Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Julien Guyomarch

21 Effect of Environmental Parameters on the Water Solubility of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Derivatives using Taguchi Experimental Design Methodology

Authors: Pranudda Pimsee, Caroline Sablayrolles, Pascale De Caro, Julien Guyomarch, Nicolas Lesage, Mireille Montréjaud-Vignoles

Abstract:

The MIGR’HYCAR research project was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spill drifts in continental waters. These tools aim to serve in the decision-making process once oil spill pollution occurs and/or as reference tools to study scenarios of potential impacts of pollutions on a given site. This paper focuses on the study of the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and derivatives from oil spill in water as function of environmental parameters. Eight petroleum oils covering a representative range of commercially available products were tested. 41 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and derivate, among them 16 EPA priority pollutants were studied by dynamic tests at laboratory scale. The chemical profile of the water soluble fraction was different from the parent oil profile due to the various water solubility of oil components. Semi-volatile compounds (naphtalenes) constitute the major part of the water soluble fraction. A large variation in composition of the water soluble fraction was highlighted depending on oil type. Moreover, four environmental parameters (temperature, suspended solid quantity, salinity, and oil: water surface ratio) were investigated with the Taguchi experimental design methodology. The results showed that oils are divided into three groups: the solubility of Domestic fuel and Jet A1 presented a high sensitivity to parameters studied, meaning they must be taken into account. For gasoline (SP95-E10) and diesel fuel, a medium sensitivity to parameters was observed. In fact, the four others oils have shown low sensitivity to parameters studied. Finally, three parameters were found to be significant towards the water soluble fraction.

Keywords: mornitoring, PAHs, water soluble fraction, SBSE, Taguchi experimental design

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20 Design and Optimization of a 6 Degrees of Freedom Co-Manipulated Parallel Robot for Prostate Brachytherapy

Authors: Aziza Ben Halima, Julien Bert, Dimitris Visvikis

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose designing and evaluating a parallel co-manipulated robot dedicated to low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy. We developed 6 degrees of freedom compact and lightweight robot easy to install in the operating room thanks to its parallel design. This robotic system provides a co-manipulation allowing the surgeon to keep control of the needle’s insertion and consequently to improve the acceptability of the plan for the clinic. The best dimension’s configuration was solved by calculating the geometric model and using an optimization approach. The aim was to ensure the whole coverage of the prostate volume and consider the allowed free space around the patient that includes the ultrasound probe. The final robot dimensions fit in a cube of 300 300 300 mm³. A prototype was 3D printed, and the robot workspace was measured experimentally. The results show that the proposed robotic system satisfies the medical application requirements and permits the needle to reach any point within the prostate.

Keywords: medical robotics, co-manipulation, prostate brachytherapy, optimization

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19 Quantifying Mobility of Urban Inhabitant Based on Social Media Data

Authors: Yuyun, Fritz Akhmad Nuzir, Bart Julien Dewancker

Abstract:

Check-in locations on social media provide information about an individual’s location. The millions of units of data generated from these sites provide knowledge for human activity. In this research, we used a geolocation service and users’ texts posted on Twitter social media to analyze human mobility. Our research will answer the questions; what are the movement patterns of a citizen? And, how far do people travel in the city? We explore the people trajectory of 201,118 check-ins and 22,318 users over a period of one month in Makassar city, Indonesia. To accommodate individual mobility, the authors only analyze the users with check-in activity greater than 30 times. We used sampling method with a systematic sampling approach to assign the research sample. The study found that the individual movement shows a high degree of regularity and intensity in certain places. The other finding found that the average distance an urban inhabitant can travel per day is as far as 9.6 km.

Keywords: mobility, check-in, distance, Twitter

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18 Equivalent Electrical Model of a Shielded Pulse Planar Transformer in Isolated Gate Drivers for SiC MOSFETs

Authors: Loreine Makki, Marc Anthony Mannah, Christophe Batard, Nicolas Ginot, Julien Weckbrodt

Abstract:

Planar transformers are extensively utilized in high-frequency, high power density power electronic converters. The breakthrough of wide-bandgap technology compelled power electronic system miniaturization while inducing pivotal effects on system modeling and manufacturing within the power electronics industry. A significant consideration to simulate and model the unanticipated parasitic parameters emerges with the requirement to mitigate electromagnetic disturbances. This paper will present an equivalent circuit model of a shielded pulse planar transformer quantifying leakage inductance and resistance in addition to the interwinding capacitance of the primary and secondary windings. ANSYS Q3D Extractor was utilized to model and simulate the transformer, intending to study the immunity of the simulated equivalent model to high dv/dt occurrences. A convenient correlation between simulation and experimental results is presented.

Keywords: Planar transformers, wide-band gap, equivalent circuit model, shielded, ANSYS Q3D Extractor, dv/dt

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17 Cooperative Sensing for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Julien Romieux, Fabio Verdicchio

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which sense environmental data with battery-powered nodes, require multi-hop communication. This power-demanding task adds an extra workload that is unfairly distributed across the network. As a result, nodes run out of battery at different times: this requires an impractical individual node maintenance scheme. Therefore we investigate a new Cooperative Sensing approach that extends the WSN operational life and allows a more practical network maintenance scheme (where all nodes deplete their batteries almost at the same time). We propose a novel cooperative algorithm that derives a piecewise representation of the sensed signal while controlling approximation accuracy. Simulations show that our algorithm increases WSN operational life and spreads communication workload evenly. Results convey a counterintuitive conclusion: distributing workload fairly amongst nodes may not decrease the network power consumption and yet extend the WSN operational life. This is achieved as our cooperative approach decreases the workload of the most burdened cluster in the network.

Keywords: cooperative signal processing, signal representation and approximation, power management, wireless sensor networks

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16 Evaluating Accessibility to Bangkok Mass Transit System: Case Study of Saphan Taksin BTS Station

Authors: Rungpansa Noichan, Bart Julien Dewancker

Abstract:

Access to the mass transit system, including rapid elevated and underground transport has become an outstanding issue for many cities. The mass transit access development should focus on behavioral responses of the different passenger groups. Moreover, it should consider about the appearance of intent-oriented action related accessibility that was explored from user’s satisfaction and attitudes related to services quality. This study aims to evaluate mass transit accessibility from passenger’s satisfaction, therefore, understanding the passenger’s attitudes about mass transit accessibility. The study area of this research is Bangkok Mass Transit system (BTS Skytrain) at Saphan Taksin station. 200 passengers at Saphan Taksin station were asked to rate the questionnaires survey that considers accessibility aspects of convenience, safety, feeder connectivity, and other dimensions. The survey was to find out the passenger attitudes and satisfaction for access to the BTS station, and the result shows several factors that influence the passenger choice of using the BTS as a public transportation mode and passenger’s opinion that needs to concern for the development mass transit system and accessibility performance.

Keywords: urban transportation, user satisfaction, accessibility, Bangkok mass transit

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15 Mechanical-Reliability Coupling for a Bearing Capacity Assessment of Shallow Foundations

Authors: Amal Hentati, Mbarka Selmi, Tarek Kormi, Julien Baroth, Barthelemy Harthong

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The impact of uncertainties on the performance assessment of shallow foundations is often significant. The need of the geotechnical engineers to a more objective and rigorous description of soil variations permitting to quantify these uncertainties and to incorporate them into calculation methods led to the development of reliability approaches. In this context, a mechanical-reliability coupling was developed in this paper, using a program coded in Matlab and the finite element software Abaqus, for the bearing capacity assessment of shallow foundations. The reliability analysis, based on the finite element method, assumed both soil cohesion and friction angle as uncertain parameters characterized by normal or lognormal probability distributions. The inherent spatial variability of both soil properties was, then, taken into account using 1D stationary random fields. The application of the proposed methodology to a shallow foundation subjected to a centered vertical loading permitted to highlight the proposed process interest. Findings proved the insufficiency of the conventional approach to predict the foundation failure and a high sensitivity of the ultimate loads to the soil properties uncertainties, mainly those related to the friction angle, was noted. Moreover, an asymmetry of both displacement and velocity fields was obtained.

Keywords: mechanical-reliability coupling, finite element method, shallow foundation, random fields, spatial variability

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14 Computationally Efficient Stacking Sequence Blending for Composite Structures with a Large Number of Design Regions Using Cellular Automata

Authors: Ellen Van Den Oord, Julien Marie Jan Ferdinand Van Campen

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This article introduces a computationally efficient method for stacking sequence blending of composite structures. The computational efficiency makes the presented method especially interesting for composite structures with a large number of design regions. Optimization of composite structures with an unequal load distribution may lead to locally optimized thicknesses and ply orientations that are incompatible with one another. Blending constraints can be enforced to achieve structural continuity. In literature, many methods can be found to implement structural continuity by means of stacking sequence blending in one way or another. The complexity of the problem makes the blending of a structure with a large number of adjacent design regions, and thus stacking sequences, prohibitive. In this work the local stacking sequence optimization is preconditioned using a method found in the literature that couples the mechanical behavior of the laminate, in the form of lamination parameters, to blending constraints, yielding near-optimal easy-to-blend designs. The preconditioned design is then fed to the scheme using cellular automata that have been developed by the authors. The method is applied to the benchmark 18-panel horseshoe blending problem to demonstrate its performance. The computational efficiency of the proposed method makes it especially suited for composite structures with a large number of design regions.

Keywords: composite, blending, optimization, lamination parameters

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13 An Eulerian Method for Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation Applied to Wave Damping by Elastic Structures

Authors: Julien Deborde, Thomas Milcent, Stéphane Glockner, Pierre Lubin

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A fully Eulerian method is developed to solve the problem of fluid-elastic structure interactions based on a 1-fluid method. The interface between the fluid and the elastic structure is captured by a level set function, advected by the fluid velocity and solved with a WENO 5 scheme. The elastic deformations are computed in an Eulerian framework thanks to the backward characteristics. We use the Neo Hookean or Mooney Rivlin hyperelastic models and the elastic forces are incorporated as a source term in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The velocity/pressure coupling is solved with a pressure-correction method and the equations are discretized by finite volume schemes on a Cartesian grid. The main difficulty resides in that large deformations in the fluid cause numerical instabilities. In order to avoid these problems, we use a re-initialization process for the level set and linear extrapolation of the backward characteristics. First, we verify and validate our approach on several test cases, including the benchmark of FSI proposed by Turek. Next, we apply this method to study the wave damping phenomenon which is a mean to reduce the waves impact on the coastline. So far, to our knowledge, only simulations with rigid or one dimensional elastic structure has been studied in the literature. We propose to place elastic structures on the seabed and we present results where 50 % of waves energy is absorbed.

Keywords: damping wave, Eulerian formulation, finite volume, fluid structure interaction, hyperelastic material

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12 MicroRNA-211 Regulates Oxidative Phosphorylation and Energy Metabolism in Human Vitiligoa

Authors: Anupama Sahoo, Bongyong Lee, Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal, Sanjaya K. Sahoo, Tatsuya Seki, Chunyan Wang, Soumen Das, Xianlin Han, Michael Steppie, Sudipta Seal, Alain Taieb, Ranjan J. Perera

Abstract:

Vitiligo is a common, chronic skin disorder characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes and progressive depigmentation. Vitiligo has a complex immune, genetic, environmental, and biochemical etiology, but the exact molecular mechanisms of vitiligo development and progression, particularly those related to metabolic control, are poorly understood. Here we characterized the human vitiligo cell line PIG3V and the normal human melanocytes, HEM-l by RNA-sequencing, targeted metabolomics, and shotgun lipidomics. Melanocyte-enriched miR-211, a known metabolic switch in non-pigmented melanoma cells, was severely downregulated in vitiligo cell line PIG3V and skin biopsies from vitiligo patients, while its novel predicted targets transcriptional co-activator PGC1-α (PPARGC1A), ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2 (RRM2), and serine-threonine protein kinase TAO1 (TAOK1) were reciprocally upregulated. miR-211 binds to PGC1-α 3’UTR locus and represses it. Although mitochondrial numbers were constant, mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV and respiratory responses were defective in vitiligo cells. Nanoparticle-coated miR-211 partially augmented the oxygen consumption rate in PIG3V cells. The lower oxygen consumption rate, changes in lipid and metabolite profiles, and increased reactive oxygen species production observed in vitiligo cells appear to be partly due to abnormal regulation of miR-211 and its target genes. These genes represent potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human vitiligo.

Keywords: metabolism, microRNA, mitochondria, vitiligo

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11 Development of a Model for Predicting Radiological Risks in Interventional Cardiology

Authors: Stefaan Carpentier, Aya Al Masri, Fabrice Leroy, Thibault Julien, Safoin Aktaou, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul

Abstract:

Introduction: During an 'Interventional Radiology (IR)' procedure, the patient's skin-dose may become very high for a burn, necrosis, and ulceration to appear. In order to prevent these deterministic effects, a prediction of the peak skin-dose for the patient is important in order to improve the post-operative care to be given to the patient. The objective of this study is to estimate, before the intervention, the patient dose for ‘Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO)’ procedures by selecting relevant clinical indicators. Materials and methods: 103 procedures were performed in the ‘Interventional Cardiology (IC)’ department using a Siemens Artis Zee image intensifier that provides the Air Kerma of each IC exam. Peak Skin Dose (PSD) was measured for each procedure using radiochromic films. Patient parameters such as sex, age, weight, and height were recorded. The complexity index J-CTO score, specific to each intervention, was determined by the cardiologist. A correlation method applied to these indicators allowed to specify their influence on the dose. A predictive model of the dose was created using multiple linear regressions. Results: Out of 103 patients involved in the study, 5 were excluded for clinical reasons and 2 for placement of radiochromic films outside the exposure field. 96 2D-dose maps were finally used. The influencing factors having the highest correlation with the PSD are the patient's diameter and the J-CTO score. The predictive model is based on these parameters. The comparison between estimated and measured skin doses shows an average difference of 0.85 ± 0.55 Gy for doses of less than 6 Gy. The mean difference between air-Kerma and PSD is 1.66 Gy ± 1.16 Gy. Conclusion: Using our developed method, a first estimate of the dose to the skin of the patient is available before the start of the procedure, which helps the cardiologist in carrying out its intervention. This estimation is more accurate than that provided by the Air-Kerma.

Keywords: chronic total occlusion procedures, clinical experimentation, interventional radiology, patient's peak skin dose

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10 A Sociological Investigation on the Population and Public Spaces of Nguyen Cong Tru, a Soviet-Style Collective Housing Complex in Hanoi in Regards to Its New Community-Focused Architectural Design

Authors: Duy Nguyen Do, Bart Julien Dewancker

Abstract:

Many Soviet-style collective housing complexes (also known as KTT) were built since the 1960s in Hanoi to support the post-war population growth. Those low-rise buildings have created well-knitted, robust communities, so much to the point that in most complexes, all families in one housing block would know each other, occasionally interact and provide supports in need. To understand how the community of collective housing complexes have developed and maintained in order to adapt their advantages into modern housing designs, the study is executed on the site of Nguyen Cong Tru KTT. This is one of the oldest KTT in Hanoi, completed in 1954. The complex also has an unique characteristic that is closely related to its community: the symbiotic relationship with Hom – a flea market that has been co-developing with Nguyen Cong Tru KTT since its beginning. The research consists of three phases: the first phase is a sociological investigation with Nguyen Cong Tru KTT’s current residents and a site survey on the complex’s economic and architectural characteristics. In the second phase, the collected data is analyzed to find out people’s opinions with the KTT’s concerning their satisfaction with the current housing status, floor plan organization, community, the relationship between the KTT’s dedicated public spaces with the flea market and their usage. Simultaneously, the master plan and gathered information regarding current architectural characteristics of the complex are also inspected. On the third phase, the analyses’ results will provide information regarding the issues, positive trends and significant historical features of the complex’s architecture in order to generate suitable proposals for the redesigning project of Nguyen Cong Tru KTT, a design focused on vitalizing modern apartments’ communities.

Keywords: collective house community, collective house public space, community-focused, redesigning Nguyen Cong Tru KTT, sociological investigation

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9 Evaluation of Methods for Simultaneous Extraction and Purification of Fungal and Bacterial DNA from Vaginal Swabs

Authors: Vanessa De Carvalho, Chad MacPherson, Julien Tremblay, Julie Champagne, Stephanie-Anne Girard

Abstract:

Background: The interactions between bacteria and fungi in the human vaginal microbiome are fundamental to the concept of health and disease. The means by which the microbiota and mycobiota interact is still poorly understood and further studies are necessary to properly characterize this complex ecosystem. The aim of this study was to select a DNA extraction method capable of recovering high qualities of fungal and bacterial DNA from a single vaginal swab. Methods: 11 female volunteers ( ≥ 20 to < 55 years old) self-collected vaginal swabs in triplicates. Three commercial extraction kits: Masterpure Yeast Purification kit (Epicenter), PureLink™ Microbiome DNA Purification kit (Invitrogen), and Quick-DNA™ Fecal/Soil Microbe Miniprep kit (Zymo) were evaluated on the ability to recover fungal and bacterial DNA simultaneously. The extraction kits were compared on the basis of recovery, yield, purity, and the community richness of bacterial (16S rRNA - V3-V4 region) and fungal (ITS1) microbiota composition by Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing. Results: Recovery of bacterial DNA was achieved with all three kits while fungal DNA was only consistently recovered with Masterpure Yeast Purification kit (yield and purity). Overall, all kits displayed similar microbiota profiles for the top 20 OTUs; however, Quick-DNA™ Fecal/Soil Microbe Miniprep kit (Zymo) showed more species richness than the other two kits. Conclusion: In the present study, Masterpure Yeast purification kit proved to be a good candidate for purification of high quality fungal and bacterial DNA simultaneously. These findings have potential benefits that could be applied in future vaginal microbiome research. Whilst the use of a single extraction method would lessen the burden of multiple swab sampling, decrease laboratory workload and off-set costs associated with multiple DNA extractions, thoughtful consideration must be taken when selecting an extraction kit depending on the desired downstream application.

Keywords: bacterial vaginosis, DNA extraction, microbiota, mycobiota, vagina, vulvovaginal candidiasis, women’s health

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8 Skin-Dose Mapping for Patients Undergoing Interventional Radiology Procedures: Clinical Experimentations versus a Mathematical Model

Authors: Aya Al Masri, Stefaan Carpentier, Fabrice Leroy, Thibault Julien, Safoin Aktaou, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul

Abstract:

Introduction: During an 'Interventional Radiology (IR)' procedure, the patient's skin-dose may become very high for a burn, necrosis and ulceration to appear. In order to prevent these deterministic effects, an accurate calculation of the patient skin-dose mapping is essential. For most machines, the 'Dose Area Product (DAP)' and fluoroscopy time are the only information available for the operator. These two parameters are a very poor indicator of the peak skin dose. We developed a mathematical model that reconstructs the magnitude (delivered dose), shape, and localization of each irradiation field on the patient skin. In case of critical dose exceeding, the system generates warning alerts. We present the results of its comparison with clinical studies. Materials and methods: Two series of comparison of the skin-dose mapping of our mathematical model with clinical studies were performed: 1. At a first time, clinical tests were performed on patient phantoms. Gafchromic films were placed on the table of the IR machine under of PMMA plates (thickness = 20 cm) that simulate the patient. After irradiation, the film darkening is proportional to the radiation dose received by the patient's back and reflects the shape of the X-ray field. After film scanning and analysis, the exact dose value can be obtained at each point of the mapping. Four experimentation were performed, constituting a total of 34 acquisition incidences including all possible exposure configurations. 2. At a second time, clinical trials were launched on real patients during real 'Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO)' procedures for a total of 80 cases. Gafchromic films were placed at the back of patients. We performed comparisons on the dose values, as well as the distribution, and the shape of irradiation fields between the skin dose mapping of our mathematical model and Gafchromic films. Results: The comparison between the dose values shows a difference less than 15%. Moreover, our model shows a very good geometric accuracy: all fields have the same shape, size and location (uncertainty < 5%). Conclusion: This study shows that our model is a reliable tool to warn physicians when a high radiation dose is reached. Thus, deterministic effects can be avoided.

Keywords: clinical experimentation, interventional radiology, mathematical model, patient's skin-dose mapping.

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7 Stilbenes as Sustainable Antimicrobial Compounds to Control Vitis Vinifera Diseases

Authors: David Taillis, Oussama Becissa, Julien Gabaston, Jean-Michel Merillon, Tristan Richard, Stephanie Cluzet

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Nowadays, there is a strong pressure to reduce the phytosanitary inputs of synthetic chemistry in vineyards. It is, therefore, necessary to find viable alternatives in order to protect the vine against its major diseases. For this purpose, we suggest the use of a plant extract enriched in antimicrobial compounds. Being produced from vine trunks and roots, which are co-products of wine production, the extract produced is part of a circular economy. The antimicrobial molecules present in this plant material are polyphenols and, more particularly, stilbenes, which are derived from a common base, the resveratrol unit, and that are well known vine phytoalexins. The stilbenoids were extracted from trunks and roots (30/70, w/w) by a double extraction with ethyl acetate followed by enrichment by liquid-liquid extraction. The produced extract was characterized by UHPLC-MS, then its antimicrobial activities were tested on Plasmopara viticola and Botrytis cinerea in the laboratory and/or in greenhouse and in vineyard. The major compounds were purified, and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on B. cinerea. Moreover, after its spraying, the effect of the stilbene extract on the plant defence status was evaluated by analysis of defence gene expression. UHPLC-MS analysis revealed that the extract contains 50% stilbenes with resveratrol, ε-viniferin and r-viniferin as major compounds. The extract showed antimicrobial activities on P. viticola with IC₅₀ and IC₁₀₀ respectively of 90 and 300 mg/L in the laboratory. In addition, it inhibited 40% of downy mildew development in greenhouse. However, probably because of the sensitivity of stilbenes to the environment, such as UV degradation, no activity has been observed in vineyard towards P. viticola development. For B. cinerea, the extract IC50 was 123 mg/L, with resveratrol and ε-viniferin being the most active stilbenes (IC₅₀ of 88 and 142 mg/L, respectively). The analysis of the expression of defence genes revealed that the extract can induce the expression of some defence genes 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment, meaning that the extract has a defence-stimulating effect at least for the first three days after treatment. In conclusion, we produced a plant extract enriched in stilbenes with antimicrobial properties against two major grapevine pathogenic agents P. viticola and B. cinerea. In addition, we showed that this extract displayed eliciting activity of plant defences. This extract can therefore represent, after formulation development, a viable eco-friendly alternative for vineyard protection. Subsequently, the effect of the stilbenoid extract on primary metabolism will be evaluated by quantitative NMR.

Keywords: antimicrobial, bioprotection, grapevine, Plasmopara viticola, stilbene

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6 Calibration of Residential Buildings Energy Simulations Using Real Data from an Extensive in situ Sensor Network – A Study of Energy Performance Gap

Authors: Mathieu Bourdeau, Philippe Basset, Julien Waeytens, Elyes Nefzaoui

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As residential buildings account for a third of the overall energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Europe, building energy modeling is an essential tool to reach energy efficiency goals. In the energy modeling process, calibration is a mandatory step to obtain accurate and reliable energy simulations. Nevertheless, the comparison between simulation results and the actual building energy behavior often highlights a significant performance gap. The literature discusses different origins of energy performance gaps, from building design to building operation. Then, building operation description in energy models, especially energy usages and users’ behavior, plays an important role in the reliability of simulations but is also the most accessible target for post-occupancy energy management and optimization. Therefore, the present study aims to discuss results on the calibration ofresidential building energy models using real operation data. Data are collected through a sensor network of more than 180 sensors and advanced energy meters deployed in three collective residential buildings undergoing major retrofit actions. The sensor network is implemented at building scale and in an eight-apartment sample. Data are collected for over one year and half and coverbuilding energy behavior – thermal and electricity, indoor environment, inhabitants’ comfort, occupancy, occupants behavior and energy uses, and local weather. Building energy simulations are performed using a physics-based building energy modeling software (Pleaides software), where the buildings’features are implemented according to the buildingsthermal regulation code compliance study and the retrofit project technical files. Sensitivity analyses are performed to highlight the most energy-driving building features regarding each end-use. These features are then compared with the collected post-occupancy data. Energy-driving features are progressively replaced with field data for a step-by-step calibration of the energy model. Results of this study provide an analysis of energy performance gap on an existing residential case study under deep retrofit actions. It highlights the impact of the different building features on the energy behavior and the performance gap in this context, such as temperature setpoints, indoor occupancy, the building envelopeproperties but also domestic hot water usage or heat gains from electric appliances. The benefits of inputting field data from an extensive instrumentation campaign instead of standardized scenarios are also described. Finally, the exhaustive instrumentation solution provides useful insights on the needs, advantages, and shortcomings of the implemented sensor network for its replicability on a larger scale and for different use cases.

Keywords: calibration, building energy modeling, performance gap, sensor network

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5 Calculation of Organ Dose for Adult and Pediatric Patients Undergoing Computed Tomography Examinations: A Software Comparison

Authors: Aya Al Masri, Naima Oubenali, Safoin Aktaou, Thibault Julien, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul

Abstract:

Introduction: The increased number of performed 'Computed Tomography (CT)' examinations raise public concerns regarding associated stochastic risk to patients. In its Publication 102, the ‘International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)’ emphasized the importance of managing patient dose, particularly from repeated or multiple examinations. We developed a Dose Archiving and Communication System that gives multiple dose indexes (organ dose, effective dose, and skin-dose mapping) for patients undergoing radiological imaging exams. The aim of this study is to compare the organ dose values given by our software for patients undergoing CT exams with those of another software named "VirtualDose". Materials and methods: Our software uses Monte Carlo simulations to calculate organ doses for patients undergoing computed tomography examinations. The general calculation principle consists to simulate: (1) the scanner machine with all its technical specifications and associated irradiation cases (kVp, field collimation, mAs, pitch ...) (2) detailed geometric and compositional information of dozens of well identified organs of computational hybrid phantoms that contain the necessary anatomical data. The mass as well as the elemental composition of the tissues and organs that constitute our phantoms correspond to the recommendations of the international organizations (namely the ICRP and the ICRU). Their body dimensions correspond to reference data developed in the United States. Simulated data was verified by clinical measurement. To perform the comparison, 270 adult patients and 150 pediatric patients were used, whose data corresponds to exams carried out in France hospital centers. The comparison dataset of adult patients includes adult males and females for three different scanner machines and three different acquisition protocols (Head, Chest, and Chest-Abdomen-Pelvis). The comparison sample of pediatric patients includes the exams of thirty patients for each of the following age groups: new born, 1-2 years, 3-7 years, 8-12 years, and 13-16 years. The comparison for pediatric patients were performed on the “Head” protocol. The percentage of the dose difference were calculated for organs receiving a significant dose according to the acquisition protocol (80% of the maximal dose). Results: Adult patients: for organs that are completely covered by the scan range, the maximum percentage of dose difference between the two software is 27 %. However, there are three organs situated at the edges of the scan range that show a slightly higher dose difference. Pediatric patients: the percentage of dose difference between the two software does not exceed 30%. These dose differences may be due to the use of two different generations of hybrid phantoms by the two software. Conclusion: This study shows that our software provides a reliable dosimetric information for patients undergoing Computed Tomography exams.

Keywords: adult and pediatric patients, computed tomography, organ dose calculation, software comparison

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4 Changes in Physicochemical Characteristics of a Serpentine Soil and in Root Architecture of a Hyperaccumulating Plant Cropped with a Legume

Authors: Ramez F. Saad, Ahmad Kobaissi, Bernard Amiaud, Julien Ruelle, Emile Benizri

Abstract:

Agromining is a new technology that establishes agricultural systems on ultramafic soils in order to produce valuable metal compounds such as nickel (Ni), with the final aim of restoring a soil's agricultural functions. But ultramafic soils are characterized by low fertility levels and this can limit yields of hyperaccumulators and metal phytoextraction. The objectives of the present work were to test if the association of a hyperaccumulating plant (Alyssum murale) and a Fabaceae (Vicia sativa var. Prontivesa) could induce changes in physicochemical characteristics of a serpentine soil and in root architecture of a hyperaccumulating plant then lead to efficient agromining practices through soil quality improvement. Based on standard agricultural systems, consisting in the association of legumes and another crop such as wheat or rape, a three-month rhizobox experiment was carried out to study the effect of the co-cropping (Co) or rotation (Ro) of a hyperaccumulating plant (Alyssum murale) with a legume (Vicia sativa) and incorporating legume biomass to soil, in comparison with mineral fertilization (FMo), on the structure and physicochemical properties of an ultramafic soil and on root architecture. All parameters measured (biomass, C and N contents, and taken-up Ni) on Alyssum murale conducted in co-cropping system showed the highest values followed by the mineral fertilization and rotation (Co > FMo > Ro), except for root nickel yield for which rotation was better than the mineral fertilization (Ro > FMo). The rhizosphere soil of Alyssum murale in co-cropping had larger soil particles size and better aggregates stability than other treatments. Using geostatistics, co-cropped Alyssum murale showed a greater root surface area spatial distribution. Moreover, co-cropping and rotation-induced lower soil DTPA-extractable nickel concentrations than other treatments, but higher pH values. Alyssum murale co-cropped with a legume showed a higher biomass production, improved soil physical characteristics and enhanced nickel phytoextraction. This study showed that the introduction of a legume into Ni agromining systems could improve yields of dry biomass of the hyperaccumulating plant used and consequently, the yields of Ni. Our strategy can decrease the need to apply fertilizers and thus minimizes the risk of nitrogen leaching and underground water pollution. Co-cropping of Alyssum murale with the legume showed a clear tendency to increase nickel phytoextraction and plant biomass in comparison to rotation treatment and fertilized mono-culture. In addition, co-cropping improved soil physical characteristics and soil structure through larger and more stabilized aggregates. It is, therefore, reasonable to conclude that the use of legumes in Ni-agromining systems could be a good strategy to reduce chemical inputs and to restore soil agricultural functions. Improving the agromining system by the replacement of inorganic fertilizers could simultaneously be a safe way of rehabilitating degraded soils and a method to restore soil quality and functions leading to the recovery of ecosystem services.

Keywords: plant association, legumes, hyperaccumulating plants, ultramafic soil physicochemical properties

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3 OASIS: An Alternative Access to Potable Water, Renewable Energy and Organic Food

Authors: Julien G. Chenet, Mario A. Hernandez, U. Leonardo Rodriguez

Abstract:

The tropical areas are places where there is scarcity of access to potable water and where renewable energies need further development. They also display high undernourishment levels, even though they are one of the resources-richest areas in the world. In these areas, it is common to count on great extension of soils, high solar radiation and raw water from rain, groundwater, surface water or even saltwater. Even though resources are available, access to them is limited, and the low-density habitat makes central solutions expensive and investments not worthy. In response to this lack of investment, rural inhabitants use fossil fuels and timber as an energy source and import agrochemical for soils fertilization, which increase GHG emissions. The OASIS project brings an answer to this situation. It supplies renewable energy, potable water and organic food. The first step is the determination of the needs of the communities in terms of energy, water quantity and quality, food requirements and soil characteristics. Second step is the determination of the available resources, such as solar energy, raw water and organic residues on site. The pilot OASIS project is located in the Vichada department, Colombia, and ensures the sustainable use of natural resources to meet the community needs. The department has roughly 70% of indigenous people. They live in a very scattered landscape, with no access to clean water and energy. They use polluted surface water for direct consumption and diesel for energy purposes. OASIS pilot will ensure basic needs for a 400-students education center. In this case, OASIS will provide 20 kW of solar energy potential and 40 liters per student per day. Water will be treated form groundwater, with two qualities. A conventional one with chlorine, and as the indigenous people are not used to chlorine for direct consumption, second train is with reverse osmosis to bring conservable safe water without taste. OASIS offers a solution to supply basic needs, shifting from fossil fuels, timber, to a no-GHG-emission solution. This solution is part of the mitigation strategy against Climate Change for the communities in low-density areas of the tropics. OASIS is a learning center to teach how to convert natural resources into utilizable ones. It is also a meeting point for the community with high pedagogic impact that promotes the efficient and sustainable use of resources. OASIS system is adaptable to any tropical area and competes technically and economically with any conventional solution, that needs transport of energy, treated water and food. It is a fully automatic, replicable and sustainable solution to sort out the issue of access to basic needs in rural areas. OASIS is also a solution to undernourishment, ensuring a responsible use of resources, to prevent long-term pollution of soils and groundwater. It promotes the closure of the nutrient cycle, and the optimal use of the land whilst ensuring food security in depressed low-density regions of the tropics. OASIS is under optimization to Vichada conditions, and will be available to any other tropical area in the following months.

Keywords: climate change adaptation and mitigation, rural development, sustainable access to clean and renewable resources, social inclusion

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2 An Infrared Inorganic Scintillating Detector Applied in Radiation Therapy

Authors: Sree Bash Chandra Debnath, Didier Tonneau, Carole Fauquet, Agnes Tallet, Julien Darreon

Abstract:

Purpose: Inorganic scintillating dosimetry is the most recent promising technique to solve several dosimetric issues and provide quality assurance in radiation therapy. Despite several advantages, the major issue of using scintillating detectors is the Cerenkov effect, typically induced in the visible emission range. In this context, the purpose of this research work is to evaluate the performance of a novel infrared inorganic scintillator detector (IR-ISD) in the radiation therapy treatment to ensure Cerenkov free signal and the best matches between the delivered and prescribed doses during treatment. Methods: A simple and small-scale infrared inorganic scintillating detector of 100 µm diameter with a sensitive scintillating volume of 2x10-6 mm3 was developed. A prototype of the dose verification system has been introduced based on PTIR1470/F (provided by Phosphor Technology®) material used in the proposed novel IR-ISD. The detector was tested on an Elekta LINAC system tuned at 6 MV/15MV and a brachytherapy source (Ir-192) used in the patient treatment protocol. The associated dose rate was measured in count rate (photons/s) using a highly sensitive photon counter (sensitivity ~20ph/s). Overall measurements were performed in IBATM water tank phantoms by following international Technical Reports series recommendations (TRS 381) for radiotherapy and TG43U1 recommendations for brachytherapy. The performance of the detector was tested through several dosimetric parameters such as PDD, beam profiling, Cerenkov measurement, dose linearity, dose rate linearity repeatability, and scintillator stability. Finally, a comparative study is also shown using a reference microdiamond dosimeter, Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation, and data from recent literature. Results: This study is highlighting the complete removal of the Cerenkov effect especially for small field radiation beam characterization. The detector provides an entire linear response with the dose in the 4cGy to 800 cGy range, independently of the field size selected from 5 x 5 cm² down to 0.5 x 0.5 cm². A perfect repeatability (0.2 % variation from average) with day-to-day reproducibility (0.3% variation) was observed. Measurements demonstrated that ISD has superlinear behavior with dose rate (R2=1) varying from 50 cGy/s to 1000 cGy/s. PDD profiles obtained in water present identical behavior with a build-up maximum depth dose at 15 mm for different small fields irradiation. A low dimension of 0.5 x 0.5 cm² field profiles have been characterized, and the field cross profile presents a Gaussian-like shape. The standard deviation (1σ) of the scintillating signal remains within 0.02% while having a very low convolution effect, thanks to lower sensitive volume. Finally, during brachytherapy, a comparison with MC simulations shows that considering energy dependency, measurement agrees within 0.8% till 0.2 cm source to detector distance. Conclusion: The proposed scintillating detector in this study shows no- Cerenkov radiation and efficient performance for several radiation therapy measurement parameters. Therefore, it is anticipated that the IR-ISD system can be promoted to validate with direct clinical investigations, such as appropriate dose verification and quality control in the Treatment Planning System (TPS).

Keywords: IR-Scintillating detector, dose measurement, micro-scintillators, Cerenkov effect

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1 Analysis of Composite Health Risk Indicators Built at a Regional Scale and Fine Resolution to Detect Hotspot Areas

Authors: Julien Caudeville, Muriel Ismert

Abstract:

Analyzing the relationship between environment and health has become a major preoccupation for public health as evidenced by the emergence of the French national plans for health and environment. These plans have identified the following two priorities: (1) to identify and manage geographic areas, where hotspot exposures are suspected to generate a potential hazard to human health; (2) to reduce exposure inequalities. At a regional scale and fine resolution of exposure outcome prerequisite, environmental monitoring networks are not sufficient to characterize the multidimensionality of the exposure concept. In an attempt to increase representativeness of spatial exposure assessment approaches, risk composite indicators could be built using additional available databases and theoretical framework approaches to combine factor risks. To achieve those objectives, combining data process and transfer modeling with a spatial approach is a fundamental prerequisite that implies the need to first overcome different scientific limitations: to define interest variables and indicators that could be built to associate and describe the global source-effect chain; to link and process data from different sources and different spatial supports; to develop adapted methods in order to improve spatial data representativeness and resolution. A GIS-based modeling platform for quantifying human exposure to chemical substances (PLAINE: environmental inequalities analysis platform) was used to build health risk indicators within the Lorraine region (France). Those indicators combined chemical substances (in soil, air and water) and noise risk factors. Tools have been developed using modeling, spatial analysis and geostatistic methods to build and discretize interest variables from different supports and resolutions on a 1 km2 regular grid within the Lorraine region. By example, surface soil concentrations have been estimated by developing a Kriging method able to integrate surface and point spatial supports. Then, an exposure model developed by INERIS was used to assess the transfer from soil to individual exposure through ingestion pathways. We used distance from polluted soil site to build a proxy for contaminated site. Air indicator combined modeled concentrations and estimated emissions to take in account 30 polluants in the analysis. For water, drinking water concentrations were compared to drinking water standards to build a score spatialized using a distribution unit serve map. The Lden (day-evening-night) indicator was used to map noise around road infrastructures. Aggregation of the different factor risks was made using different methodologies to discuss weighting and aggregation procedures impact on the effectiveness of risk maps to take decisions for safeguarding citizen health. Results permit to identify pollutant sources, determinants of exposure, and potential hotspots areas. A diagnostic tool was developed for stakeholders to visualize and analyze the composite indicators in an operational and accurate manner. The designed support system will be used in many applications and contexts: (1) mapping environmental disparities throughout the Lorraine region; (2) identifying vulnerable population and determinants of exposure to set priorities and target for pollution prevention, regulation and remediation; (3) providing exposure database to quantify relationships between environmental indicators and cancer mortality data provided by French Regional Health Observatories.

Keywords: health risk, environment, composite indicator, hotspot areas

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