Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2316

Search results for: non-destructive testing

2316 Structural Evaluation of Airfield Pavement Using Finite Element Analysis Based Methodology

Authors: Richard Ji


Nondestructive deflection testing has been accepted widely as a cost-effective tool for evaluating the structural condition of airfield pavements. Backcalculation of pavement layer moduli can be used to characterize the pavement existing condition in order to compute the load bearing capacity of pavement. This paper presents an improved best-fit backcalculation methodology based on deflection predictions obtained using finite element method (FEM). The best-fit approach is based on minimizing the squared error between falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measured deflections and FEM predicted deflections. Then, concrete elastic modulus and modulus of subgrade reaction were back-calculated using Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) deflections collected at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility (NAPTF) test site. It is an alternative and more versatile method in considering concrete slab geometry and HWD testing locations compared to methods currently available.

Keywords: nondestructive testing, pavement moduli backcalculation, finite element method, concrete pavements

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2315 An Intelligent Nondestructive Testing System of Ultrasonic Infrared Thermal Imaging Based on Embedded Linux

Authors: Hao Mi, Ming Yang, Tian-yue Yang


Ultrasonic infrared nondestructive testing is a kind of testing method with high speed, accuracy and localization. However, there are still some problems, such as the detection requires manual real-time field judgment, the methods of result storage and viewing are still primitive. An intelligent non-destructive detection system based on embedded linux is put forward in this paper. The hardware part of the detection system is based on the ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) core and an embedded linux system is built to realize image processing and defect detection of thermal images. The CLAHE algorithm and the Butterworth filter are used to process the thermal image, and then the boa server and CGI (Common Gateway Interface) technology are used to transmit the test results to the display terminal through the network for real-time monitoring and remote monitoring. The system also liberates labor and eliminates the obstacle of manual judgment. According to the experiment result, the system provides a convenient and quick solution for industrial non-destructive testing.

Keywords: remote monitoring, non-destructive testing, embedded Linux system, image processing

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2314 Nondestructive Testing for Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Active Infrared Thermography

Authors: Huy Q. Tran, Jungwon Huh, Kiseok Kwak, Choonghyun Kang


Infrared thermography (IRT) technique has been proven to be a good method for nondestructive evaluation of concrete material. In the building, a broad range of applications has been used such as subsurface defect inspection, energy loss, and moisture detection. The purpose of this research is to consider the qualitative and quantitative performance of reinforced concrete deteriorations using active infrared thermography technique. An experiment of three different heating regimes was conducted on a concrete slab in the laboratory. The thermal characteristics of the IRT method, i.e., absolute contrast and observation time, are investigated. A linear relationship between the observation time and the real depth was established with a well linear regression R-squared of 0.931. The results showed that the absolute contrast above defective area increases with the rise of the size of delamination and the heating time. In addition, the depth of delamination can be predicted by using the proposal relationship of this study.

Keywords: concrete building, infrared thermography, nondestructive evaluation, subsurface delamination

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2313 Concrete-Wall-Climbing Testing Robot

Authors: S. Tokuomi, K. Mori, Y. Tsuruzono


A concrete-wall-climbing testing robot, has been developed. This robot adheres and climbs concrete walls using two sets of suction cups, as well as being able to rotate by the use of the alternating motion of the suction cups. The maximum climbing speed is about 60 cm/min. Each suction cup has a pressure sensor, which monitors the adhesion of each suction cup. The impact acoustic method is used in testing concrete walls. This robot has an impact acoustic device and four microphones for the acquisition of the impact sound. The effectiveness of the impact acoustic system was tested by applying it to an inspection of specimens with artificial circular void defects. A circular void defect with a diameter of 200 mm at a depth of 50 mm was able to be detected. The weight and the dimensions of the robot are about 17 kg and 1.0 m by 1.3 m, respectively. The upper limit of testing is about 10 m above the ground due to the length of the power cable.

Keywords: concrete wall, nondestructive testing, climbing robot, impact acoustic method

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2312 Automated Java Testing: JUnit versus AspectJ

Authors: Manish Jain, Dinesh Gopalani


Growing dependency of mankind on software technology increases the need for thorough testing of the software applications and automated testing techniques that support testing activities. We have outlined our testing strategy for performing various types of automated testing of Java applications using AspectJ which has become the de-facto standard for Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). Likewise JUnit, a unit testing framework is the most popular Java testing tool. In this paper, we have evaluated our proposed AOP approach for automated testing and JUnit on various parameters. First we have provided the similarity between the two approaches and then we have done a detailed comparison of the two testing techniques on factors like lines of testing code, learning curve, testing of private members etc. We established that our AOP testing approach using AspectJ has got several advantages and is thus particularly more effective than JUnit.

Keywords: aspect oriented programming, AspectJ, aspects, JU-nit, software testing

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2311 Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Thermal Non-Destructive Testing on Complex Structure

Authors: Y. L. Hor, H. S. Chu, V. P. Bui


Composite material is widely used to replace conventional material, especially in the aerospace industry to reduce the weight of the devices. It is formed by combining reinforced materials together via adhesive bonding to produce a bulk material with alternated macroscopic properties. In bulk composites, degradation may occur in microscopic scale, which is in each individual reinforced fiber layer or especially in its matrix layer such as delamination, inclusion, disbond, void, cracks, and porosity. In this paper, we focus on the detection of defect in matrix layer which the adhesion between the composite plies is in contact but coupled through a weak bond. In fact, the adhesive defects are tested through various nondestructive methods. Among them, pulsed phase thermography (PPT) has shown some advantages providing improved sensitivity, large-area coverage, and high-speed testing. The aim of this work is to develop an efficient numerical model to study the application of PPT to the nondestructive inspection of weak bonding in composite material. The resulting thermal evolution field is comprised of internal reflections between the interfaces of defects and the specimen, and the important key-features of the defects presented in the material can be obtained from the investigation of the thermal evolution of the field distribution. Computational simulation of such inspections has allowed the improvement of the techniques to apply in various inspections, such as materials with high thermal conductivity and more complex structures.

Keywords: pulsed phase thermography, weak bond, composite, CFRP, computational modelling, optimization

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2310 Application of Optical Method Based on Laser Devise as Non-Destructive Testing for Calculus of Mechanical Deformation

Authors: R. Daïra, V. Chalvidan


We present the speckle interferometry method to determine the deformation of a piece. This method of holographic imaging using a CCD camera for simultaneous digital recording of two states object and reference. The reconstruction is obtained numerically. This latest method has the advantage of being simpler than the methods currently available, and it does not suffer the holographic configuration faults online. Furthermore, it is entirely digital and avoids heavy analysis after recording the hologram. This work was carried out in the laboratory HOLO 3 (optical metrology laboratory in Saint Louis, France) and it consists in controlling qualitatively and quantitatively the deformation of object by using a camera CCD connected to a computer equipped with software of Fringe Analysis.

Keywords: speckle, nondestructive testing, interferometry, image processing

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2309 Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Welds Fabricated at a Close Proximity on Offshore Structures

Authors: T. Nakkeran, Ramasamy Deverajan, How Peng Yeow, Jerry Sorton, C. Dhamodharan, Win Myint Soe


This manuscript presents the results from an experimental investigation performed to study the material and mechanical properties of two weld joints fabricated within close proximity. The experiment has been designed using welded S355 D Z35 with distances between two parallel adjacent weld toes at 8 mm. These distances were less than the distance that has normally been recommended in standards, codes, and specifications. The main idea of the analysis is to determine any significant effects when welding the joints with the close proximity of 8mm using SAW Welding Process of the one joint with high heat put and one joint welded with FCAW welding process evaluating the destructing and nondestructive testing between the welded joints. Further, we have evaluated the joints with mechanical testing for evaluating by performing tensile test, bend testing, macrostructure, microstructure, hardness test, impact testing. After evaluating the final outcome of the result, no significant changes were observed for welding the close proximity of weld of 8mm distance between the joints as compared to the specification minimum distance between the weldments of any design should be 50mm.

Keywords: S355 carbon steel, weld proximity, bending test, hardness test, impact test, macro, and microscopic examinations

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2308 Study of Transformer and Motor Winding under Pulsed Power Application

Authors: Arijit Basuray, Saibal Chatterjee


Pulsed Power in the form of Recurrent Surge Generator (RSG) can be used for testing various parameters of Motor or Transformer windings including inter-turn, interlayer insulation. Windings with solid insulation in motor and transformer have many interfaces and undesirable defects, and these defects can be exposed under this nondestructive testing methodology. Due to rapid development in power electronics variable frequency drives (VFD), Dry Type or cast resin Transformer used with PWM Sine wave inverters for solar power, solid insulation system used nowadays are shifting more and more to a high-frequency application. Authors have used the recurrent surge generator for testing winding integrity as well as Partial Discharge(PD) at fast rising voltage enabling PD measurement at closer situation under which the insulation system is supposed to work. Authors have discussed test results on a different system with recurrent surge voltages of different rise time.

Keywords: fast rising voltage, partial discharge, pulsed power, recurrent surge generator, solid insulation

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2307 A Comparative Study of Three Major Performance Testing Tools

Authors: Abdulaziz Omar Alsadhan, Mohd Mudasir Shafi


Performance testing is done to prove the reliability of any software product. There are a number of tools available in the markets that are used to perform performance testing. In this paper we present a comparative study of the three most commonly used performance testing tools. These tools cover the major share of the performance testing market and are widely used. In this paper we compared the tools on five evaluation parameters which are; User friendliness, portability, tool support, compatibility and cost. The conclusion provided at the end of the paper is based on our study and does not support any tool or company.

Keywords: software development, software testing, quality assurance, performance testing, load runner, rational testing, silk performer

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2306 Investigating the Abolishment of Virginity Testing in South Africa

Authors: Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema


This paper argues that the custom of virginity testing has been revived in order to combat against social ills such as unwanted pregnancies, immorality, promiscuity and the spread of HIV/AIDS. However, virginity testing is not free from challenges such as the belief that having sexual intercourse with a virgin can cure men from AIDS, virginity testing is not accurate because there is scientific evidence supporting the fact that there many ways of losing virginity other than sexual intercourse, for example, the usage of tampons and participation in physical activities may tear the hymen. South African parliament took some positive steps in combatting against harm associated with virginity testing by regulating it in the Children’s Act. It is argued, in this paper, that the abolition of virginity testing may lead to paper law and it would be premature to abolish virginity testing in South Africa.

Keywords: equality rights, virginity testing, human rights, interdisciplinary law and legal studies

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2305 Evaluation of Heterogeneity of Paint Coating on Metal Substrate Using Laser Infrared Thermography and Eddy Current

Authors: S. Mezghani, E. Perrin, J. L. Bodnar, J. Marthe, B. Cauwe, V. Vrabie


Non contact evaluation of the thickness of paint coatings can be attempted by different destructive and nondestructive methods such as cross-section microscopy, gravimetric mass measurement, magnetic gauges, Eddy current, ultrasound or terahertz. Infrared thermography is a nondestructive and non-invasive method that can be envisaged as a useful tool to measure the surface thickness variations by analyzing the temperature response. In this paper, the thermal quadrupole method for two layered samples heated up with a pulsed excitation is firstly used. By analyzing the thermal responses as a function of thermal properties and thicknesses of both layers, optimal parameters for the excitation source can be identified. Simulations show that a pulsed excitation with duration of ten milliseconds allows to obtain a substrate-independent thermal response. Based on this result, an experimental setup consisting of a near-infrared laser diode and an Infrared camera was next used to evaluate the variation of paint coating thickness between 60 µm and 130 µm on two samples. Results show that the parameters extracted for thermal images are correlated with the estimated thicknesses by the Eddy current methods. The laser pulsed thermography is thus an interesting alternative nondestructive method that can be moreover used for non conductive substrates.

Keywords: non destructive, paint coating, thickness, infrared thermography, laser, heterogeneity

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2304 The Condition Testing of Damaged Plates Using Acoustic Features and Machine Learning

Authors: Kyle Saltmarsh


Acoustic testing possesses many benefits due to its non-destructive nature and practicality. There hence exists many scenarios in which using acoustic testing for condition testing shows powerful feasibility. A wealth of information is contained within the acoustic and vibration characteristics of structures, allowing the development meaningful features for the classification of their respective condition. In this paper, methods, results, and discussions are presented on the use of non-destructive acoustic testing coupled with acoustic feature extraction and machine learning techniques for the condition testing of manufactured circular steel plates subjected to varied levels of damage.

Keywords: plates, deformation, acoustic features, machine learning

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2303 Surface Topography Measurement by Confocal Spectral Interferometry

Authors: A. Manallah, C. Meier


Confocal spectral interferometry (CSI) is an innovative optical method for determining microtopography of surfaces and thickness of transparent layers, based on the combination of two optical principles: confocal imaging, and spectral interferometry. Confocal optical system images at each instant a single point of the sample. The whole surface is reconstructed by plan scanning. The interference signal generated by mixing two white-light beams is analyzed using a spectrometer. In this work, five ‘rugotests’ of known standard roughnesses are investigated. The topography is then measured and illustrated, and the equivalent roughness is determined and compared with the standard values.

Keywords: confocal spectral interferometry, nondestructive testing, optical metrology, surface topography, roughness

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2302 Mobile Application Testing Matrix and Challenges

Authors: Bakhtiar Amen, Sardasht Mahmood, Joan Lu


The adoption of smartphones and the usages of mobile applications are increasing rapidly. Consequently, within limited time-range, mobile Internet usages have managed to take over the desktop usages particularly since the first smartphone-touched application released by iPhone in 2007. This paper is proposed to provide solution and answer the most demandable questions related to mobile application automated and manual testing limitations. Moreover, Mobile application testing requires agility and physically testing. Agile testing is to detect bugs through automated tools, whereas the compatibility testing is more to ensure that the apps operates on mobile OS (Operation Systems) as well as on the different real devices. Moreover, we have managed to answer automated or manual questions through two mobile application case studies MES (Mobile Exam System) and MLM (Mobile Lab Mate) by creating test scripts for both case studies and our experiment results have been discussed and evaluated on whether to adopt test on real devices or on emulators? In addition to this, we have introduced new mobile application testing matrix for the testers and some enterprises to obtain knowledge from.

Keywords: mobile app testing, testing matrix, automated, manual testing

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2301 A New Approach for Assertions Processing during Assertion-Based Software Testing

Authors: Ali M. Alakeel


Assertion-based software testing has been shown to be a promising tool for generating test cases that reveal program faults. Because the number of assertions may be very large for industry-size programs, one of the main concerns to the applicability of assertion-based testing is the amount of search time required to explore a large number of assertions. This paper presents a new approach for assertions exploration during the process of Assertion-Based software testing. Our initial exterminations with the proposed approach show that the performance of Assertion-Based testing may be improved, therefore, making this approach more efficient when applied on programs with large number of assertions.

Keywords: software testing, assertion-based testing, program assertions, generating test

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2300 Nondestructive Electrochemical Testing Method for Prestressed Concrete Structures

Authors: Tomoko Fukuyama, Osamu Senbu


Prestressed concrete is used a lot in infrastructures such as roads or bridges. However, poor grout filling and PC steel corrosion are currently major issues of prestressed concrete structures. One of the problems with nondestructive corrosion detection of PC steel is a plastic pipe which covers PC steel. The insulative property of pipe makes a nondestructive diagnosis difficult; therefore a practical technology to detect these defects is necessary for the maintenance of infrastructures. The goal of the research is a development of an electrochemical technique which enables to detect internal defects from the surface of prestressed concrete nondestructively. Ideally, the measurements should be conducted from the surface of structural members to diagnose non-destructively. In the present experiment, a prestressed concrete member is simplified as a layered specimen to simulate a current path between an input and an output electrode on a member surface. The specimens which are layered by mortar and the prestressed concrete constitution materials (steel, polyethylene, stainless steel, or galvanized steel plates) were provided to the alternating current impedance measurement. The magnitude of an applied electric field was 0.01-volt or 1-volt, and the frequency range was from 106 Hz to 10-2 Hz. The frequency spectrums of impedance, which relate to charge reactions activated by an electric field, were measured to clarify the effects of the material configurations or the properties. In the civil engineering field, the Nyquist diagram is popular to analyze impedance and it is a good way to grasp electric relaxation using a shape of the plot. However, it is slightly not suitable to figure out an influence of a measurement frequency which is reciprocal of reaction time. Hence, Bode diagram is also applied to describe charge reactions in the present paper. From the experiment results, the alternating current impedance method looks to be applicable to the insulative material measurement and eventually prestressed concrete diagnosis. At the same time, the frequency spectrums of impedance show the difference of the material configuration. This is because the charge mobility reflects the variety of substances and also the measuring frequency of the electric field determines migration length of charges which are under the influence of the electric field. However, it could not distinguish the differences of the material thickness and is inferred the difficulties of prestressed concrete diagnosis to identify the amount of an air void or a layer of corrosion product by the technique.

Keywords: capacitance, conductance, prestressed concrete, susceptance

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2299 Methodology for Various Sand Cone Testing

Authors: Abel S. Huaynacho, Yoni D. Huaynacho


The improvement of procedure test ASTM D1556, plays an important role in the developing of testing in field to obtain a higher quality of data QA/QC. The traditional process takes a considerable amount of time for only one test. Even making various testing are tasks repeating and it takes a long time to obtain better results. Moreover, if the adequate tools the help these testing are not properly managed, the improvement in the development for various testing could be stooped. This paper presents an optimized process for various testing ASTM D1556 which uses an initial standard process to another one the uses a simpler and improved management tools.

Keywords: cone sand test, density bulk, ASTM D1556, QA/QC

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2298 Quality and Coverage Assessment in Software Integration Based On Mutation Testing

Authors: Iyad Alazzam, Kenneth Magel, Izzat Alsmadi


The different activities and approaches in software testing try to find the most possible number of errors or failures with the least amount of possible effort. Mutation is a testing approach that is used to discover possible errors in tested applications. This is accomplished through changing one aspect of the software from its original and writes test cases to detect such change or mutation. In this paper, we present a mutation approach for testing software components integration aspects. Several mutation operations related to components integration are described and evaluated. A test case study of several open source code projects is collected. Proposed mutation operators are applied and evaluated. Results showed some insights and information that can help testing activities in detecting errors and improving coverage.

Keywords: software testing, integration testing, mutation, coverage, software design

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2297 Characterization of Bacteria by a Nondestructive Sample Preparation Method in a TEM System

Authors: J. Shiue, I. H. Chen, S. W. Y. Chiu, Y. L. Wang


In this work, we present a nondestructive method to characterize bacteria in a TEM system. Unlike the conventional TEM specimen preparation method, which needs to thin the specimen in a destructive way, or spread the samples on a tiny millimeter sized carbon grid, our method is easy to operate without the need of sample pretreatment. With a specially designed transparent chip that allows the electron beam to pass through, and a custom made chip holder to fit into a standard TEM sample holder, the bacteria specimen can be easily prepared on the chip without any pretreatment, and then be observed under TEM. The centimeter-sized chip is covered with Au nanoparticles in the surface as the markers which allow the bacteria to be observed easily on the chip. We demonstrate the success of our method by using E. coli as an example, and show that high-resolution TEM images of E. coli can be obtained with the method presented. Some E. coli morphology characteristics imaged using this method are also presented.

Keywords: bacteria, chip, nanoparticles, TEM

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2296 Open Jet Testing for Buoyant and Hybrid Buoyant Aerial Vehicles

Authors: A. U. Haque, W. Asrar, A. A. Omar, E. Sulaeman, J. S Mohamed Ali


Open jet testing is a valuable testing technique which provides the desired results with reasonable accuracy. It has been used in past for the airships and now has recently been applied for the hybrid ones, having more non-buoyant force coming from the wings, empennage and the fuselage. In the present review work, an effort has been done to review the challenges involved in open jet testing. In order to shed light on the application of this technique, the experimental results of two different configurations are presented. Although, the aerodynamic results of such vehicles are unique to its own design; however, it will provide a starting point for planning any future testing. Few important testing areas which need more attention are also highlighted. Most of the hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles are unconventional in shape and there experimental data is generated, which is unique to its own design.

Keywords: open jet testing, aerodynamics, hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles, airships

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2295 Experience Report about the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in the Process of Testing an Accessible System for Learning Management

Authors: Marcos Devaner, Marcela Alves, Cledson Braga, Fabiano Alves, Wilton Bezerra


This article discusses the inclusion of people with disabilities in the process of testing an accessible system solution for distance education. The accessible system, team profile, methodologies and techniques covered in the testing process are presented. The testing process shown in this paper was designed from the experience with user. The testing process emerged from lessons learned from past experiences and the end user is present at all stages of the tests. Also, lessons learned are reported and how it was possible the maturing of the team and the methods resulting in a simple, productive and effective process.

Keywords: experience report, accessible systems, software testing, testing process, systems, e-learning

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2294 Analyzing Software Testing Phase in Agile Project Management: The Case of Jordan

Authors: Ghaleb Y. Abbasi, Satanay Alhiary


This paper focused on software testing phase of activities, types, techniques, teams and methods under agile project management (APM) in the Jordanian software industry. The effect of using agile principles and practices on testing process in software development life cycle (SDLC) was analyzed in order to create full view of the agile testing aspects such as phases, levels, types, methods, team and customers. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were utilized to cover earlier literature and collect data via web survey and short interviews in Jordanian software companies. Results indicated that agile testing had positive influence on quality of product, team performance, and customer satisfaction with a rate above 80%. APM is a powerful practice of moving software project forward in current markets with a rate above 51% by early involvement of testing activities in development.

Keywords: agile project management, software development life cycle, agile methods, agile testing, software testing

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2293 Factors Affecting the Readiness in the License Examination Testing of Nursing Students

Authors: Suwannee Sroisong, Angkhana Ruenkon, Ronnaphop Eimtab


The purpose of this study was twofold: First, to examine the relationship of the Readiness on the License Examination Testing (RLET) with factors namely achieved motivation, attitude on testing, self-perception, perception in testing among the nursing students at Baromarajonani College of Nursing, Buddhachinaraj, Thailand (BCNB); and secondly, to investigate the factors affecting the RLET of the nursing students. All data were collected from a set of 214 questionnaires of nursing students, second semester and in academic year 2010, at BCNB. As a set of variables in the questionnaire, it consisted of factors of readiness in testing, achieved motivation, attitude on testing, self-perception, and perception in testing. The following statistics were analyzed: frequency, percentage, means, standard deviation, and Stepwise-multiple regression correlation. Research results were as follows: 1) For the relationship among following factors, namely achieved motivation, attitude on testing, self-perception, perception in testing, there were positive correlation coefficients between .324 to .560 at the .05 level of significance; and 2) One crucial factor affecting the RLET of nursing students, namely achieved motivation, was found. The achieved motivation factor could explain the variance or predict the RLET of nursing students at 31.40 percent and at the .05 level of significance.

Keywords: readiness, nursing, license examination testing, Thailand

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2292 Non Destructive Testing for Evaluation of Defects and Interfaces in Metal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrids

Authors: H.-G. Herrmann, M. Schwarz, J. Summa, F. Grossmann


In this work, different non-destructive testing methods for the characterization of defects and interfaces are presented. It is shown that, by means of active thermography, defects in the interface and in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) itself can be detected and determined. The bonding of metal and thermoplastic can be characterized very well by ultrasonic testing with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Mechanical testing is combined with passive thermography to correlate mechanical values with the defect-size. There is also a comparison between active and passive thermography. Mechanical testing shows the influence of different defects. Furthermore, a correlation of defect-size and loading to rupture was performed.


Keywords: defect evaluation, EMAT, mechanical testing, thermography

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2291 Study of Ultrasonic Waves in Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Composite Plates for the Aerospace Applications

Authors: DucTho Le, Duy Kien Dao, Quoc Tinh Bui, Haidang Phan


The article is concerned with the motion of ultrasonic guided waves in a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite plate under acoustic sources. Such unidirectional composite material has orthotropic elastic properties as it is very stiff along the fibers and rather compliant across the fibers. The dispersion equations of free Lamb waves propagating in an orthotropic layer are derived that results in the dispersion curves. The connection of these equations to the Rayleigh-Lamb frequency relations of isotropic plates is discussed. By the use of reciprocity in elastodynamics, closed-form solutions of elastic wave motions subjected to time-harmonic loads in the layer are computed in a simple manner. We also consider the problem of Lamb waves generated by a set of time-harmonic sources. The obtained computations can be very useful for developing ultrasound-based methods for nondestructive evaluation of composite structures.

Keywords: lamb waves, fiber-reinforced composite plates, dispersion equations, nondestructive evaluation, reciprocity theorems

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2290 The Effect of Program Type on Mutation Testing: Comparative Study

Authors: B. Falah, N. E. Abakouy


Due to its high computational cost, mutation testing has been neglected by researchers. Recently, many cost and mutants’ reduction techniques have been developed, improved, and experimented, but few of them has relied the possibility of reducing the cost of mutation testing on the program type of the application under test. This paper is a comparative study between four operators’ selection techniques (mutants sampling, class level operators, method level operators, and all operators’ selection) based on the program code type of each application under test. It aims at finding an alternative approach to reveal the effect of code type on mutation testing score. The result of our experiment shows that the program code type can affect the mutation score and that the programs using polymorphism are best suited to be tested with mutation testing.

Keywords: equivalent mutant, killed mutant, mutation score, mutation testing, program code type, software testing

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2289 Machine Learning Approach for Mutation Testing

Authors: Michael Stewart


Mutation testing is a type of software testing proposed in the 1970s where program statements are deliberately changed to introduce simple errors so that test cases can be validated to determine if they can detect the errors. Test cases are executed against the mutant code to determine if one fails, detects the error and ensures the program is correct. One major issue with this type of testing was it became intensive computationally to generate and test all possible mutations for complex programs. This paper used reinforcement learning and parallel processing within the context of mutation testing for the selection of mutation operators and test cases that reduced the computational cost of testing and improved test suite effectiveness. Experiments were conducted using sample programs to determine how well the reinforcement learning-based algorithm performed with one live mutation, multiple live mutations and no live mutations. The experiments, measured by mutation score, were used to update the algorithm and improved accuracy for predictions. The performance was then evaluated on multiple processor computers. With reinforcement learning, the mutation operators utilized were reduced by 50 – 100%.

Keywords: automated-testing, machine learning, mutation testing, parallel processing, reinforcement learning, software engineering, software testing

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2288 The Complexity of Testing Cryptographic Devices on Input Faults

Authors: Alisher Ikramov, Gayrat Juraev


The production of logic devices faces the occurrence of faults during manufacturing. This work analyses the complexity of testing a special type of logic device on inverse, adhesion, and constant input faults. The focus of this work is on devices that implement cryptographic functions. The complexity values for the general case faults and for some frequently occurring subsets were determined and proved in this work. For a special case, when the length of the text block is equal to the length of the key block, the complexity of testing is proven to be asymptotically half the complexity of testing all logic devices on the same types of input faults.

Keywords: complexity, cryptographic devices, input faults, testing

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2287 Horizontal-Vertical and Enhanced-Unicast Interconnect Testing Techniques for Network-on-Chip

Authors: Mahdiar Hosseinghadiry, Razali Ismail, F. Fotovati


One of the most important and challenging tasks in testing network-on-chip based system-on-chips (NoC based SoCs) is to verify the communication entity. It is important because of its usage for transferring both data packets and test patterns for intellectual properties (IPs) during normal and test mode. Hence, ensuring of NoC reliability is required for reliable IPs functionality and testing. On the other hand, it is challenging due to the required time to test it and the way of transferring test patterns from the tester to the NoC components. In this paper, two testing techniques for mesh-based NoC interconnections are proposed. The first one is based on one-by-one testing and the second one divides NoC interconnects into three parts, horizontal links of switches in even columns, horizontal links of switches in odd columns and all vertical. A design for testability (DFT) architecture is represented to send test patterns directly to each switch under test and also support the proposed testing techniques by providing a loopback path in each switch. The simulation results shows the second proposed testing mechanism outperforms in terms of test time because this method test all the interconnects in only three phases, independent to the number of existed interconnects in the network, while test time of other methods are highly dependent to the number of switches and interconnects in the NoC.

Keywords: on chip, interconnection testing, horizontal-vertical testing, enhanced unicast

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