Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 419

Search results for: ANSYS Q3D Extractor

419 Equivalent Electrical Model of a Shielded Pulse Planar Transformer in Isolated Gate Drivers for SiC MOSFETs

Authors: Loreine Makki, Marc Anthony Mannah, Christophe Batard, Nicolas Ginot, Julien Weckbrodt

Abstract:

Planar transformers are extensively utilized in high-frequency, high power density power electronic converters. The breakthrough of wide-bandgap technology compelled power electronic system miniaturization while inducing pivotal effects on system modeling and manufacturing within the power electronics industry. A significant consideration to simulate and model the unanticipated parasitic parameters emerges with the requirement to mitigate electromagnetic disturbances. This paper will present an equivalent circuit model of a shielded pulse planar transformer quantifying leakage inductance and resistance in addition to the interwinding capacitance of the primary and secondary windings. ANSYS Q3D Extractor was utilized to model and simulate the transformer, intending to study the immunity of the simulated equivalent model to high dv/dt occurrences. A convenient correlation between simulation and experimental results is presented.

Keywords: Planar transformers, wide-band gap, equivalent circuit model, shielded, ANSYS Q3D Extractor, dv/dt

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
418 Design and Characterization of a CMOS Process Sensor Utilizing Vth Extractor Circuit

Authors: Rohana Musa, Yuzman Yusoff, Chia Chieu Yin, Hanif Che Lah

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of a low power Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process sensor. The design is targeted for implementation using Silterra’s 180 nm CMOS process technology. The proposed process sensor employs a voltage threshold (Vth) extractor architecture for detection of variations in the fabrication process. The process sensor generates output voltages in the range of 401 mV (fast-fast corner) to 443 mV (slow-slow corner) at nominal condition. The power dissipation for this process sensor is 6.3 µW with a supply voltage of 1.8V with a silicon area of 190 µm X 60 µm. The preliminary result of this process sensor that was fabricated indicates a close resemblance between test and simulated results.

Keywords: CMOS process sensor, PVT sensor, threshold extractor circuit, Vth extractor circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
417 A Guide for Using Viscoelasticity in ANSYS

Authors: A. Fettahoglu

Abstract:

Theory of viscoelasticity is used by many researchers to represent the behavior of many materials such as pavements on roads or bridges. Several researches used analytical methods and rheology to predict the material behaviors of simple models. Today, more complex engineering structures are analyzed using Finite Element Method, in which material behavior is embedded by means of three dimensional viscoelastic material laws. As a result, structures of unordinary geometry and domain can be analyzed by means of Finite Element Method and three dimensional viscoelastic equations. In the scope of this study, rheological models embedded in ANSYS, namely, generalized Maxwell model and Prony series, which are two methods used by ANSYS to represent viscoelastic material behavior, are presented explicitly. Afterwards, a guide is illustrated to ease using of viscoelasticity tool in ANSYS.

Keywords: ANSYS, generalized Maxwell model, finite element method, Prony series, viscoelasticity, viscoelastic material curve fitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
416 Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor Design and Optimization by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Tugce Talay, Kadir Erkan

Abstract:

In this study, the necessary steps for the design of axial flow permanent magnet motors are shown. The design and analysis of the engine were carried out based on ANSYS Maxwell program. The design parameters of the ANSYS Maxwell program and the artificial neural network system were established in MATLAB and the most efficient design parameters were found with the trained neural network. The results of the Maxwell program and the results of the artificial neural networks are compared and optimal working design parameters are found. The most efficient design parameters were submitted to the ANSYS Maxwell 3D design and the cogging torque was examined and design studies were carried out to reduce the cogging torque.

Keywords: AFPM, ANSYS Maxwell, cogging torque, design optimisation, efficiency, NNTOOL

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
415 Seashore Debris Detection System Using Deep Learning and Histogram of Gradients-Extractor Based Instance Segmentation Model

Authors: Anshika Kankane, Dongshik Kang

Abstract:

Marine debris has a significant influence on coastal environments, damaging biodiversity, and causing loss and damage to marine and ocean sector. A functional cost-effective and automatic approach has been used to look up at this problem. Computer vision combined with a deep learning-based model is being proposed to identify and categorize marine debris of seven kinds on different beach locations of Japan. This research compares state-of-the-art deep learning models with a suggested model architecture that is utilized as a feature extractor for debris categorization. The model is being proposed to detect seven categories of litter using a manually constructed debris dataset, with the help of Mask R-CNN for instance segmentation and a shape matching network called HOGShape, which can then be cleaned on time by clean-up organizations using warning notifications of the system. The manually constructed dataset for this system is created by annotating the images taken by fixed KaKaXi camera using CVAT annotation tool with seven kinds of category labels. A pre-trained HOG feature extractor on LIBSVM is being used along with multiple templates matching on HOG maps of images and HOG maps of templates to improve the predicted masked images obtained via Mask R-CNN training. This system intends to timely alert the cleanup organizations with the warning notifications using live recorded beach debris data. The suggested network results in the improvement of misclassified debris masks of debris objects with different illuminations, shapes, viewpoints and litter with occlusions which have vague visibility.

Keywords: computer vision, debris, deep learning, fixed live camera images, histogram of gradients feature extractor, instance segmentation, manually annotated dataset, multiple template matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
414 Multiphase Flow Model for 3D Numerical Model Using ANSYS for Flow over Stepped Cascade with End Sill

Authors: Dheyaa Wajid Abbood, Hanan Hussien Abood

Abstract:

Stepped cascade has been utilized as a hydraulic structure for years. It has proven to be the least costly aeration system in replenishing dissolved oxygen. Numerical modeling of stepped cascade with end sill is very complicated and challenging because of the high roughness and velocity re circulation regions. Volume of fluid multiphase flow model (VOF) is used .The realizable k-ξ model is chosen to simulate turbulence. The computational results are compared with lab-scale stepped cascade data. The lab –scale model was constructed in the hydraulic laboratory, Al-Mustansiriya University, Iraq. The stepped cascade was 0.23 m wide and consisted of 3 steps each 0.2m high and 0.6 m long with variable end sill. The discharge was varied from 1 to 4 l/s. ANSYS has been employed to simulate the experimental data and their related results. This study shows that ANSYS is able to predict results almost the same as experimental findings in some regions of the structure.

Keywords: stepped cascade weir, aeration, multiphase flow model, ansys

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
413 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma

Abstract:

This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in Ansys. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and Ansys software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, pressure vessel, saddle, support

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
412 Statistical Feature Extraction Method for Wood Species Recognition System

Authors: Mohd Iz'aan Paiz Bin Zamri, Anis Salwa Mohd Khairuddin, Norrima Mokhtar, Rubiyah Yusof

Abstract:

Effective statistical feature extraction and classification are important in image-based automatic inspection and analysis. An automatic wood species recognition system is designed to perform wood inspection at custom checkpoints to avoid mislabeling of timber which will results to loss of income to the timber industry. The system focuses on analyzing the statistical pores properties of the wood images. This paper proposed a fuzzy-based feature extractor which mimics the experts’ knowledge on wood texture to extract the properties of pores distribution from the wood surface texture. The proposed feature extractor consists of two steps namely pores extraction and fuzzy pores management. The total number of statistical features extracted from each wood image is 38 features. Then, a backpropagation neural network is used to classify the wood species based on the statistical features. A comprehensive set of experiments on a database composed of 5200 macroscopic images from 52 tropical wood species was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed feature extractor. The advantage of the proposed feature extraction technique is that it mimics the experts’ interpretation on wood texture which allows human involvement when analyzing the wood texture. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: classification, feature extraction, fuzzy, inspection system, image analysis, macroscopic images

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
411 Error Amount in Viscoelasticity Analysis Depending on Time Step Size and Method used in ANSYS

Authors: A. Fettahoglu

Abstract:

Theory of viscoelasticity is used by many researchers to represent behavior of many materials such as pavements on roads or bridges. Several researches used analytical methods and rheology to predict the material behaviors of simple models. Today, more complex engineering structures are analyzed using Finite Element Method, in which material behavior is embedded by means of three dimensional viscoelastic material laws. As a result, structures of unordinary geometry and domain like pavements of bridges can be analyzed by means of Finite Element Method and three dimensional viscoelastic equations. In the scope of this study, rheological models embedded in ANSYS, namely, generalized Maxwell elements and Prony series, which are two methods used by ANSYS to represent viscoelastic material behavior, are presented explicitly. Subsequently, a practical problem, which has an analytical solution given in literature, is used to verify the applicability of viscoelasticity tool embedded in ANSYS. Finally, amount of error in the results of ANSYS is compared with the analytical results to indicate the influence of used method and time step size.

Keywords: generalized Maxwell model, finite element method, prony series, time step size, viscoelasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
410 Modeling and Computational Validation of Dispersion Curves of Guide Waves in a Pipe Using ANSYS

Authors: A. Perdomo, J. R. Bacca, Q. E. Jabid

Abstract:

In recent years, technological and investigative progress has been achieved in the area of monitoring of equipment and installation as a result of a deeper understanding of physical phenomenon associated with the non-destructive tests (NDT). The modal analysis proposes an efficient solution to determine the dispersion curves of an arbitrary waveguide cross-sectional. Dispersion curves are essential in the discontinuity localization based on guided waves. In this work, an isotropic hollow cylinder is dynamically analyzed in ANSYS to obtain resonant frequencies and mode shapes all of them associated with the dispersion curves. The numerical results provide the relation between frequency and wavelength which is the foundation of the dispersion curves. Results of the simulation process are validated with the software GUIGW.

Keywords: ansys APDL, dispersion curves, guide waves, modal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
409 Stress Analysis of Spider Gear Using Structural Steel on ANSYS

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Shahab Khushnood

Abstract:

Differential is an integral part of four wheeled vehicle, and its main function is to transmit power from drive shaft to wheels. Differential assembly allows both rear wheels to turn at different speed along curved paths. It consists of four gears which are assembled together namely pinion, ring, spider and bevel gears. This research focused on the spider gear and its static structural analysis using ANSYS. The main aim was to evaluate the distribution of stresses on the teeth of the spider gear. This study also analyzed total deformation that may occur during its working along with bevel gear that is meshed with spider gear. Structural steel was chosen for spider gear in this research. Modeling and assembling were done on SolidWorks for both spider and bevel gear. They were assembled exactly same as in a differential assembly. This assembly was then imported to ANSYS. After observing results that maximum amount of stress and deformation was produced in the spider gear, it was concluded that structural steel material for spider gear possesses greater amount of strength to bear maximum stress.

Keywords: ANSYS, differential, spider gear, structural steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
408 Study on Two Way Reinforced Concrete Slab Using ANSYS with Different Boundary Conditions and Loading

Authors: A. Gherbi, L. Dahmani, A. Boudjemia

Abstract:

This paper presents the Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the failure pattern of rectangular slab with various edge conditions. Non-Linear static analysis is carried out using ANSYS 15 Software. Using SOLID65 solid elements, the compressive crushing of concrete is facilitated using plasticity algorithm, while the concrete cracking in tension zone is accommodated by the nonlinear material model. Smeared reinforcement is used and introduced as a percentage of steel embedded in concrete slab. The behavior of the analyzed concrete slab has been observed in terms of the crack pattern and displacement for various loading and boundary conditions. The finite element results are also compared with the experimental data. One of the other objectives of the present study is to show how similar the crack path found by ANSYS program to those observed for the yield line analysis. The smeared reinforcement method is found to be more practical especially for the layered elements like concrete slabs. The value of this method is that it does not require explicit modeling of the rebar, and thus a much coarser mesh can be defined.

Keywords: ANSYS, cracking pattern, displacements, reinforced concrete slab, smeared reinforcements

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
407 Effect of Concrete Strength and Aspect Ratio on Strength and Ductility of Concrete Columns

Authors: Mohamed A. Shanan, Ashraf H. El-Zanaty, Kamal G. Metwally

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of normal and high strength reinforced concrete columns confined with transverse steel under axial compressive loading. Nineteen normal strength concrete rectangular columns with different variables tested in this research were used to study the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of columns. The paper also presents a nonlinear finite element analysis for these specimens and another twenty high strength concrete square columns tested by other researchers using ANSYS 15 finite element software. The results indicate that the axial force – axial strain relationship obtained from the analytical model using ANSYS are in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison shows that the ANSYS is capable of modeling and predicting the actual nonlinear behavior of confined normal and high-strength concrete columns under concentric loading. The maximum applied load and the maximum strain have also been confirmed to be satisfactory. Depending on this agreement between the experimental and analytical results, a parametric numerical study was conducted by ANSYS 15 to clarify and evaluate the effect of each variable on strength and ductility of the columns.

Keywords: ANSYS, concrete compressive strength effect, ductility, rectangularity ratio, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
406 Evaluation of an Air Energy Recovery System in Greenhouse Fed by an Axial Air Extractor

Authors: Eugueni Romantchik, Gilbero Lopez, Diego Terrazas

Abstract:

The residual wind energy recovery from axial air extractors in greenhouses represents a constant source of clean energy production, which reduces production costs by reducing energy consumption costs. The objective of this work is to design, build and evaluate a residual wind energy recovery system. This system consists of a wind turbine placed at an optimal distance, a cone in the air discharge and a mechanism to vary the blades angle of the wind turbine. The system energy balance was analyzed, measuring the main energy parameters such as voltage, amperage, air velocities and angular speeds of the rotors. Tests were carried in a greenhouse with extractor Multifan 130 (1.2 kW, 550 rpm and 1.3 m of diameter) without cone and with cone, with the wind turbine (3 blades with 1.2 m in diameter). The implementation of the system allowed recovering up to 55% of the motor's energy. With the cone installed, the electric energy recovered was increased by 10%. Experimentally, it was shown that changing in 3 degrees the original angle of the wind turbine blades, the angular velocity increases 17.7%.

Keywords: air energy, exhaust fan, greenhouse, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
405 Three-Stage Mining Metals Supply Chain Coordination and Product Quality Improvement with Revenue Sharing Contract

Authors: Hamed Homaei, Iraj Mahdavi, Ali Tajdin

Abstract:

One of the main concerns of miners is to increase the quality level of their products because the mining metals price depends on their quality level; however, increasing the quality level of these products has different costs at different levels of the supply chain. These costs usually increase after extractor level. This paper studies the coordination issue of a decentralized three-level supply chain with one supplier (extractor), one mineral processor and one manufacturer in which the increasing product quality level cost at the processor level is higher than the supplier and at the level of the manufacturer is more than the processor. We identify the optimal product quality level for each supply chain member by designing a revenue sharing contract. Finally, numerical examples show that the designed contract not only increases the final product quality level but also provides a win-win condition for all supply chain members and increases the whole supply chain profit.

Keywords: three-stage supply chain, product quality improvement, channel coordination, revenue sharing

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
404 Structural Analysis of Hydro-Turbine Head Cover Using Ansys

Authors: Surjit Angra, Manisha Kumari, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

The objective of the Hydro Turbine Head Cover is to support the guide bearing, guide vane regulating mechanism and even in some design for generator thrust bearing support. Mechanical design of head cover deals with high static as well as fluctuating load acting on the structure. In the present work structural analysis of hydro turbine Head-cover using ANSYS software is carried out. Finite element method is used to calculate stresses on head cover. These calculations were done for the maximum possible loading under operating condition “LCI Quick Shut Down”. The results for equivalent Von-Mises stress, total deformation and directional deformation have been plotted and compared with the existing results whether the design is safe or not.

Keywords: ANSYS, head cover, hydro-turbine, structural analysis, total deformation, Von-Mises stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
403 Robustness of the Deep Chroma Extractor and Locally-Normalized Quarter Tone Filters in Automatic Chord Estimation under Reverberant Conditions

Authors: Luis Alvarado, Victor Poblete, Isaac Gonzalez, Yetzabeth Gonzalez

Abstract:

In MIREX 2016 (http://www.music-ir.org/mirex), the deep neural network (DNN)-Deep Chroma Extractor, proposed by Korzeniowski and Wiedmer, reached the highest score in an audio chord recognition task. In the present paper, this tool is assessed under acoustic reverberant environments and distinct source-microphone distances. The evaluation dataset comprises The Beatles and Queen datasets. These datasets are sequentially re-recorded with a single microphone in a real reverberant chamber at four reverberation times (0 -anechoic-, 1, 2, and 3 s, approximately), as well as four source-microphone distances (32, 64, 128, and 256 cm). It is expected that the performance of the trained DNN will dramatically decrease under these acoustic conditions with signals degraded by room reverberation and distance to the source. Recently, the effect of the bio-inspired Locally-Normalized Cepstral Coefficients (LNCC), has been assessed in a text independent speaker verification task using speech signals degraded by additive noise at different signal-to-noise ratios with variations of recording distance, and it has also been assessed under reverberant conditions with variations of recording distance. LNCC showed a performance so high as the state-of-the-art Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient filters. Based on these results, this paper proposes a variation of locally-normalized triangular filters called Locally-Normalized Quarter Tone (LNQT) filters. By using the LNQT spectrogram, robustness improvements of the trained Deep Chroma Extractor are expected, compared with classical triangular filters, and thus compensating the music signal degradation improving the accuracy of the chord recognition system.

Keywords: chord recognition, deep neural networks, feature extraction, music information retrieval

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
402 Design and Analysis of a Clustered Nozzle Configuration and Comparison of Its Thrust

Authors: Abdul Hadi Butt, Asfandyar Arshad

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study the thrust variation in different configurations of clustered nozzles. It involves the design and analysis of clustered configuration of nozzles using Ansys fluent. Clustered nozzles with different configurations are simulated and compared on basis of effective exhaust thrust. Mixing length for the flow interaction is also calculated. Further clustered configurations are analyzed over different altitudes. An optimum value of the thrust among different configurations is proposed at the end of comparisons.

Keywords: CD nozzle, cluster, thrust, fluent, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
401 Analysis of Plates with Varying Rigidities Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Karan Modi, Rajesh Kumar, Jyoti Katiyar, Shreya Thusoo

Abstract:

This paper presents Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the internal responses generated in thin rectangular plates with various edge conditions and rigidity conditions. Comparison has been made between the FEM (ANSYS software) results for displacement, stresses and moments generated with and without the consideration of hole in plate and different aspect ratios. In the end comparison for responses in plain and composite square plates has been studied.

Keywords: ANSYS, finite element method, plates, static analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
400 Measuring the Effect of Ventilation on Cooking in Indoor Air Quality by Low-Cost Air Sensors

Authors: Andres Gonzalez, Adam Boies, Jacob Swanson, David Kittelson

Abstract:

The concern of the indoor air quality (IAQ) has been increasing due to its risk to human health. The smoking, sweeping, and stove and stovetop use are the activities that have a major contribution to the indoor air pollution. Outdoor air pollution also affects IAQ. The most important factors over IAQ from cooking activities are the materials, fuels, foods, and ventilation. The low-cost, mobile air quality monitoring (LCMAQM) sensors, is reachable technology to assess the IAQ. This is because of the lower cost of LCMAQM compared to conventional instruments. The IAQ was assessed, using LCMAQM, during cooking activities in a University of Minnesota graduate-housing evaluating different ventilation systems. The gases measured are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The particles measured are particle matter (PM) 2.5 micrometer (µm) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA). The measurements are being conducted during April 2019 in Como Student Community Cooperative (CSCC) that is a graduate housing at the University of Minnesota. The measurements are conducted using an electric stove for cooking. The amount and type of food and oil using for cooking are the same for each measurement. There are six measurements: two experiments measure air quality without any ventilation, two using an extractor as mechanical ventilation, and two using the extractor and windows open as mechanical and natural ventilation. 3The results of experiments show that natural ventilation is most efficient system to control particles and CO2. The natural ventilation reduces the concentration in 79% for LDSA and 55% for PM2.5, compared to the no ventilation. In the same way, CO2 reduces its concentration in 35%. A well-mixed vessel model was implemented to assess particle the formation and decay rates. Removal rates by the extractor were significantly higher for LDSA, which is dominated by smaller particles, than for PM2.5, but in both cases much lower compared to the natural ventilation. There was significant day to day variation in particle concentrations under nominally identical conditions. This may be related to the fat content of the food. Further research is needed to assess the impact of the fat in food on particle generations.

Keywords: cooking, indoor air quality, low-cost sensor, ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
399 Electrospray Plume Characterisation of a Single Source Cone-Jet for Micro-Electronic Cooling

Authors: M. J. Gibbons, A. J. Robinson

Abstract:

Increasing expectations on small form factor electronics to be more compact while increasing performance has driven conventional cooling technologies to a thermal management threshold. An emerging solution to this problem is electrospray (ES) cooling. ES cooling enables two phase cooling by utilising Coulomb forces for energy efficient fluid atomization. Generated charged droplets are accelerated to the grounded target surface by the applied electric field and surrounding gravitational force. While in transit the like charged droplets enable plume dispersion and inhibit droplet coalescence. If the electric field is increased in the cone-jet regime, a subsequent increase in the plume spray angle has been shown. Droplet segregation in the spray plume has been observed, with primary droplets in the plume core and satellite droplets positioned on the periphery of the plume. This segregation is facilitated by inertial and electrostatic effects. This result has been corroborated by numerous authors. These satellite droplets are usually more densely charged and move at a lower relative velocity to that of the spray core due to the radial decay of the electric field. Previous experimental research by Gomez and Tang has shown that the number of droplets deposited on the periphery can be up to twice that of the spray core. This result has been substantiated by a numerical models derived by Wilhelm et al., Oh et al. and Yang et al. Yang et al. showed from their numerical model, that by varying the extractor potential the dispersion radius of the plume also varies proportionally. This research aims to investigate this dispersion density and the role it plays in the local heat transfer coefficient profile (h) of ES cooling. This will be carried out for different extractor – target separation heights (H2), working fluid flow rates (Q), and extractor applied potential (V2). The plume dispersion will be recorded by spraying a 25 µm thick, joule heated steel foil and by recording the thermal footprint of the ES plume using a Flir A-40 thermal imaging camera. The recorded results will then be analysed by in-house developed MATLAB code.

Keywords: electronic cooling, electrospray, electrospray plume dispersion, spray cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
398 To Study the Effect of Drying Temperature Towards Extraction of Aquilaria subintegra Dry Leaves Using Vacuum Far Infrared

Authors: Tengku Muhammad Rafi Nazmi Bin Tengku Razali, Habsah Alwi

Abstract:

This article based on effect of temperature towards extraction of Aquilaria Subintegra. Aquilaria Subintegra which its main habitat is in Asia-tropical and particularly often found in its native which is Thailand. There is claim which is Aquilaria Subintegra contains antipyretic properties that helps fight fever. Research nowadays also shown that paracetamol consumed bring bad effect towards consumers. This sample will first dry using Vacuum Far Infrared which provides better drying than conventional oven. Soxhlet extractor used to extract oil from sample. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer used to analyze sample to determine its compound. Objective from this research was to determine the active ingredients that exist in the Aquilaria Subintegra leaves and to determine whether compound of Acetaminophen exist or not inside the leaves. Moisture content from 400C was 80%, 500C was 620% and 600C was 36%. The greater temperature resulting lower moisture content inside sample leaves. 7 components were identified in sample T=400C while only 5 components were identified in sample at T=50C and T=60C. Four components were commonly identified in three sample which is 1n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (z,z,z), Vitamin E and Squalene. Further studies are needed with new series of temperature to refine the best results.

Keywords: aquilaria subintegra, vacuum far infrared, SOXHLET extractor, gas chromatography mass spectrometer, paracetamol

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
397 On Exploring Search Heuristics for improving the efficiency in Web Information Extraction

Authors: Patricia Jiménez, Rafael Corchuelo

Abstract:

Nowadays the World Wide Web is the most popular source of information that relies on billions of on-line documents. Web mining is used to crawl through these documents, collect the information of interest and process it by applying data mining tools in order to use the gathered information in the best interest of a business, what enables companies to promote theirs. Unfortunately, it is not easy to extract the information a web site provides automatically when it lacks an API that allows to transform the user-friendly data provided in web documents into a structured format that is machine-readable. Rule-based information extractors are the tools intended to extract the information of interest automatically and offer it in a structured format that allow mining tools to process it. However, the performance of an information extractor strongly depends on the search heuristic employed since bad choices regarding how to learn a rule may easily result in loss of effectiveness and/or efficiency. Improving search heuristics regarding efficiency is of uttermost importance in the field of Web Information Extraction since typical datasets are very large. In this paper, we employ an information extractor based on a classical top-down algorithm that uses the so-called Information Gain heuristic introduced by Quinlan and Cameron-Jones. Unfortunately, the Information Gain relies on some well-known problems so we analyse an intuitive alternative, Termini, that is clearly more efficient; we also analyse other proposals in the literature and conclude that none of them outperforms the previous alternative.

Keywords: information extraction, search heuristics, semi-structured documents, web mining.

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
396 Optimization of Multistage Extractor for the Butanol Separation from Aqueous Solution Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Dharamashi Rabari, Anand Patel

Abstract:

n-Butanol can be regarded as a potential biofuel. Being resistive to corrosion and having high calorific value, butanol is a very attractive energy source as opposed to ethanol. By fermentation process called ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol), bio-butanol can be produced. ABE carried out mostly by bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum. The major drawback of the process is the butanol concentration higher than 10 g/L, delays the growth of microbes resulting in a low yield. It indicates the simultaneous separation of butanol from the fermentation broth. Two hydrophobic Ionic Liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [bmPIP][Tf₂N] and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [hmim][Tf₂N] were chosen. The binary interaction parameters for both ternary systems i.e. [bmPIP][Tf₂N] + water + n-butanol and [hmim][Tf₂N] + water +n-butanol were taken from the literature that was generated by NRTL model. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) with the isothermal sum rate (ISR) method was used to optimize the cost of liquid-liquid extractor. For [hmim][Tf₂N] + water +n-butanol system, PSO shows 84% success rate with the number of stages equal to eight and solvent flow rate equal to 461 kmol/hr. The number of stages was three with 269.95 kmol/hr solvent flow rate for [bmPIP][Tf₂N] + water + n-butanol system. Moreover, both ILs were very efficient as the loss of ILs in raffinate phase was negligible.

Keywords: particle swarm optimization, isothermal sum rate method, success rate, extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
395 Accurate Calculation of the Penetration Depth of a Bullet Using ANSYS

Authors: Eunsu Jang, Kang Park

Abstract:

In developing an armored ground combat vehicle (AGCV), it is a very important step to analyze the vulnerability (or the survivability) of the AGCV against enemy’s attack. In the vulnerability analysis, the penetration equations are usually used to get the penetration depth and check whether a bullet can penetrate the armor of the AGCV, which causes the damage of internal components or crews. The penetration equations are derived from penetration experiments which require long time and great efforts. However, they usually hold only for the specific material of the target and the specific type of the bullet used in experiments. Thus, penetration simulation using ANSYS can be another option to calculate penetration depth. However, it is very important to model the targets and select the input parameters in order to get an accurate penetration depth. This paper performed a sensitivity analysis of input parameters of ANSYS on the accuracy of the calculated penetration depth. Two conflicting objectives need to be achieved in adopting ANSYS in penetration analysis: maximizing the accuracy of calculation and minimizing the calculation time. To maximize the calculation accuracy, the sensitivity analysis of the input parameters for ANSYS was performed and calculated the RMS error with the experimental data. The input parameters include mesh size, boundary condition, material properties, target diameter are tested and selected to minimize the error between the calculated result from simulation and the experiment data from the papers on the penetration equation. To minimize the calculation time, the parameter values obtained from accuracy analysis are adjusted to get optimized overall performance. As result of analysis, the followings were found: 1) As the mesh size gradually decreases from 0.9 mm to 0.5 mm, both the penetration depth and calculation time increase. 2) As diameters of the target decrease from 250mm to 60 mm, both the penetration depth and calculation time decrease. 3) As the yield stress which is one of the material property of the target decreases, the penetration depth increases. 4) The boundary condition with the fixed side surface of the target gives more penetration depth than that with the fixed side and rear surfaces. By using above finding, the input parameters can be tuned to minimize the error between simulation and experiments. By using simulation tool, ANSYS, with delicately tuned input parameters, penetration analysis can be done on computer without actual experiments. The data of penetration experiments are usually hard to get because of security reasons and only published papers provide them in the limited target material. The next step of this research is to generalize this approach to anticipate the penetration depth by interpolating the known penetration experiments. This result may not be accurate enough to be used to replace the penetration experiments, but those simulations can be used in the early stage of the design process of AGCV in modelling and simulation stage.

Keywords: ANSYS, input parameters, penetration depth, sensitivity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
394 Development of Fem Code for 2-D Elasticity Problems Using Quadrilateral and Triangular Elements

Authors: Muhammad Umar Kiani, Waseem Sakawat

Abstract:

This study presents the development of FEM code using Quadrilateral 4-Node (Q4) and Triangular 3-Node (T3) elements. Code is formulated using MATLAB language. Instead of using both elements in the same code, two separate codes are written. Quadrilateral element is difficult to handle directly, that is why natural coordinates (eta, ksi) are used. Due to this, Q4 code includes numerical integration (Gauss quadrature). In this case, complete numerical integration is performed using 2 points. On the other hand, T3 element can be modeled directly, by using direct stiffness approach. Axially loaded element, cantilever (special constraints) and Patch test cases were analyzed using both codes and the results were verified by using Ansys.

Keywords: FEM code, MATLAB, numerical integration, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
393 Prediction of Concrete Hydration Behavior and Cracking Tendency Based on Electrical Resistivity Measurement, Cracking Test and ANSYS Simulation

Authors: Samaila Muazu Bawa

Abstract:

Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were separately monitored using non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a plastic ring mould and penetration resistance method respectively. The results show highest resistivity of C30 at the beginning until reaching the acceleration point when C50 accelerated and overtaken the others, and this period corresponds to its final setting time range, from resistivity derivative curve, hydration process can be divided into dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time tests demonstrated the earliest cracking and setting time of C50, therefore, this method conveniently and rapidly determines the concrete’s crack potential. The highest inflection time (ti), the final setting time (tf) were obtained and used with crack time in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range being considered. Finally, ANSYS numerical simulations supports the experimental findings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location that, highest stress concentration is always beneath the artificially introduced expansion joint of C50.

Keywords: concrete hydration, electrical resistivity, restrained shrinkage crack, ANSYS simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
392 Numerical Investigation of Flow Past in a Staggered Tube Bundle

Authors: Kerkouri Abdelkadir

Abstract:

Numerical calculations of turbulent flows are one of the most prominent modern interests in various engineering applications. Due to the difficulty of predicting, following up and studying this flow for computational fluid dynamic (CFD), in this paper, we simulated numerical study of a flow past in a staggered tube bundle, using CFD Code ANSYS FLUENT with several models of turbulence following: k-ε, k-ω and SST approaches. The flow is modeled based on the experimental studies. The predictions of mean velocities are in very good agreement with detailed LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) measurements performed in 8 stations along the depth of the array. The sizes of the recirculation zones behind the cylinders are also predicted. The simulations are conducted for Reynolds numbers of 12858. The Reynolds number is set to depend experimental results.

Keywords: flow, tube bundle, ANSYS Fluent, CFD, turbulence, LDA, RANS (k-ε, k-ω, SST)

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
391 Static Simulation of Pressure and Velocity Behaviour for NACA 0006 Blade Profile of Well’s Turbine

Authors: Chetan Apurav

Abstract:

In this journal the behavioural analysis of pressure and velocity has been done over the blade profile of Well’s turbine. The blade profile that has been taken into consideration is NACA 0006. The analysis has been done in Ansys Workbench under CFX module. The CAD model of the blade profile with certain dimensions has been made in CREO, and then is imported to Ansys for further analysis. The turbine model has been enclosed under a cylindrical body and has been analysed under a constant velocity of air at 5 m/s and zero relative pressure in static condition of the turbine. Further the results are represented in tabular as well as graphical form. It has been observed that the relative pressure of the blade profile has been stable throughout the radial length and hence will be suitable for practical usage.

Keywords: Well's turbine, oscillating water column, ocean engineering, wave energy, NACA 0006

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
390 Comparative Study of Free Vibrational Analysis and Modes Shapes of FSAE Car Frame Using Different FEM Modules

Authors: Rajat Jain, Himanshu Pandey, Somesh Mehta, Pravin P. Patil

Abstract:

Formula SAE cars are the student designed and fabricated formula prototype cars, designed according to SAE INTERNATIONAL design rules which compete in the various national and international events. This paper shows a FEM based comparative study of free vibration analysis of different mode shapes of a formula prototype car chassis frame. Tubing sections of different diameters as per the design rules are designed in such a manner that the desired strength can be achieved. Natural frequency of first five mode was determined using finite element analysis method. SOLIDWORKS is used for designing the frame structure and SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION and ANSYS WORKBENCH 16.2 are used for the modal analysis. Mode shape results of ANSYS and SOLIDWORKS were compared. Fixed –fixed boundary conditions are used for fixing the A-arm wishbones. The simulation results were compared for the validation of the study. First five modes were compared and results were found within the permissible limits. The AISI4130 (CROMOLY- chromium molybdenum steel) material is used and the chassis frame is discretized with fine quality QUAD mesh followed by Fixed-fixed boundary conditions. The natural frequency of the chassis frame is 53.92-125.5 Hz as per the results of ANSYS which is found within the permissible limits. The study is concluded with the light weight and compact chassis frame without compensation with strength. This design allows to fabricate an extremely safe driver ergonomics, compact, dynamically stable, simple and light weight tubular chassis frame with higher strength.

Keywords: FEM, modal analysis, formula SAE cars, chassis frame, Ansys

Procedia PDF Downloads 218