Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1708

Search results for: animal feed

1708 Assessment of Microbiological Feed Safety from Serbian Market from 2013 to 2017

Authors: Danijela Vuković, Radovan Čobanović, Milorad Plačkić

Abstract:

The expansion of population imposes increase in usage of animal meat, on whose quality directly affects the quality of the feed that the animals are fed with. The selection of raw materials, hygiene during the technological process, various hydrothermal treatments, methods of mixing etc. have an influence on the quality of feed. Monitoring of the feed is very important to obtain information about the quality of feed and the possible prevention of animal diseases which can lead to different human diseases outbreaks. In this study parameters of feed safety were monitored. According to the mentioned, the goal of this study was to evaluate microbiological safety of feed (feedstuffs and complete mixtures). Total number of analyzed samples was 4399. Analyzed feed samples were collected in various retail shops and feed factories during the period of 44 months (from January 2013 untill September 2017). Samples were analyzed on Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens in quantity of 50g according to Serbian regulation. All microorganisms were tested according to ISO methodology: Salmonella spp. ISO 6579:2002 and Clostridium perfringens ISO 7937:2004. Out of 4399 analyzed feed samples 97,5% were satisfactory and 2,5% unsatisfactory concerning Salmonella spp. As far as Clostridium perfringens is concerned 100% of analyzed samples were satisfactory. The obtained results suggest that technological processing of feed in Serbia is at high level when it comes to safety and hygiene of the products, but there are still possibilities for progress and improvement which only can be reached trough the permanent monitoring of feed.

Keywords: microbiology, safety, hygiene, feed

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1707 Analysis of Pollution Caused by the Animal Feed Industry and the Fertilizer Industry Using Rock Magnetic Method

Authors: Kharina Budiman, Adinda Syifa Azhari, Eleonora Agustine

Abstract:

Industrial activities get increase in this globalization era, one of the major impacts of industrial activities is a problem to the environment. This can happen because at the industrial production term will bring out pollutant in the shape of solid, liquid or gas. Normally this pollutant came from some dangerous materials for environment. However not every industry produces the same amount of pollutant, every industry produces different kind of pollution. To compare the pollution impact of industrial activities, soil sample has been taken around the animal feed industry and the fertilizer industry. This study applied the rock magnetic method and used Bartington MS2B to measured magnetic susceptibility (χ) as the physical parameter. This study tested soil samples using the value of susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) and Frequency Dependent (χ FD). Samples only taken in the soil surface with 0-5 cm depth and sampling interval was 20 cm. The animal feed factory has susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) = 111,9 – 325,7 and Frequency Dependent (χ FD) = 0,8 – 3,57 %. And the fertilizer factory has susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) = 187,1 – 494,8 and Frequency Dependent (χ FD) = 1,37 – 2,46 %. Based on the results, the highest value of susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) is the fertilizer factory, but the highest value of Frequency Dependent (FD) is the animal feed factory.

Keywords: industrial, pollution, magnetic susceptibility, χlf, χfd, animal feed industry and fertilizer industry

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1706 The Effect of the Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as the Source of Protein Feed and Pathogen Antibacterial for Broiler

Authors: Waode Nurmayani, Nikmatul Riswanda

Abstract:

Broilers are chickens which are kept with the most efficient time and hoped get a good body weight. All things are done, for example with the improvement of feed and use antibiotics. Feed cost is the most cost to be spent. Nearly 80% of the cost is spent just for buy feed. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is a good choice to reduce the cost of feed protein source. The Earthworm has a high crude protein content of about 48.5%-61.9%, rich with proline amino acid about 15% of the 62 amino acids. Not only about protein, this earthworm also has a role in disease prevention. Prevention of disease in livestock usual with use feed supplement. Earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) is one of the natural materials used as feed. In addition, several types of earthworms that have been known to contain active substances about antibacterial pathogens namely Lumbricus rubellus. The earthworm could be used as an antibiotic because it contain the antibody of Lumbricine active substance. So that, this animal feed from Lumbricus rubellus could improve the performance of broilers. Bioactive of anti-bacterial is called Lumbricine able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal wall so that the population of pathogenic bacteria is reduced. The method of write in this scientific writing is divided into 3 techniques, namely data completion, data analysis, and thinking pan from various literature about earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) as broiler feed. It is expected that innovation of feed material of earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) could reduce the cost of protein feed and the use of chemical antibiotics.

Keywords: earthworm, broiler, protein, antibiotic

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1705 Stochastic Programming and C-Somga: Animal Ration Formulation

Authors: Pratiksha Saxena, Dipti Singh, Neha Khanna

Abstract:

A self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm(C-SOMGA) is developed for animal diet formulation. This paper presents animal diet formulation using stochastic and genetic algorithm. Tri-objective models for cost minimization and shelf life maximization are developed. These objectives are achieved by combination of stochastic programming and C-SOMGA. Stochastic programming is used to introduce nutrient variability for animal diet. Self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm provides exact and quick solution and presents an innovative approach towards successful application of soft computing technique in the area of animal diet formulation.

Keywords: animal feed ration, feed formulation, linear programming, stochastic programming, self-migrating genetic algorithm, C-SOMGA technique, shelf life maximization, cost minimization, nutrient maximization

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1704 Impact of Length of Straw by the Use of a Straw Mill on the Selective Feeding of Young Cattle and Their Effects for the Cattle

Authors: Heiko Scholz

Abstract:

When feeding high qualitysilagetoheifersfromthe age of two, there is a riskofenergyoversupply. Depending on the feeding valueorscarceavailability ofsilageorcorn silage diets withhighproportionsof straw is often incorporated. Foran energetically standardized young cattle supply of strawproportion can be more than 20% of dry matter. It was investigated whether the grinding of straw with the strawmillselective feeding significantly limits. The investigation has been carried out with young cattle in the second year. 78 animals were kept and fed under similar conditions in two groups. The experimental group (EG) consisted of cattle 12 to 15 months, and in the control group (CG), the cattle were 15 to 20 months old. The experimental feeding took place in five days of feed distribution, and residual feed were weighed. The ration of EG contained ground with the straw mill straw, and CG was further fed rotor-cut pressed straw. To determine the selective seizure samples of feed distributionandtheremainingfood with the particle separator boxandthecrude protein-and energy-content have been determined. The grinding of the straw increased the daily feed intake.IntheEGan increase infeed intakewas observedby grinding of the straw. Feed intakedirectlyon the day for changing the dietoflongonground straw increased by more than 2.0 kgofDMper animal. In the following days, the feed intakewasincreasedby 0.9kg DMper animal and day on average (7.4 vs. 8.3 kg DM per day). The results of the screen distribution of residual feed point to a differentiated feeding behavior between the groups. In the EG, the particle length of the residual feed to a large extent with the template matches. The acid-base-balance (NSBA)valuesofEGarewithin normal limits. Ifstrawsharesof25% and more are federations to young cattle (heifers), the theparticlelengthof straw has significant impact ontheselectivefeeding behavior. Aparticlelength of 1.5cmcompared to7.5 cmlongpreventedstrawcertainly discarding of the straw on the feeding barn. The feed intake increases whenshortstrawis mixed into theTMR.

Keywords: straw mill, heifer, feed selection, dry matter intake

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1703 Silage for Dairy Production: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Thair Khan, Adeela Ajmal, Hamid Mustafa

Abstract:

Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock only share 11.8 percent to national GDP during 2015-16. Pakistan is a 3rd largest milk producing country having 41.2, 35.6, 29.4, 68.4 and 1.0 million head cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and camel, respectively. Modern urbanization and shortage of feed resources for livestock species in a country is an alarming threat. The introduction of new technology and advanced techniques solve this issue. This includes drought feeding, increase production, aid to crop management, balance nutrition and easily storaged of wet feed products. It is therefore clear that silage has important role in animal feed and feeding. Financial model of this study clear the effectiveness of silage. Therefore, it is revealed from this study that silage is a cost-effective option for a profitable dairy farming in Pakistan.

Keywords: feed, silage, dairy, production, Pakistan

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1702 Effect in Animal Nutrition of Genetical Modified Plant(GM)

Authors: Abdullah Özbilgin, Oguzhan Kahraman, Mustafa Selçuk Alataş

Abstract:

Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products for feed. The land area devoted to the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) plants has increased in recent years: in 2012 such plants were grown on over 170 million hectares globally, in 28 different countries, and are at resent used by 17.3 million farmers worldwide. The majority of GM plants are used as feed material for food-producing farm animals. Despite the facts that GM plants have been used as feed for years and a number of feeding studies have proved their safety for animals, they still give rise to emotional public discussion.

Keywords: crops, genetical modified plant(GM), plant, safety

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1701 Potential of Macroalgae Ulva lactuca for Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Fruitfly Food

Authors: Shuang Qiu, Lingfeng Wang, Zhipeng Chen, Shijian Ge

Abstract:

Macroalgae are considered a promising approach for wastewater treatment as well as an alternative animal feed in addition to a biofuel feedstock. Their large size and/or tendency to grow as dense floating mats or substrate-attached turfs lead to lower separation and drying costs than microalgae. In this study, the macroalgae species Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca) were used to investigate their capacity for treating municipal wastewaters, and the feasibility of using the harvested biomass as an alternative food source for the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, an animal model for biological research. Results suggested that U. lactuca could successfully grow on three types of wastewaters studied with biomass productivities of 8.12-64.3 g DW (dry weight)/(m²∙d). The secondary wastewater (SW) was demonstrated as the most effective wastewater medium for U. lactuca growth. However, both high nitrogen (92.5-98.9%) and phosphorus (64.5-88.6%) removal efficiencies were observed in all wastewaters, particularly in primary wastewater (PW) and SW, however, in central wastewater (CW), the highest removal rates were obtained (N 24.7 ± 0.97 and P 0.69 ± 0.01 mg/(g DW·d)). Additionally, the inclusion of 20% washed U. lactuca with 80% standard fruitfly food (w/w) resulted in a longer lifespan and more stable body weights in flies. On the other hand, similar results were not obtained for the food treatment with the addition of 20 % unwashed U. lactuca. This study suggests a promising method for the macroalgae-based treatment of municipal wastewater and the biomass for animal feed.

Keywords: animal feed, flies, macroalgae, nutrient recovery, Ulva lactuca, wastewater

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1700 Suitability of Green Macroalgae Porteresia coarctata as a Feed Form Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Authors: Rajrupa Ghosh, Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

Future use of animal protein sources in prawn feeds is expected to be considerably reduced as a consequence of increasing economical, environmental and safety issues. Of main concern has been the use of expensive marine protein sources, such as fish meal which often results in fouling of water quality and disease outbreak in cultured species. To determine prawn capacity to use practical feeds with plant proteins as replacement ingredients to animal protein sources, 8-months growth trial was conducted in two sets of ponds using juvenile (0.02 gm) Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Among the two sets, one set (comprising of three ponds) is experimental pond included formulated feed prepared with 30% Porteresia coarctata dust along with other general ingredients and another set (comprising of another three ponds) is control pond with commercial feed. Mean final weight, percent weight gain, final net yield, feed conversion ratio and survival were evaluated. Higher condition index values, survival rate and gain in prawn weight were observed in experimental pond compared to control pond. Low FCR values were observed in the experimental pond than the control pond. Evaluation of production parameters at the end of the study demonstrated significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) among two ponds. The variation may be attributed to specially formulated plant based feed that not only boosted up the growth of prawns, but also upgraded the ambient aquatic health. These results indicate that fish meal can be replaced with algal protein sources in diets without affecting prawn growth and production.

Keywords: macrobrachium rosenbergii, porteresia coarctata, Indian sundarbans, feed

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1699 The Good, the Bad and the Ugly in E-Procurement: A Case Study of Agricultural Company in Vietnam

Authors: D. T. Tran, H. P. Tran, L. G. Hoang, V. N. H. Bui, Q. T. Nguyen, A. K. Das

Abstract:

This paper provides some insight information about a current situation of e-procurement implementation in Vietnam, including opportunities and challenges. A case study of Phuc Thien Company which is classified as a medium enterprise in the country, specialising on animal feed production. Since the technological development rapidly changes, companies have implemented advanced technologies in supply chain management to increase efficiency and gain collaboration amidst partners in their manufacturing and development activities. The findings of this research reveal strengths and ongoing weaknesses when Phuc Thien company internally implemented eProcurement system. Although cost savings, visibility of payment and speedy procurement process are one of the largest benefits of eProcurement implementation, the company faces greater hurdles, such as employee capability to use technology and their resistance to change, that overshadow everything else. In terms of governmental policy, the adaptation of e-invoicing has commenced since June 2015 in Vietnam, legal regulations and administrative framework related to e-Procurement carries various ambiguous in its content and extremely fragment. Hence, this adds a great burden to enterprises in general and Phuc Thien in particular in view of creating higher competitive advantage for animal feed industry in Vietnam as well as South East Asia region.

Keywords: procurement, e-procurement, animal feed industry, efficiency

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1698 Effects of Feed Forms on Growth Pattern, Behavioural Responses and Fecal Microbial Load of Pigs Fed Diets Supplemented with Saccaromyces cereviseae Probiotics

Authors: O. A. Adebiyi, A. O. Oni, A. O. K. Adeshehinwa, I. O. Adejumo

Abstract:

In forty nine (49) days, twenty four (24) growing pigs (Landrace x Large white) with an average weight of 17 ±2.1kg were allocated to four experimental treatments T1 (dry mash without probiotics), T2 (wet feed without probiotics), T3 (dry mash + Saccaromyces cereviseae probiotics) and T4 (wet feed + Saccaromyces cereviseae probiotics) which were replicated three times with two pigs per replicate in a completely randomised design. The basal feed (dry feed) was formulated to meet the nutritional requirement of the animal with crude protein of 18.00% and metabolisable energy of 2784.00kcal/kgME. Growth pattern, faecal microbial load and behavioural activities (eating, drinking, physical pen interaction and frequency of visiting the drinking troughs) were accessed. Pigs fed dry mash without probiotics (T1) had the highest daily feed intake among the experimental animals (1.10kg) while pigs on supplemented diets (T3 and T4) had an average daily feed intake of 0.95kg. However, the feed conversion ratio was significantly (p < 0.05) affected with pigs on T3 having least value of 6.26 compared those on T4 (wet feed + Saccaromyces cereviseae) with means of 7.41. Total organism counts varied significantly (p < 0.05) with pigs on T1, T2, T3 and T4 with mean values of 179.50 x106cfu; 132.00 x 106cfu; 32.00 x 106cfu and 64.50 x 106cfu respectively. Coliform count was also significantly (p < 0.05) different among the treatments with corresponding values of 117.50 x 106cfu; 49.00 x 106cfu, 8.00 x 106cfu for pigs in T1, T2 and T4 respectively. The faecal Saccaromyces cereviseae was significantly lower in pigs fed supplemented diets compared to their counterparts on unsupplemented diets. This could be due to the inability of yeast organisms to be voided easily through feaces. The pigs in T1 spent the most time eating (7.88%) while their counterparts on T3 spent the least time eating. The corresponding physical pen interaction times expressed in percentage of a day for pigs in T1, T2, T3 and T4 are 6.22%, 5.92%, 4.04% and 4.80% respectively. These behavioural responses exhibited by these pigs (T3) showed that little amount of dry feed supplemented with probiotics is needed for better performance. The water intake increases as a result of the dryness of the feed with consequent decrease in pen interaction and more time was spent resting than engaging in other possible vice-habit like fighting or tail biting. Pigs fed dry feed (T3) which was supplemented with Saccaromyces cereviseae probiotics had a better overall performance, least faecal microbial load than wet fed pigs either supplemented with Saccaromyces cereviseae or non-supplemented.

Keywords: behaviour, feed forms, feed utilization, growth, microbial

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1697 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo

Abstract:

The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler growth performance, heat stress, vitamin supplementation, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

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1696 Nutritional Composition of Selected Wild Fruits from Minna Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: John O. Jacob, Abdullahi Mann, Olanrewaju I. Adeshina, Mohammed M. Ndamitso

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Strychnos spinosa, Detarium microcarpum, Diospyros mespiliformis, Dialium guineese and Gardenia ternifolia are some of the wild fruits consume in the villages around Minna, Niger State. This investigation was conducted to assess the nutritional potentials of these fruits both for human consumption and for possible application in animal feed formulations. Standard analytical methods were employed in the determination of the various nutritional parameters. The proximate analysis results showed that the moisture contents ranged between (6.17-10.70%); crude fat (2.04-8.85%); crude protein (5.16-6.80%); crude fibre (7.23-19.65%); Ash (3.46-5.56%); carbohydrate (57.77-69.79%); energy value (284.49-407 kcal/mg); Vitamin C (7.2-39.93 mg/100g). The mineral analysis shows that the selected wild fruits could contribute considerable amount of both micro and macro elements to human nutrition potassium, sodium and calcium range between; potassium (343.27-764.71%); sodium (155.04-348.44%); calcium (52.47-101%). The macro element for the fruits pulp were in the order K>Na>Mg>Ca, hence, they could be included in diet to supplement daily nutrient requirement and in animal feed formulations. The domestication of these fruits is also encouraged.

Keywords: mineral, micro-elements, macro-elements, feed suppleme

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1695 The Effect of Using Levels of Red Tiger Shrimp Meal in Starter Broiler Diet upon Growth Performance

Authors: Mohammed I.A. Al-Neemi, Mohammed S.B., Al-Hlawee, Ilham N. Ezaddin, Soz A. Faris, Omer E. Fakhry, Heemen S. Mageed

Abstract:

This objective of this study was to measure the effect of replacing different levels of animal protein concentrate with Red Tiger shrimp meal (RTSM: 60 % crude protein, 2400 M.E kcal/kg and the source of RTSM was imported from china) in the broiler starter diets. A total 300 broiler chicks (Ross-308) were randomly assigned in treatments dietary contained three different levels of RTSM (0.00, 4.16 and 8.32 %) in experimental diet with a completely randomized design (CRD). Each treatment included four replicates (floor pens) and 25 broilers in each replication (Pen). Therefore, floor space for each boilers was 900 cm2. Initially, the broilers where exposed to a continues lighting of 23:30 hours and dark period of 30 minutes in each 24 hours. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum to the broilers throughout the experimental period (1-21 days). The results of this study indicated that body weight (B.W.), body weight gain (B.W.G), conversion ratio of feed, protein and energy (F.CR, P.C.R and E.C.R) were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased by complete substituting (RTSM) for animal protein concentration (third treatment). Mortality percentage significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased for third dietary treatment. No significant differences were found for feed, protein and energy intake among treatments during the experimental period (three weeks). In conclusion, (RTSM) could be included to 4.16% in the broiler starter diet or substitute the protein Red Tiger shrimp as alternative of protein animal protein concentrate as much as 50%.

Keywords: red tiger shrimp, broiler, starter diet, growth performance, animal protein concentrate

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1694 Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Efficacy of Climbing Perch, Anabas testudineus, Feed Experimental Diet with Several Dosages of Papain Enzyme

Authors: Zainal A. Muchlisin, Muhammad Iqbal, Abdullah A. Muhammadar

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dose of papain enzyme in the diet for growing, survival rate and feed efficacy of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus). The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Aquatic of Faculty of Veterinary, Syiah Kuala University from January to March 2016. The completely randomized design was used in this study. Six dosages level of papain enzyme were tested with 4 replications i.e. 0 g kg-1 of feed, 20.0 g kg-1 feed, 22.5 g kg-1 of feed, 25.0 g kg-1 of feed, 27.5 g kg-1 of feed, and 30.0 g kg-1 of feed. The experimental fish fed twice a day at feeding level of 5% for 60 days. The results showed that weight gain ranged from 2.41g to 7.37g, total length gain ranged from 0.67cm to 3.17cm, specific growth rate ranged from 1.46 % day to 3.41% day, daily growth rate ranged from 0.04 g day to 0.13 g day, feed conversion ratio ranged from 1.94 to 3.59, feed efficiency ranged from 27.99% to 51.37%, protein retention ranged from 3.38% to 28.28%, protein digestibility ranged from 50.63% to 90.38%, and survival rate ranged from 88.89% to 100%. The highest rate for all parameters was found in the dosage of 3.00% papain enzyme kg feed. The ANOVA test showed that enzyme papain gave a significant effect on the weight gain, total length gain, daily growth rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, protein retention, protein digestibility, and survival rate of the climbing perch (Anabas testudieus). The best enzyme papain dosage was 3.0%.

Keywords: betok, feed conversion ratio, freshwater fish, nutrition, feeding

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1693 A Research About to Determination the Quality of Feed Oils Used as Mixedfeed Raw Material from Some Feed Factories in Konya-Turkey

Authors: Gülşah Kanbur, Veysel Ayhan

Abstract:

Feed oil samples which are used as mixed feed raw material were taken from six different feed factories in March, May and July. All factories make production in Konya, Turkey and all of the samples were which taken are crude soybean oil. Some physical and chemical analysis, free radical scavenger effect and total phenol content were determined on these oil samples. Moisture content was found between 0.10-22.23 %, saponification number was determined 143.13 to 167.93 KOH/kg, free fatty acidity was varied 0.73 to 35.00 % , peroxide value was found between 1.53 and 28.43 meq/kg , unsaponifiable matter was determined from 0.40 to 17.10 % , viscosity was found between 34.30 and 625.67 mPas, sediment amount was determined between 0.60-18.16 % , free radical scavenger effect was varied 20.7 to 43.04 % inhibition of the extract and total phenol content was found between 1.20 and 2.69 mg/L extract. Different results were found between months and factories.

Keywords: crude soybean oil, feed oils, mixed feed, Konya

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1692 Analysis of Constraints and Opportunities in Dairy Production in Botswana

Authors: Som Pal Baliyan

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Dairy enterprise has been a major source of employment and income generation in most of the economies worldwide. Botswana government has also identified dairy as one of the agricultural sectors towards diversification of the mineral dependent economy of the country. The huge gap between local demand and supply of milk and milk products indicated that there are not only constraints but also; opportunities exist in this sub sector of agriculture. Therefore, this study was an attempt to identify constraints and opportunities in dairy production industry in Botswana. The possible ways to mitigate the constraints were also identified. The findings should assist the stakeholders especially, policy makers in the formulation of effective policies for the growth of dairy sector in the country. This quantitative study adopted a survey research design. A final survey followed by a pilot survey was conducted for data collection. The purpose of the pilot survey was to collect basic information on the nature and extent of the constraints, opportunities and ways to mitigate the constraints in dairy production. Based on the information from pilot survey, a four point Likert’s scale type questionnaire was constructed, validated and tested for its reliability. The data for the final survey were collected from purposively selected twenty five dairy farms. The descriptive statistical tools were employed to analyze data. Among the twelve constraints identified; high feed costs, feed shortage and availability, lack of technical support, lack of skilled manpower, high prevalence of pests and diseases and, lack of dairy related technologies were the six major constraints in dairy production. Grain feed production, roughage feed production, manufacturing of dairy feed, establishment of milk processing industry and, development of transportation systems were the five major opportunities among the eight opportunities identified. Increasing production of animal feed locally, increasing roughage feed production locally, provision of subsidy on animal feed, easy access to sufficient financial support, training of the farmers and, effective control of pests and diseases were identified as the six major ways to mitigate the constraints. It was recommended that the identified constraints and opportunities as well as the ways to mitigate the constraints need to be carefully considered by the stakeholders especially, policy makers during the formulation and implementation of the policies for the development of dairy sector in Botswana.

Keywords: dairy enterprise, milk production, opportunities, production constraints

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1691 Dewatering of Brewery Sludge through the Use of Biopolymers

Authors: Audrey Smith, M. Saifur Rahaman

Abstract:

The waste crisis has become a global issue, forcing many industries to reconsider their disposal methods and environmental practices. Sludge is a form of waste created in many fields, which include water and wastewater, pulp and paper, as well as from breweries. The composition of this sludge differs between sources and can, therefore, have varying disposal methods or future applications. When looking at the brewery industry, it produces a significant amount of sludge with a high water content. In order to avoid landfilling, this waste can further be processed into a valuable material. Specifically, the sludge must undergo dewatering, a process which typically involves the addition of coagulants like aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride. These chemicals, however, limit the potential uses of the sludge since it will contain traces of metals. In this case, the desired outcome of the brewery sludge would be to produce animal feed; however, these conventional coagulants would add a toxic component to the sludge. The use of biopolymers like chitosan, which act as a coagulant, can be used to dewater brewery sludge while allowing it to be safe for animal consumption. Chitosan is also a by-product created by the shellfish processing industry and therefore reduces the environmental imprint since it involves using the waste from one industry to treat the waste from another. In order to prove the effectiveness of this biopolymer, experiments using jar-tests will be utilised to determine the optimal dosages and conditions, while variances of contaminants like ammonium will also be observed. The efficiency of chitosan can also be compared to other polysaccharides to determine which is best suited for this waste. Overall a significant separation has been achieved between the solid and liquid content of the waste during the coagulation-flocculation process when applying chitosan. This biopolymer can, therefore, be used to dewater brewery sludge such that it can be repurposed as animal feed. The use of biopolymers can also be applied to treat sludge from other industries, which can reduce the amount of waste produced and allow for more diverse options for reuse.

Keywords: animal feed, biopolymer, brewery sludge, chitosan

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1690 Effect of Bactocellon White Leg Shrimp (Litopenaeusvannamei) Growth Performance and the Shrimp Survival to Vibrio paraheamolyticus

Authors: M. Soltani, K. Pakzad, A. Haghigh-Khiyabani, M. Alavi, R. Naderi, M. Castex

Abstract:

Effect of probiotic Bactocell (Pediococcus acidilactici) as a supplementary diet was studied on post-larvae 12-15 of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (150000 PL/0.5 h pond, average body weight=0.02 g) growth performance under farm condition for 102 days at water quality parameters consisting of temperature at 30.5-36οC, dissolved oxygen 4.1-6.6 mg/l, salinity 40-54 g/l, turbidity 35-110 cm, ammonia 0.1-0.8 mg/l and nitrite 0.1-0.9 mg/l. Also, the resistance level of the treated shrimps was assessed against a virulent strain of Vibrio paraheamolyticus as intramuscular injection route at 1.4 x 106 cells/shrimp. Significantly higher growth rate (11.3±1.54 g) and lower feed conversion ratio (1.1) were obtained in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ tone feed compared to other treatments of 250 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.8±2 g, 1.3), 500 g Bactocell/ton feed (10.3±1.7 g, 1.3) and untreated control (10.1±2 g, 1.4). Also, thermal growth coefficient (0.057%) and protein efficiency ratio (2.13) were significantly improved in shrimps fed diets supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/ton feed compare to other groups. Shrimps fed diet supplemented with Bactocell at 350 g/tone feed showed significantly higher protein content (72.56%) in their carcass composition than treatments of 250 g/ton feed (65.9%), 500 g/ton feed (67.5%) and control group (65.9%), while the carcass contents of moisture, lipid and ash in all shrimp groups were not significantly affected by different concentrations of Bactocell. No mortality occurred in the experimentally infected shrimps fed with Bactocell at 500 g/tone feed after 7 hours post-challenge with V. parahemolyticus. The mortality levels of 100%, 40%, 50% and 70% were obtained in shrimps fed with 0.0, 500 g/tone feed, 350 g/ton feed and 250 g/ton feed, respectively 14 hours post-infection. Also, the cumulative mortalities were achieved in 100%, 92% and 81% in shrimps few with Bactocell at 500 g/ton feed, 250 g/ton feed and 350 g/ton feed, respectively.

Keywords: litopenaeus vannamei, vibrio paraheamolyticus, pediococcus acidilactici, growth performance, bactocell

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
1689 Camel Mortalities Due to Accidental Intoxcation with Ionophore

Authors: M. A. Abdelfattah, F. K. Waleed

Abstract:

Anticoccidials were utilized widely in veterinary practice for the avoidance of coccidiosis in poultry and assume a huge job as development promotants in ruminants. Ionophore harming is every now and again happens because of accidental access to medicated feed, errors in feed mixing, incorrect dosage calculation or misuse in non-recommended species. Camels on several farms in Eastern area of Saudi Arabia were accidently fed with a feed pellet containing 13 ppm salinomycin. One hundred and sixty-three camels died with mortality rate of 100%. The poisoning was clinically characterized by restlessness with tail lift to the top, jerk in the muscles of legs and thighs, excessive sweating, frequent setting and standing with body imbalance, lateral and sternal recumbences with the legs stretched back, eye tears with dilated pupil, vomiting of the stomach content, loss of consciousness and death of some of them. Feed analysis indicated the presence of salinomycin in pelleted feed in a range of 13 mg/kg-47 mg/kg. Necropsy findings and histopathological examinations were presented. Regulations and legal implications concerning with sale of contaminated feed in Saudi market are discussed in the light of feed law and by-law. The necessity for an effective implication of regulation concerning application of quality assurance systems based on the principles of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and the application of Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point (HACCP) during feed production is necessary to avoid feed accident.

Keywords: medicated feed, salinomycin, anticoccidial, camel, toxicity

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1688 Effect of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Leaves on Wheat Offal Replacement for Chicks Feed Production

Authors: C. C. Okafor, T. M. Ezeh

Abstract:

The effect of addition of sweet potato leaves in replacement of wheat offal in the production of broiler chicks feed was studied. 72 day-old marshal strain chicks were used and brooded for two weeks with a normal commercial feed in Nigeria called top feed and weighed separately at the end of the two weeks, complete randomized design (CRD) was used. The weighed broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated to twice with eighteen birds per replicate. The four dietary treatment identified as T1, T2, T3 and T4. T1 served as control diet with 21% crude protein content, while T2 was prepared with Enzyme and in T3 and T4, wheat offal was replaced with sweet potato leaves and in T4 with inclusion of enzyme. Growth performance was studied using the following daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed efficiency. The result in daily weight gain showed that chicks fed with T2 feed had the highest weight gain (93.75) while chicks fed with T3 had the least weight gain of (34.5 gm). In daily feed intake chicks fed with T4 fed more (53.06 gm) than chicks fed with T2 (51.08 gm). In feed efficiency T3 had the highest value of 30% while the T2 had the least efficiency of 22%. There was no significant difference (P≥ 0.05) in all the three parameter tested. Sweet potato leaves can replace wheat offal in broiler feed production without any adverse effect on the growth performance.

Keywords: broiler, diet, dietary, potato leaves, wheat offal

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
1687 The Effect of Fermented Organic Feed into Nutritive Contents of Kampong Chicken Meat

Authors: Wahyu Widodo, Imbang Dwi Rahayu, Adi Sutanto

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of the fermented organic feed to dry matter, ash, organic matter, protein, fat and crude fiber contents of kampong chicken meat. The research had conducted at January until June, 2016. One hundreds chickens were used in this research. Experimental method and completely randomized design were used to support this research. We had 4 treatment namely P0: organic feed without fermentation, P1: Organic feed with fermented rice bran, P2: Organic feed with fermented corn, P3: Organic feed with fermented rice bran and corn with 5 replication. The conclusion was the treatment had not a significant effect in the dry matter, ash, organic matter and protein contents of chicken meat. On the other hand, it had a significant effect in the fat and crude fiber contents of chicken meat.

Keywords: corn, fermented organic feed, nutritive contents, rice bran

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
1686 Impact of Sunflower Oil Supplemented Diet on Performance and Hematological Stress Indicators of Growing-Finishing Pigs Exposed to Hot Environment

Authors: Angela Cristina Da F. De Oliveira, Salma E. Asmar, Norbert P. Battlori, Yaz Vera, Uriel R. Valencia, Tâmara Duarte Borges, Antoni D. Bueno, Leandro Batista Costa

Abstract:

As homeothermic animals, pigs manifest maximum performance when kept at comfortable temperature levels, represented by a limit where thermoregulatory processes are minimal (18 - 20°C). In a stress situation where it will have a higher energy demand for thermal maintenance, the energy contribution to the productive functions will be reduced, generating health imbalances, drop in productive rates and welfare problems. The hypothesis of this project is that 5% starch replacement per 5% sunflower oil (SO), in growing and finishing pig’s diet (Iberic x Duroc), is effective as a nutritional strategy to reduce the negative impacts of thermal stress on performance and animal welfare. Seventy-two crossbred males (51± 6,29 kg body weight- BW) were housed according to the initial BW, in climate-controlled rooms, in collective pens, and exposed to heat stress conditions (30 - 32°C; 35% to 50% humidity). The experiment lasted 90 days, and it was carried out in a randomized block design, in a 2 x 2 factorial, composed of two diets (starch or sunflower oil (with or without) and two feed intake management (ad libitum and restriction). The treatments studied were: 1) control diet (5% starch x 0% SO) with ad libitum intake (n = 18); 2) SO diet (replacement of 5% of starch per 5% SO) with ad libitum intake (n = 18); 3) control diet with restriction feed intake (n = 18); or 4) SO diet with restriction feed intake (n = 18). Feed was provided in two phases, 50–100 Kg BW for growing and 100-140 Kg BW for finishing period, respectively. Hematological, biochemical and growth performance parameters were evaluated on all animals at the beginning of the environmental treatment, on the transition of feed (growing to finishing) and in the final of experiment. After the experimental period, when animals reached a live weight of 130-140 kg, they were slaughtered by carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. Data have shown for the growing phase no statistical interaction between diet (control x SO) and management feed intake (ad libitum x restriction) on animal performance. At finishing phase, pigs fed with SO diet with restriction feed intake had the same average daily gain (ADG) compared with pigs in control diet with ad libitum feed intake. Furthermore, animals fed with the same diet (SO), presented a better feed gain (p < 0,05) due to feed intake reduce (p < 0,05) when compared with control group. To hematological and biochemical parameters, animals under heat stress had an increase in hematocrit, corpuscular volume, urea concentration, creatinine, calcium, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0,05) when compared with the beginning of experiment. These parameters were efficient to characterize the heat stress, although the experimental treatments were not able to reduce the hematological and biochemical stress indicators. In addition, the inclusion of SO on pig diets improve feed gain in pigs at finishing phase, even with restriction feed intake.

Keywords: hematological, performance, pigs, welfare

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
1685 Microalgae Applied to the Reduction of Biowaste Produced by Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

Authors: Shuang Qiu, Zhipeng Chen, Lingfeng Wang, Shijian Ge

Abstract:

Biowastes are a concern due to the large amounts of commercial food required for model animals during the biomedical research. Searching for sustainable food alternatives with negligible physiological effects on animals is critical to solving or reducing this challenge. Microalgae have been demonstrated as suitable for both human consumption and animal feed in addition to biofuel and bioenergy applications. In this study, the possibility of using Chlorella vulgaris and Senedesmus obliquus as a feed replacement to Drosophila melanogaster, one of the fly models commonly used in biomedical studies, was investigated to assess the fly locomotor activity, motor pattern, lifespan, and body weight. Compared to control, flies fed on 60% or 80% (w/w) microalgae exhibited varied walking performance including travel distance and apparent step size, and flies treated with 40% microalgae had shorter lifespans and decreased body weight. However, the 20% microalgae treatment showed no statistical differences in all parameters tested with respect to the control. When partially including 20% microalgae in the standard food, it can annually reduce the food waste (~ 202 kg) by 22.7 % and save $ 7,200 of the food cost, offering an environmentally superior and cost-effective food alternative without compromising physiological performance.

Keywords: animal feed, Chlorella vulgaris, Drosophila melanogaster, food waste, microalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
1684 Rodents Control in Poultry Production; Harnessing Conflicting Animal Welfare Interests in Developing Countries

Authors: O. M. Alabi, F. A. Aderemi, M. O. Ayoola

Abstract:

An aspect of biosecurity measures to ensure good welfare for chickens is rodents’ control. Rats and mice are rodents commonly found in poultry houses in most of the African countries. More than 20,000 species of rat have been identified in Africa among which are; Black house rats (Rattus rattus), East African mole rat (Tachyorcytes splendens), Naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber), Zambian mole rat (Fukomys mechowii), African grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus), Nigerian mole rat (Cryptomys foxi), Target rat (Stochomys longicaudatus) and West African Shaggy rat (Dasymis rufulus). Apart from being destructive, rats and mice are voracious in that they compete with chickens for feed and water thereby causing economical losses to the farmer, they are also vectors to many pathogens of poultry diseases such as Salmonellosis, colibacillosis, ascaridiasis, coryza, pasteurellosis and mycoplasmosis. As bad as these rodents are to the poultry farmers, they are good sources of animal protein to local hunters and other farmers in most African countries. Rat is considered a delicacy in Nigeria and many other African countries hence the need to investigate into how the rats species will not go into extinction. Rodents are usually controlled by poultry farmers with the use of rodenticides which can either be anticoagulant or stomach poison, and with the use of baits. However, elimination of rats and mice is being considered as callous act against these species of animal and their natural existence as human food also. This paper therefore suggests that sanitation methods such as feed removal from rats and mice, controlling feed and water spillage, proper disposal of waste eggs, dead birds and garbage, keeping the surroundings of the poultry clean; rodent proofing by making it difficult for rodents to enter the poultry houses are some of the humane ways of controlling rodents in poultry production to avoid improving the welfare of a particular animal at the expense of the other.

Keywords: management, poultry, rodents, welfare

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
1683 Effects of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder on the Feed Intake and Average Weight of Pullets

Authors: Cajethan U. Ugwuoke, Hyginus O. Omeje, Emmanuel C. Osinem

Abstract:

The study was carried out to determine the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf powder additive on the feed intake and average weight of pullets. A completely Randomized Design (CRD) was adopted for the study. On the procedure of the experiment, 240 chicks were randomly selected from 252 Isa Brown day-old chicks. The chicks were equally randomly allotted to 12 pens with 20 chicks each. The pens were randomly assigned to four different treatment groups with three replicates each. T1 was fed with control feed while T2, T3, and T4 were fed with 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% Moringa oleifera leaf powder fortified feed respectively. The chicks were fed with uniform feed up to week four. From week five, experimental feeds were given to the pullet up to 20 weeks of age. The birds were placed on the same treatment conditions except different experimental feeds given to different groups. Data on the feed intake were collected daily while the average weight of the pullets was collected weekly using weighing scale. Data collected were analyzed using mean, bar charts and Analysis of Variance. The layers fed with control feed consumed the highest amount of feed in most of the weeks under study. The average weights of all the treatment groups were equal from week 1 to week 4. Little variation in average weight started in week 5 with T2 topping the groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the feed intake and average weight of layers fed with different inclusion rates of Moringa oleifera leaf powder in feeds.

Keywords: average weight, feed intake, Moringa oleifera, pullets

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1682 Factors Affecting the Results of in vitro Gas Production Technique

Authors: O. Kahraman, M. S. Alatas, O. B. Citil

Abstract:

In determination of values of feeds which, are used in ruminant nutrition, different methods are used like in vivo, in vitro, in situ or in sacco. Generally, the most reliable results are taken from the in vivo studies. But because of the disadvantages like being hard, laborious and expensive, time consuming, being hard to keep the experiment conditions under control and too much samples are needed, the in vitro techniques are more preferred. The most widely used in vitro techniques are two-staged digestion technique and gas production technique. In vitro gas production technique is based on the measurement of the CO2 which is released as a result of microbial fermentation of the feeds. In this review, the factors affecting the results obtained from in vitro gas production technique (Hohenheim Feed Test) were discussed. Some factors must be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings obtained in these studies and also comparing the findings reported by different researchers for the same feeds. These factors were discussed in 3 groups: factors related to animal, factors related to feeds and factors related with differences in the application of method. These factors and their effects on the results were explained. Also it can be concluded that the use of in vitro gas production technique in feed evaluation routinely can be contributed to the comprehensive feed evaluation, but standardization is needed in this technique to attain more reliable results.

Keywords: In vitro, gas production technique, Hohenheim feed test, standardization

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
1681 Laying Hens' Feed Fortified with Pectin, Xanthan Gum and Guar Gum Aims to Reduce the Cholesterol in Muscle and Egg Yolk

Authors: Novia Dwi Prabandari, Diah Ayu Asmarani

Abstract:

Soluble fiber can accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol. Pectin and gum has been used in the form of substance additive for material stabilizer and emulsifier. Pectin supplementation in laying hens can decimate the cholesterol content in egg yolk and muscle. Therefore, this laying hens’ feed is regular feed chickens enriched with soluble fiber (Pectin, Xanthan gum, and Guar gum) to produce eggs and muscle with lower cholesterol than usual.The ingredients are mixed in the ratio of concentrate 45%, corn flour 25%, soybean meal 20%, and extract of soluble fiber 10%. Once all the ingredients are mixed and then evaporated with temperature < 80 °C. Then put in the grinding machine resulting in a circular shape with holes 2-3 mm in diameter, after it dried up the water content in the feed is less than 14%. Eggs from laying hen with soluble fiber fortification feed intake will have lower cholesterol levels in eggs than regular feed. So even with the cholesterol content in the muscle, it is because chicken feed fortified with soluble fiber will accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol and cause cholesterol deposits in the chicken less. The use of this kind of laying hens feed is produce eggs with high protein content can be consumed more for people who have hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords: pectin, xanthan gum, guar gum, laying hen, cholesterol

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
1680 Effect of Feed Rate on Grinding Circuits and Cyclone Efficiency

Authors: Patel Himeshkumar Ashokbhai, Suchit Sharma, Arvind Kumar Garg

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of change in feed rate on grinding circuit and cyclone efficiency in case of lead-zinc ore. The following experiments and analysis were conducted on beneficiation circuit of Sindesar Khurd (SK) mines under Hindustan Zinc Ltd. subsidiary of Vedanta Group of Companies, a leading producer of lead-Zinc, silver and cadmium (as by products) in India. Feed rate is an important variable in beneficiation circuit operation. Optimizing feed rate is indispensable for any grinding circuit and directly effects cyclone efficiency. The size analysis of ore in grinding circuit along with cyclone efficiency on varying feed rates establishes their interdependence. Feed rate determines retention time ore gets within grinding circuit. Retention time in turn determines degree of liberation of mineral. Inadequate liberation causes decreased circuit efficiency. In this paper we have studied the effect of varying feed rate on (1) D80 particle size of different sections of different streams of grinding circuit (2) Re-circulating load (3) Cyclone efficiency. As a conclusion, this study gives some clues to operate grinding circuits and hydro-cyclones in more efficient way regarding beneficiation of Lead-zinc ore.

Keywords: cyclone efficiency, feed rate, grinding circuit, re-circulating load

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
1679 Influence of Dietary Inclusion of Butyric Acids, Calcium Formate, Organic Acids and Its Salts on Rabbits Productive Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality

Authors: V. Viliene, A. Raceviciute-Stupeliene, V. Sasyte, V. Slausgalvis, R. Gruzauskas, J. Al-Saifi

Abstract:

Animal nutritionists and scientists have searched for alternative measures to improve the production. One of such alternative is use of organic acids as feed additive in animal nutrition. The study was conducted to investigate the impact of butyric acids, calcium formate, organic acids, and its salts (BCOS) additives on rabbit’s productive performance, carcass traits and meat quality. The study was conducted with 14 Californian breed rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to two treatment groups (seven rabbits per each treatment group). The dietary treatments were 1) control diet, 2) diet supplemented with a mixture BCOS - 2 kg/t of feed. Growth performance characteristics (body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality) were evaluated. Rabbits were slaughtered; carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated. Samples loin and hind leg meat were analysed to determine carcass characteristics, pH and colour measurements, cholesterol, and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content in loin and hind leg meat. Differences between treatments were significant for body weight (1.30 vs. 1.36 kg; P<0.05), daily weight gain (16.60 vs. 17.85 g; P<0.05), and daily feed intake (78.25 vs. 80.58 g; P<0.05) for control and experimental group respectively for the entire experimental period (from 28–77 days old). No significant differences were found in feed conversion ratio and mortality. The feed additives insertion in the diets did not significantly influence the carcass yield or the proportions of the various carcass parts and organs. Differences between treatments were significant for pH value after 48h in loin (5.86 vs. 5.74; P<0.05), hind leg meat (6.62 vs. 6.65; P<0.05), more intense colour b* of loin (5.57 vs. 6.06; P<0.05), less intense colour a* (14.99 vs. 13.15; P<0.05) in hind leg meat. Cholesterol content in hind leg meat decreased by 17.67 mg/100g compared to control group (P<0.05). After storage for three months, MDA concentration decreased in loin and hind leg meat by 0.3 μmol/kg and 0.26 μmol/kg respectively compared to that of the control group (P<0.05). The results of this study suggest that BCOS could potentially be used in rabbit nutrition with consequent benefits on the rabbits’ productivity and nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

Keywords: butyric acids, Ca formate, meat quality, organic acids salts, rabbits, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 115