Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: wide-band gap

46 Performance Comparison of Joint Diagonalization Structure (JDS) Method and Wideband MUSIC Method

Authors: Sandeep Santosh, O. P. Sahu

Abstract:

We simulate an efficient multiple wideband and nonstationary source localization algorithm by exploiting both the non-stationarity of the signals and the array geometric information.This algorithm is based on joint diagonalization structure (JDS) of a set of short time power spectrum matrices at different time instants of each frequency bin. JDS can be used for quick and accurate multiple non-stationary source localization. The JDS algorithm is a one stage process i.e it directly searches the Direction of arrivals (DOAs) over the continuous location parameter space. The JDS method requires that the number of sensors is not less than the number of sources. By observing the simulation results, one can conclude that the JDS method can localize two sources when their difference is not less than 7 degree but the Wideband MUSIC is able to localize two sources for difference of 18 degree.

Keywords: joint diagonalization structure (JDS), wideband direction of arrival (DOA), wideband MUSIC

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45 Miniaturized Wideband Single-Feed Shorted-Edge Stacked Patch Antenna for C-Band Applications

Authors: Abdelheq Boukarkar, Omar Guermoua

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a miniaturized and wideband patch antenna for C-band applications. The antenna miniaturization is obtained by loading shorting vias along one patch edge. At the same time, the wideband performance is achieved by combining two resonances using one feed line. The measured results reveal that the antenna covers the frequency band 4.32 GHz to 6.52 GHz (41%) with a peak gain and a peak efficiency of 5.5 dBi and 87%, respectively. The antenna occupies a relatively small size of only 26 x 22 x 5.6 mm3, making it suitable for compact wireless devices requiring a stable unidirectional gain over a wide frequency range.

Keywords: miniaturized antennas, patch antennas, stable gain, wideband antennas

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44 Performance Comparison of Wideband Covariance Matrix Sparse Representation (W-CMSR) with Other Wideband DOA Estimation Methods

Authors: Sandeep Santosh, O. P. Sahu

Abstract:

In this paper, performance comparison of wideband covariance matrix sparse representation (W-CMSR) method with other existing wideband Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation methods has been made.W-CMSR relies less on a priori information of the incident signal number than the ordinary subspace based methods.Consider the perturbation free covariance matrix of the wideband array output. The diagonal covariance elements are contaminated by unknown noise variance. The covariance matrix of array output is conjugate symmetric i.e its upper right triangular elements can be represented by lower left triangular ones.As the main diagonal elements are contaminated by unknown noise variance,slide over them and align the lower left triangular elements column by column to obtain a measurement vector.Simulation results for W-CMSR are compared with simulation results of other wideband DOA estimation methods like Coherent signal subspace method (CSSM), Capon, l1-SVD, and JLZA-DOA. W-CMSR separate two signals very clearly and CSSM, Capon, L1-SVD and JLZA-DOA fail to separate two signals clearly and an amount of pseudo peaks exist in the spectrum of L1-SVD.

Keywords: W-CMSR, wideband direction of arrival (DOA), covariance matrix, electrical and computer engineering

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43 Performance Evaluation of Refinement Method for Wideband Two-Beams Formation

Authors: C. Bunsanit

Abstract:

This paper presents the refinement method for two beams formation of wideband smart antenna. The refinement method for weighting coefficients is based on Fully Spatial Signal Processing by taking Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT), and its simulation results are presented using MATLAB. The radiation pattern is created by multiplying the incoming signal with real weights and then summing them together. These real weighting coefficients are computed by IDFT method; however, the range of weight values is relatively wide. Therefore, for reducing this range, the refinement method is used. The radiation pattern concerns with five input parameters to control. These parameters are maximum weighting coefficient, wideband signal, direction of mainbeam, beamwidth, and maximum of minor lobe level. Comparison of the obtained simulation results between using refinement method and taking only IDFT shows that the refinement method works well for wideband two beams formation.

Keywords: fully spatial signal processing, beam forming, refinement method, smart antenna, weighting coefficient, wideband

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42 A Novel Design of a Low Cost Wideband Wilkinson Power Divider

Authors: A. Sardi, J. Zbitou, A. Errkik, L. El Abdellaoui, A. Tajmouati, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents analysis and design of a wideband Wilkinson power divider for wireless applications. The design is accomplished by transforming the lengths and impedances of the quarter wavelength sections of the conventional Wilkinson power divider into U-shaped sections. The designed power divider is simulated by using ADS Agilent technologies and CST microwave studio software. It is shown that the proposed power divider has simple topology and good performances in terms of insertion loss, port matching and isolation at all operating frequencies (1.8 GHz, 2.45 GHz and 3.55 GHz).

Keywords: ADS agilent technologies, CST microwave studio, microstrip, wideband, wilkinson power divider

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41 Low Power, Highly Linear, Wideband LNA in Wireless SOC

Authors: Amir Mahdavi

Abstract:

In this paper a highly linear CMOS low noise amplifier (LNA) for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications is proposed. The proposed LNA uses a linearization technique to improve second and third-order intercept points (IIP3). The linearity is cured by repealing the common-mode section of all intermodulation components from the cascade topology current with optimization of biasing current use symmetrical and asymmetrical circuits for biasing. Simulation results show that maximum gain and noise figure are 6.9dB and 3.03-4.1dB over a 3.1–10.6 GHz, respectively. Power consumption of the LNA core and IIP3 are 2.64 mW and +4.9dBm respectively. The wideband input impedance matching of LNA is obtained by employing a degenerating inductor (|S11|<-9.1 dB). The circuit proposed UWB LNA is implemented using 0.18 μm based CMOS technology.

Keywords: highly linear LNA, low-power LNA, optimal bias techniques

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40 Error Correction Method for 2D Ultra-Wideband Indoor Wireless Positioning System Using Logarithmic Error Model

Authors: Phornpat Chewasoonthorn, Surat Kwanmuang

Abstract:

Indoor positioning technologies have been evolved rapidly. They augment the Global Positioning System (GPS) which requires line-of-sight to the sky to track the location of people or objects. This study developed an error correction method for an indoor real-time location system (RTLS) based on an ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor from Decawave. Multiple stationary nodes (anchor) were installed throughout the workspace. The distance between stationary and moving nodes (tag) can be measured using a two-way-ranging (TWR) scheme. The result has shown that the uncorrected ranging error from the sensor system can be as large as 1 m. To reduce ranging error and thus increase positioning accuracy, This study purposes an online correction algorithm using the Kalman filter. The results from experiments have shown that the system can reduce ranging error down to 5 cm.

Keywords: indoor positioning, ultra-wideband, error correction, Kalman filter

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39 Compact Microstrip Ultra Wideband Bandstop Filter with Quasi Elliptic Function Response

Authors: Faris H. Almansour, Hussein N. Shaman

Abstract:

This paper proposes a modified optimum bandstop filter with ultra-wideband stopband. The filter consists of three shunt open-circuited stubs and two non-redundant unit elements. The proposed bandstop filter is designed with unequal electrical lengths of the open-circuited stubs at the mid-stopband. Therefore, the filter can exhibit a quasi-elliptic function response that improves the selectivity and enhances the rejection bandwidth. The filter is designed to exhibit a fractional bandwidth of about 114% at a mid-stopband frequency of 3.0 GHz. The filter is successfully realized in theory, simulated, fabricated and measured. An excellent agreement is obtained between calculated, simulated and measured. The fabricated filter has a compact size with a low insertion loss in the passbands, high selectivity and good attenuation level inside the desired stopband.

Keywords: ultra-wideband bandstop filters, microstrip filters, transmission line filters

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38 Ultra Wideband Breast Cancer Detection by Using SAR for Indication the Tumor Location

Authors: Wittawat Wasusathien, Samran Santalunai, Thanaset Thosdeekoraphat, Chanchai Thongsopa

Abstract:

This paper presents breast cancer detection by observing the specific absorption rate (SAR) intensity for identification tumor location, the tumor is identified in coordinates (x,y,z) system. We examined the frequency between 4-8 GHz to look for the most appropriate frequency. Results are simulated in frequency 4-8 GHz, the model overview include normal breast with 50 mm radian, 5 mm diameter of tumor, and ultra wideband (UWB) bowtie antenna. The models are created and simulated in CST Microwave Studio. For this simulation, we changed antenna to 5 location around the breast, the tumor can be detected when an antenna is close to the tumor location, which the coordinate of maximum SAR is approximated the tumor location. For reliable, we experiment by random tumor location to 3 position in the same size of tumor and simulation the result again by varying the antenna position in 5 position again, and it also detectable the tumor position from the antenna that nearby tumor position by maximum value of SAR, which it can be detected the tumor with precision in all frequency between 4-8 GHz.

Keywords: specific absorption rate (SAR), ultra wideband (UWB), coordinates, cancer detection

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37 Wideband Planar Antenna Based on Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission-Line (CRLH-TL) for Operation across UHF/L/S-Bands

Authors: Mohammad Alibakhshikenari, Ernesto Limiti, Bal S. Virdee

Abstract:

The paper presents a miniature wideband antenna using composite right/left-handed transmission-line (CRLH-TL) metamaterial. The proposed planar antenna has a fractional bandwidth of 100% and is designed to operate in several frequency bands from 800MHz to 2.40GHz. The antenna is constructed using just two CRLH-TL unit cells comprising of two T-shaped slots that are inverted. The slots contribute towards generating the series left-handed (LH) capacitance CL. The rectangular patch on which the slots are created is grounded with spiral shaped high impedance stubs that contribute towards LH inductance LL. The antenna has a size of 14×6×1.6mm3 (0.037λ0×0.016λ0× 0.004λ0, where λ0 is free space wavelength at 800MHz). The peak gain and efficiency of the antenna are 1.5 dBi and ~75%, respectively, at 1.6GHz. Proposed antenna is suitable for use in wireless systems working at UHF/L/S-bands, in particular, AMPS, GSM, WCDMA, UMTS, PCS, cellular, DCS, IMT-2000, JCDMA, KPCS, GPS, lower band of WiMAX.

Keywords: miniature antenna, composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL), wideband antenna, communication transceiver, metamaterials

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36 Octagon Shaped Wearable Antenna for Band at 4GHz

Authors: M. Khazini, M.Damou, Z. Souar

Abstract:

In this paper, octagon antenna ultra wideband (UWB) low band wearable antenna designs have been proposed for in-body to on-body communication channel of wireless. Single element antenna, dual elements, are designed and compared in free space and in body proximity. Conformal design has been focused. Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) is a material that has gained attention as a potential high-performance microwave substrate and packaging material. This investigation uses several methods to determine the electrical properties of LCP for millimeter-wave frequencies.

Keywords: ultra wideband, wearable antenna, slot antenna, liquid crystal polymer (LCP), CST studio

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35 Secure Distance Bounding Protocol on Ultra-WideBand Based Mapping Code

Authors: Jamel Miri, Bechir Nsiri, Ridha Bouallegue

Abstract:

Ultra WidBand-IR physical layer technology has seen a great development during the last decade which makes it a promising candidate for short range wireless communications, as they bring considerable benefits in terms of connectivity and mobility. However, like all wireless communication they suffer from vulnerabilities in terms of security because of the open nature of the radio channel. To face these attacks, distance bounding protocols are the most popular counter measures. In this paper, we presented a protocol based on distance bounding to thread the most popular attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud and Terrorist fraud. In our work, we study the way to adapt the best secure distance bounding protocols to mapping code of ultra-wideband (TH-UWB) radios. Indeed, to ameliorate the performances of the protocol in terms of security communication in TH-UWB, we combine the modified protocol to ultra-wideband impulse radio technology (IR-UWB). The security and the different merits of the protocols are analyzed.

Keywords: distance bounding, mapping code ultrawideband, terrorist fraud, physical layer technology

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34 A Real Time Ultra-Wideband Location System for Smart Healthcare

Authors: Mingyang Sun, Guozheng Yan, Dasheng Liu, Lei Yang

Abstract:

Driven by the demand of intelligent monitoring in rehabilitation centers or hospitals, a high accuracy real-time location system based on UWB (ultra-wideband) technology was proposed. The system measures precise location of a specific person, traces his movement and visualizes his trajectory on the screen for doctors or administrators. Therefore, doctors could view the position of the patient at any time and find them immediately and exactly when something emergent happens. In our design process, different algorithms were discussed, and their errors were analyzed. In addition, we discussed about a , simple but effective way of correcting the antenna delay error, which turned out to be effective. By choosing the best algorithm and correcting errors with corresponding methods, the system attained a good accuracy. Experiments indicated that the ranging error of the system is lower than 7 cm, the locating error is lower than 20 cm, and the refresh rate exceeds 5 times per second. In future works, by embedding the system in wearable IoT (Internet of Things) devices, it could provide not only physical parameters, but also the activity status of the patient, which would help doctors a lot in performing healthcare.

Keywords: intelligent monitoring, ultra-wideband technology, real-time location, IoT devices, smart healthcare

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33 Vibroacoustic Modulation of Wideband Vibrations and its Possible Application for Windmill Blade Diagnostics

Authors: Abdullah Alnutayfat, Alexander Sutin, Dong Liu

Abstract:

Wind The wind turbine has become one of the most popular energy production. However, failure of blades and maintenance costs evolve significant issues in the wind power industry, so it is essential to detect the initial blade defects to avoid the collapse of the blades and structure. This paper aims to apply modulation of high frequency blade vibrations by low frequency blade rotation, which is close to the known Vibro-Acoustic Modulation (VAM) method. However, the windmill blade's probe waves are wideband vibrations, and the blade rotation produces their modulation. The high frequency of blade vibration is produced by the interaction of the surface blades with the environment air turbulence, and the low frequency modulation is produced by alternating bending stress due to gravity. The low frequency of rotational wind turbine blades ranges between 0.2-0.4 Hz and can reach up to 2 Hz for strong wind. Therefore, the expected frequencies of vibration could be in the range 1-10kHz. Accordingly, the appropriate technique for this modulation effect is called Detecting of Envelope Modulation on Noise (DEMON) which was developed in underwater acoustic for submarine detection. The experimental result shows the possibility of VAM using a wideband noise signal using the Detecting of Envelope Modulation on Noise (DEMON) method on steel sample. Damage in the tested samples was created by cycle loading with a small amplitude and used as a pump wave, while a small transducer generated a wideband probe wave. The experimental results were also compared with the Modulation Index (MI) method regarding the harmonic pump wave. The DEMON and standard VAM methods demonstrated similar sensitivity for earlier detection of invisible cracks. In addition, the application of wideband probe signal in the DEMON method simplified and speeded up tests because they do not require the probe frequency tuning and test repetitions for many harmonic probe frequencies.

Keywords: vibro-acoustic modulation, detecting of envelope modulation on noise, damage, turbine blades

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32 Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Mohamed Adel Sennouni, Jamal Zbitou, Benaissa Abboud, Abdelwahed Tribak, Hamid Bennis, Mohamed Latrach

Abstract:

A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design is composed of a rectangular patch with symmetric L-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875

Keywords: UWB planar antenna, L-shaped slots, wireless applications, impedance band-width, radiation pattern, CST

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31 Reliable Line-of-Sight and Non-Line-of-Sight Propagation Channel Identification in Ultra-Wideband Wireless Networks

Authors: Mohamed Adnan Landolsi, Ali F. Almutairi

Abstract:

The paper addresses the problem of line-of-sight (LOS) vs. non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation link identification in ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless networks, which is necessary for improving the accuracy of radiolocation and positioning applications. A LOS/NLOS likelihood hypothesis testing approach is applied based on exploiting distinctive statistical features of the channel impulse response (CIR) using parameters related to the “skewness” of the CIR and its root mean square (RMS) delay spread. A log-normal fit is presented for the probability densities of the CIR parameters. Simulation results show that different environments (residential, office, outdoor, etc.) have measurable differences in their CIR parameters’ statistics, which is then exploited in determining the nature of the propagation channels. Correct LOS/NLOS channel identification rates exceeding 90% are shown to be achievable for most types of environments. Additional improvement is also obtained by combining both CIR skewness and RMS delay statistics.

Keywords: UWB, propagation, LOS, NLOS, identification

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30 UWB Channel Estimation Using an Efficient Sub-Nyquist Sampling Scheme

Authors: Yaacoub Tina, Youssef Roua, Radoi Emanuel, Burel Gilles

Abstract:

Recently, low-complexity sub-Nyquist sampling schemes based on the Finite Rate of Innovation (FRI) theory have been introduced to sample parametric signals at minimum rates. The multichannel modulating waveforms (MCMW) is such an efficient scheme, where the received signal is mixed with an appropriate set of arbitrary waveforms, integrated and sampled at rates far below the Nyquist rate. In this paper, the MCMW scheme is adapted to the special case of ultra wideband (UWB) channel estimation, characterized by dense multipaths. First, an appropriate structure, which accounts for the bandpass spectrum feature of UWB signals, is defined. Then, a novel approach to decrease the number of processing channels and reduce the complexity of this sampling scheme is presented. Finally, the proposed concepts are validated by simulation results, obtained with real filters, in the framework of a coherent Rake receiver.

Keywords: coherent rake receiver, finite rate of innovation, sub-nyquist sampling, ultra wideband

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29 UWB Open Spectrum Access for a Smart Software Radio

Authors: Hemalatha Rallapalli, K. Lal Kishore

Abstract:

In comparison to systems that are typically designed to provide capabilities over a narrow frequency range through hardware elements, the next generation cognitive radios are intended to implement a broader range of capabilities through efficient spectrum exploitation. This offers the user the promise of greater flexibility, seamless roaming possible on different networks, countries, frequencies, etc. It requires true paradigm shift i.e., liberalization over a wide band of spectrum as well as a growth path to more and greater capability. This work contributes towards the design and implementation of an open spectrum access (OSA) feature to unlicensed users thus offering a frequency agile radio platform that is capable of performing spectrum sensing over a wideband. Thus, an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio, which has the intelligence of spectrum sensing only, unlike the cognitive radio with complete intelligence, is named as a Smart Software Radio (SSR). The spectrum sensing mechanism is implemented based on energy detection. Simulation results show the accuracy and validity of this method.

Keywords: cognitive radio, energy detection, software radio, spectrum sensing

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28 Software-Defined Radio Based Channel Measurement System of Wideband HF Communication System in Low-Latitude Region

Authors: P. H. Mukti, I. Kurniawati, F. Oktaviansyah, A. D. Adhitya, N. Rachmadani, R. Corputty, G. Hendrantoro, T. Fukusako

Abstract:

HF Communication system is one of the attractive fields among many researchers since it can be reached long-distance areas with low-cost. This long-distance communication can be achieved by exploiting the ionosphere as a transmission medium for the HF radio wave. However, due to the dynamic nature of ionosphere, the channel characteristic of HF communication has to be investigated in order to gives better performances. Many techniques to characterize HF channel are available in the literature. However, none of those techniques describe the HF channel characteristic in low-latitude regions, especially equatorial areas. Since the ionosphere around equatorial region has an ESF phenomenon, it becomes an important investigation to characterize the wideband HF Channel in low-latitude region. On the other sides, the appearance of software-defined radio attracts the interest of many researchers. Accordingly, in this paper a SDR-based channel measurement system is proposed to be used for characterizing the HF channel in low-latitude region.

Keywords: channel characteristic, HF communication system, LabVIEW, software-defined radio, universal software radio peripheral

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27 Miniaturized and Compact Monopole Corner Antenna with a Periodic Slot Truncated and T-Inverted Stub-Tuning for Ultra Wideband Applications

Authors: R. Dakir, J. Zbitou, Ahmed Mouhsen, A. Errkik, A. Tajmouati, M. Latrach

Abstract:

The design and analysis of a new compact and miniaturized monopole antenna structure for ultra wideband (UWB) wireless applications are presented and suggested in this paper. The proposed antenna structure is based on corner radiator patch with T-shaped slot and fed by mictostrip feed line with a partial ground plane combined a periodic rectangular slot and inverted T-stub tuning to increase the bandwidth. The design parameters and the performance of the suggested antenna are investigated by using 'CST Microwave Studio' and Advanced Design System. The final prototype of the proposed antenna operates from 3GHZ to 25GHz, corresponding to wide input impedance bandwidth around (157.14%) with a size of 16*24mm2 and can be easily integrated with radio-frequency or microwave circuits with low cost manufacturing. Details of the UWB antenna design and both simulated and measured results are described and discussed.

Keywords: UWB, T-shaped slots, improvement, bandwidth, stub tuning

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26 A Dual-Polarized Wideband Probe for Near-Field Antenna Measurement

Authors: K. S. Sruthi

Abstract:

Antennas are one of the most important parts of a communication chain. They are used for both communication and calibration purposes. New developments in probe technologies have enabled near-field probes with much larger bandwidth. The objective of this paper is to design, simulate and fabricate a dual polarized wide band inverted quad ridged shape horn antenna which can be used as measurement probe for near field measurements. The inverted quad-ridged horn antenna probe not only provides measurement in the much wider range but also provides dual-polarization measurement thus enabling antenna developers to measure UWB, UHF, VHF antennas more precisely and at lower cost. The antenna is designed to meet the characteristics such as high gain, light weight, linearly polarized with suppressed side lobes for near-field measurement applications. The proposed antenna is simulated with commercially available packages such as Ansoft HFSS. The antenna gives a moderate gain over operating range while delivering a wide bandwidth.

Keywords: near-field antenna measurement, inverted quad-ridge horn antenna, wideband Antennas, dual polarized antennas, ansoft HFSS

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25 Ultra-Wideband Antennas for Ultra-Wideband Communication and Sensing Systems

Authors: Meng Miao, Jeongwoo Han, Cam Nguyen

Abstract:

Ultra-wideband (UWB) time-domain impulse communication and radar systems use ultra-short duration pulses in the sub-nanosecond regime, instead of continuous sinusoidal waves, to transmit information. The pulse directly generates a very wide-band instantaneous signal with various duty cycles depending on specific usages. In UWB systems, the total transmitted power is spread over an extremely wide range of frequencies; the power spectral density is extremely low. This effectively results in extremely small interference to other radio signals while maintains excellent immunity to interference from these signals. UWB devices can therefore work within frequencies already allocated for other radio services, thus helping to maximize this dwindling resource. Therefore, impulse UWB technique is attractive for realizing high-data-rate, short-range communications, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and military radar with relatively low emission power levels. UWB antennas are the key element dictating the transmitted and received pulse shape and amplitude in both time and frequency domain. They should have good impulse response with minimal distortion. To facilitate integration with transmitters and receivers employing microwave integrated circuits, UWB antennas enabling direct integration are preferred. We present the development of two UWB antennas operating from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz and 0.3-6 GHz for UWB systems that provide direct integration with microwave integrated circuits. The operation of these antennas is based on the principle of wave propagation on a non-uniform transmission line. Time-domain EM simulation is conducted to optimize the antenna structures to minimize reflections occurring at the open-end transition. Calculated and measured results of these UWB antennas are presented in both frequency and time domains. The antennas have good time-domain responses. They can transmit and receive pulses effectively with minimum distortion, little ringing, and small reflection, clearly demonstrating the signal fidelity of the antennas in reproducing the waveform of UWB signals which is critical for UWB sensors and communication systems. Good performance together with seamless microwave integrated-circuit integration makes these antennas good candidates not only for UWB applications but also for integration with printed-circuit UWB transmitters and receivers.

Keywords: antennas, ultra-wideband, UWB, UWB communication systems, UWB radar systems

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24 Wideband Performance Analysis of C-FDTD Based Algorithms in the Discretization Impoverishment of a Curved Surface

Authors: Lucas L. L. Fortes, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves

Abstract:

In this work, it is analyzed the wideband performance with the mesh discretization impoverishment of the Conformal Finite Difference Time-Domain (C-FDTD) approaches developed by Raj Mittra, Supriyo Dey and Wenhua Yu for the Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. These approaches are a simple and efficient way to optimize the scattering simulation of curved surfaces for Dielectric and Perfect Electric Conducting (PEC) structures in the FDTD method, since curved surfaces require dense meshes to reduce the error introduced due to the surface staircasing. Defined, on this work, as D-FDTD-Diel and D-FDTD-PEC, these approaches are well-known in the literature, but the improvement upon their application is not quantified broadly regarding wide frequency bands and poorly discretized meshes. Both approaches bring improvement of the accuracy of the simulation without requiring dense meshes, also making it possible to explore poorly discretized meshes which bring a reduction in simulation time and the computational expense while retaining a desired accuracy. However, their applications present limitations regarding the mesh impoverishment and the frequency range desired. Therefore, the goal of this work is to explore the approaches regarding both the wideband and mesh impoverishment performance to bring a wider insight over these aspects in FDTD applications. The D-FDTD-Diel approach consists in modifying the electric field update in the cells intersected by the dielectric surface, taking into account the amount of dielectric material within the mesh cells edges. By taking into account the intersections, the D-FDTD-Diel provides accuracy improvement at the cost of computational preprocessing, which is a fair trade-off, since the update modification is quite simple. Likewise, the D-FDTD-PEC approach consists in modifying the magnetic field update, taking into account the PEC curved surface intersections within the mesh cells and, considering a PEC structure in vacuum, the air portion that fills the intersected cells when updating the magnetic fields values. Also likewise to D-FDTD-Diel, the D-FDTD-PEC provides a better accuracy at the cost of computational preprocessing, although with a drawback of having to meet stability criterion requirements. The algorithms are formulated and applied to a PEC and a dielectric spherical scattering surface with meshes presenting different levels of discretization, with Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as the dielectric, being a very common material in coaxial cables and connectors for radiofrequency (RF) and wideband application. The accuracy of the algorithms is quantified, showing the approaches wideband performance drop along with the mesh impoverishment. The benefits in computational efficiency, simulation time and accuracy are also shown and discussed, according to the frequency range desired, showing that poorly discretized mesh FDTD simulations can be exploited more efficiently, retaining the desired accuracy. The results obtained provided a broader insight over the limitations in the application of the C-FDTD approaches in poorly discretized and wide frequency band simulations for Dielectric and PEC curved surfaces, which are not clearly defined or detailed in the literature and are, therefore, a novelty. These approaches are also expected to be applied in the modeling of curved RF components for wideband and high-speed communication devices in future works.

Keywords: accuracy, computational efficiency, finite difference time-domain, mesh impoverishment

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23 Performance Evaluation of Wideband Code Division Multiplication Network

Authors: Osama Abdallah Mohammed Enan, Amin Babiker A/Nabi Mustafa

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate and analyze different parameters of WCDMA (wideband code division multiplication). Moreover, this study also incorporates brief yet throughout analysis of WCDMA’s components as well as its internal architecture. This study also examines different power controls. These power controls may include open loop power control, closed or inner group loop power control and outer loop power control. Different handover techniques or methods of WCDMA are also illustrated in this study. These handovers may include hard handover, inter system handover and soft and softer handover. Different duplexing techniques are also described in the paper. This study has also presented an idea about different parameters of WCDMA that leads the system towards QoS issues. This may help the operator in designing and developing adequate network configuration. In addition to this, the study has also investigated various parameters including Bit Energy per Noise Spectral Density (Eb/No), Noise rise, and Bit Error Rate (BER). After simulating these parameters, using MATLAB environment, it was investigated that, for a given Eb/No value the system capacity increase by increasing the reuse factor. Besides that, it was also analyzed that, noise rise is decreasing for lower data rates and for lower interference levels. Finally, it was examined that, BER increase by using one type of modulation technique than using other type of modulation technique.

Keywords: duplexing, handover, loop power control, WCDMA

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22 Fano-Resonance-Based Wideband Acoustic Metamaterials with Highly Efficient Ventilation

Authors: Xi-Wen Xiao, Tzy-Rong Lin, Chien-Hao Liu

Abstract:

Ventilated acoustic metamaterials have attracted considerable research attention due to their low-frequency absorptions and efficient fluid ventilations. In this research, a wideband acoustic metamaterial with auditory filtering ability and efficient ventilation capacity were proposed. In contrast to a conventional Fano-like resonator, a Fano-like resonator composed of a resonant unit and two nonresonant units with a large opening area of 68% for fluid passages was developed. In addition, the coupling mechanism to improve the narrow bandwidths of conventional Fano-resonance-based meta-materials was included. With a suitable design, the output sound waves of the resonant and nonresonant states were out of phase to achieve sound absorptions in the far fields. Therefore, three-element and five-element coupled Fano-like metamaterials were designed and simulated with the help of the finite element software to obtain the filtering fractional bandwidths of 42.5% and 61.8%, respectively. The proposed approach can be extended to multiple coupled resonators for obtaining ultra-wide bandwidths and can be implemented with 3D printing for practical applications. The research results are expected to be beneficial for sound filtering or noise reductions in duct applications and limited-volume spaces.

Keywords: fano resonance, noise reduction, resonant coupling, sound filtering, ventilated acoustic metamaterial

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21 A Compact Via-less Ultra-Wideband Microstrip Filter by Utilizing Open-Circuit Quarter Wavelength Stubs

Authors: Muhammad Yasir Wadood, Fatemeh Babaeian

Abstract:

By developing ultra-wideband (UWB) systems, there is a high demand for UWB filters with low insertion loss, wide bandwidth, and having a planar structure which is compatible with other components of the UWB system. A microstrip interdigital filter is a great option for designing UWB filters. However, the presence of via holes in this structure creates difficulties in the fabrication procedure of the filter. Especially in the higher frequency band, any misalignment of the drilled via hole with the Microstrip stubs causes large errors in the measurement results compared to the desired results. Moreover, in this case (high-frequency designs), the line width of the stubs are very narrow, so highly precise small via holes are required to be implemented, which increases the cost of fabrication significantly. Also, in this case, there is a risk of having fabrication errors. To combat this issue, in this paper, a via-less UWB microstrip filter is proposed which is designed based on a modification of a conventional inter-digital bandpass filter. The novel approaches in this filter design are 1) replacement of each via hole with a quarter-wavelength open circuit stub to avoid the complexity of manufacturing, 2) using a bend structure to reduce the unwanted coupling effects and 3) minimising the size. Using the proposed structure, a UWB filter operating in the frequency band of 3.9-6.6 GHz (1-dB bandwidth) is designed and fabricated. The promising results of the simulation and measurement are presented in this paper. The selected substrate for these designs was Rogers RO4003 with a thickness of 20 mils. This is a common substrate in most of the industrial projects. The compact size of the proposed filter is highly beneficial for applications which require a very miniature size of hardware.

Keywords: band-pass filters, inter-digital filter, microstrip, via-less

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20 Design of a Novel CPW Fed Fractal Antenna for UWB

Authors: A. El Hamdouni, J. Zbitou, A. Tajmouati, L. El Abdellaoui, A. Errkik, A. Tribak, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel fractal antenna structure proposed for UWB (Ultra – Wideband) applications. The frequency band 3.1-10.6 GHz released by FCC (Federal Communication Commission) as the commercial operation of UWB has been chosen as frequency range for this antenna based on coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed and circular shapes fulfilled according to fractal geometry. The proposed antenna is validated and designed by using an FR4 substrate with overall area of 34 x 43 mm2. The simulated results performed by CST-Microwave Studio and compared by ADS (Advanced Design System) show good matching input impedance with return loss less than -10 dB between 2.9 GHz and 11 GHz.

Keywords: Fractal antenna, Fractal Geometry, CPW Feed, UWB, FCC

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19 On the Design of Wearable Fractal Antenna

Authors: Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha, Shweta Rani

Abstract:

This paper is aimed at proposing a rhombus shaped wearable fractal antenna for wireless communication systems. The geometrical descriptors of the antenna have been obtained using bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) for wide band operation. The method of moment based IE3D software has been used to simulate the antenna and observed that miniaturization of 13.08% has been achieved without degrading the resonating properties of the proposed antenna. An analysis with different substrates has also been done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of electrical permittivity on the presented structure. The proposed antenna has low profile, light weight and has successfully demonstrated wideband and multiband characteristics for wearable electronic applications.

Keywords: BFO, bandwidth, electrical permittivity, fractals, wearable antenna

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18 Design of Compact UWB Multilayered Microstrip Filter with Wide Stopband

Authors: N. Azadi-Tinat, H. Oraizi

Abstract:

Design of compact UWB multilayered microstrip filter with E-shape resonator is presented, which provides wide stopband up to 20 GHz and arbitrary impedance matching. The design procedure is developed based on the method of least squares and theory of N-coupled transmission lines. The dimensions of designed filter are about 11 mm × 11 mm and the three E-shape resonators are placed among four dielectric layers. The average insertion loss in the passband is less than 1 dB and in the stopband is about 30 dB up to 20 GHz. Its group delay in the UWB region is about 0.5 ns. The performance of the optimized filter design perfectly agrees with the microwave simulation softwares.

Keywords: method of least square, multilayer microstrip filter, n-coupled transmission lines, ultra-wideband

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17 Performance Analysis of Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols

Authors: I. Baddari, A. Riahla, M. Mezghich

Abstract:

Today in the literature, we discover a lot of routing algorithms which some have been the subject of normalization. Two great classes Routing algorithms are defined, the first is the class reactive algorithms and the second that of algorithms proactive. The aim of this work is to make a comparative study between some routing algorithms. Two comparisons are considered. The first will focus on the protocols of the same class and second class on algorithms of different classes (one reactive and the other proactive). Since they are not based on analytical models, the exact evaluation of some aspects of these protocols is challenging. Simulations have to be done in order to study their performances. Our simulation is performed in NS2 (Network Simulator 2). It identified a classification of the different routing algorithms studied in a metrics such as loss of message, the time transmission, mobility, etc.

Keywords: ad-hoc network routing protocol, simulation, NS2, delay, packet loss, wideband, mobility

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