Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1693

Search results for: HIV drug regimen

1693 Data Mining Model for Predicting the Status of HIV Patients during Drug Regimen Change

Authors: Ermias A. Tegegn, Million Meshesha

Abstract:

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a major cause of death for most African countries. Ethiopia is one of the seriously affected countries in sub Saharan Africa. Previously in Ethiopia, having HIV/AIDS was almost equivalent to a death sentence. With the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), HIV/AIDS has become chronic, but manageable disease. The study focused on a data mining technique to predict future living status of HIV/AIDS patients at the time of drug regimen change when the patients become toxic to the currently taking ART drug combination. The data is taken from University of Gondar Hospital ART program database. Hybrid methodology is followed to explore the application of data mining on ART program dataset. Data cleaning, handling missing values and data transformation were used for preprocessing the data. WEKA 3.7.9 data mining tools, classification algorithms, and expertise are utilized as means to address the research problem. By using four different classification algorithms, (i.e., J48 Classifier, PART rule induction, Naïve Bayes and Neural network) and by adjusting their parameters thirty-two models were built on the pre-processed University of Gondar ART program dataset. The performances of the models were evaluated using the standard metrics of accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. The most effective model to predict the status of HIV patients with drug regimen substitution is pruned J48 decision tree with a classification accuracy of 98.01%. This study extracts interesting attributes such as Ever taking Cotrim, Ever taking TbRx, CD4 count, Age, Weight, and Gender so as to predict the status of drug regimen substitution. The outcome of this study can be used as an assistant tool for the clinician to help them make more appropriate drug regimen substitution. Future research directions are forwarded to come up with an applicable system in the area of the study.

Keywords: HIV drug regimen, data mining, hybrid methodology, predictive model

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1692 Pharmacokinetics, Dosage Regimen and in Vitro Plasma Protein Binding of Danofloxacin following Intravenous Administration in Adult Buffaloes

Authors: Zahid Manzoor, Shaukat Hussain Munawar, Zahid Iqbal, Imran Ahmad Khan, Abdul Aziz, Hafiz Muhammad Qasim

Abstract:

The present study was aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics behavior and optimal dosage regimen of danofloxacin in 8 adult healthy buffaloes of local breed (Nili Ravi) following single intravenous administration at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Plasma drug concentrations at various time intervals were measured by HPLC method. In vitro plasma protein binding was determined employing the ultrafiltration technique. The distribution and elimination of danofloxacin was rapid, as indicated by the values (Mean±SD) of distribution half-life (t1/2α = 0.25±0.09 hours) and elimination half life (t1/2β = 3.26±0.43 hours), respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 1.14±0.12 L/kg, displaying its extensive distribution into various body fluids and tissues. The high value of AUC (9.80±2.14 µg/ml.hr) reflected the vast area of the body covered by drug concentration. The mean residence time was noted to be 4.78±0.52 hours. On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters, a suitable intravenous regimen for danofloxacin in adult buffaloes would be 6.5 mg/kg to be repeated after 12 hours intervals. The present study is the foremost pharmacokinetic study of danofloxacin in the local species which would provide the valueable contribution in the local manufacturing of danofloxacin in Pakistan in future.

Keywords: danofloxacin, pharmacokinetics, plasma protein binding, buffaloes, dosage regimen

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1691 Predictor Factors for Treatment Failure among Patients on Second Line Antiretroviral Therapy

Authors: Mohd. A. M. Rahim, Yahaya Hassan, Mathumalar L. Fahrni

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Second line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen is used when patients fail their first line regimen. There are many factors such as non-adherence, drug resistance as well as virological and immunological failure that lead to second line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen treatment failure. This study was aimed at determining predictor factors to treatment failure with second line HAART and analyzing median survival time. An observational, retrospective study was conducted in Sungai Buloh Hospital (HSB) to assess current status of HIV patients treated with second line HAART regimen. Convenience sampling was used and 104 patients were included based on the study’s inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected for six months i.e. from July until December 2013. Data was then analysed using SPSS version 18. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to measure median survival times and predictor factors for treatment failure. The study population consisted mainly of male subjects, aged 30-45 years, who were heterosexual, and had HIV infection for less than 6 years. The most common second line HAART regimen given was lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based combination. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients on LPV/r demonstrated longer median survival times than patients on indinavir/ritonavir (IDV/r) based combination (p<0.001). The commonest reason for a treatment to fail with second line HAART was non-adherence. Based on Cox regression analysis, other predictor factors for treatment failure with second line HAART regimen were age and mode of HIV transmission.

Keywords: adherence, antiretroviral therapy, second line, treatment failure

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1690 Effects of Tenefovir Disiproxil Fumarate on the Renal Sufficiency of HIV Positive Patients

Authors: Londeka Ntuli, Frasia Oosthuizen

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Background: Tenefovir disiproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nephrotoxic drug and has been proven to contribute to renal insufficiency necessitating intensive monitoring and management of adverse effects arising from prolonged exposure to the drug. TDF is one of the preferred first-line drugs used in combination therapy in most regions. There are estimated 300 000 patients being initiated on the Efavirenz/TDF/Emtricitabine first-line regimen annually in South Africa. It is against this background that this study aims to investigate the effects of TDF on renal sufficiency of HIV positive patients. Methodology: A retrospective quantitative study was conducted, analysing clinical charts of HIV positive patient’s older than 18 years of age and on a TDF-containing regimen for more than 1 year. Data were obtained from the analysis of patient files and was transcribed into Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet. Extracted data were coded, categorised and analysed using STATA®. Results: A total of 275 patient files were included in this study. Renal function started decreasing after 3 months of treatment (with 93.5% patients having a normal EGFR), and kept on decreasing as time progressed with only 39.6% normal renal function at year 4. Additional risk factors for renal insufficiency included age below 25, female gender, and additional medication. Conclusion: It is clear from this study that the use of TDF necessitates intensive monitoring and management of adverse effects arising from prolonged exposure to the drug. The findings from this study generated pertinent information on the safety profile of the drug TDF in a resource-limited setting of a public health institution. The appropriate management is of tremendous importance in the South African context where the majority of HIV positive individuals are on the TDF containing regimen; thus it is beneficial to ascertain the possible level of toxicities these patients may be experiencing.

Keywords: renal insufficiency, tenefovir, HIV, risk factors

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1689 Disposition Kinetics of Ciprofloxacin after Intramuscular Administration in Lohi Sheep

Authors: Zahid Iqbal, Ijaz Javed, Riaz Hussain, Ibadullah Jan, Amir Ali Khan

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This study was conducted to investigate the disposition kinetics of ciprofloxacin and calculate its optimal dosage in Pakistani sheep of Lohi breed. Injectable preparation of ciprofloxacin was given intramuscularly to eight sheep at a dose of 5 mg/Kg. Before administration of drug blood sample was drawn from each animal. Post drug administration, blood samples were also drawn at various predetermined time periods. Drug concentration in the blood samples was assessed through high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Data were best described by two compartment open model and different pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated. Cmax of 1.97 ± 0.15 µg/ml was reached at Tmax of 0.88 ± 0.09 hours. Half life of absorption (t1/2 abs) was observed to be 0.63 ± 0.16 hours while t1/2 α (distribution half life) and t1/2 ß (elimination half life) were found to be 0.46 ± 0.05 and 2.93 ± 0.45 hours, respectively. Vd (apparent volume of distribution) was calculated as 2.89 ± 0.30 L/kg while AUC (area under the curve) was 7.19 ± 0.38 µg.hr/mL and CL (total body clearance) was 0.75 ± 0.04 L/hr/kg. Using these parameters, an optimal intramuscular dosage of ciprofloxacin in adult Lohi sheep was calculated as 21.43 mg/kg, advised to be repeated after 24 hours. From this, we came to the conclusion that calculated dose was much higher than the dose advised by the foreign manufacturer and to avoid antimicrobial resistance, it is advised that this locally investigated dosage regimen should be strictly followed in local sheep.

Keywords: pharmacokinetics, dosage regimen, ciprofloxacin, HPLC, sheep

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1688 A Study to Identify Resistant Hypertension and Role of Spironolactone in its Management

Authors: A. Kumar, D. Himanshu, Ak Vaish, K. Usman , A. Singh, R. Misra, V. Atam, S. P. Verma, S. Singhal

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Introduction: Resistant and uncontrolled hypertension offer great challenge, in terms of higher risk of morbidity, mortality and not the least, difficulty in diagnosis and management. Our study tries to identify the importance of two crucial aspects of hypertension management, i.e. drug compliance and optimum dosing and also the effect of spironolactone on blood pressure in cases of resistant hypertension. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out among patients, who were referred as case of resistant hypertension to Hypertension Clinic at Gandhi memorial and associated hospital, Lucknow, India from August, 2013 to July 2014. A total of 122 Subjects having uncontrolled BP with ≥3 antihypertensives were selected. After ruling out secondary resistance and with appropriate lifestyle modifications, effect of adherence and optimum doses was seen with monitoring of BP. Only those having blood pressure still uncontrolled were true resistant. These patients were given spironolactone to see its effect on BP over next 12 weeks. Results: Mean baseline BP of all (n=122) patients was 150.4±7.2 mmHg systolic and 92.1±5.7 mmHg diastolic. After promoting adherence to the regimen, there was reduction of 4.20±3.65 mmHg systolic and 2.08±4.74 mmHg Diastolic blood pressure, with 26 patients achieving target blood pressure goal. Further reduction of 6.66±5.99 mmHg in systolic and 2.59±3.67 mmHg in diastolic BP was observed after optimizing the drug doses with another 66 patients achieving target blood pressure goal. Only 30 patients were true resistant hypertensive and prescribed spironolactone. Over 12 weeks, mean reduction of 20.62±3.65 mmHg in systolic and 10.08 ± 6.46 mmHg in diastolic BP was observed. Out of these 30, BP was controlled in 24 patients. Side effects observed were hyperkalemia in 2 patients and breast tenderness in 2 patients. Conclusion: Improper adherence and suboptimal regimen appear to be the important reasons for uncontrolled hypertension. By virtue of maintaining proper adherence to an optimum regimen, target BP goal can be reached in many without adding much to the regimen. Spironolactone is effective in patients with resistant hypertension, in terms of blood pressure reduction with minimal side effects.

Keywords: resistant, hypertension, spironolactone, blood pressure

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1687 Diagnostic Delays and Treatment Dilemmas: A Case of Drug-Resistant HIV and Tuberculosis

Authors: Christi Jackson, Chuka Onaga

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Introduction: We report a case of delayed diagnosis of extra-pulmonary INH-mono-resistant Tuberculosis (TB) in a South African patient with drug-resistant HIV. Case Presentation: A 36-year old male was initiated on 1st line (NNRTI-based) anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in September 2009 and switched to 2nd line (PI-based) ART in 2011, according to local guidelines. He was following up at the outpatient wellness unit of a public hospital, where he was diagnosed with Protease Inhibitor resistant HIV in March 2016. He had an HIV viral load (HIVVL) of 737000 copies/mL, CD4-count of 10 cells/µL and presented with complaints of productive cough, weight loss, chronic diarrhoea and a septic buttock wound. Several investigations were done on sputum, stool and pus samples but all were negative for TB. The patient was treated with antibiotics and the cough and the buttock wound improved. He was subsequently started on a 3rd-line ART regimen of Darunavir, Ritonavir, Etravirine, Raltegravir, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in May 2016. He continued losing weight, became too weak to stand unsupported and started complaining of abdominal pain. Further investigations were done in September 2016, including a urine specimen for Line Probe Assay (LPA), which showed M. tuberculosis sensitive to Rifampicin but resistant to INH. A lymph node biopsy also showed histological confirmation of TB. Management and outcome: He was started on Rifabutin, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol in September 2016, and Etravirine was discontinued. After 6 months on ART and 2 months on TB treatment, his HIVVL had dropped to 286 copies/mL, CD4 improved to 179 cells/µL and he showed clinical improvement. Pharmacy supply of his individualised drugs was unreliable and presented some challenges to continuity of treatment. He successfully completed his treatment in June 2017 while still maintaining virological suppression. Discussion: Several laboratory-related factors delayed the diagnosis of TB, including the unavailability of urine-lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and urine-GeneXpert (GXP) tests at this facility. Once the diagnosis was made, it presented a treatment dilemma due to the expected drug-drug interactions between his 3rd-line ART regimen and his INH-resistant TB regimen, and specialist input was required. Conclusion: TB is more difficult to diagnose in patients with severe immunosuppression, therefore additional tests like urine-LAM and urine-GXP can be helpful in expediting the diagnosis in these cases. Patients with non-standard drug regimens should always be discussed with a specialist in order to avoid potentially harmful drug-drug interactions.

Keywords: drug-resistance, HIV, line probe assay, tuberculosis

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1686 Drug-Drug Plasma Protein Binding Interactions of Ivacaftor

Authors: Elena K. Schneider, Johnny X. Huang, Vincenzo Carbone, Mark Baker, Mohammad A. K. Azad, Matthew A. Cooper, Jian Li, Tony Velkov

Abstract:

Ivacaftor is a novel CF trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator that improves the pulmonary function for cystic fibrosis patients bearing a G551D CFTR-protein mutation. Because ivacaftor is highly bound (>97%) to plasma proteins, there is the strong possibility that co-administered CF drugs that compete for the same plasma protein binding sites and impact the free drug concentration. This in turn could lead to drastic changes in the in vivo efficacy of ivacaftor and therapeutic outcomes. This study compares the binding affinity of ivacaftor and co-administered CF drugs for human serum albumin (HSA) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) using surface plasmon resonance and fluorimetric binding assays that measure the displacement of site selective probes. Due to their high plasma protein binding affinities, drug-drug interactions between ivacaftor are to be expected with ducosate, montelukast, ibuprofen, dicloxacillin, omeprazole and loratadine. The significance of these drug-drug interactions is interpreted in terms of the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters and molecular docking simulations. The translational outcomes of the data are presented as recommendations for a staggered treatment regimen for future clinical trials which aims to maximize the effective free drug concentration and clinical efficacy of ivacaftor.

Keywords: human α-1-acid glycoprotein, binding affinity, human serum albumin, ivacaftor, cystic fibrosis

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1685 Reducing Anxiety in Elite Athletes: The Effects of Implementing a Moderate Running Regimen, a Literature Review

Authors: Spencer C. Pratt

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Anxiety is an emotional response that many, if not all, elite athletes struggle with on a daily basis. Recently, attention has been drawn to the strong need for athletes to receive mental training in order to help remedy the situation. The conceptual paper explores the effectiveness of a mental training component, based on the anxiolytic effects of exercise by investigating the positive relationship between physical activity and mental health through a comprehensive literature review. The review synthesizes pertinent research regarding the need for mental skills training among elite athletes and the anxiolytic effects of exercise. The paper concludes that with clear positive results from further experimentation with a (moderate intensity) running regimen, a wide range of elite athletes experiencing anxiety problems may have a viable solution.

Keywords: anxiety, mental training component, anxiolytic effects, elite athletes, moderate intensity running, mental skills training, running regimen

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1684 Factors Influencing Antipsychotic Drug Usage and Substitution among Nigerian Schizophrenic Patients

Authors: Ubaka Chukwuemeka Michael, Ukwe Chinwe Victoria

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Background: The use of antipsychotic monotherapy remains the standard for schizophrenic disorders so also a prescription switch from older typical to newer atypical classes of antipsychotics on the basis of better efficacy and tolerability. However, surveys on the quality of antipsychotic drug use and substitution in developing countries are very scarce. This study was intended to evaluate quality and factors that drive the prescription and substitution of antipsychotic drugs among schizophrenic patients visiting a regional psychiatric hospital. Methods: Case files of patients visiting a federal government funded Neuropsychiatric Hospital between July 2012 and July 2014 were systematically retrieved. Patient demographic characteristics, clinical details and drug management data were collected and subjected to descriptive and inferential data analysis to determine quality and predictors of utilization. Results: Of the 600 case files used, there were more male patients (55.3%) with an overall mean age of 33.7±14.4 years. Typical antipsychotic agents accounted for over 85% of prescriptions, with majority of the patients receiving more than 2 drugs in at least a visit (80.9%). Fluphenazine (25.2%) and Haloperidol (18.8%) were mostly given as antipsychotics for treatment initiation while Olazenpine (23.0%) and Benzhexol (18.3%) were the most currently prescribed antipsychotics. Nearly half (42%, 252/600) of these patients were switched from one class to another, with 34.5% (207/600) of them switched from typical to atypical drug classes. No demographic or clinical factors influenced drug substitutions but a younger age and being married influenced being prescribed a polypharmacy regimen (more than 2 drugs) and an injectable antipsychotic agent. Conclusion: The prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy and use of typical agents among these patients was high. However, only age and marital status affected the quality of antipsychotic prescriptions among these patients.

Keywords: antipsychotics, drug substitution, pharmacoepidemiology, polypharmacy

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1683 Determinants of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Patients Who Underwent First-Line Treatment in Addis Ababa: A Case Control Study

Authors: Selamawit Hirpa, Girmay Medhin, Belaineh Girma, Muluken Melese, Alemayehu Mekonen, Pedro Suarez, Gobena Ameni

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Worldwide, there were 650,000 multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases in 2010. Ethiopia is 15th among the 27 MDR-TB high-burden countries. A case control study was conducted at St. Peter Hospital and five health centers in Addis Ababa. Cases were MDR-TB patients who were in treatment at St. Peter Hospital during the study period. Controls were patients who were on first-line anti-TB treatment and were registered as cured or having completed treatment in the period 9 April 2009– 28 February 2010, in five health centers. A structured interview questionnaire was used to assess factors that could potentially be associated with the occurrence of MDR-TB. Factors that were significantly associated with MDR-TB: drug side effects during first-line treatment (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.5, 95% CI; 1.9 - 10.5); treatment not directly observed by a health worker (AOR = 11.7, 95% CI; 4–34.3); and retreatment with the Category II regimen (P = 0.000).

Keywords: adherence to TB treatment, MDR-TB, TB treatment, TB treatment regimens

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1682 In Silico Studies on Selected Drug Targets for Combating Drug Resistance in Plasmodium Falcifarum

Authors: Deepika Bhaskar, Neena Wadehra, Megha Gulati, Aruna Narula, R. Vishnu, Gunjan Katyal

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With drug resistance becoming widespread in Plasmodium falciparum infections, development of the alternative drugs is the desired strategy for prevention and cure of malaria. Three drug targets were selected to screen promising drug molecules from the GSK library of around 14000 molecules. Using an in silico structure-based drug designing approach, the differences in binding energies of the substrate and inhibitor were exploited between target sites of parasite and human to design a drug molecule against Plasmodium. The docking studies have shown several promising molecules from GSK library with more effective binding as compared to the already known inhibitors for the drug targets. Though stronger interaction has been shown by several molecules as compare to reference, few molecules have shown the potential as drug candidates though in vitro studies are required to validate the results.

Keywords: plasmodium, malaria, drug targets, in silico studies

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1681 Neo-Adjuvant B-CAT Chemotherapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Muneeb Nasir, Misbah Masood, Farrukh Rashid, Abubabakar Shahid

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Introduction: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is a potent option for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) as these tumours lack a clearly defined therapeutic target. Several recent studies lend support that pathological complete remission (pCR) is associated with improved disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and could be used as surrogate marker for DFS and OS in breast cancer patients. Methods: We have used a four-drug protocol in T3 and T4 TNBC patients either N+ or N- in the neo-adjuvant setting. The 15 patients enrolled in this study had a median age of 45 years. 12 patients went on to complete four planned cycles of B-CAT protocol. The chemotherapy regimen included inj. Bevacizumab 5mg/kg D1, inj. Adriamycin 50mg/m2 D1 and Docetaxel 65mg/m2 on D1. Inj. Cisplatin 60mg/m2 on D2. All patients received GCF support from D4 to D9 of each cycle. Results: Radiological assessment using ultrasound and PET-CT revealed a high percentage of responses. Radiological CR was documented in half of the patients (6/12) after four cycles. Remaining patients went on to receive 2 more cycles before undergoing radical surgery. pCR was documented in 7/12 patients and 3 more had a good partial response. The regimen was toxic and grade ¾ neutropenia was seen in 58% of patients. Four episodes of febrile neutropenia were reported and managed. Non-hematatological toxicities were common with mucositis, diarrhea, asthenia and neuropathy topping the list. Conclusion: B-CAT is a very active combination with very high pCR rates in TNBC. Toxicities though frequent, were manageable on outpatient basis. This protocol warrants further investigation.

Keywords: B-CAT:bevacizumab, cisplatin, adriamycin, taxotere, CR: complete response, pCR: pathological complete response, TNBC: triple negative breast cancer

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1680 Potential Drug-Drug Interactions at a Referral Hematology-Oncology Ward in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Shirinsadat Badri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Iman Karimzadeh, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh

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Purpose: To assess the pattern and probable risk factors for moderate and major drug–drug interactions in a referral hematology-oncology ward in Iran. Methods: All patients admitted to hematology–oncology ward of Dr. Shariati Hospital during a 6-month period and received at least two anti-cancer or non-anti-cancer medications simultaneously were included. All being scheduled anti-cancer and non-anti-cancer medications both prescribed and administered during ward stay were considered for drug–drug interaction screening by Lexi-Interact On- Desktop software. Results: One hundred and eighty-five drug–drug interactions with moderate or major severity were detected from 83 patients. Most of drug–drug interactions (69.73 %) were classified as pharmacokinetics. Fluconazole (25.95 %) was the most commonly offending medication in drug–drug interactions. Interaction of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with fluconazole was the most common drug–drug interaction (27.27 %). Vincristine with imatinib was the only identified interaction between two anti-cancer agents. The number of administered medications during ward stay was considered as an independent risk factor for developing a drug–drug interaction. Conclusions: Potential moderate or major drug–drug interactions occur frequently in patients with hematological malignancies or related diseases. Performing larger standard studies are required to assess the real clinical and economical effects of drug–drug interactions on patients with hematological and non-hematological malignancies.

Keywords: drug–drug interactions, hematology–oncology ward, hematological malignancies

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1679 Prevalence of Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents on Antiretroviral Therapy: Examining the Pediatric Cohort in the Eastern Cape

Authors: Shannon Glaspy, Gerald Boon, Jack Lambert

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Studies on AE of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children and adolescents are rare. The aim of this study is to observe the frequency of treatment limiting adverse drug reactions against years on ARVs and specific ARV regimen. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in East London, South Africa. All patient files in the pediatric (0 – 18 years) ARV cohort were examined, selecting only those patients started on HAART. ARV regimen changes explicitly due to AE, age on ARV treatment onset, age of AE onset, and gender were extrapolated. Eligible subjects were obtained from patient folders, anonymized and cross-referenced with data obtained from electronic records. A total of 1120 patients [592 male (52.9%) and 528 female (47.1%)] were charted by incidence and year. Additional information was extrapolated in cases where the patient experienced lipodystrophy and lipoatrophy to include the number of years on ARVs prior to the onset of the AE. Results: Of the 1120 HIV infected children of the hospital cohort, a total of 105 (9.37%) AE (53.3% male) observed were deemed eligible for the study due to completeness of medical history and agreement between electronic records and paper files. The AE cited were as follows: lipoatrophy 62 (5.53% of all subjects), lipodystrophy 27 (2.41%), neuropathy 9 (0.8%), anemia 2 (0.17%), Steven Johnsons Syndrome 1 (0.08%), elevated LFTs 1 (0.8%), breast hypertrophy (0.08%), gastritis 1 (0.08%) and rash 1 (0.08%). The most prevalence ARV regimens associated with the onset of the AE are: D4T/3TC/EFV 72 cases (64.86% of all AE), D4T/3TC/LOPr 24 cases (21.62%). Lipoatrophy and lipodystrophy combined represent 84.76% (89 cases) of all adverse events documented in this cohort. Within the 60 cases of lipoatrophy, the average number of years on ARVs associated with an AE is 3.54, with 14 cases experiencing an AE between 0-2 years of HAART. Within the 29 cases of lipodystrophy, the average number of years on ARVs associated with an AE is 3.89, with 4 cases experiencing an AE between 0-2 years on HAART. The regimen D4T/3TC/EFV is associated with 43 cases (71.66%) of lipoatrophy and 21 cases (72.41%) of lipodystrophy. D4T/3TC/LOPr is associated with 15 cases (25%) of lipoatrophy and 7 cases (24.14%) of lipodystrophy. The frequency of AE associated with ARV regimens could be misrepresented due to prevalence of different 1st line regimens which were not captured in this study, particularly with the systematic change of 1st line drugs from D4T to ABC in 2010. Conclusion: In this descriptive study we found a 9.37% prevalence of AE were significant enough to be treatment limiting among our cohort. Lipoatrophy accounted for 59.04% of all documented AE. Overall, D4T/3TC/EFV was associated with 64.86% of all AE, 71.66% of lipoatrophy cases and 72.41% of lipodystrophy cases.

Keywords: ARV, adverse events, HAART, pediatric

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1678 Effect of Arbutus Pavarii ( Shemari ) Libyan Medical Plant on Ethylene Glycol Induced Urolithiasis in Male Albino Rats

Authors: Khaled. M.Benelhaj, Moada Elbadary

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The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Arbutus Pavarii (Shemari) Libyan medical plant on ethylene glycol(EG) induce lithiasis in adult male albino rats. The lithiasis was induced to rats by oral administration of EG (0.75 w/v%) for 21 days(group 1). Aqueous extract of Shemari (200 mg/kg) was given orally from 1st day for preventive regimen (group 2) and from day 21st up to 42nd day for curative regimen (group 3). The results indicated that the EG elevated the urinary ionic of calcium, oxalates and inorganic phosphate. The Shemari significantly (P<0.01) reduced the levels of these ions. The histopathological findings showed that EG caused marked pathological changes in renal cortex; necrosis of glomerular tufts; mildy thickened bowman’s capsule and coagulative necrosis of large number of convoluted tubules. However, the histological changes in preventive regimen group 2 showed the same changes observed in group 1, but milder in severity and less in frequency. It conclude that Shemari do reduce the urinary ionic levels of calcium, oxalates and inorganic phosphate but failed to prevent complete deterioration effects of EG on kidney structures.

Keywords: EG, shamari, kidney stone, Libyan medical plant, glycol, oxalates

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1677 Drug Use Knowledge and Antimicrobial Drug Use Behavior

Authors: Pimporn Thongmuang

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The import value of antimicrobial drugs reached approximately fifteen million Baht in 2010, considered as the highest import value of all modern drugs, and this value is rising every year. Antimicrobials are considered the hazardous drugs by the Ministry of Public Health. This research was conducted in order to investigate the past knowledge of drug use and Antimicrobial drug use behavior. A total of 757 students were selected as the samples out of a population of 1,800 students. This selected students had the experience of Antimicrobial drugs use a year ago. A questionnaire was utilized in this research. The findings put on the view that knowledge gained by the students about proper use of antimicrobial drugs was not brought into practice. This suggests that the education procedure regarding drug use needs adjustment. And therefore the findings of this research are expected to be utilized as guidelines for educating people about the proper use of antimicrobial drugs. At a broader perspective, correct drug use behavior of the public may potentially reduce drug cost of the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand.

Keywords: drug use knowledge, antimicrobial drugs, drug use behavior, drug

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1676 Modulation of Tamoxifen-Induced Cytotoxicity in Breast Cancer Cell Lines by 3-Bromopyruvate

Authors: Yasmin M. Attia, Hanan S. El-Abhar, Mahmoud M. Al Marzabani, Samia A. Shouman

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Background: Tamoxifen (TAM) is the most commonly used hormone therapy for the treatment of early and metastatic breast cancer. Although it significantly decreases the tumor recurrence rate and provides an overall benefit, as much as 20–30% of women still relapse during or after long-term therapy. 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a promising agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors and cell lines. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the combined effect of (TAM) and (3-BP) in breast cancer cells and to explore their molecular interaction via assessment of apoptotic, angiogenic, and metastatic markers. Methods: In vitro cytotoxicity study was carried out for both compounds to determine the combination regimen producing a synergistic effect and mechanistic pathways were studied using RT-PCR and western techniques. Moreover, the anti-oncolytic and anti-angiogenic potentials were assessed in mice bearing solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC). Results: The combined treatment significantly increased the expressions and protein levels of caspase 7, 9, and 3 and decreased of angiogenic markers VEGF, HIF-1α, and HK2 compared to cells treated with either drug individually. However, there were no significant changes in MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels. Interestingly, the in vivo results supported the in vitro findings; there was a decrease in the tumor volume and VEFG using immunohistochemistry in the combination-treated groups compared to either TAM or 3-BP treated one. Conclusion: 3-BP synergizes the cytotoxic effect of TAM by increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis which makes this combination a promising regimen to be applied clinically.

Keywords: tamoxifen, 3-bromopyruvate, breast cancer, cytotoxicity, angiogenesis

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1675 Impact of Clinical Pharmacist Intervention in Improving Drug Related Problems in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Aneena Suresh, C. S. Sidharth

Abstract:

Drug related problems (DRPs) are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and end stage patients undergoing hemodialysis. To treat the co-morbid conditions of the patients, more complex therapeutic regimen is required, and it leads to development of DRPs. So, this calls for frequent monitoring of the patients. Due to the busy work schedules, physicians are unable to deliver optimal care to these patients. Addition of a clinical pharmacist in the team will improve the standard of care offered to CKD patients by minimizing DRPs. In India, the role of clinical pharmacists in the improving the health outcomes in CKD patients is poorly recognized. Therefore, this study is conducted to put an insight on the role of clinical pharmacist in improving Drug Related Problems in patients with chronic kidney disease, thereby helping them to achieve desired therapeutic outcomes in the patients. A prospective interventional study was conducted for a year in a 620 bedded tertiary care hospital in India. Data was collected using an unstructured questionnaire, medication charts, etc. DRPs were categorized using Hepler and Strand classification. Relationships between the age, weight, GFR, average no of medication taken, average no of comorbidities, and average length of hospital days with the DRPs were identified using Mann Whitney U test. The study population primarily constituted of patients above the age of 50 years with a mean age of 59.91±13.59. Our study showed that 25% of the population presented with DRPs. On an average, CKD patients are prescribed at least 8 medications for the treatment in our study. This explains the high incidence of drug interactions in patients suffering from CKD (45.65%). The least common DRPs in our study were found to be sub therapeutic dose (2%) and adverse drug reactions (2%). Out of this, 60 % of the DRPs were addressed successfully. In our study, there is an association between the DRPs with the average number of medications prescribed, the average number of comorbidities, and the length of the hospital days with p value of 0.022, 0.004, and 0.000, respectively. In the current study, 86% of the proposed interventions were accepted, and 41 % were implemented by the physician, and only 14% were rejected. Hence, it is evident that clinical pharmacist interventions will contribute significantly to diminish the DRPs in CKD patients, thereby decreasing the economic burden of healthcare costs and improving patient’s quality of life.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, clinical pharmacist, drug related problem, intervention

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1674 Computer-Aided Drug Repurposing for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by Targeting Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase

Authors: Neslihan Demirci, Serdar Durdağı

Abstract:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still a worldwide disease-causing agent that, according to WHO, led to the death of 1.5 million people from tuberculosis (TB) in 2020. The bacteria reside in macrophages located specifically in the lung. There is a known quadruple drug therapy regimen for TB consisting of isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA), and ethambutol (EMB). Over the past 60 years, there have been great contributions to treatment options, such as recently approved delamanid (OPC67683) and bedaquiline (TMC207/R207910), targeting mycolic acid and ATP synthesis, respectively. Also, there are natural compounds that can block the tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) enzyme, chuangxinmycin, and indolmycin. Yet, already the drug resistance is reported for those agents. In this study, the newly released TrpRS enzyme structure is investigated for potential inhibitor drugs from already synthesized molecules to help the treatment of resistant cases and to propose an alternative drug for the quadruple drug therapy of tuberculosis. Maestro, Schrodinger is used for docking and molecular dynamic simulations. In-house library containing ~8000 compounds among FDA-approved indole-containing compounds, a total of 57 obtained from the ChemBL were used for both ATP and tryptophan binding pocket docking. Best of indole-containing 57 compounds were subjected to hit expansion and compared later with virtual screening workflow (VSW) results. After docking, VSW was done. Glide-XP docking algorithm was chosen. When compared, VSW alone performed better than the hit expansion module. Best scored compounds were kept for ten ns molecular dynamic simulations by Desmond. Further, 100 ns molecular dynamic simulation was performed for elected molecules according to Z-score. The top three MMGBSA-scored compounds were subjected to steered molecular dynamic (SMD) simulations by Gromacs. While SMD simulations are still being conducted, ponesimod (for multiple sclerosis), vilanterol (β₂ adrenoreceptor agonist), and silodosin (for benign prostatic hyperplasia) were found to have a significant affinity for tuberculosis TrpRS, which is the propulsive force for the urge to expand the research with in vitro studies. Interestingly, top-scored ponesimod has been reported to have a side effect that makes the patient prone to upper respiratory tract infections.

Keywords: drug repurposing, molecular dynamics, tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, tuberculosis

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1673 Role of Social Support in Drug Cessation among Male Addicts in the West of Iran

Authors: Farzad Jalilian, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Fazel Zinat Motlagh

Abstract:

Social support is an important benchmark of health for people in avoidance conditions. The main goal of this study was to determine the three kinds of social support (family, friend and other significant) to drug cessation among male addicts, in Kermanshah, the west of Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 132 addicts, randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Data were collected from conduct interviews based on standard questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS-18 at 95% significance level. The majority of addicts were young (Mean: 30.4 years), and with little education. Opium (36.4%), Crack (21.2%), and Methamphetamine (12.9%) were the predominant drugs. Inabilities to reject the offer and having addict friends are the most often reasons for drug usage. Almost, 18.9% reported history of drug injection. 43.2% of the participants already did drug cessation at least once. Logistic regression showed the family support (OR = 1.110), age (OR = 1.106) and drug use initiation age (OR = 0.918) was predicting drug cessation. Our result showed; family support is a more important effect among types of social support in drug cessation. It seems that providing educational program to addict’s families for more support of patients at drug cessation can be beneficial.

Keywords: drug cessation, family support, drug use, initiation age

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1672 Pharmaceutical Science and Development in Drug Research

Authors: Adegoke Yinka Adebayo

Abstract:

An understanding of the critical product attributes that impact on in vivo performance is key to the production of safe and effective medicines. Thus, a key driver for our research is the development of new basic science and technology underpinning the development of new pharmaceutical products. Research includes the structure and properties of drugs and excipients, biopharmaceutical characterisation, pharmaceutical processing and technology and formulation and analysis.

Keywords: drug discovery, drug development, drug delivery

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1671 Antimycobacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia absinthium

Authors: T. Hojageldiyev, Y. Bolmammedov, S. Gurbanaliyev

Abstract:

It is known that drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis show toxic effect to organism especially to liver besides its therapeutic effect. Because of ineffectiveness of drugs used in the treatment regimen of tuberculosis against multidrug resistance (MDR) and extensively drug-resistance (XDR) tuberculosis requires the development of new treatment methods and new, novel drugs. Considering the usage of Artemisia absinthium in traditional medicine in treatment of wounds which suggests its antibacterial activity it seems that, also it may have significant antimycobacterial activity. The objective of present study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of A. absinthium against M. tuberculosis. In this study, the effect of ethanolic extract of A. absinthium was tested against tuberculosis and pharmaco-toxicological properties evaluated on laboratory animals. The 20%, 40%, 70% and 96% ethanolic extracts of A. absinthium prepared then its bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities were evaluated by validated methods. Data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 7.0 at the level P < 0.05. Results showed that ethanolic extracts of A. absinthium show no toxicological properties with having high LD50. All concentrations of extract show high bacteriostatic activity on M. tuberculosis. 96% ethanolic extract has highest bactericidal effect among other concentrations. By conducting further studies, as a result of our study, antimycobacterial drug can be prepared from A. absinthium.

Keywords: Artemisia absinthium, antimycobacterial, ethanolic extract, Mycobacteria tuberculosis

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1670 Spatial Relationship of Drug Smuggling Based on Geographic Information System Knowledge Discovery Using Decision Tree Algorithm

Authors: S. Niamkaeo, O. Robert, O. Chaowalit

Abstract:

In this investigation, we focus on discovering spatial relationship of drug smuggling along the northern border of Thailand. Thailand is no longer a drug production site, but Thailand is still one of the major drug trafficking hubs due to its topographic characteristics facilitating drug smuggling from neighboring countries. Our study areas cover three districts (Mae-jan, Mae-fahluang, and Mae-sai) in Chiangrai city and four districts (Chiangdao, Mae-eye, Chaiprakarn, and Wienghang) in Chiangmai city where drug smuggling of methamphetamine crystal and amphetamine occurs mostly. The data on drug smuggling incidents from 2011 to 2017 was collected from several national and local published news. Geo-spatial drug smuggling database was prepared. Decision tree algorithm was applied in order to discover the spatial relationship of factors related to drug smuggling, which was converted into rules using rule-based system. The factors including land use type, smuggling route, season and distance within 500 meters from check points were found that they were related to drug smuggling in terms of rules-based relationship. It was illustrated that drug smuggling was occurred mostly in forest area in winter. Drug smuggling exhibited was discovered mainly along topographic road where check points were not reachable. This spatial relationship of drug smuggling could support the Thai Office of Narcotics Control Board in surveillance drug smuggling.

Keywords: decision tree, drug smuggling, Geographic Information System, GIS knowledge discovery, rule-based system

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1669 Functionalized DOX Nanocapsules by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Afsaneh Ghorbanzadeh, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Zakieh Bayat

Abstract:

The drug capsulation was used for release and targeted delivery in determined time, place and temperature or pH. The DOX nanocapsules were used to reduce and to minimize the unwanted side effects of drug. In this paper, the encapsulation methods of doxorubicin (DOX) and the labeling it by the magnetic core of iron (Fe3O4) has been studied. The Fe3O4 was conjugated with DOX via hydrazine bond. The solution was capsuled by the sensitive polymer of heat or pH such as chitosan-g-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide), dextran-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) and mPEG-G2.5 PAMAM by hydrazine bond. The drug release was very slow at temperatures lower than 380°C. There was a rapid and controlled drug release at temperatures higher than 380°C. According to experiments, the use mPEG-G2.5PAMAM is the best method of DOX nanocapsules synthesis, because in this method, the drug delivery time to certain place is lower than other methods and the percentage of released drug is higher. The synthesized magnetic carrier system has potential applications in magnetic drug-targeting delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.

Keywords: drug carrier, drug release, doxorubicin, iron oxide NPs

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1668 Factors Predicting Symptom Cluster Functional Status and Quality of Life of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

Authors: D. Supaporn, B. Julaluk

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to study symptom cluster, functional status and quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to examine factors related to and predicting symptom cluster, functional status and quality of life of COPD patients. The sample was 180 COPD patients multi-stage random sampling from 4 hospitals in the eastern region, Thailand. The research instruments were 8 questionnaires and recorded forms measuring personal and illness data, co-morbidity, physical and psychological symptom, health status perception, social support, and regimen adherence, functional status and quality of life. Spearman rank and Pearson correlation coefficient, exploratory factors analysis and standard multiple regression were used to analyzed data. The findings revealed that two symptom clusters were generated: physical symptom cluster including dyspnea, fatigue and insomnia; and, psychological symptom cluster including anxiety and depression. Scores of physical symptom cluster was at moderate level while that of psychological symptom cluster was at low level. Scores on functional status, social support and overall regimen adherence were at good level whereas scores on quality of life and health status perception were at moderate level. Disease severity was positively related to physical symptom cluster, psychological symptom cluster and quality of life, and was negatively related to functional status at a moderate level (rs = .512, .509, .588 and -.611, respectively). Co-morbidity was positively related to physical symptom cluster and psychological symptom cluster at a low level (r = .179 and .176, respectively). Regimen adherence was negatively related to quality of life and psychological symptom cluster at a low level (r=-.277 and -.309, respectively), and was positively related to functional status at a moderate level (r=.331). Health status perception was negatively related to physical symptom cluster, psychological symptom cluster and quality of life at a moderate to high level (r = -.567, -.640 and -.721, respectively) and was positively related to functional status at a high level (r = .732). Social support was positively related to functional status (r=.235) and was negatively related to quality of life at a low level (r=-.178). Physical symptom cluster was negatively related to functional status (r= -.490) and was positively related to quality of life at a moderate level (r=.566). Psychological symptom cluster was negatively related to functional status and was positively related to quality of life at a moderate level (r= -.566 and .559, respectively). Disease severity, co-morbidity and health status perception could predict 40.2% of the variance of physical symptom cluster. Disease severity, co-morbidity, regimen adherence and health status perception could predict 49.8% of the variance of psychological symptom cluster. Co-morbidity, regimen adherence and health status perception could predict 65.0% of the variance of functional status. Disease severity, health status perception and physical symptom cluster could predict 60.0% of the variance of quality of life in COPD patients. The results of this study can be used for enhancing quality of life of COPD patients.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, functional status, quality of life, symptom cluster

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1667 Prevalence of Drug Injection among Male Prisoners in the West of Iran

Authors: Farzad Jalilian, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh

Abstract:

Background: Substance addiction is one of the major worldwide problems that destroys economy, familial relationships, and the abuser’s career and has several side effects; in the meantime drug injection due to the possibility of shared use of syringes among drug users could have multiple complications to be followed. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug injection among male prisoners in Kermanshah city, the west of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 615 male prisoners were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a writing self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 21.0) at 95% significant level. Results: The mean age of respondents was 31.13 years [SD: 7.76]. Mean initiation age for drug use was 14.36 years (range, 9-34 years). Almost, 39.4 % reported a history of drug use before prison. Opium (33.2%) and crystal (27.1%) was the most used drug among prisoners. Furthermore, 9.3 % had a history of injection addiction. There was a significant correlation between age, crime type, marital status, economic status, unprotected sex and drug injection (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The low age of drug abuse and the prevalence of drug injection among offenders can be as a warning for responsible; in this regard, implementation of prevention programs to risky behavior and harm reduction among high-risk groups can follow useful results.

Keywords: substance abuse, drug injection, prison, Iran

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1666 The Impact of a Lower Health Literacy in the Self-Management of Patients with a Multiple Sclerosis: A Literature Review

Authors: Helga Martins, Idália Matias

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Background:Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating disease that affects young adults. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease in which the patient needs to self-manage the disease and the therapeutic regimen. Consequently, the promotion of health literacy assumes a relevant role for the accessibility, understanding, and use of information in order to promote and maintain the health of patients with multiple sclerosis. Aim: To determine the impact of lower health literacy in the self-management of patients with a multiple sclerosis. Methods: Literature review based on a search on the following electronic databases: CINAHLand MEDLINE; comprising all results published between September 2016 and September 2021. The search strategy was: (“Self-management [MeSH]” AND “Multiple sclerosis[MeSH]”AND “Health literacy[MeSH]”). The inclusion criteria were: original papers reporting about multiple sclerosis patients; participants with age above 18 years old, written in English, Spanish, French, or Portuguese. Two independent reviewers have done the screening and analysis of the results. 38 citations were identified, and after duplicates removal, a total of 25 results were screened; 14 were included after the application of the inclusion criteria. Results: The lower health literacy in the self-management of patients with a multiple sclerosis is related toless healthy choices, riskier health behavior, poor health outcomes, decreased of adhering to the therapeutic regimen after discharge, less self-management of chronic illness, and increased the time of hospitalization. Conclusion: Inadequate levels of health literacy contribute to poor health outcomes, unsuccessful self-management of chronic illness, and inadequate adherence to the therapeutic regimen. Therefore, health literacy is important for health policy and the healthcare services, as it can be understood as a mediator of self-management of multiple sclerosis disease.

Keywords: health literacy, multiple sclerosis, review, self-management

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1665 Detection of Important Biological Elements in Drug-Drug Interaction Occurrence

Authors: Reza Ferdousi, Reza Safdari, Yadollah Omidi

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Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are main cause of the adverse drug reactions and nature of the functional and molecular complexity of drugs behavior in human body make them hard to prevent and treat. With the aid of new technologies derived from mathematical and computational science the DDIs problems can be addressed with minimum cost and efforts. Market basket analysis is known as powerful method to identify co-occurrence of thing to discover patterns and frequency of the elements. In this research, we used market basket analysis to identify important bio-elements in DDIs occurrence. For this, we collected all known DDIs from DrugBank. The obtained data were analyzed by market basket analysis method. We investigated all drug-enzyme, drug-carrier, drug-transporter and drug-target associations. To determine the importance of the extracted bio-elements, extracted rules were evaluated in terms of confidence and support. Market basket analysis of the over 45,000 known DDIs reveals more than 300 important rules that can be used to identify DDIs, CYP 450 family were the most frequent shared bio-elements. We applied extracted rules over 2,000,000 unknown drug pairs that lead to discovery of more than 200,000 potential DDIs. Analysis of the underlying reason behind the DDI phenomena can help to predict and prevent DDI occurrence. Ranking of the extracted rules based on strangeness of them can be a supportive tool to predict the outcome of an unknown DDI.

Keywords: drug-drug interaction, market basket analysis, rule discovery, important bio-elements

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1664 Effect of Alginate and Surfactant on Physical Properties of Oil Entrapped Alginate Bead Formulation of Curcumin

Authors: Arpa Petchsomrit, Namfa Sermkaew, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee

Abstract:

Oil entrapped floating alginate beads of curcumin were developed and characterized. Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH and Tween 80 were utilized to improve the solubility of the drug. The oil-loaded floating gel beads prepared by emulsion gelation method contained sodium alginate, mineral oil and surfactant. The drug content and % encapsulation declined as the ratio of surfactant was increased. The release of curcumin from 1% alginate beads was significantly more than for the 2% alginate beads. The drug released from the beads containing 25% of tween 80 was about 70% while a higher drug release was observed with the beads containing Cremophor EL or Cremohor RH (approximately 90%). The developed floating beads of curcumin powder with surfactant provided a superior drug release than those without surfactant. Floating beads based on oil entrapment containing the drug solubilized in surfactants is a new delivery system to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: alginate, curcumin, floating drug delivery, oil entrapped bead

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