia easily exceed health or agricultural salinity standards. Barely 50% of water resources are less than 1.5 g / l divided at 72% of surface water salinity, 20% of deep groundwater and only 8% in groundwater levels. Southern Tunisia has the largest web "of water in the country, these waters are characterized by a relatively high salinity may exceed 4 gl-1. This is the "root of many problems encountered during their operation. In the region of Djérid, Albian wells are numerous. These wells debit a geothermal water with an average flow of 390 L / s. This water is characterized by a relatively high salinity and temperature of which is around 65 ° C at the source. Which promotes the formation of limescale deposits within the water supply pipe and the cooling loss thereby increasing the load in direct relation with enormous expense and circuits to replace these lines when completely plugged. The present work is a study of geothermal water quality of the region Djérid from physico-chemical analyzes.

Keywords: water quality, salinity, geothermal, supply pipe

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788 Population Centralization in Urban Area and Metropolitans in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Urban Centralization in Iran

Authors: Safar Ghaedrahmati, Leila Soltani

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Population centralization in urban area and metropolitans, especially in developing countries such as Iran increase metropolitan's problems. For few decades, the population of cities in developing countries, including Iran had a higher growth rate than the total growth rate of countries’ population. While in developed countries, the development of the big cities began decades ago and generally allowed for controlled and planned urban expansion, the opposite is the case in developing countries, where rapid urbanization process is characterized by an unplanned existing urban expansion. The developing metropolitan cities have enormous difficulties in coping both with the natural population growth and the urban physical expansion. Iranian cities are usually the heart of economic and cultural changes that have occurred after the Islamic revolution in 1979. These cities are increasingly having impacts via political–economical arrangement and chiefly by urban management structures. Structural features have led to the population growth of cities and urbanization (in number, population and physical frame) and the main problems in them. On the other hand, the lack of birth control policies and the deceptive attractions of cities, particularly big cities, and the birth rate has shot up, something which has occurred mainly in rural regions and small cities. The population of Iran has increased rapidly since 1956. The 1956 and 1966 decennial censuses counted the population of Iran at 18.9 million and 25.7 million, respectively, with a 3.1% annual growth rate during the 1956–1966 period. The 1976 and 1986 decennial censuses counted Iran’s population at 33.7 and 49.4 million, respectively, a 2.7% and 3.9% annual growth rate during the 1966–1976 and 1976–1986 periods. The 1996 count put Iran’s population at 60 million, a 1.96% annual growth rate from 1986–1996 and the 2006 count put Iran population at 72 million. A recent major policy of urban economic and industrial decentralization is a persistent program of the government. The policy has been identified as a result of the massive growth of Tehran in the recent years, up to 9 million by 2010. Part of the growth of the capitally resulted from the lack of economic opportunities elsewhere and in order to redress the developing primacy of Tehran and the domestic pressures which it is undergoing, the policy of decentralization is to be implemented as quickly as possible. Type of research is applied and method of data collection is documentary and methods of analysis are; population analysis with urban system analysis and urban distribution system

Keywords: population centralization, cities of Iran, urban centralization, urban system

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787 The Influence of Market Attractiveness and Core Competence on Value Creation Strategy and Competitive Advantage and Its Implication on Business Performance

Authors: Firsan Nova

Abstract:

The average Indonesian watches 5.5 hours of TV a day. With a population of 242 million people and a Free-to-Air (FTA) TV penetration rate of 56%, that equates to 745 million hours of television watched each day. With such potential, it is no wonder that many companies are now attempting to get into the Pay TV market. Research firm Media Partner Asia has forecast in its study that the number of Indonesian pay-television subscribers will climb from 2.4 million in 2012 to 8.7 million by 2020, with penetration scaling up from 7 percent to 21 percent. Key drivers of market growth, the study says, include macro trends built around higher disposable income and a rising middle class, with leading players continuing to invest significantly in sales, distribution and content. New entrants, in the meantime, will boost overall prospects. This study aims to examine and analyze the effect of Market Attractiveness and the Core Competence on Value Creation and Competitive Advantage and its impact to Business Performance in the pay TV industry in Indonesia. The study using strategic management science approach with the census method in which all members of the population are as sample. Verification method is used to examine the relationship between variables. The unit of analysis in this research is all Indonesian Pay TV business units totaling 19 business units. The unit of observation is the director and managers of each business unit. Hypothesis testing is performed by using statistical Partial Least Square (PLS). The conclusion of the study shows that the market attractiveness affects business performance through value creation and competitive advantage. The appropriate value creation comes from the company ability to optimize its core competence and exploit market attractiveness. Value creation affects competitive advantage. The competitive advantage can be determined based on the company's ability to create value for customers and the competitive advantage has an impact on business performance.

Keywords: market attractiveness, core competence, value creation, competitive advantage, business performance

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786 Factors Underlying the Digital Divide for Disabled People: Focus on a Korean Case Study

Authors: Soungwan Kim

Abstract:

This study identifies factors underlying the digital divide that is faced by the disabled. The results of its analysis showed that the digital divide in PC use is affected by age, number of years of education, employment status, and household income of more than KRW 3 million. The digital divide in smart device use is affected by sex, age, number of years of education, time when disability struck, and household income of more than KRW 3 million. Based on these results, this study proposes methods for bridging the digital divide faced by the disabled.

Keywords: digital divide, digital divide for the disabled, information accessibility for PCs and smart devices, information accessibility

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785 Analyzing the Performance of Machine Learning Models to Predict Alzheimer's Disease and its Stages Addressing Missing Value Problem

Authors: Carlos Theran, Yohn Parra Bautista, Victor Adankai, Richard Alo, Jimwi Liu, Clement G. Yedjou

Abstract:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily characterized by deteriorating cognitive functions. AD has gained relevant attention in the last decade. An estimated 24 million people worldwide suffered from this disease by 2011. In 2016 an estimated 40 million were diagnosed with AD, and for 2050 is expected to reach 131 million people affected by AD. Therefore, detecting and confirming AD at its different stages is a priority for medical practices to provide adequate and accurate treatments. Recently, Machine Learning (ML) models have been used to study AD's stages handling missing values in multiclass, focusing on the delineation of Early Mild Cognitive Impairment (EMCI), Late Mild Cognitive Impairment (LMCI), and normal cognitive (CN). But, to our best knowledge, robust performance information of these models and the missing data analysis has not been presented in the literature. In this paper, we propose studying the performance of five different machine learning models for AD's stages multiclass prediction in terms of accuracy, precision, and F1-score. Also, the analysis of three imputation methods to handle the missing value problem is presented. A framework that integrates ML model for AD's stages multiclass prediction is proposed, performing an average accuracy of 84%.

Keywords: alzheimer's disease, missing value, machine learning, performance evaluation

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784 Cosmetic Dermatology Procedures: Survey Results of American Society for Dermatologic Surgery

Authors: Marina S. Basta, Kirollos S. Basta

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Cosmetic dermatology procedures have witnessed exponential growth and diversification over the last 10 years. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect data about the latest trends for cosmetic procedures reported by dermatologists during the year 2018. This study was performed by American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS) in 2018 through sending survey invitations to 3,358 practicing dermatologists in the U.S. containing streamline questions as well as statistical questions targeted to specific analysis of cosmetic dermatology trends. Out of the targeted physicians, only 596 dermatologists reply to the survey invitation (15% overall response rate). It was noted that data collected from that survey was generalized to represent all ASDS members. Results show that there is an increase in cosmetic dermatology procedures since 12.5 million procedures were reported for 2018 compared to only 7.8 million for 2012. Injectable neuromodulators and soft tissue fillers have topped the list with a 3.7 million procedure count. Body sculpting, chemical peeling, hair transplantation, and microneedling procedures were reported to be 1.57 million cases combined. Also, the top two procedures using laser were represented in wrinkle treatment as well as sun damage correction, while the lowest two trends for laser usage were for treatments of tattoos and birthmarks. Cryolipolysis was found to be at the head of body sculpting procedures with 287,435 cases, while tumescent liposuction was reported as the least performed body sculpting procedure (18,286 cases). In conclusion, comparing the procedural trends for the last 7 years has indicated that there has been a 78% increase in soft tissue filler treatment compared to 2012. In addition, it was further noted that laser procedures scored 74% increase in the last 7 years while body contouring procedures have had four folds increase in general compared to 2012.

Keywords: cosmetic dermatology, ASDS procedure survey, laser, body sculpting

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783 Science School Was Burned: A Case Study of Crisis Management in Thailand

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed

Abstract:

This study analyzes the crisis management and image repair strategies during the crisis of Mahidol Wittayanusorn School (MWIT) library burning. The library of this school was burned by a 16-year-old-male student on June 6th, 2010. This student blamed the school that the lesson was difficult, and other students were selfish. Although no one was in the building during the fire, it had caused damage to the building, books and electronic supplies around 130 million bahts (4.4 million USD). This event aroused many discourses arguing about the education system and morality. The strategies which were used during crisis were denial, shift the blame, bolstering, minimization, and uncertainty reduction. The results of using these strategies appeared after the crisis. That was the numbers of new students, who registered for the examination to get into this school in the later years, have remained the same.

Keywords: school, crisis management, violence, image repair strategies, uncertainty, burn

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782 Production and Market of Certified Organic Products in Thailand

Authors: Chaiwat Kongsom, Vitoon Panyakul

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to assess the production and market of certified organic products in Thailand. A purposive sampling technique was used to identify a sample group of 154 organic entrepreneurs for the study. A survey and in-depth interview were employed for data collection. Also, secondary data from organic agriculture certification body and publications was collected. Then descriptive statistics and content analysis technique were used to describe about production and market of certified organic products in Thailand. Results showed that there were 9,218 farmers on 213,183.68 Rai (83,309.2 acre) of certified organic agriculture land (0.29% of national agriculture land). A total of 57.8% of certified organic agricultural lands were certified by the international certification body. Organic farmers produced around 71,847 tons/year and worth around THB 1,914 million (Euro 47.92 million). Excluding primary producers, 471 operators involved in the Thai organic supply chains, including processors, exporters, distributors, green shops, modern trade shops (supermarket shop), farmer’s markets and food establishments were included. Export market was the major market channel and most of organic products were exported to Europe and North America. The total Thai organic market in 2014 was estimated to be worth around THB 2,331.55 million (Euro 58.22 million), of which, 77.9% was for export and 22.06% was for the domestic market. The largest exports of certified organic products were processed foods (66.1% of total export value), followed by organic rice (30.4%). In the domestic market, modern trade was the largest sale channel, accounting for 59.48% of total domestic sales, followed by green shop (29.47%) and food establishment (5.85%). To become a center of organic farming and trading within ASEAN, the Thai organic sector needs to have more policy support in regard to agricultural chemicals, GMO, and community land title. In addition, appropriate strategies need to be developed.

Keywords: certified organic products, production, market, Thailand

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781 Sustainable Food Systems and the Importance of Food Safety in Ensuring Sustainability

Authors: Özlem Turan, Şule Turhan

Abstract:

About 1 billion people in the world are suffering from hunger. Approximately 1.3 billion tons of produced food is wasted each year as well. While the waste of industrialized countries is 670 million tons per year, the waste per year in developing countries is estimated as 630 million tons. When evaluated in this respect, the importance of sustainability and food security can be seen clearly. Food safety is defined as taking the necessary measures and eliminating all risk arising from food. The goal of sustainable food security is, protection of consumer health, development of safe food and beverages trade nationally and internationally and to ensure reliable fair trade schemes. In this study, this study will focus on sustainable food systems and food security, by examining the food wastage and losses from environmental and economic point of views and the precautions that need to be taken will be discussed.

Keywords: food, food safety, food systems, sustainability

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780 Fate of Organic Waste, Refuse and Inert from Municipal Discards as Source of Energy and Nutrient in India: A Brief Review

Authors: Kunwar Paritosh, Vivekanand Vivekanand, Nidhi Pareek

Abstract:

Presently, India depends primarily on fossil fuels for its acute energy demand. The swift in development of India in last two decades is accentuating its natural resources and compelling expenditures to cope energy security for the habitats. A total inhabitant of 1.2 billion, observing growing industrialization; is generating 68.8 million tonnes of municipal solid waste per year, 53.7 million tonnes is collected, and only trifling amount of 10.3 million tonnes of waste is treated per year that integrates to a massive amount of unimaginable land hill. In India, waste is mostly landfilled and/or incinerated with low technology and is poorly managed. Underutilization of this waste not only gulps resources but also stresses environment, public health and bionetwork thus affecting the bioeconomy negatively. It also creates conditions that invoke inevitable expenditures and loss of its renewable energy potential. The non-scientific approach to manage waste may lead to an economy downfall, underutilization and degradation of natural resources. Waste treatment technologies must be scientifically tailored and engineered as per the type of waste where it may be utilized as a source of energy (here biogas) and nutrients employing anaerobic digestion to the sorted waste. This paper presents a brief review on current practices, key achievements and forthcoming aspects of harnessing energy from municipal solid waste in Indian scenario.

Keywords: municipal discards, organic waste, anaerobic digestion, incineration, energy

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779 Provision of Basic Water and Sanitation Services in South Africa through the Municipal Infrastructure Grant Programme

Authors: Elkington Sibusiso Mnguni

Abstract:

Although South Africa has made good progress in providing basic water and sanitation services to its citizens, there is still a large section of the population that has no access to these services. This paper reviews the performance of the government’s municipal infrastructure grant programme in providing basic water and sanitation services which are part of the constitutional requirements to the citizens. The method used to gather data and information was a desk top study which sought to review the progress made in rolling out the programme. The successes and challenges were highlighted and possible solutions were identified that can accelerate the elimination of the remaining backlogs and improve the level of service to the citizens. Currently, approximately 6.5 million citizens are without access to basic water services and approximately 10 million are without access to basic sanitation services.

Keywords: grant, municipal infrastructure, sanitation, services, water

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778 The Impact of Climate Change on Cropland Ecosystem in Tibet Plateau

Authors: Weishou Shen, Chunyan Yang, Zhongliang Li

Abstract:

The crop climate productivity and the distribution of cropland reflect long-term adaption of agriculture to climate. In order to fully understand the impact of climate change on cropland ecosystem in Tibet, the spatiotemporal changes of crop climate productivity and cropland distribution were analyzed with the help of GIS and RS software. Results indicated that the climate change to the direction of wet and warm in Tibet in the recent 30 years, with a rate of 0.79℃/10 yr and 23.28 mm/10yr respectively. Correspondingly, the climate productivity increased gradually, with a rate of 346.3kg/(hm2•10a), of which, the fastest-growing rate of the crop climate productivity is in Southern Tibet Mountain- plain-valley. During the study period, the total cropland area increased from 32.54 million ha to 37.13 million ha, and cropland has expanded to higher altitude area and northward. Overall, increased cropland area and crop climate productivity due to climate change plays a positive role for agriculture in Tibet.

Keywords: climate change, productivity, cropland area, Tibet plateau

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777 The Use of Scuba Diving Tourism for Marine Protected Area Management

Authors: L. Mota, O. Frausto

Abstract:

Marine Protected Areas can benefit from nature based tourism, monitoring environmental impacts and also become target for human presence. From more than 3 million tourists visiting Cozumel Island every year, an average of 2,8 million arrive by cruise ship, and 41% are estimated to have motivation for water activities. The destination is relying so much on the tourism activity, that scuba diving and snorkeling in the National Park Reef of Cozumel sustain the major economic activity. In order to achieve the sustainable development indicator designed for regional environmental development, the PNAC offers a training course for tourism providers acceding the protected area. This way, the update of the last 5 years of such training is directed to diving staff, boat crew and professionals, making them able to assist in managing the natural resource. Moreover, the case study is an example to be used for raising awareness among tourists visiting protected areas.

Keywords: education, marine protected area, scuba diving, sustainability, tourism

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776 Alcohol and Tobacco Influencing Prevalence of Hypertension among 15-54 Old Indian Men: An Application of Discriminant Analysis Using National Family Health Survey, 2015-16

Authors: Chander Shekhar, Jeetendra Yadav, Shaziya Allarakha

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Hypertension has been described as an 'iceberg disease' as those who suffered are ignored and hence usually seek healthcare services at a very late stage. It is estimated that more than 2 million Indians are suffering from hypertensive heart disease that contributed to above 0.13 million deaths in 2016. The paper study aims to know the prevalence of Hypertension in India and its variation by socioeconomic backgrounds and to find out risk factors discriminating hypertension with special emphasis on consumption of tobacco and alcohol among men aged 15-54 years in India. The paper uses NFHS (2015-16) data. The paper used binary logistic regression and discriminant analysis to find significant predictors and discriminants of interest. The prevalence of hypertension was 16.5% in the study population. The results suggest that consumption of alcohol and tobacco are significant discriminant characteristics in carrying hypertension irrespective of what socioeconomic background characteristic he possesses.

Keywords: hypertention, alcohol, tobacco, discriminant

Procedia PDF Downloads 74