Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7793

Search results for: water soluble fraction

7793 Bioassay Guided Isolation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Components from Ethyl Acetate Extracts of Cassia Sieberiana D.C. (Fabaceae)

Authors: Abubakar Sani


The leaves extracts of Cassia sieberiana D.C. were screened for cytotoxicity using Brine Shrimp Test (BST) and antimicrobial bioassay against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli using crude ethanol extract, Chloroform soluble fraction, aqueous soluble fraction, ethyl acetate soluble fraction, methanol soluble fraction and n-hexane soluble fraction. The Ethyl acetate fraction obtained proved to be most active in inducing complete lethality at minimum doses in BST and also active on Salmonella typhi. The Bioactivity result was used to guide the column chromatography which led to the isolation of pure compound CSB-8 which was found active in the BST with LC₅₀ value of 34(722-182)µg/ml and showed remarkable activity on Salmonella typhi (zone of inhibition 25mm) at 10,000µg/ml. The ¹H-NMR, ¹³C NMR, FTIR and GC-MS spectra of compound suggested the proposed structure to be 2-pentadecanone.

Keywords: brine shrimp, Cassia sieberiana D. C, Column chromatography, antimicrobial bioassay

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7792 Effect of Environmental Parameters on the Water Solubility of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Derivatives using Taguchi Experimental Design Methodology

Authors: Pranudda Pimsee, Caroline Sablayrolles, Pascale De Caro, Julien Guyomarch, Nicolas Lesage, Mireille Montréjaud-Vignoles


The MIGR’HYCAR research project was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spill drifts in continental waters. These tools aim to serve in the decision-making process once oil spill pollution occurs and/or as reference tools to study scenarios of potential impacts of pollutions on a given site. This paper focuses on the study of the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and derivatives from oil spill in water as function of environmental parameters. Eight petroleum oils covering a representative range of commercially available products were tested. 41 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and derivate, among them 16 EPA priority pollutants were studied by dynamic tests at laboratory scale. The chemical profile of the water soluble fraction was different from the parent oil profile due to the various water solubility of oil components. Semi-volatile compounds (naphtalenes) constitute the major part of the water soluble fraction. A large variation in composition of the water soluble fraction was highlighted depending on oil type. Moreover, four environmental parameters (temperature, suspended solid quantity, salinity, and oil: water surface ratio) were investigated with the Taguchi experimental design methodology. The results showed that oils are divided into three groups: the solubility of Domestic fuel and Jet A1 presented a high sensitivity to parameters studied, meaning they must be taken into account. For gasoline (SP95-E10) and diesel fuel, a medium sensitivity to parameters was observed. In fact, the four others oils have shown low sensitivity to parameters studied. Finally, three parameters were found to be significant towards the water soluble fraction.

Keywords: mornitoring, PAHs, water soluble fraction, SBSE, Taguchi experimental design

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7791 Antioxidant Enzymes and Crude Mitochondria ATPases in the Radicle of Germinating Bean (Vigna unguiculata) Exposed to Different Concentrations of Crude Oil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu


The study examined the effect of Bonny Light whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle of germinating bean (Vigna unguiculata). The percentage germination, level of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme, and mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase activities were measured in the radicle of bean after 7, 14, and 21 days post germination. Viable bean seeds were planted in soils contaminated with 10ml, 25ml, and 50ml of whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) to obtain 2, 5, and 10% v/w crude oil contamination. There was dose dependent reduction of the number of bean seeds that germinated in the contaminated soils compared with control (p<0.001). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as, adenosine triphosphatase enzymes, were also significantly (p<0.001) altered in the radicle of the plants grown in contaminated soil compared with the control. Generally, the level of lipid peroxidation was highest after 21 days post germination when compared with control. Stress to germinating bean caused by Bonny Light crude oil or its water soluble fraction resulted in adaptive changes in crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, bonny light crude oil, radicle, mitochondria ATPases

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7790 Neutral Sugar Contents of Laurel-leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani


Soil neutral sugar contents in Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan) were examined using the Waksman’s approximation analysis to clarify relations with the neutral sugar constituted the soil organic matter and the microbial biomass. Samples were selected from the soil surrounding laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Carpinus japonica (BB-2) trees for analysis. The water and HCl soluble neutral sugars increased microbial biomass of the laurel-leaved forest soil. Arabinose, xylose, and galactose of the HCl soluble fraction were used immediately in comparison with other neutral sugars. Rhamnose, glucose, and fructose of the HCl soluble fraction were re-composed by the microbes.

Keywords: forest soil, neutral sugaras, soil organic matter, Waksman’s approximation analysis

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7789 Ultrafine Non Water Soluble Drug Particles

Authors: Shahnaz Mansouri, David Martin, Xiao Dong Chen, Meng Wai Woo


Ultrafine hydrophobic and non-water-soluble drugs can increase the percentage of absorbed compared to their initial dosage. This paper provides a scalable new method of making ultrafine particles of substantially insoluble water compounds specifically, submicron particles of ethanol soluble and water insoluble pharmaceutical materials by steaming an ethanol droplet to prepare a suspension and then followed by immediate drying. This suspension is formed by adding evaporated water molecules as an anti-solvent to the solute of the samples and in early stage of precipitation continued to dry by evaporating both solvent and anti-solvent. This fine particle formation has produced fast dispersion powder in water. The new method is an extension of the antisolvent vapour precipitation technique which exposes a droplet to an antisolvent vapour with reference to the dissolved materials within the droplet. Ultrafine vitamin D3 and ibuprofen particles in the submicron ranges were produced. This work will form the basis for using spray dryers as high-throughput scalable micro-precipitators.

Keywords: single droplet drying, nano size particles, non-water-soluble drugs, precipitators

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7788 Immunomodulatory Activity of Polysaccharide-Protein Complex Isolated from the Sclerotia of Polyporus Rhinocerus in Murine Macrophages

Authors: Chaoran Liu


Bioactive polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complex derived from mushrooms and fungi have a wide range of immunomodulatory activity with low side-effects and have therefore the potential to be developed as an adjuvant in cancer therapies. Mushrooms sclerotium is rich in polysaccharides and the polysaccharides isolated from the sclerotium of Polyporus rhinocerus have shown potent in vivo and in vitro immunomodulatory effects. Macrophages are considered to be an important component of the innate immune response against bacterial infection and cancer. To better understanding the immunomodulatory effects and its underlying mechanisms of sclerotial water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from P. rhinocerus on macrophages, the objectives of this study are to purify the water-soluble novel sclerotial polysaccharides and to characterize the structure and properties as well as to study the detailed molecular mechanisms of the in vitro immunomodulating effects in murine macrophages. The hot water-soluble fraction PRW from the sclerotium of P. rhinocerus was obtained using solvent extraction. PRW was further fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration to a give a fraction (PRW1) with molecular mass less than 50 kDa. PRW1 was characterized to be a polysaccharide-protein complex composed of 45.7% polysaccharide and 44.2% protein. The chemical structure of the carbohydrate moiety of PRW1 was elucidated by GC and FTIR to be mainly beta-D-glucan with trace amount of galactose and mannose. The immunomodulatory effects of PRW1 on murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were demonstrated in terms of the increase in nitric oxide production and cytokine production. Mechanistically, PRW1 initiates ERK phosphorylation to activate macrophages within 15 min and significantly improves the expression level of inducible NOS (iNOS) from 6 h after treatment. In summary, this study indicates that PRW1 is a potent immunomodulatory agent for macrophages and suggests that mushroom sclerotia from Polyporus rhinocerus requires for further investigation in cancer research.

Keywords: Polyporus rhinocerus, mushroom sclerotia, Polysaccharide-Protein Complex, macrophage activation

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7787 Functionalization of Single-Walled Nanotubes by Synthesied Pigments

Authors: Shahab Zomorodbakhsh, Hayron Nesa Motevasel


Water soluble compoundes were attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to form water-soluble nano pigments. functionalized SWNTs were then characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, UV analysis, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)and defunctionalization test and Representative results concerning the solubility. The product can be dissolved in water and High-resolution transmission electron microscope images showed that the SWNTs were efficiently functionalized, thus the p-stacking interaction between aromatic rings and COOH of SWNTs was considered responsible for the high solubility and High transmission electron in singlewall nanotubes.

Keywords: functionalized CNTs, singlewalled carbon nanotubes, water soluble compoundes, nano pigments

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7786 Morphological Characteristics and Bioreactivity of Inhalable Particles during the Temple Fair in Kaifeng

Authors: Qiao Yushuang, Shao Longyi


This paper presents the result of plasmid assay of inhalable particulates PM10 and PM2.5 that were collected during the period of the 11th Hanyuan temple fair of ancestor worship in Kaifeng City. By use of a high-resolution Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and image analysis (IA) technology, the morphological characteristics and Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of each were analyzed and the Bioreactivity of PM10 was evaluated by using plasmid DNA assay. The result shows that, as the dominant component of the samples taken in the urban area of Kaifeng City, the mineral particles, compared with the other components including the soot aggregates, coal ash, and unidentified particles, have a much greater amount and volume. The mineral particles exhibited a decentralized quantity - size distribution, whose presence could be available among the particles sizing 2.5μm or smaller. In contrast, the volume-size distribution of mineral particles is scattered in a relatively narrow range of between1μm and 2.5μm. According to the plasmid assay the TD50 (toxic dose of PM causing 50% of plasmid damage, expressed in μg/ml) of water-soluble PM10 and whole fraction of Kaifeng airborne PM10 was measured respectively at 220-208μg/ml and 300-400μg/ml versus 160μg/ml and 190μg/ml for PM2.5. It can be seen that the whole fraction of airborne particles caused more oxidative damage than the water-soluble fractions, and the PM2.5 has a greater oxidative capacity than the PM10.

Keywords: inhalable particulates (PM10 and PM2.5), morphological features, bioreactivity, Kaifeng

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7785 Characterization of Domestic Sewage Mixed with Baker's Yeast Factory Effluent of Beja Wastewater Treatment Plant by Respirometry

Authors: Fezzani Boubaker


In this work, a comprehensive study of respirometric method was performed to assess the biodegradable COD fractions of domestic sewage mixed with baker’s yeast factory effluent treated by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Beja. Three respirometric runs were performed in a closed tank reactor to characterize this mixed raw effluent. Respirometric result indicated that the readily biodegradable fraction (SS) was in range of 6-22%, the slowly biodegradable fraction (Xs) was in range of 33-42%, heterotrophic biomass (XH) was in range of 9-40% and the inert fractions: XI and SI were in range of 2-40% and 6-12% respectively which were high due to the presence of baker’s yeast factory effluent compared to domestic effluent alone. The fractions of the total nitrogen showed that SNO fraction is between 6 and 9% of TKN, the fraction of nitrogen ammonia SNH was ranging from 5 to 68%. The organic fraction divided into two compartments SND (11-85%) and XND (5-20%) the inert particulate nitrogen fraction XNI was between 0.4 and 1% and the inert soluble fraction of nitrogen SNI was ranged from 0.4 to 3%.

Keywords: wastewater characterization, COD fractions, respirometry, domestic sewage

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7784 CT-Scan Transition of Pulmonary Edema Due to Water-Soluble Paint Inhalation

Authors: Masashi Kanazawa, Takaaki Nakano, Masaaki Takemoto, Tomonori Imamura, Mamiko Sugimura, Toshitaka Ito


Introduction: We experienced a massive disaster due to inhalation of water-soluble paint. Sixteen patients were brought to our emergency room, and pulmonary edema was revealed on the CT images of 12 cases. Purpose: Transition of chest CT-scan findings in cases with pulmonary edema was examined. Method: CT-scans were performed on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 19th days after the inhalation event. Patients whose pulmonary edema showed amelioration or exacerbation were classified into the improvement or the exacerbation group, respectively. Those with lung edema findings appearing at different sites after the second day were classified into the changing group. Results: Eight, one and three patients were in the improvement, exacerbation and changing groups, respectively. In all cases, the pulmonary edema had disappeared from CT images on the 19th day after the inhalation event. Conclusion: Inhalation of water-soluble paints is considered to be relatively safe. However, our observations in these emergency cases suggest that, even if pulmonary edema is not severe immediately after the exposure, new lesions may appear later and existing lesions may worsen. Follow-up imaging is thus necessary for about two weeks.

Keywords: CT scan, intoxication, pulmonary edema, water-soluble paint

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7783 Chemical Oxygen Demand Fractionation of Primary Wastewater Effluent for Process Optimization and Modelling

Authors: Thandeka Y. S. Jwara, Paul Musonge


Traditionally, the complexity associated with implementing and controlling biological nutrient removal (BNR) in wastewater works (WWW) has been primarily in terms of balancing competing requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal, particularly with respect to the use of influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a carbon source for the microorganisms. Successful BNR optimization and modelling using WEST (Worldwide Engine for Simulation and Training) depend largely on the accurate fractionation of the influent COD. The different COD fractions have differing effects on the BNR process, and therefore, the influent characteristics need to be well understood. This study presents the fractionation results of primary wastewater effluent COD at one of South Africa’s wastewater works treating 65ML/day of mixed industrial and domestic effluent. The method used for COD fractionation was the oxygen uptake rate/respirometry method. The breakdown of the results of the analysis is as follows: 70.5% biodegradable COD (bCOD) and 29.5% of non-biodegradable COD (iCOD) in terms of the total COD. Further fractionation led to a readily biodegradable soluble fraction (SS) of 75%, a slowly degradable particulate fraction (XS) of 24%, a particulate non-biodegradable fraction (XI) of 50.8% and a non-biodegradable soluble fraction (SI) of 49.2%. The fractionation results demonstrate that the primary effluent has good COD characteristics, as shown by the high level of the bCOD fraction with Ss being higher than Xs. This means that the microorganisms have sufficient substrate for the BNR process and that these components can now serve as inputs to the WEST Model for the plant under study.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, COD fractionation, wastewater modelling, wastewater optimization

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7782 Transient Analysis of Central Region Void Fraction in a 3x3 Rod Bundle under Bubbly and Cap/Slug Flows

Authors: Ya-Chi Yu, Pei-Syuan Ruan, Shao-Wen Chen, Yu-Hsien Chang, Jin-Der Lee, Jong-Rong Wang, Chunkuan Shih


This study analyzed the transient signals of central region void fraction of air-water two-phase flow in a 3x3 rod bundle. Experimental tests were carried out utilizing a vertical rod bundle test section along with a set of air-water supply/flow control system, and the transient signals of the central region void fraction were collected through the electrical conductivity sensors as well as visualized via high speed photography. By converting the electric signals, transient void fraction can be obtained through the voltage ratios. With a fixed superficial water velocity (Jf=0.094 m/s), two different superficial air velocities (Jg=0.094 m/s and 0.236 m/s) were tested and presented, which were corresponding to the flow conditions of bubbly flows and cap/slug flows, respectively. The time averaged central region void fraction was obtained as 0.109-0.122 with 0.028 standard deviation for the selected bubbly flow and 0.188-0.221with 0.101 standard deviation for the selected cap/slug flow, respectively. Through Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis, no clear frequency peak was found in bubbly flow, while two dominant frequencies were identified around 1.6 Hz and 2.5 Hz in the present cap/slug flow.

Keywords: central region, rod bundles, transient void fraction, two-phase flow

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7781 Gut Microbiota and Their Modulating Role in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Hypertensive Rats Fed with Selected Local Wild Beans

Authors: Bankole Do, Omodara T. R., Awyinka O. A.


Probiotic supplementation has been known to be associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension. Against these backdrop, activities of the gut microbiota from hypertensive induced pregnant and non-pregnant rats as mediated by the soluble and indigestible fraction of carbohydrates derived from Otiliand fermentedIru were studied in this present work. Microbiota from hypertensive induced non- pregnant rats fed with Otili and Iruhad Proteus vulgaris + Staphylococcus aureus. However, hypertensive induced pregnant rats fed with Otilipredominantly contained Proteus vulgaris + Bacillus lichniformiswhile the group fed with Iruhad Staphylococcus aureus + Bacillus lichniformis. Thus, showingdysbiosis in hypertensive induced rats is influenced by pregnancy. Further In-vitro study showed Proteus vulgaris playing a key role in the fermentative process of the indigestible fraction of carbohydrates while Esherichia coli played the key role in the fermentative process of the soluble fraction of carbohydrates in all the bean samples. This dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, as seen in hypertension in rats in this present study, might be part of the strategies for the prevention and treatment of this Non-Communicable Disease.

Keywords: probiotic, microbiota, dysbiosis, hypertension

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7780 Optimization of Moisture Content for Highest Tensile Strength of Instant Soluble Milk Tablet and Flowability of Milk Powder

Authors: Siddharth Vishwakarma, Danie Shajie A., Mishra H. N.


Milk powder becomes very useful in the low milk supply area but the exact amount to add for one glass of milk and the handling is difficult. So, the idea of instant soluble milk tablet comes into existence for its high solubility and easy handling. The moisture content of milk tablets is increased by the direct addition of water with no additives for binding. The variation of the tensile strength of instant soluble milk tablets and the flowability of milk powder with the moisture content is analyzed and optimized for the highest tensile strength of instant soluble milk tablets and flowability, above a particular value of milk powder using response surface methodology. The flowability value is necessary for ease in quantifying the milk powder, as a feed, in the designed tablet making machine. The instant soluble nature of milk tablets purely depends upon the disintegration characteristic of tablets in water whose study is under progress. Conclusions: The optimization results are very useful in the commercialization of milk tablets.

Keywords: flowability, milk powder, response surface methodology, tablet making machine, tensile strength

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7779 Water Soluble Chitosan Derivatives via the Freeze Concentration Technique

Authors: Senem Avaz, Alpay Taralp


Chitosan has been an attractive biopolymer for decades, but its processibility is lowered by its poor solubility, especially in physiological pH values. Freeze concentrated reactions of Chitosan with several organic acids including acrylic, citraconic, itaconic, and maleic acid revealed improved solubility and morphological properties. Solubility traits were assessed with a modified ninhydrin test. Chitosan derivatives were characterized by ATR-FTIR and morphological characteristics were determined by SEM. This study is a unique approach to chemically modify Chitosan to enhance water solubility.

Keywords: chitosan, freeze concentration, frozen reactions, ninhydrin test, water soluble chitosan

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7778 Antimicrobial Activity of Ilex paraguariensis Sub-Fractions after Liquid-Liquid Partitioning

Authors: Sabah El-Sawalhi, Elie Fayad, Roula M. Abdel-Massih


Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate) is a medium to large tree commonly consumed by South Americans. Its leaves and stems are associated with different biological activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Yerba Mate against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and its action against some resistant bacteria with different resistance profiles. Yerba Mate aqueous extracts were prepared at 70°C for 2 hrs, and the microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Gram-positive bacteria exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity (MIC ranged between 0.468 mg/mL and 15 mg/mL) than Gram-negative bacteria. Yerba Mate was also extracted with acetone: water (1:1) and then further sub-fractionated with hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 0.78 to 2.5 mg/ml for the chloroform fraction, from 1.56 to 3.75 mg/ml for the ethyl acetate fraction, and 0.78 to 1.87 mg/ml for the water fraction. The water fraction also exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella species (MIC ranged from 1.56 mg/ml to 3.12 mg/ml). The water fraction exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among all the fractions obtained. More studies are needed to determine the molecule or molecules responsible for this activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, bacterial resistance, minimum inhibitory concentration, yerba mate

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7777 Process for Production of Added-Value Water–Extract from Liquid Biomass

Authors: Lozano Paul


Coupled Membrane Separation Technology (CMST), including Cross Flow Microfiltration (CFM) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), are used to concentrate microalgae biomass or/and to extract and concentrate water-soluble metabolites produced during micro-algae production cycle, as well as water recycling. Micro-algae biomass was produced using different feeding mixtures of ingredients: pure chemical origin compounds and natural/ecological water-extracted components from available local plants. Micro-algae was grown either in conventional plastic bags (100L/unit) or in small-scale innovative bioreactors (75L). Biomass was concentrated as CFM retentate using a P19-60 ceramic membrane (0.2μm pore size), and water-soluble micro-algae metabolites left in the CFM filtrate were concentrated by RO. Large volumes of water (micro-algae culture media) of were recycled by the CMTS for another biomass production cycle.

Keywords: extraction, membrane process, microalgae, natural compound

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7776 Vitamin Content of Swordfish (Xhiphias gladius) Affected by Salting and Frying

Authors: L. Piñeiro, N. Cobas, L. Gómez-Limia, S. Martínez, I. Franco


The swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a large oceanic fish of high commercial value, which is widely distributed in waters of the world’s oceans. They are considered to be an important source of high quality proteins, vitamins and essential fatty acids, although only half of the population follows the recommendation of nutritionists to consume fish at least twice a week. Swordfish is consumed worldwide because of its low fat content and high protein content. It is generally sold as fresh, frozen, and as pieces or slices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of salting and frying on the composition of the water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B9 and B12) and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E) of swordfish. Three loins of swordfish from Pacific Ocean were analyzed. All the fishes had a weight between 50 and 70 kg and were transported to the laboratory frozen (-18 ºC). Before the processing, they were defrosted at 4 ºC. Each loin was sliced and salted in brine. After cleaning the slices, they were divided into portions (10×2 cm) and fried in olive oil. The identification and quantification of vitamins were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using methanol and 0.010% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phases at a flow-rate of 0.7 mL min-1. The UV-Vis detector was used for the detection of the water- and fat-soluble vitamins (A and D), as well as the fluorescence detector for the detection of the vitamin E. During salting, water and fat-soluble vitamin contents remained constant, observing an evident decrease in the values of vitamin B2. The diffusion of salt into the interior of the pieces and the loss of constitution water that occur during this stage would be related to this significant decrease. In general, after frying water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins showed a great thermolability with high percentages of retention with values among 50–100%. Vitamin B3 is the one that exhibited higher percentages of retention with values close to 100%. However, vitamin B9 presented the highest losses with a percentage of retention of less than 20%.

Keywords: frying, HPLC, salting, swordfish, vitamins

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7775 Heat Capacity of a Soluble in Water Protein: Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: A. Rajabpour, A. Hadizadeh Kheirkhah


Heat transfer is of great importance to biological systems in order to function properly. In the present study, specific heat capacity as one of the most important heat transfer properties is calculated for a soluble in water Lysozyme protein. Using equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, specific heat capacities of pure water, dry lysozyme, and lysozyme-water solution are calculated at 300K for different weight fractions. It is found that MD results are in good agreement with ideal binary mixing rule at small weight fractions. Results of all simulations have been validated with experimental data.

Keywords: specific heat capacity, molecular dynamics simulation, lysozyme protein, equilibrium

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7774 Different Feedings on Chemical Characteristics of Atlantic Salmon Fillet

Authors: Mahsa Jalili, Trude Johansen, Signe Dille Lovmo, Turid Rustad, Rolf Erik Olsen, Atle M. Bones


The quality of fish muscle is a key factor in fish industry, and dietary ingredients can influence fish quality. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of krill meal, soybean meal, Bactocell® and butyrate fortified feeds and control diet on characteristics of salmon fillet. Thirty Atlantic salmon (6 per each group) were farmed for 12 weeks. All the fish were killed and frozen immediately. The white muscle from top posterior part of dorsal fin was dissected to analyze fat content, carotenoid content, content of water-soluble and salt-soluble proteins, cathepsin B and cathepsin B-L activities. ANOVA test was used to analyze mean and standard error of mean values at 0.05 significance level. There were significant difference in cathepsin B activity, water-soluble proteins and salt-soluble proteins (p-value= 0.005, 0.009 and 0.002). The mean values of other factors were not significantly different among the groups. Cathepsin B activity was higher in soymeal group. Water-soluble proteins were reported higher in soy meal and krill groups and salt-soluble proteins were significantly higher in soy meal and butyrate rich diets. Although soy meal has proven effect on enteritis, it results in higher percentage of protein in fillets. On the other hand, this feeding may have role in textural deterioration of fillets owing to higher values of endogenous cathepsin B in soymeal group.

Keywords: aquaculture, food quality, Krill protein extract, prebiotics, probiotics, Salmo salar, soy

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7773 Speciation and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Greenhouse Soils

Authors: Bulent Topcuoglu


Repeated amendments of organic matter and intensive use of fertilizers, metal-enriched chemicals and biocides may cause soil and environmental pollution in greenhouses. Specially, the impact of heavy metal pollution of soils on food metal content and underground water quality has become a public concern. Due to potential toxicity of heavy metals to human life and environment, determining the chemical form of heavy metals in greenhouse soils is an important approach of chemical characterization and can provide useful information on its mobility and bioavailability. A sequential extraction procedure was used to estimate the availability of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr) in greenhouse soils of Antalya Aksu. Zn was predominantly associated with Fe-Mn oxide fraction, major portion of Cd associated with carbonate and organic matter fraction, a major portion of (>65 %) Ni and Cr were largely associated with Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions and Pb was largely associated with organic matter and Fe-Mn oxide fractions. Results of the present study suggest that the mobility and bioavailability of metals probably increase in the following order: Cr < Pb < Ni < Cd < Zn. Among the elements studied, Zn and Cd appeared to be the most readily soluble and potentially bioavailable metals and these metals may carry a potential risk for metal transfer in food chain and contamination to ground water.

Keywords: metal speciation, metal mobility, greenhouse soils, biosystems engineering

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7772 A Simplified Model of the Control System with PFM

Authors: Bekmurza H. Aitchanov, Sholpan K. Aitchanova, Olimzhon A. Baimuratov, Aitkul N. Aldibekova


This work considers the automated control system (ACS) of milk quality during its magnetic field processing. For achieving high level of quality control methods were applied transformation of complex nonlinear systems in a linearized system with a less complex structure. Presented ACS is adjustable by seven parameters: mass fraction of fat, mass fraction of dry skim milk residues (DSMR), density, mass fraction of added water, temperature, mass fraction of protein, acidity.

Keywords: fluids magnetization, nuclear magnetic resonance, automated control system, dynamic pulse-frequency modulator, PFM, nonlinear systems, structural model

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
7771 Investigation of Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Natural Convection Utilizing of Nanofluids

Authors: S. Etaig, R. Hasan, N. Perera


This paper analyses the heat transfer performance and fluid flow using different nanofluids in a square enclosure. The energy equation and Navier-Stokes equation are solved numerically using finite volume scheme. The effect of volume fraction concentration on the enhancement of heat transfer has been studied icorporating the Brownian motion; the influence of effective thermal conductivity on the enhancement was also investigated for a range of volume fraction concentration. The velocity profile for different Rayleigh number. Water-Cu, water AL2O3 and water-TiO2 were tested.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, natural convection, nanofluid and thermal conductivity

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7770 Application of Water Soluble Polymers in Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: M. Shahzad Kamal, Abdullah S. Sultan, Usamah A. Al-Mubaiyedh, Ibnelwaleed A. Hussein


Oil recovery from reservoirs using conventional oil recovery techniques like water flooding is less than 20%. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques are applied to recover additional oil. Surfactant-polymer flooding is a promising EOR technique used to recover residual oil from reservoirs. Water soluble polymers are used to increase the viscosity of displacing fluids. Surfactants increase the capillary number by reducing the interfacial tension between oil and displacing fluid. Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) is widely used in polymer flooding applications due to its low cost and other desirable properties. HPAM works well in low-temperature and low salinity-environment. In the presence of salts HPAM viscosity decrease due to charge screening effect and it can precipitate at high temperatures in the presence of salts. Various strategies have been adopted to extend the application of water soluble polymers to high-temperature high-salinity (HTHS) reservoir. These include addition of monomers to acrylamide chain that can protect it against thermal hydrolysis. In this work, rheological properties of various water soluble polymers were investigated to find out suitable polymer and surfactant-polymer systems for HTHS reservoirs. Polymer concentration ranged from 0.1 to 1 % (w/v). Effect of temperature, salinity and polymer concentration was investigated using both steady shear and dynamic measurements. Acrylamido tertiary butyl sulfonate based copolymer showed better performance under HTHS conditions compared to HPAM. Moreover, thermoviscosifying polymer showed excellent rheological properties and increase in the viscosity was observed with increase temperature. This property is highly desirable for EOR application.

Keywords: rheology, polyacrylamide, salinity, enhanced oil recovery, polymer flooding

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7769 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat


The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20° to +20° using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction

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7768 Kinetics of Sugar Losses in Hot Water Blanching of Water Yam (Dioscorea alata)

Authors: Ayobami Solomon Popoola


Yam is majorly a carbohydrate food grown in most parts of the world. It could be boiled, fried or roasted for consumption in a variety of ways. Blanching is an established heat pre-treatment given to fruits and vegetables prior to further processing such as dehydration, canning, freezing etc. Losses of soluble solids during blanching has been a great problem because a reasonable quantity of the water-soluble nutrients are inevitably leached into the blanching water. Without blanching, the high residual levels of reducing sugars after extended storage produce a dark, bitter-tasting product because of the Maillard reactions of reducing sugars at frying temperature. Measurement and prediction of such losses are necessary for economic efficiency in production and to establish the level of effluent treatment of the blanching water. This paper aims at resolving this problem by investigating the effects of cube size and temperature on the rate of diffusional losses of reducing sugars and total sugars during hot water blanching of water-yam. The study was carried out using four temperature levels (65, 70, 80 and 90 °C) and two cubes sizes (0.02 m³ and 0.03 m³) at 4 times intervals (5, 10, 15 and 20 mins) respectively. Obtained data were fitted into Fick’s non-steady equation from which diffusion coefficients (Da) were obtained. The Da values were subsequently fitted into Arrhenius plot to obtain activation energies (Ea-values) for diffusional losses. The diffusion co-efficient were independent of cube size and time but highly temperature dependent. The diffusion coefficients were ≥ 1.0 ×10⁻⁹ m²s⁻¹ for reducing sugars and ≥ 5.0 × 10⁻⁹ m²s⁻¹ for total sugars. The Ea values ranged between 68.2 to 73.9 KJmol⁻¹ and 7.2 to 14.30 KJmol⁻¹ for reducing sugars and total sugars losses respectively. Predictive equations for estimating amount of reducing sugars and total sugars with blanching time of water-yam at various temperatures were also presented. The equation could be valuable in process design and optimization. However, amount of other soluble solids that might have leached into the water along with reducing and total sugars during blanching was not investigated in the study.

Keywords: blanching, kinetics, sugar losses, water yam

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7767 Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity Test of Water Fraction Extract of Sisik Naga (Drymoglossum piloselloides) Leaves

Authors: Afifah Nur Aini, Elsa Mega Suryani, Betty Lukiaty


Drymoglossum piloselloides or more commonly known as sisik naga fern is a member of Polipodiaceae Family that is abundant and widely distributed in nature. That being said, there hasn’t been many studies reporting about the benefits of this fern. The aim of this study was to find out the active compounds and antioxidant activity of water fraction extract of sisik naga leaves. The study will be able to optimize the use of this fern in the future. In this study, phytochemical test was done qualitatively by using Mayer, Dragendorff and Wagner reagent for alkaloid test; FeCl3 for phenolic test; Shinoda test for flavonoid; Liebermann-Burchard test for triterprnoid and Forth test for saponin. Antioxidant activity test was done by using 20D spectronic spectrophotometer to determine the percentage of DPPH free radical inhibition. The results showed that water fraction extract of sisik naga leaves contain phenolic and IC50 = 5.44 μg/ml. This means that sisik naga leaves can be used as an antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity test, dpph, phytochemical test, drymoglossum piloselloides

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7766 Evaluation of Lactobacillus helveticus as an Adjunct Culture for Removal of Bitterness in Iranian White-Brined Cheese

Authors: F. Nejati, Sh. Dokhani


Bitterness is a flavor defect encountered in some cheeses, such as Iranian white brined cheese and is responsible for reducing acceptability of the cheeses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an adjunct culture on removal of bitterness fro, Iranian white-brined cheese. The chemical and proteolysis characteristics of the cheese were also monitored. Bitter cheeses were made using overdose of clotting enzyme with and without L. helveticus CH-1 as an adjunct culture. Cheese made with normal doses of clotting enzyme was used as the control. Adjunct culture was applied in two different forms: attenuated and non-attenuated. Proteolysis was assessed by measuring the amount of water soluble nitrogen, 12% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen and total free amino acids during ripening. A taste panel group also evaluated the cheeses at the end of ripening period. Results of the statistical analysis showed that the adjunct caused considerable proteolysis and the level of water soluble nitrogen and 12% soluble nitrogen fractions were found to be significantly higher in the treatment involving L. helveticus (respectively P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Regarding to organoleptic evaluations, the non-shocked adjunct culture caused reduction in bitterness and enhancement of flavor in cheese.

Keywords: bitterness, Iranian white brined cheese, Lactobacillus helveticus, ripening

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7765 Lactobacillus Helveticus as an Adjunct Culture for Removal of Bitterness in White-Brined Cheese

Authors: Fatemeh Nejati, Shahram Dokhani


Bitterness is a flavor defect encountered in some cheeses, such as Iranian white brined cheese and is responsible for reducing acceptability of the cheeses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an adjunct culture on removal of bitterness fro, Iranian white-brined cheese. The chemical and proteolysis characteristics of the cheese were also monitored. Bitter cheeses were made using overdose of clotting enzyme with and without L. helveticus CH-1 as an adjunct culture. Cheese made with normal doses of clotting enzyme was used as the control. Adjunct culture was applied in two different forms: attenuated and non-attenuated. Proteolysis was assessed by measuring the amount of water soluble nitrogen, 12% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen and total free amino acids during ripening. A taste panel group also evaluated the cheeses at the end of ripening period. Results of the statistical analysis showed that the adjunct caused considerable proteolysis and the level of water soluble nitrogen and 12% soluble nitrogen fractions were found to be significantly higher in the treatment involving L. helveticus (respectively P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Regarding to organoleptic evaluations, the non-shocked adjunct culture caused reduction in bitterness and enhancement of flavor in cheese.

Keywords: Bitterness, Iranian white brined Cheese, Lactobacillus helveticus, Ripening

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7764 The Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Water-Soluble Silane Coupling Agents for Increasing Silica Filler Content in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

Authors: Jun Choi, Bo Ram Lee, Ji Hye Choi, Jung Soo Kim, No-Hyung Park, Dong Hyun Kim


The synthetic rubber compound, which is widely used as the core material for automobile tire industry, is manufactured by mixing styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and organic/inorganic fillers. It is known that the most important factor for the physical properties of rubber compound is the interaction between the filler and the rubber, which affects the rotational, braking and abrasion resistance. Silica filler has hydrophilic groups such as a silanol group on their surface which has a low affinity with hydrophobic rubbers. In order to solve this problem, researches on an efficient silane coupling agent (SCA) has been continuously carried out. In this study, highly water-soluble SCAs which are expected to show higher hydrolysis efficiency were synthesized. The hydrophobization process of the silica with the prepared SCAs was economical and environment-friendly. The SCAs structures were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, their hydrolysis efficiency and condensation side reaction in SBR wet master batch were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), respectively.

Keywords: rubber, silane coupling agent, synthesis, water-soluble

Procedia PDF Downloads 191