Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Kent Carpenter

15 Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor

Authors: Vanessa Romanovicz, Beatriz A. Berns, Stephen D. Carpenter, Deyse Carpenter

Abstract:

This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET = 3.691m,/g.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, sugar cane, fuel cell, catalyst support

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14 Applying EzRAD Method for SNPs Discovery in Population Genetics of Freshwater and Marine Fish in the South of Vietnam

Authors: Quyen Vu Dang Ha, Oanh Truong Thi, Thuoc Tran Linh, Kent Carpenter, Thinh Doan Vu, Binh Dang Thuy

Abstract:

Enzyme restriction site associated DNA (EzRAD) has recently emerged as a promising genomic approach for exploring fish genetic diversity on a genome-wide scale. This is a simplified method for genomic genotyping in non-model organisms and applied for SNPs discovery in the population genetics of freshwater and marine fish in the South of Vietnam. The observations of regional-scale differentiation of commercial freshwater fish (smallscale croakers Boesemania microlepis) and marine fish (emperor Lethrinus lentjan) are clarified. Samples were collected along Hau River and coastal area in the south and center Vietnam. 52 DNA samples from Tra Vinh, An Giang Province for Boesemania microlepis and 34 DNA samples of Lethrinus lentjan from Phu Quoc, Nha Trang, Da Nang Province were used to prepare EzRAD libraries from genomic DNA digested with MboI and Sau3AI. A pooled sample of regional EzRAD libraries was sequenced using the HiSeq 2500 Illumina platform. For Boesemania microlepis, the small scale population different from upstream to downstream of Hau river were detected, An Giang population exhibited less genetic diversity (SNPs per individual from 14 to 926), in comparison to Tra Vinh population (from 11 to 2172). For Lethrinus lentjan, the result showed the minor difference between populations in the Northern and the Southern Mekong River. The numbers of contigs and SNPs vary from 1315 to 2455 and from 7122 to 8594, respectively (P ≤ 0.01). The current preliminary study reveals regional scale population disconnection probably reflecting environmental changing. Additional sampling and EzRad libraries need to be implemented for resource management in the Mekong Delta.

Keywords: Boesemania microlepis, EzRAD, Lethrinus lentjan, SNPs

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13 God in Jesus, a Daimonion in Socrates and Their Respective Divine Communication

Authors: Yip-Mei Loh

Abstract:

Jesus and Socrates shared a remarkable gift; a channel of inner spiritual communication, to afford them truthful guidance in their respective religious discourse. Jesus is part of the Trinity; he is the Son, the Son of God. In mortal life he is the son of a carpenter. He called on all peoples to repent of their sins but fell foul of the authorities and was crucified. Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher and the son of an artisan. His mission is to drive the Athenians to investigate truth, but he too incurs the displeasure of fellow citizens, to the extent of execution. The accusations made against them centre around, in Jesus’ case, proclaiming himself the Son of God, with the means to pardon, and in Socrates’, that a daimonion, an inner voice, speaks to him in his heart. Jesus talks with God directly through prayer, as the pneuma of God, i.e. to pneuma to hagion, or Holy Spirit, is with him. Socrates seems to enter what we would now think of as a trance-like condition, wherein he communicates with his inner daimonion, who directs him to take courage on the righteous path.

Keywords: daimonion, God, Holy Spirit, pneuma, truth

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12 The Use of Social Media in a UK School of Pharmacy to Increase Student Engagement and Sense of Belonging

Authors: Samantha J. Hall, Luke Taylor, Kenneth I. Cumming, Jakki Bardsley, Scott S. P. Wildman

Abstract:

Medway School of Pharmacy – a joint collaboration between the University of Kent and the University of Greenwich – is a large school of pharmacy in the United Kingdom. The school primarily delivers the accredited Master or Pharmacy (MPharm) degree programme. Reportedly, some students may feel isolated from the larger student body that extends across four separate campuses, where a diverse range of academic subjects is delivered. In addition, student engagement has been noted as being limited in some areas, as evidenced in some cases by poor attendance at some lectures. In January 2015, the University of Kent launched a new initiative dedicated to Equality, Diversity and Inclusivity (EDI). As part of this project, Medway School of Pharmacy employed ‘Student Success Project Officers’ in order to analyse past and present school data. As a result, initiatives have been implemented to i) negate disparities in attainment and ii) increase engagement, particularly for Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) students which make up for more than 80% of the pharmacy student cohort. Social media platforms are prevalent, with global statistics suggesting that they are most commonly used by females between the ages of 16-34. Student focus groups held throughout the academic year brought to light the school’s need to use social media much more actively. Prior to the EDI initiative, social media usage for Medway School of Pharmacy was scarce. Platforms including: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, The Student Room and University Blogs were either introduced or rejuvenated. This action was taken with the primary aim of increasing student engagement. By using a number of varied social media platforms, the university is able to capture a large range of students by appealing to different interests. Social media is being used to disseminate important information, promote equality and diversity, recognise and celebrate student success and also to allow students to explore the student life outside of Medway School of Pharmacy. Early data suggests an increase in lecture attendance, as well as greater evidence of student engagement highlighted by recent focus group discussions. In addition, students have communicated that active social media accounts were imperative when choosing universities for 2015/16. It allows students to understand more about the University and community prior to beginning their studies. By having a lively presence on social media, the university can use a multi-faceted approach to succeed in early engagement, as well as fostering the long term engagement of continuing students.

Keywords: engagement, social media, pharmacy, community

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11 Shopping Centers in the Context of a Growing and Changing City: The Case of Konya Kent Plaza

Authors: H. Derya Arslan

Abstract:

Shopping centers have become an important part of urban life. The numbers of shopping centers have rapidly increased for ten years, in Turkey. Malls that have been built with increasing speed in the last two decades meet most social and cultural needs of people. In this study, architectural characteristics of a recent mall built in the city of Konya in Turkey have been discussed. The assessment of the mall in question has been made in the context of a growing and changing city. The study opened up new horizons and discussion areas to entrepreneurs who make significant investments in shopping centers, architects who design shopping centers as efficient commercial and social environments, and social scientists that investigate the effects of increase in these closed urban spaces on urban life.

Keywords: shopping center, architecture, city, social

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10 Development and Characterization of a Polymer Composite Electrolyte to Be Used in Proton Exchange Membranes Fuel Cells

Authors: B. A. Berns, V. Romanovicz, M. M. de Camargo Forte, D. E. O. S. Carpenter

Abstract:

The Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM) are largely studied because they operate at low temperatures and they are suitable for mobile applications. However, There are some deficiencies in their operation, Mainly those that use ethanol as a hydrogen source that require a certain attention. Therefore, This research aimed to develop Nafion® composite membranes, Mixing clay minerals, Kaolin and halloysite to the polymer matrix in order to improve the ethanol molecule retentions and at the same time to keep the system’s protonic conductivity. The modified Nafion/Kaolin, Nafion/Halloysite composite membranes were prepared in weight proportion of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. The membranes obtained were characterized as to their ethanol permeability, Protonic conductivity and water absorption. The composite morphology and structure are characterized by SEM and EDX and also the thermal behavior is determined by TGA and DSC. The analysis of the results shows ethanol permeability reduction from 48% to 63%. However, The protonic conductivity results are lower in relation to pure Nafion®. As to the thermal behavior, The Nafion® composite membranes were stable up to a temperature of 325ºC.

Keywords: Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs), thermal properties, nanoclay, differential scanning calorimetry

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9 An Investigation of Passivation Technology in Stainless Steel Alloy

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Rick Wang, Yan-Cong Liao

Abstract:

Passivation is a kind of surface treatment for material to reinforce the corrosion resistance specially the stainless alloy. Passive film, is to getting more potential compared to their status before passivation. An oxidation film can be formed on the surface of stainless steel, which has a strong corrosion resistance ability after passivation treatment. In this research, a new passivation technology is proposed for a special stainless alloy which contains a 12-14% Chromium. This method includes the A-A-A (alkaline-acid-alkaline) process basically, which was developed by Carpenter that can neutralize trapped acid. Besides, a corrosion resistant coating layer was obtained by immersing the parts in a water bath of mineral oil at high temperature. Salt spray test ASTM B368 was conducted to investigated performance of corrosion resistant of the passivated stainless steel alloy parts. Results show much better corrosion resistant that followed a coating process after A-A-A Passivation process, than only using A-A-A process. The passivation time is with more than 380 hours of salt spray test ASTM B368, which is equal to 3000 hours of Salt spray test ASTM B117. Proposed passivation method of stainless steel can be completed in about 3 hours.

Keywords: passivation, alkaline-acid-alkaline, stainless steel, salt spray test

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8 Biocompatible Porous Titanium Scaffolds Produced Using a Novel Space Holder Technique

Authors: Yunhui Chen, Damon Kent, Matthew Dargusch

Abstract:

Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 39 GPa, 16 GPa and 9 GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30 GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 315 MPa and 175 MPa are superior to that of human bone (130-180 MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: scaffolds, MG-63 cell culture, titanium, space holder

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7 Analysis of the Internal Mechanical Conditions in the Lower Limb Due to External Loads

Authors: Kent Salomonsson, Xuefang Zhao, Sara Kallin

Abstract:

Human soft tissue is loaded and deformed by any activity, an effect known as a stress-strain relationship, and is often described by a load and tissue elongation curve. Several advances have been made in the fields of biology and mechanics of soft human tissue. However, there is limited information available on in vivo tissue mechanical characteristics and behavior. Confident mechanical properties of human soft tissue cannot be extrapolated from e.g. animal testing. Thus, there is need for non invasive methods to analyze mechanical characteristics of soft human tissue. In the present study, the internal mechanical conditions of the lower limb, which is subject to an external load, is studied by use of the finite element method. A detailed finite element model of the lower limb is made possible by use of MRI scans. Skin, fat, bones, fascia and muscles are represented separately and the material properties for them are obtained from literature. Previous studies have been shown to address macroscopic deformation features, e.g. indentation depth, to a large extent. However, the detail in which the internal anatomical features have been modeled does not reveal the critical internal strains that may induce hypoxia and/or eventual tissue damage. The results of the present study reveals that lumped material models, i.e. averaging of the material properties for the different constituents, does not capture regions of critical strains in contrast to more detailed models.

Keywords: FEM, tissue, indentation, properties

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6 Exploring the Issue of Occult Hypoperfusion in the Pre-Hospital Setting

Authors: A. Fordham, A. Hudson

Abstract:

Background: Studies have suggested 16-25% of normotensive trauma patients with no clinical signs of shock have abnormal lactate and BD readings evidencing shock; a phenomenon known as occult hypoperfusion (OH). In light of the scarce quantity of evidence currently documenting OH, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of OH in the pre-hospital setting and explore ways to improve its identification and management. Methods: A quantitative retrospective data analysis was carried out on 75 sets of patient records for trauma patients treated by Kent Surrey Sussex Air Ambulance Trust between November 2013 and October 2014. The KSS HEMS notes and subsequent ED notes were collected. Trends between patients’ SBP on the scene, whether or not they received PRBCs on the scene as well as lactate and BD readings in the ED were assessed. Patients’ KSS HEMS notes written by the HEMS crew were also reviewed and recorded. Results: -Suspected OH was identified in 7% of the patients who did not receive PRBCs in the pre-hospital phase. -SBP heavily influences the physicians’ decision of whether or not to transfuse PRBCs in the pre-hospital phase. Preliminary conclusions: OH is an under-studied and underestimated phenomenon. We suggest a prospective trial is carried out to evaluate whether detecting trauma patients’ tissue perfusion status in the pre-hospital phase using portable devices capable of measuring serum BD and/or lactate could aid more accurate detection and management of all haemorrhaging trauma patients, including patients with OH.

Keywords: occult hypoperfusion, PRBC transfusion, point of care testing, pre-hospital emergency medicine, trauma

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5 A Computationally Intelligent Framework to Support Youth Mental Health in Australia

Authors: Nathaniel Carpenter

Abstract:

Web-enabled systems for supporting youth mental health management in Australia are pioneering in their field; however, with their success, these systems are experiencing exponential growth in demand which is straining an already stretched service. Supporting youth mental is critical as the lack of support is associated with significant and lasting negative consequences. To meet this growing demand, and provide critical support, investigations are needed on evaluating and improving existing online support services. Improvements should focus on developing frameworks capable of augmenting and scaling service provisions. There are few investigations informing best-practice frameworks when implementing e-mental health support systems for youth mental health; there are fewer which implement machine learning or artificially intelligent systems to facilitate the delivering of services. This investigation will use a case study methodology to highlight the design features which are important for systems to enable young people to self-manage their mental health. The investigation will also highlight the current information system challenges, to include challenges associated with service quality, provisioning, and scaling. This work will propose methods of meeting these challenges through improved design, service augmentation and automation, service quality, and through artificially intelligent inspired solutions. The results of this study will inform a framework for supporting youth mental health with intelligent and scalable web-enabled technologies to support an ever-growing user base.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, information systems, machine learning, youth mental health

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4 Socio-economic Baselining of Selected Icrmp Sites in Southwestern Cebu, Central Philippines

Authors: Rachel Luz P. Vivas-rica, Gloria G. Delan, Christine M. Corrales, Alfonso S. Piquero, Irene A. Monte

Abstract:

ABSTRACT -Selected Integrated Coastal Resource Management Program (ICRMP) sites in Southwestern Cebu were studied employing a stratified proportional sampling method using semi-structured questionnaires. Four hundred sixteen (416) respondents from five barangays with Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and four barangays without marine sanctuaries were considered in the study. Results showed similarity of socio-economic characteristics in terms of average age, majority were middle aged, and married. Households were male dominated, obtained low education for both MPA and Non-MPA areas. In terms of occupation, majority in both areas engaged in fulltime fishing however part time jobs as carpenter, construction worker, driver or farmer as another income source. Most of the households were nuclear families with average family size of five for both MPA and Non-MPA. Fishing experience ranged from less than 1 year to more than 50 years. Fishing grounds were within the 15 kilometer radius of each considered site. Even if the respondents were totally dependent on fishing as a major source of income, still their income is way below the poverty threshold both in the MPA and Non-MPA areas. This is further explained by the marginality of their fishing implements wherein majority uses gill nets, hook & line, spear and paddle boat in fishing. Their volume of catch from an average of 6 hours fishing expedition ranges from half a kilo to a maximum of 4 kilos. Majority are not members of fishing groups or organizations.

Keywords: integrated coastal resource management program, marine protected areas, socio-economic, poverty threshold

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3 Improving Numeracy Standards for UK Pharmacy Students

Authors: Luke Taylor, Samantha J. Hall, Kenneth I. Cumming, Jakki Bardsley, Scott S. P. Wildman

Abstract:

Medway School of Pharmacy, as part of an Equality Diversity and Inclusivity (EDI) initiative run by the University of Kent, decided to take steps to try and negate disparities in numeracy competencies within students undertaking the Master of Pharmacy degree in order to combat a trend in pharmacy students’ numerical abilities upon entry. This included a research driven project 1) to identify if pharmacy students are aware of weaknesses in their numeracy capabilities, and 2) recognise where their numeracy skillset is lacking. In addition to gaining this student perspective, a number of actions have been implemented to support students in improving their numeracy competencies. Reflective and quantitative analysis has shown promising improvements for the final year cohort of 2014/15 when compared to previous years. The method of involving student feedback into the structure of numeracy teaching/support has proven to be extremely beneficial to both students and teaching staff alike. Students have felt empowered and in control of their own learning requirements, leading to increased engagement and attainment. School teaching staff have received quality data to help improve existing initiatives and to innovate further in the area of numeracy teaching. In light of the recognised improvements, further actions are currently being trialled in the area of numeracy support. This involves utilising Virtual Learning Environment platforms to provide individualised support as a supplement to the increased numeracy mentoring (staff and peer) provided to students. Mentors who provide group or one-to-one sessions are now given significant levels of training in dealing with situations that commonly arise from mentoring schemes. They are also provided with continued support throughout the life of their degree. Following results from this study, Medway School of Pharmacy hopes to drive increasing numeracy standards within Pharmacy (primarily through championing peer mentoring) as well as other healthcare professions including Midwifery and Nursing.

Keywords: attainment, ethnicity, numeracy, pharmacy, support

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2 Understanding Help Seeking among Black Women with Clinically Significant Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

Authors: Glenda Wrenn, Juliet Muzere, Meldra Hall, Allyson Belton, Kisha Holden, Chanita Hughes-Halbert, Martha Kent, Bekh Bradley

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Understanding the help seeking decision making process and experiences of health disparity populations with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is central to development of trauma-informed, culturally centered, and patient focused services. Yet, little is known about the decision making process among adult Black women who are non-treatment seekers as they are, by definition, not engaged in services. Methods: Audiotaped interviews were conducted with 30 African American adult women with clinically significant PTSD symptoms who were engaged in primary care, but not in treatment for PTSD despite symptom burden. A qualitative interview guide was used to elucidate key themes. Independent coding of themes mapped to theory and identification of emergent themes were conducted using qualitative methods. An existing quantitative dataset was analyzed to contextualize responses and provide a descriptive summary of the sample. Results: Emergent themes revealed that active mental avoidance, the intermittent nature of distress, ambivalence, and self-identified resilience as undermining to help seeking decisions. Participants were stuck within the help-seeking phase of ‘recognition’ of illness and retained a sense of “it is my decision” despite endorsing significant social and environmental negative influencers. Participants distinguished ‘help acceptance’ from ‘help seeking’ with greater willingness to accept help and importance placed on being of help to others. Conclusions: Elucidation of the decision-making process from the perspective of non-treatment seekers has implications for outreach and treatment within models of integrated and specialty systems care. The salience of responses to trauma symptoms and stagnation in the help seeking recognition phase are findings relevant to integrated care service design and community engagement.

Keywords: culture, help-seeking, integrated care, PTSD

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1 Understanding the Cause(S) of Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties of Adolescents with ADHD and Its Implications for the Successful Implementation of Intervention(S)

Authors: Elisavet Kechagia

Abstract:

Due to the interplay of different genetic and environmental risk factors and its heterogeneous nature, the concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has shaped controversy and conflicts, which have been, in turn, reflected in the controversial arguments about its treatment. Taking into account recent well evidence-based researches suggesting that ADHD is a condition, in which biopsychosocial factors are all weaved together, the current paper explores the multiple risk-factors that are likely to influence ADHD, with a particular focus on adolescents with ADHD who might experience comorbid social, emotional and behavioural disorders (SEBD). In the first section of this paper, the primary objective was to investigate the conflicting ideas regarding the definition, diagnosis and treatment of ADHD at an international level as well as to critically examine and identify the limitations of the two most prevailing sets of diagnostic criteria that inform current diagnosis, the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) diagnostic scheme, DSM-V, and the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) classification of diseases, ICD-10. Taking into consideration the findings of current longitudinal studies on ADHD association with high rates of comorbid conditions and social dysfunction, in the second section the author moves towards an investigation of the transitional points −physical, psychological and social ones− that students with ADHD might experience during early adolescence, as informed by neuroscience and developmental contextualism theory. The third section is an exploration of the different perspectives of ADHD as reflected in individuals’ with ADHD self-reports and the KENT project’s findings on school staff’s attitudes and practices. In the last section, given the high rates of SEBDs in adolescents with ADHD, it is examined how cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), coupled with other interventions, could be effective in ameliorating anti-social behaviours and/or other emotional and behavioral difficulties of students with ADHD. The findings of a range of randomised control studies indicate that CBT might have positive outcomes in adolescents with multiple behavioural problems, hence it is suggested to be considered both in schools and other community settings. Finally, taking into account the heterogeneous nature of ADHD, the different biopsychosocial and environmental risk factors that take place during adolescence and the discourse and practices concerning ADHD and SEBD, it is suggested how it might be possible to make sense of and meaningful improvements to the education of adolescents with ADHD within a multi-modal and multi-disciplinary whole-school approach that addresses the multiple problems that not only students with ADHD but also their peers might experience. Further research that would be based on more large-scale controls and would investigate the effectiveness of various interventions, as well as the profiles of those students who have benefited from particular approaches and those who have not, will generate further evidence concerning the psychoeducation of adolescents with ADHD allowing for generalised conclusions to be drawn.

Keywords: adolescence, attention deficit hyperctivity disorder, cognitive behavioural theory, comorbid social emotional behavioural disorders, treatment

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