Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 866

Search results for: greenhouse gases

866 Determinants of Intensity of Greenhouse Gas Emission in Lithuanian Agriculture

Authors: D. Makuteniene

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Agriculture, as one of the human activities, emits a significant amount of greenhouse gas emission and undoubtedly has an impact on climate change. The main gaseous products of agricultural greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitroxadoxide. The sources and emission of these gases depend on land use, soil, crops, manure, livestock, and energy consumption. One of the indicators showing the agricultural impact on climate change is an intensity of GHG emission and its dynamics. This study analyzed the determinants of an intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuanian agriculture using data decomposition. The research revealed that, although greenhouse gas emission increased during the research period, however, agricultural net value added grew more rapidly, which contributed to a reduction of intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuania between 2000 and 2015. It was identified that during the research period intensity of greenhouse gas emission was mostly increased by the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, as compared to the change of the area of agricultural land, and by the change of the number of full-time employees, as compared to the change of net value added. Conversely, the change of energy consumption in agriculture, as compared to the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, had a bigger impact in decreasing intensity of greenhouse gas emission.

Keywords: agriculture, determinants of intensity, greenhouse gas emission, intensity

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865 Forest Soil Greenhouse Gas Real-Time Analysis Using Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Timothy L. Porter, T. Randy Dillingham

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Vegetation growth and decomposition, along with soil microbial activity play a complex role in the production of greenhouse gases originating in forest soils. The absorption or emission (respiration) of these gases is a function of many factors relating to the soils themselves, the plants, and the environment in which the plants are growing. For this study, we have constructed a battery-powered, portable field mass spectrometer for use in analyzing gases in the soils surrounding trees, plants, and other areas. We have used the instrument to sample in real-time the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane in soils where plant life may be contributing to the production of gases such as methane. Gases such as isoprene, which may help correlate gas respiration to microbial activity have also been measured. The instrument is composed of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with part per billion or better sensitivity, coupled to battery-powered turbo and diaphragm pumps. A unique ambient air pressure differentially pumped intake apparatus allows for the real-time sampling of gases in the soils from the surface to several inches below the surface. Results show that this instrument is capable of instant, part-per-billion sensitivity measurement of carbon dioxide and methane in the near surface region of various forest soils. We have measured differences in soil respiration resulting from forest thinning, forest burning, and forest logging as compared to pristine, untouched forests. Further studies will include measurements of greenhouse gas respiration as a function of temperature, microbial activity as measured by isoprene production, and forest restoration after fire.

Keywords: forest, soil, greenhouse, quadrupole

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864 Modelling of Filters CO2 (Carbondioxide) and CO (Carbonmonoxide) Portable in Motor Vehicle's Exhaust with Absorbent Chitosan

Authors: Yuandanis Wahyu Salam, Irfi Panrepi, Nuraeni

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The increased of greenhouse gases, that is CO2 (carbondioxide) in atmosphere induce the rising of earth’s surface average temperature. One of the largest contributors to greenhouse gases is motor vehicles. Smoke which is emitted by motor’s exhaust containing gases such as CO2 (carbondioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). Chemically, chitosan is cellulose like plant fiber that has the ability to bind like absorbant foam. Chitosan is a natural antacid (absorb toxins), when chitosan is spread over the surface of water, chitosan is able to absorb fats, oils, heavy metals, and other toxic substances. Judging from the nature of chitosan is able to absorb various toxic substances, it is expected that chitosan is also able to filter out gas emission from the motor vehicles. This study designing a carbondioxide filter in the exhaust of motor vehicles using chitosan as its absorbant. It aims to filter out gases in the exhaust so that CO2 and CO can be reducted before emitted by exhaust. Form of this reseach is study of literature and applied with experimental research of tool manufacture. Data collected through documentary studies by studying books, magazines, thesis, search on the internet as well as the relevant reference. This study will produce a filters which has main function to filter out CO2 and CO emissions that generated by vehicle’s exhaust and can be used as portable.

Keywords: filter, carbon, carbondioxide, exhaust, chitosan

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863 Estimation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reductions from Solar Cell Technology Using Bottom-up Approach and Scenario Analysis in South Korea

Authors: Jaehyung Jung, Kiman Kim, Heesang Eum

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Solar cell is one of the main technologies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG). Thereby, accurate estimation of greenhouse gas reduction by solar cell technology is crucial to consider strategic applications of the solar cell. The bottom-up approach using operating data such as operation time and efficiency is one of the methodologies to improve the accuracy of the estimation. In this study, alternative GHG reductions from solar cell technology were estimated by a bottom-up approach to indirect emission source (scope 2) in Korea, 2015. In addition, the scenario-based analysis was conducted to assess the effect of technological change with respect to efficiency improvement and rate of operation. In order to estimate GHG reductions from solar cell activities in operating condition levels, methodologies were derived from 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories and guidelines for local government greenhouse inventories published in Korea, 2016. Indirect emission factors for electricity were obtained from Korea Power Exchange (KPX) in 2011. As a result, the annual alternative GHG reductions were estimated as 21,504 tonCO2eq, and the annual average value was 1,536 tonCO2eq per each solar cell technology. Those results of estimation showed to be 91% levels versus design of capacity. Estimation of individual greenhouse gases (GHGs) showed that the largest gas was carbon dioxide (CO2), of which up to 99% of the total individual greenhouse gases. The annual average GHG reductions from solar cell per year and unit installed capacity (MW) were estimated as 556 tonCO2eq/yr•MW. Scenario analysis of efficiency improvement by 5%, 10%, 15% increased as much as approximately 30, 61, 91%, respectively, and rate of operation as 100% increased 4% of the annual GHG reductions.

Keywords: bottom-up approach, greenhouse gas (GHG), reduction, scenario, solar cell

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862 The Usage of Nitrogen Gas and Alum for Sludge Dewatering

Authors: Mamdouh Yousef Saleh, Medhat Hosny El-Zahar, Shymaa El-Dosoky

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In most cases, the associated processing cost of dewatering sludge increase with the solid particles concentration. All experiments in this study were conducted on biological sludge type. All experiments help to reduce the greenhouse gases in addition, the technology used was faster in time and less in cost compared to other methods. First, the bubbling pressure was used to dissolve N₂ gas into the sludge, second alum was added to accelerate the process of coagulation of the sludge particles and facilitate their flotation, and third nitrogen gas was used to help floating the sludge particles and reduce the processing time because of the nitrogen gas from the inert gases. The conclusions of this experiment were as follows: first, the best conditions were obtained when the bubbling pressure was 0.6 bar. Second, the best alum dose was determined to help the sludge agglomerate and float. During the experiment, the best alum dose was 80 mg/L. It increased concentration of the sludge by 7-8 times. Third, the economic dose of nitrogen gas was 60 mg/L with separation efficiency of 85%. The sludge concentration was about 8-9 times. That happened due to the gas released tiny bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing them to float to the surface of the water where it could be then removed.

Keywords: nitrogen gas, biological treatment, alum, dewatering sludge, greenhouse gases

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861 Effect of Substrate Type on Pollutant Removal and Greenhouse Gases Emissions in Constructed Wetlands with Ornamental Plants

Authors: Maria E. Hernnadez, Elizabeth Ramos, Claudia Ortiz

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Pollutant removal (N-NH4, COD, S-SO4, N-NO3 and P-PO4) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) emissions were investigated in constructed wetlands CW mesocosms with four types of substrate (gravel (G) zeolite (Z), Gravel+Plastic (GP) and zeolite+plastic), all planted with the ornamental plant lily (Lilium sp). Significantly higher N-NH4 removal was found in the CW-Z (97%) and CW-ZP (85%) compared with CW-G (61%) and CW-GP (17%), also significantly lower emissions of nitrous oxide were found in CW-Z (2.2 µgm-2min-1) and CW-ZP (2.5 µgm-2min-1) compared with CW-G(7.4 µgm-2min-1 ) and CW-GP (6.30 µgm-2min-1).

Keywords: methane, nitrous oxide, lily, zeolite

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860 Reducing Greenhouse Gass Emissions by Recyclable Material Bank Project of Universities in Central Region of Thailand

Authors: Ronbanchob Apiratikul

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This research studied recycled waste by the Recyclable Material Bank Project of 4 universities in the central region of Thailand for the evaluation of reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared with landfilling activity during July 2012 to June 2013. The results showed that the projects collected total amount of recyclable wastes of about 911,984.80 kilograms. Office paper had the largest amount among these recycled wastes (50.68% of total recycled waste). Groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low according to their amount as paper, plastic, glass, mixed recyclables, and metal, respectively. The project reduced greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to about 2814.969 metric tons of carbon dioxide. The most significant recycled waste that affects the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is office paper which is 70.16% of total reduced greenhouse gasses emission. According to amount of reduced greenhouse gasses emission, groups of recycled waste can be prioritized from high to low significances as paper, plastic, metals, mixed recyclables, and glass, respectively.

Keywords: recycling, garbage bank, waste management, recyclable wastes, greenhouse gases

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859 Carbon Footprint of Blowmoulded Plastic Parts-Case Study on Automotive Industry

Authors: Mădălina Elena Mavrodin, Gabriela Andreea Despescu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu

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Long term trend of global warming has brought a very deep interest in climate change, which is due most likely to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. 0f these, particular attention is paid to carbon dioxide, which has led in desire for obtaining carbon footprint products. Automotive industry is one of the world’s most important economic sectors with a great impact over the environment through all range of activities. Its impact over the environment has been studied, researcher trying as much as possible to reduce it and to offer environmental friendly solution for the using, but also manufacturing cars. In the global endeavour to meet the international commitments in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, many companies integrate environmental issues into their management systems, with potential effects in their entire production chains. Several tools and calculators have been developed to measure the environmental impact of a product in the life cycle perspective of the whole product chain. There were a lot of ways to obtain the carbon footprint of driving a car, but the total carbon footprint of a car includes also the carbon footprint of all the components and accessories. In the automotive industry, one of the challenges is to calculate the carbon footprint of a car from ‘cradle to grave’; this meaning not only for driving the car, but also manufacturing it, so there can be an overview over the entire process of production.

Keywords: carbon footprint, global warming potential, greenhouse gases, manufacture, plastic air ducts

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858 Rising Levels of Greenhouse Gases: Implication for Global Warming in Anambra State South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chikwelu Edward Emenike, Ogbuagu Uchenna Fredrick

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About 34% of the solar radiant energy reaching the earth is immediately reflected back to space as incoming radiation by clouds, chemicals, dust in the atmosphere and by the earth’s surface. Most of the remaining 66% warms the atmosphere and land. Most of the incoming solar radiation not reflect away is degraded into low-quality heat and flows into space. The rate at which this energy returns to space as low-quality heat is affected by the presence of molecules of greenhouse gases. Gaseous emission was measured with the aid of Growen gas Analyzer with a digital readout. Total measurements of eight parameters of twelve selected sample locations taken at two different seasons within two months were made. The ambient air quality investigation in Anambra State has shown the overall mean concentrations of gaseous emission at twelve (12) locations. The mean gaseous emissions showed (NO2=0.66ppm, SO2=0.30ppm, CO=43.93ppm, H2S=2.17ppm, CH4=1.27ppm, CFC=1.59ppb, CO2=316.33ppm, N2O=302.67ppb and O3=0.37ppm). These values do not conform to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and thus contribute significantly to the global warming. Because some of these gaseous emissions (SO2, NO2) are oxidizing agents, they act as irritants that damage delicate tissues in the eyes and respiratory passages. These can impair lung function and trigger cardiovascular problems as the heart tries to compensate for lack of Oxygen by pumping faster and harder. The major sources of air pollution are transportation, industrial processes, stationary fuel combustion and solid waste disposal, thus much is yet to be done in a developing country like Nigeria. Air pollution control using pollution-control equipment to reduce the major conventional pollutants, relocating people who live very close to dumpsites, processing and treatment of gases to produce electricity, heat, fuel and various chemical components should be encouraged.

Keywords: ambient air, atmosphere, greenhouse gases, anambra state

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857 Rapid Assessment the Ability of Forest Vegetation in Kulonprogo to Store Carbon Using Multispectral Satellite Imagery and Vegetation Index

Authors: Ima Rahmawati, Nur Hafizul Kalam

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Development of industrial and economic sectors in various countries very rapidly caused raising the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Greenhouse gases are dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere that make the surface temperature of the earth always increase. The increasing gases caused by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as petroleum and coals and also high rate of deforestation. Yogyakarta Special Province which every year always become tourist destination, has a great potency in increasing of greenhouse gas emissions mainly from the incomplete combustion. One of effort to reduce the concentration of gases in the atmosphere is keeping and empowering the existing forests in the Province of Yogyakarta, especially forest in Kulonprogro is to be maintained the greenness so that it can absorb and store carbon maximally. Remote sensing technology can be used to determine the ability of forests to absorb carbon and it is connected to the density of vegetation. The purpose of this study is to determine the density of the biomass of forest vegetation and determine the ability of forests to store carbon through Photo-interpretation and Geographic Information System approach. Remote sensing imagery that used in this study is LANDSAT 8 OLI year 2015 recording. LANDSAT 8 OLI imagery has 30 meters spatial resolution for multispectral bands and it can give general overview the condition of the carbon stored from every density of existing vegetation. The method is the transformation of vegetation index combined with allometric calculation of field data then doing regression analysis. The results are model maps of density and capability level of forest vegetation in Kulonprogro, Yogyakarta in storing carbon.

Keywords: remote sensing, carbon, kulonprogo, forest vegetation, vegetation index

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856 Alternative Systems of Drinking Water Supply Using Rainwater Harvesting for Small Rural Communities with Zero Greenhouse Emissions

Authors: Martin Mundo-Molina

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In Mexico, there are many small rural communities with serious water supply deficiencies. In Chiapas, Mexico, there are 19,972 poor rural communities, 15,712 of which have fewer than 100 inhabitants. The lack of a constant water supply is most severe in the highlands of Chiapas where the population is made up mainly of indigenous groups. The communities are on mountainous terrain with a widely dispersed population. These characteristics combine to make the provision of public utilities, such as water, electricity and sewerage, difficult with conventional means. The introduction of alternative, low-cost technologies represents means of supplying water such as through fog and rain catchment with zero greenhouse emissions. In this paper is presented the rainwater harvesting system (RWS) constructed in Yalentay, Chiapas Mexico. The RWS is able to store 1.2 M liters of water to provide drinking water to small rural indigenous communities of 500 people in the drought stage. Inside the system of rainwater harvesting there isn't photosynthesis in order to conserve water for long periods. The natural filters of the system of rainwater harvesting guarantee the drinking water for using to the community. The combination of potability and low cost makes rain collection a viable alternative for rural areas, weather permitting. The Mexican Institute of Water Technology and Chiapas University constructed a rainwater harvesting system in Yalentay Chiapas, it consists of four parts: 1. Roof of aluminum, for collecting rainwater, 2. Underground-cistern, divided in two tanks, 3. Filters, to improve the water quality and 4. The system of rainwater harvesting dignified the lives of people in Yalentay, saves energy, prevents the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, conserves natural resources such as water and air.

Keywords: appropriate technologies, climate change, greenhouse gases, rainwater harvesting

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855 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Tropical Eutrophic Freshwater Wetland

Authors: Juan P. Silva, T. R. Canchala, H. J. Lubberding, E. J. Peña, H. J. Gijzen

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This study measured the fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) i.e. CO2, CH4 and N2O from a tropical eutrophic freshwater wetland (“Sonso Lagoon”) which receives input loading nutrient from several sources i.e. agricultural run-off, domestic sewage, and a polluted river. The flux measurements were carried out at four different points using the static chamber technique. CO2 fluxes ranged from -8270 to 12210 mg.m-2.d-1 (median = 360; SD = 4.11; n = 50), CH4 ranged between 0.2 and 5270 mg.m-2.d-1 (median = 60; SD = 1.27; n = 45), and N2O ranged from -31.12 to 15.4 mg N2O m-2.d-1 (median = 0.05; SD = 9.36; n = 42). Although some negative fluxes were observed in the zone dominated by floating plants i.e. Eichornia crassipes, Salvinia sp., and Pistia stratiotes L., the mean values indicated that the Sonso Lagoon was a net source of CO2, CH4 and N2O. In addition, an effect of the eutrophication on GHG emissions could be observed in the positive correlation found between CO2, CH4 and N2O generation and COD, PO4-3, NH3-N, TN and NO3-N. The eutrophication impact on GHG production highlights the necessity to limit the anthropic activities on freshwater wetlands.

Keywords: eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater wetlands, climate change

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854 The Development and Testing of Greenhouse Comprehensive Environment Control System

Authors: Mohammed Alrefaie, Yaser Miaji

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Greenhouses provide a convenient means to grow plants in the best environment. They achieve this by trapping heat from the sunlight and using artificial means to enhance the environment of the greenhouse. This includes controlling factors such as air flow, light intensity and amount of water among others that can have a big impact on plant growth. The aim of the greenhouse is to give maximum yield from plants possible. This report details the development and testing of greenhouse environment control system that can regulate light intensity, airflow and power supply inside the greenhouse. The details of the module development to control these three factors along with results of testing are presented.

Keywords: greenhouse, control system, light intensity, comprehensive environment

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853 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Butanol over Ag/TiO2

Authors: Thabelo Nelushi, Michael Scurrell, Tumelo Seadira

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Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues which arise from occurrence of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Exposure to these greenhouse gases results in health risk. Hydrogen is regarded as an alternative energy source which is a clean energy carrier for the future. There are different methods to produce hydrogen such as steam reforming, coal gasification etc., however the challenge with these processes is that they emit CO and CO2 gases and are costly. Photocatalytic reforming is a substitute process which is fascinating due to the combination of solar energy and renewable sources and the use of semiconductor materials such as catalysts. TiO2 is regarded as the most promising catalysts. TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method and Ag/TiO2 are being investigated for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from butanol. The samples were characterized by raman spectroscopy, TEM/SEM, XRD, XPS, EDAX, DRS and BET surface area. 2 wt% Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticle showed enhanced hydrogen production compared to a non-doped TiO2. The results of characterization and photoactivity shows that TiO2 nanoparticles play a very important role in producing high hydrogen by utilizing solar irradiation.

Keywords: butanol, hydrogen production, silver particles, TiO2 nanoparticles

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852 CO₂ Absorption Studies Using Amine Solvents with Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

Authors: Avoseh Funmilola, Osman Khalid, Wayne Nelson, Paramespri Naidoo, Deresh Ramjugernath

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The increasing global atmospheric temperature is of great concern and this has led to the development of technologies to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion are major sources of greenhouse gases. One of the ways to reduce the emission of CO₂ from flue gases is by post combustion capture process and this can be done by absorbing the gas into suitable chemical solvents before emitting the gas into the atmosphere. Alkanolamines are promising solvents for this capture process. Vapour liquid equilibrium of CO₂-alkanolamine systems is often represented by CO₂ loading and partial pressure of CO₂ without considering the liquid phase. The liquid phase of this system is a complex one comprising of 9 species. Online analysis of the process is important to monitor the concentrations of the liquid phase reacting and product species. Liquid phase analysis of CO₂-diethanolamine (DEA) solution was performed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. A robust Calibration was performed for the CO₂-aqueous DEA system prior to an online monitoring experiment. The partial least square regression method was used for the analysis of the calibration spectra obtained. The models obtained were used for prediction of DEA and CO₂ concentrations in the online monitoring experiment. The experiment was performed with a newly built recirculating experimental set up in the laboratory. The set up consist of a 750 ml equilibrium cell and ATR-FTIR liquid flow cell. Measurements were performed at 400°C. The results obtained indicated that the FTIR spectroscopy combined with Partial least square method is an effective tool for online monitoring of speciation.

Keywords: ATR-FTIR, CO₂ capture, online analysis, PLS regression

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851 Influence of Digestate Fertilization on Soil Microbial Activity, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Yield

Authors: M. Doyeni, S. Suproniene, V. Tilvikiene

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Agricultural wastes contribute significantly to global climate change through greenhouse gas emissions if not adequately recycled and sustainably managed. A recurring agricultural waste is livestock wastes that have consistently served as feedstock for biogas systems. The objective of this study was to access the influence of digestate fertilization on soil microbial activity and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural fields. Wheat (Triticum spp. L.) was fertilized with different types of animal wastes digestates (organic fertilizers) and mineral nitrogen (inorganic fertilizer) for three years. The 170 kg N ha⁻¹ presented in digestates were split fertilized at an application rate of 90 and 80 kg N ha⁻¹. The soil microorganism activity could be predicted significantly using the dehydrogenase activity and soil microbial biomass carbon. By combining the two different monitoring approaches, the different methods applied in this study were sensitive to enzymatic activities and organic carbon in the living component of the soil organic matter. The emissions of greenhouse gasses (carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane (CH₄), and nitrous oxide (N₂O) were monitored directly by a static chamber system. The soil and environmental variables were measured to determine their influence on greenhouse gas emissions. Emission peaks was observed in N₂O and CO₂ after the first application of fertilizers with the emissions flattening out over the cultivating season while CH₄ emission was negligible with no apparent patterns observed. Microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity were affected by the fertilized organic digestates. A significant difference was recorded between the control and the digestate treated soils for the microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase. Results also showed individual and cumulative emissions of CO₂, CH₄ and N₂O from the digestates were relatively low suggesting the digestate fertilization can be an efficient method for improving soil quality and reducing greenhouse gases from agricultural sources in temperate climate conditions.

Keywords: greenhouse gas emission, manure digestate, soil microbial activity, yield

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850 The Climate Impact Due to Clouds and Selected Greenhouse Gases by Short Wave Upwelling Radiative Flux within Spectral Range of Space-Orbiting Argus1000 Micro-Spectrometer

Authors: Rehan Siddiqui, Brendan Quine

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The Radiance Enhancement (RE) and integrated absorption technique is applied to develop a synthetic model to determine the enhancement in radiance due to cloud scene and Shortwave upwelling Radiances (SHupR) by O2, H2O, CO2 and CH4. This new model is used to estimate the magnitude variation for RE and SHupR over spectral range of 900 nm to 1700 nm by varying surface altitude, mixing ratios and surface reflectivity. In this work, we employ satellite real observation of space orbiting Argus 1000 especially for O2, H2O, CO2 and CH4 together with synthetic model by using line by line GENSPECT radiative transfer model. All the radiative transfer simulations have been performed by varying over a different range of percentages of water vapor contents and carbon dioxide with the fixed concentration oxygen and methane. We calculate and compare both the synthetic and real measured observed data set of different week per pass of Argus flight. Results are found to be comparable for both approaches, after allowing for the differences with the real and synthetic technique. The methodology based on RE and SHupR of the space spectral data can be promising for the instant and reliable classification of the cloud scenes.

Keywords: radiance enhancement, radiative transfer, shortwave upwelling radiative flux, cloud reflectivity, greenhouse gases

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849 A Comparative Study on the Impact of Global Warming of Applying Low Carbon Factor Concrete Products

Authors: Su-Hyun Cho, Chang-U Chae

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Environmental impact assessment techniques have been developed as a result of the worldwide efforts to reduce the environmental impact of global warming. By using the quantification method in the construction industry, it is now possible to manage the greenhouse gas is to systematically evaluate the impact on the environment over the entire construction process. In particular, the proportion of greenhouse gas emissions at the production stage of construction material occupied is high, and efforts are needed in particular in the construction field. In this study, intended for concrete products for the construction materials, by using the LCA evaluation method, we compared the results of environmental impact assessment and carbon emissions of developing products that have been applied low-carbon technologies compared to existing products. As a results, by introducing a raw material of industrial waste, showed carbon reduction. Through a comparison of the carbon emission reduction effect of low-carbon technologies, it is intended to provide academic data for the evaluation of greenhouse gases in the construction sector and the development of low-carbon technologies of the future.

Keywords: CO₂ emissions, CO₂ reduction, ready-mixed concrete, environmental impact assessment

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848 Laboratory Scale Experimental Studies on CO₂ Based Underground Coal Gasification in Context of Clean Coal Technology

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu

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Coal is the largest fossil fuel. In India, around 37 % of coal resources found at a depth of more than 300 meters. In India, more than 70% of electricity production depends on coal. Coal on combustion produces greenhouse and pollutant gases such as CO₂, SOₓ, NOₓ, and H₂S etc. Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts these unmineable coals into valuable calorific gases. The UCG syngas (mainly H₂, CO, CH₄ and some lighter hydrocarbons) which can utilized for the production of electricity and manufacturing of various useful chemical feedstock. It is an inherent clean coal technology as it avoids ash disposal, mining, transportation and storage problems. Gasification of underground coal using steam as a gasifying medium is not an easy process because sending superheated steam to deep underground coal leads to major transportation difficulties and cost effective. Therefore, for reducing this problem, we have used CO₂ as a gasifying medium, which is a major greenhouse gas. This paper focus laboratory scale underground coal gasification experiment on a coal block by using CO₂ as a gasifying medium. In the present experiment, first, we inject oxygen for combustion for 1 hour and when the temperature of the zones reached to more than 1000 ºC, and then we started supplying of CO₂ as a gasifying medium. The gasification experiment was performed at an atmospheric pressure of CO₂, and it was found that the amount of CO produced due to Boudouard reaction (C+CO₂  2CO) is around 35%. The experiment conducted to almost 5 hours. The maximum gas composition observed, 35% CO, 22 % H₂, and 11% CH4 with LHV 248.1 kJ/mol at CO₂/O₂ ratio 0.4 by volume.

Keywords: underground coal gasification, clean coal technology, calorific value, syngas

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847 Reducing Uncertainty in Climate Projections over Uganda by Numerical Models Using Bias Correction

Authors: Isaac Mugume

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Since the beginning of the 21st century, climate change has been an issue due to the reported rise in global temperature and changes in the frequency as well as severity of extreme weather and climatic events. The changing climate has been attributed to rising concentrations of greenhouse gases, including environmental changes such as ecosystems and land-uses. Climatic projections have been carried out under the auspices of the intergovernmental panel on climate change where a couple of models have been run to inform us about the likelihood of future climates. Since one of the major forcings informing the changing climate is emission of greenhouse gases, different scenarios have been proposed and future climates for different periods presented. The global climate models project different areas to experience different impacts. While regional modeling is being carried out for high impact studies, bias correction is less documented. Yet, the regional climate models suffer bias which introduces uncertainty. This is addressed in this study by bias correcting the regional models. This study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting model under different representative concentration pathways and correcting the products of these models using observed climatic data. This study notes that bias correction (e.g., the running-mean bias correction; the best easy systematic estimator method; the simple linear regression method, nearest neighborhood, weighted mean) improves the climatic projection skill and therefore reduce the uncertainty inherent in the climatic projections.

Keywords: bias correction, climatic projections, numerical models, representative concentration pathways

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846 Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Potential by Deploying the Green Cars in Korean Road Transport Sector

Authors: Sungjun Hong, Yanghon Chung, Nyunbae Park, Sangyong Park

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South Korea, as the 7th largest greenhouse gas emitting country in 2011, announced that the national reduction target of greenhouse gas emissions was 30% based on BAU (Business As Usual) by 2020. And the reduction rate of the transport sector is 34.3% which is the highest figure among all sectors. This paper attempts to analyze the environmental effect on deploying the green cars in Korean road transport sector. In order to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions, the LEAP model is applied in this study.

Keywords: green car, greenhouse gas, LEAP model, road transport sector

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845 Energy Efficiency of Secondary Refrigeration with Phase Change Materials and Impact on Greenhouse Gases Emissions

Authors: Michel Pons, Anthony Delahaye, Laurence Fournaison

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Secondary refrigeration consists of splitting large-size direct-cooling units into volume-limited primary cooling units complemented by secondary loops for transporting and distributing cold. Such a design reduces the refrigerant leaks, which represents a source of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere. However, inserting the secondary circuit between the primary unit and the ‘users’ heat exchangers (UHX) increases the energy consumption of the whole process, which induces an indirect emission of greenhouse gases. It is thus important to check whether that efficiency loss is sufficiently limited for the change to be globally beneficial to the environment. Among the likely secondary fluids, phase change slurries offer several advantages: they transport latent heat, they stabilize the heat exchange temperature, and the formerly evaporators still can be used as UHX. The temperature level can also be adapted to the desired cooling application. Herein, the slurry {ice in mono-propylene-glycol solution} (melting temperature Tₘ of 6°C) is considered for food preservation, and the slurry {mixed hydrate of CO₂ + tetra-n-butyl-phosphonium-bromide in aqueous solution of this salt + CO₂} (melting temperature Tₘ of 13°C) is considered for air conditioning. For the sake of thermodynamic consistency, the analysis encompasses the whole process, primary cooling unit plus secondary slurry loop, and the various properties of the slurries, including their non-Newtonian viscosity. The design of the whole process is optimized according to the properties of the chosen slurry and under explicit constraints. As a first constraint, all the units must deliver the same cooling power to the user. The other constraints concern the heat exchanges areas, which are prescribed, and the flow conditions, which prevent deposition of the solid particles transported in the slurry, and their agglomeration. Minimization of the total energy consumption leads to the optimal design. In addition, the results are analyzed in terms of exergy losses, which allows highlighting the couplings between the primary unit and the secondary loop. One important difference between the ice-slurry and the mixed-hydrate one is the presence of gaseous carbon dioxide in the latter case. When the mixed-hydrate crystals melt in the UHX, CO₂ vapor is generated at a rate that depends on the phase change kinetics. The flow in the UHX, and its heat and mass transfer properties are significantly modified. This effect has never been investigated before. Lastly, inserting the secondary loop between the primary unit and the users increases the temperature difference between the refrigerated space and the evaporator. This results in a loss of global energy efficiency, and therefore in an increased energy consumption. The analysis shows that this loss of efficiency is not critical in the first case (Tₘ = 6°C), while the second case leads to more ambiguous results, partially because of the higher melting temperature.The consequences in terms of greenhouse gases emissions are also analyzed.

Keywords: exergy, hydrates, optimization, phase change material, thermodynamics

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844 Measurement of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Sugarcane Plantation Soil in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

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Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted from soils are required to understand diurnal and seasonal variations in soil emissions and related mechanism. This understanding plays an important role in appropriate quantification and assessment of the overall change in soil carbon flow and budget. This study proposes to monitor GHGs emissions from soil under sugarcane cultivation in Thailand. The measurements were conducted over 379 days. The results showed that the total net amount of GHGs emitted from sugarcane plantation soil amounts to 36 Mg CO2eq ha-1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were found to be the main contributors to the emissions. For methane (CH4), the net emission was found to be almost zero. The measurement results also confirmed that soil moisture content and GHGs emissions are positively correlated.

Keywords: soil, GHG emission, sugarcane, agriculture, Thailand

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843 Thermal Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Greenhouse Solar Dryer

Authors: Sumit Tiwari, Rohit Tripathi, G. N. Tiwari

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Present study focused on the utilization of solar energy by the help of photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer under forced mode. A single slope photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer has been proposed and thermal modelling has been developed. Various parameters have been calculated by thermal modelling such as greenhouse room temperature, cell temperature, crop temperature and air temperature at exit of greenhouse. Further cell efficiency, thermal efficiency, and overall thermal efficiency have been calculated for a typical day of May and November. It was found that system can generate equivalent thermal energy up to 7.65 kW and 6.66 kW per day for clear day of May and November respectively.

Keywords: characteristics curve, photovoltaic, thermal modelling, thermal efficiency

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842 Carbon Dioxide Removal from Off Gases in a Self-Priming Submerged Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, Amit Verma, B. C. Meikap

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Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is the most abundant waste produced by human activities. It is estimated to be one of the major contributors of greenhouse effect and also considered as a major air pollutant formed by burning of fossil fuels. The main sources of emissions are flue gas from thermal power plants and process industries. It is also a contributor of acid rain. Its exposure through inhalation can lead to health risks. Therefore, control of CO₂ emission in the environment is very necessary. The main focus of this study is on the removal of carbon dioxide from off gases using a self-priming venturi scrubber in submerged conditions using sodium hydroxide as the scrubbing liquid. A self-priming submerged venturi scrubber is an efficient device to remove gaseous pollutants. In submerged condition, venturi scrubber remains submerged in the liquid tank and the liquid enters at the throat section of venturi scrubber due to the pressure difference which includes the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the gas. The inlet polluted air stream enters through converging section which moves at very high velocity in the throat section and atomizes the liquid droplets. This leads to absorption of CO₂ from the off gases in scrubbing liquid which resulted in removal of CO₂ gas from the off gases. Detailed investigation on the scrubbing of carbon dioxide has been done in this literature. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocities, liquid levels in outer cylinder and CO₂ inlet concentrations to study the carbon dioxide removal efficiency. Experimental results give more than 95% removal efficiency of CO₂ in the self priming venturi scrubber which can meet the environmental emission limit of CO₂ to save the human life.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, scrubbing, pollution control, self-priming venturi scrubber

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841 Trend Analysis of Rainfall: A Climate Change Paradigm

Authors: Shyamli Singh, Ishupinder Kaur, Vinod K. Sharma

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Climate Change refers to the change in climate for extended period of time. Climate is changing from the past history of earth but anthropogenic activities accelerate this rate of change and which is now being a global issue. Increase in greenhouse gas emissions is causing global warming and climate change related issues at an alarming rate. Increasing temperature results in climate variability across the globe. Changes in rainfall patterns, intensity and extreme events are some of the impacts of climate change. Rainfall variability refers to the degree to which rainfall patterns varies over a region (spatial) or through time period (temporal). Temporal rainfall variability can be directly or indirectly linked to climate change. Such variability in rainfall increases the vulnerability of communities towards climate change. Increasing urbanization and unplanned developmental activities, the air quality is deteriorating. This paper mainly focuses on the rainfall variability due to increasing level of greenhouse gases. Rainfall data of 65 years (1951-2015) of Safdarjung station of Delhi was collected from Indian Meteorological Department and analyzed using Mann-Kendall test for time-series data analysis. Mann-Kendall test is a statistical tool helps in analysis of trend in the given data sets. The slope of the trend can be measured through Sen’s slope estimator. Data was analyzed monthly, seasonally and yearly across the period of 65 years. The monthly rainfall data for the said period do not follow any increasing or decreasing trend. Monsoon season shows no increasing trend but here was an increasing trend in the pre-monsoon season. Hence, the actual rainfall differs from the normal trend of the rainfall. Through this analysis, it can be projected that there will be an increase in pre-monsoon rainfall than the actual monsoon season. Pre-monsoon rainfall causes cooling effect and results in drier monsoon season. This will increase the vulnerability of communities towards climate change and also effect related developmental activities.

Keywords: greenhouse gases, Mann-Kendall test, rainfall variability, Sen's slope

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840 CO2 Capture in Porous Silica Assisted by Lithium

Authors: Lucero Gonzalez, Salvador Alfaro

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Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are considered as the compounds with higher abundance among the greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx, SOx, CxHx, etc.), due to its higher concentration, this two gases have a greater impact in the environment pollution and provokes global warming. So, recovery, disposal and subsequent reuse, are of great interest, especially from the ecological and health perspective. By one hand, porous inorganic materials are good candidates to capture gases, because these type of materials are higher stability from the point view of thermal, chemical and mechanical under adsorption gas processes. By another hand, during the design and the synthetic preparation of the porous materials is possible add other intrinsic properties (physicochemical and structural) by adding chemical compounds as dopants or using structured directed agents or surfactants to improve the porous structure, the above features allow to have alternative materials for separation, capture and storage of greenhouse gases. In this work, ordered mesoporous materials base silica were prepared using Surfynol as surfactant. The surfactant micelles are commonly used as self-assembly templates for the development of new structure porous silica’s, adding a variety of textures and structures. By another hand, the Surfynol is a commercial surfactant, is non-ionic, for that is necessary determine its critical micelles concentration (cmc) by the pyrene I1/I3 ratio method, before to prepare silica particles. One time known the CMC, a precursor gel was prepared via sol-gel process at room temperature using TEOS as silica precursor, NH4OH as catalyst, Surfynol as template and H2O as solvent. Then, the gel precursor was treatment hydrothermally in a Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave with a volume of 100 mL and kept at 100 ºC for 24 h under static conditions in a convection oven. After that, the porous silica particles obtained were impregnated with lithium to improve the CO2 adsorption capacity. Then the silica particles were characterized physicochemical, morphology and structurally, by XRD, FTIR, BET and SEM techniques. The thermal stability and the CO2 adsorption capacity was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According the results, we found that the Surfynol is a good candidate to prepare silica particles with an ordered structure. Also the TGA analysis shown that the particles has a good thermal stability in the range of 250 °C and 800 °C. The best materials had, the capacity to adsorbing 70 and 90 mg per gram of silica particles and its CO2 adsorption capacity depends on the way to thermal pretreatment of the porous silica before of the adsorption experiments and of the concentration of surfactant used during the synthesis of silica particles. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by SIP-IPN through project SIP-20161862.

Keywords: CO2 adsorption, lithium as dopant, porous silica, surfynol as surfactant, thermogravimetric analysis

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839 Greenhouse Gas Mitigation by Promoting Renewable Energy in Algeria

Authors: F. Sahnoune

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The study focuses on the analysis of the Algerian greenhouse gase emissions. In Algeria, as in other countries, the issue of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change is the subject of great concern. As climate change is a global problem and taking into consideration the principle of 'common but differentiated responsibilities' as mentioned in the Rio Declaration in 1992, Algeria has initiated a broad program of voluntary reduction of GHG emissions and climate change adaptation. Thus although the contribution of Algeria on global warming is minimal (less than 0.5% of global GHG emissions), the country is, because its geographical position and climatic characteristics, very vulnerable and should integrate mitigation and adaptation into its development policy. Even a small rise in temperature would lead to various socio-economic problems that hinder the development of the country. The models predict that rainfall events are less frequent but more intense, while droughts are more common and longer. The decrease of water resources, declining agricultural yields, encroaching desert, the challenge of planning and the energy consumption for air conditioning are only the initial impacts to which Algeria must find answers supportable economically and socially. The study examines to what extent, Algeria can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We present an analysis of the current situation, trends in CO2 emissions, footprint of Algeria, national climate plan and especially what will be the impact on GHG emissions of the new strategy for promoting renewable energy adopted in 2011 and expects to produce 40% of electricity needs from solar energy. The results show that in 2012 the GHG emissions totaled 153 MT CO2 eq and growing at a rate of over 3%. The Introduction of solar energy in electricity production and implementation of energy efficiency allow to reduce by 2030 more than 300 MT CO2 eq. Avenues of consideration relating to a combination of policies and improved technologies that are able to reduce CO2 emissions and mitigate the impacts caused by climate change in the medium term will also be presented.

Keywords: climate change, co2 mitigation, greenhouse gases, renewable energy, sustainable development

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838 Temperature Effects on CO₂ Intake of MIL-101 and ZIF-301

Authors: M. Ba-Shammakh

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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for CO₂ capture and they have high adsorption capacity towards CO₂. In this study, two different metal organic frameworks (i.e. MIL-101 and ZIF-301) were tested for different flue gases that have different CO₂ fractions. In addition, the effect of temperature was investigated for MIL-101 and ZIF-301. The results show that MIL-101 performs well for pure CO₂ stream while its intake decreases dramatically for other flue gases that have variable CO₂ fraction ranging from 5 to 15 %. The second material (ZIF-301) showed a better result in all flue gases and higher CO₂ intake compared to MIL-101 even at high temperature.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs), MIL-101, ZIF-301

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837 Greenhouse Gasses’ Effect on Atmospheric Temperature Increase and the Observable Effects on Ecosystems

Authors: Alexander J. Severinsky

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Radiative forces of greenhouse gases (GHG) increase the temperature of the Earth's surface, more on land, and less in oceans, due to their thermal capacities. Given this inertia, the temperature increase is delayed over time. Air temperature, however, is not delayed as air thermal capacity is much lower. In this study, through analysis and synthesis of multidisciplinary science and data, an estimate of atmospheric temperature increase is made. Then, this estimate is used to shed light on current observations of ice and snow loss, desertification and forest fires, and increased extreme air disturbances. The reason for this inquiry is due to the author’s skepticism that current changes cannot be explained by a "~1 oC" global average surface temperature rise within the last 50-60 years. The only other plausible cause to explore for understanding is that of atmospheric temperature rise. The study utilizes an analysis of air temperature rise from three different scientific disciplines: thermodynamics, climate science experiments, and climactic historical studies. The results coming from these diverse disciplines are nearly the same, within ± 1.6%. The direct radiative force of GHGs with a high level of scientific understanding is near 4.7 W/m2 on average over the Earth’s entire surface in 2018, as compared to one in pre-Industrial time in the mid-1700s. The additional radiative force of fast feedbacks coming from various forms of water gives approximately an additional ~15 W/m2. In 2018, these radiative forces heated the atmosphere by approximately 5.1 oC, which will create a thermal equilibrium average ground surface temperature increase of 4.6 oC to 4.8 oC by the end of this century. After 2018, the temperature will continue to rise without any additional increases in the concentration of the GHGs, primarily of carbon dioxide and methane. These findings of the radiative force of GHGs in 2018 were applied to estimates of effects on major Earth ecosystems. This additional force of nearly 20 W/m2 causes an increase in ice melting by an additional rate of over 90 cm/year, green leaves temperature increase by nearly 5 oC, and a work energy increase of air by approximately 40 Joules/mole. This explains the observed high rates of ice melting at all altitudes and latitudes, the spread of deserts and increases in forest fires, as well as increased energy of tornadoes, typhoons, hurricanes, and extreme weather, much more plausibly than the 1.5 oC increase in average global surface temperature in the same time interval. Planned mitigation and adaptation measures might prove to be much more effective when directed toward the reduction of existing GHGs in the atmosphere.

Keywords: greenhouse radiative force, greenhouse air temperature, greenhouse thermodynamics, greenhouse historical, greenhouse radiative force on ice, greenhouse radiative force on plants, greenhouse radiative force in air

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