Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: saffron

9 Stochastic Frontier Application for Evaluating Cost Inefficiencies in Organic Saffron

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, Sudhakar Dwivedi, R. K. Arora

Abstract:

Saffron is one of the most precious spices grown on the earth and is cultivated in a very limited area in few countries of the world. It has also been grown as a niche crop in Kishtwar district of Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir State of India. This paper attempts to examine the presence of cost inefficiencies in saffron production and the associated socio-economic characteristics of saffron growers in the mentioned area. Although the numbers of inputs used in cultivation of saffron were limited, still cost inefficiencies were present in its production. The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and profitability index (PI) of investment in five years of saffron production were INR 1120803, 95.67 % and 3.52 respectively. The estimated coefficients of saffron stochastic cost function for saffron bulbs, human labour, animal labour, manure and saffron output were positive. The saffron growers having non-farm income were more cost inefficient as compared to farmers who did not have sources of income other than farming by 0.04 %. The maximum value of cost efficiency for saffron grower was 1.69 with mean value of 1.12. The majority of farmers have low cost inefficiencies, as the highest frequency of occurrence of the predicted cost efficiency was below 1.06.

Keywords: saffron, internal rate of return, cost efficiency, stochastic frontier model

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8 Investigation of Type and Concentration Effects of Solvent on Chemical Properties of Saffron Edible Extract

Authors: Sharareh Mohseni

Abstract:

Purpose: The objective of this study was to find a suitable solvent to produce saffron edible extract with improved chemical properties. Design/methodology/approach: Dried and pulverized stigmas of C. sativus L. (10g) was extracted with 300 ml of solvents including: distillated water (DW), ethanol/DW, methanol/DW, propylene glycol/DW, heptan/DW, and hexan/DW, for 3 days at 25°C and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm. Then the extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator at 40°C. The fiber and solvent-free extracts were then analyzed by UV spectrophotometer to detect saffron quality parameters including crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. Findings: Distilled water/ethanol mixture as the extraction solvent, caused larger amounts of the plant constituents to diffuse out to the extract compared to other treatments and also control. Polar solvents including distilled water, ethanol, and propylene glycol (except methanol) were more effective in extracting crocin, picrocrocin, and saffranal than non-polar solvents. Social implications: Due to an enhancement of color and flavor, saffron extract is economical compared to natural saffron. Saffron Extract saves on preparation time and reduces the amount of saffron required for imparting the same flavor, as compared to dry saffron. Liquid extract is easier to use and standardize in food preparations compared to dry stamens and can be dosed precisely compared to natural saffron. Originality/value: No research had been done on production of saffron edible extract using the solvent studied in this survey. The novelty of this research is high and the results can be used industrially.

Keywords: Crocus sativus L., saffron extract, solvent extraction, distilled water

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7 Design of a New Package for Saffron Using Kansei Engineering

Authors: Sotiris Papantonopoulos, Marianna Bortziou

Abstract:

This study aimed at developing a new package of saffron using emotional design and specifically the Kansei Engineering method. Kansei Engineering is a proactive product development methodology, which aims to improve the product development process and to translate consumers' feelings and image of a product into design elements. A survey was conducted with two major purposes: (1) to determine the target group of saffron use and to collect information about the adequacy of the product’s promotion and the importance of its packaging, (2) to collect the most important properties of a package according to consumers and to evaluate the existing saffron packages according to these properties (benchmarking). The interaction with the general public conducted by the distribution of online questionnaires and personal interviews as well as the statistical analysis of the results were performed using the SPSS software. The results of the survey were used in all stages of Kansei Engineering. Based on the results, a new saffron package was designed by using various designing and image processing software. This improved package is expected to achieve a better promotion and increased sales of the product.

Keywords: design, emotional design, Kansei Engineering, packaging, saffron

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6 Effect of Saffron Extract and Aerobic Exercises on Troponin T and Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, M. Golzadeh Gangeraj, Alireza Barari, S. Shirali, S. Amini

Abstract:

Aims: Diabetes is one of the common metabolic diseases in the world that has the dire adverse effects such as nephropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular problems. Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies for control and treatment of diabetes are provided. Exercise and nutrition as non-drug strategies for the prevention and control of diabetes are considered. Exercises may increase oxidative stress and myocardium injury, thus it is necessary to take nutrition strategies to help diabetic athletes. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research. Therefore, 24 men with type 2 diabetes were selected and randomly divided in four groups (1. control, 2. saffron extract, 3. aerobic exercises, 4. compound aerobic exercises and saffron extract). Saffron extract with 100 mg/day was used. Aerobic exercises, three days a week, for eight weeks, with 55-70% of maximum heart rate were performed. At the end, levels of Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) and Troponin T were measured. Data were analyzed by Paired t, One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The serum Troponin T increased significantly in saffron extract, aerobic exercises and compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises in type 2 diabetic men(P=0.024, P =0.013, P=0.005 respectively). Saffron extract consumption (100 mg/day) and aerobic exercises did not significantly influence the serum HFABP (P =0.365, P =0.188 respectively). But serum HFABP decreased significantly in compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises group (P =0.003). Conclusions: Raised cardiac Troponin T and HFABP concentration accepted as the standard biochemical markers for the diagnosis of cardiac injury. Saffron intake may beneficially protect the myocardium from injuries. Compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises can decrease levels of Troponin T and HFABP in men with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Saffron, aerobic exercises, type 2 diabetes, HFABP, troponin T

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5 Effect of Humic Substance on Ex-Vitro Propagation of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.)

Authors: Abdelghani Tahiri, Youssef Karra, Naima Ait Aabd, Abdelaziz Mimouni

Abstract:

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), the most expensive spice in the world derived from the stigmas, is an autumn-flowering and sterile triploid (2n=3x=24) geophyte species that belong to the Iridaceae family. This plant species is mainly propagated vegetatively through the formation of daughter corms from the mother one. Low multiplication rates of daughter corms under natural conditions, along with fungal contamination, significantly reduce the productivity and quality of saffron corms. The development of efficient and sustainable strategies for rapid and large-scale production of selected cultivars of saffron will be desired. For this, the main objective of this work is to improve the vegetative propagation of saffron under ex-vitro conditions. Preliminary results of the influence of increasing doses of humic substances (HS) on the growth and multiplication of corms under greenhouse conditions are evaluated. The obtained data shows that the effect of HS depends on the concentration used and the mode of application. Indeed, the application through irrigation has increased the number of shoots and corms, but it has reduced other parameters. On the other hand, the temporary treatment has improved all observed parameters except for the number of shoots and corms. Results obtained in this work suggest that it is possible to improve the propagation of saffron corms under greenhouse conditions.

Keywords: saffron, Crocus sativus L., corm, humic substances

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4 Effects of Bed Type, Corm Weight and Lifting Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Criteria of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

Authors: A. Mollafilabi, A. Koocheki, P. Rezvani Moghaddam, M. Nassiri Mahalati

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of corm weights and times of corm lifting saffron in different planting beds, an experiment was conducted as Factorial layout based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at the Fadak Research Center of Agricultural Research in Food Science during 2010. Treatments were two corm weights (8-10, 10 < g), two planting beds (stone wool and peat moss) and five levels of lifting time (mi-June, early July, mid-July, early August and mid-August). No. of corms were 457 corms.m-2 and for 40 days and were stored for 90 days in incubation, 85% relative humidity and 25°C temperature in the darkness. Then, saffron corms were transferred to growth chamber with 17 °C in 8 hours light and 16 hours darkness. Characteristics were number of flower, fresh weight of flower, dry weight of flower, fresh and dry weight of stigma, fresh and dry weight of style, fresh and dry weight of stigma+style and Picrocrocin, Safronal and Crocin contents of saffron were measured. Results showed that the corm weight, bed type and time of corm lifting had significant effects on economical yield of saffron such as picked flowers, dry weight of stigma and fresh weight of flowers. The highest saffron economical yield was obtained in interaction of corm weight, 10 g, peat moss and lifting time in mid-June as much as 5.2 g.m-2. This yield is 11 fold of average yield of Iranian farms. Picrocrocin, Safranal and Crocin contents was graded as excellent thread in peat moss under controlled conditions compared with ISO Standard of 203.

Keywords: corm density, dry stigma, safranal-flowering, yield saffron

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3 Neuroprotective Effect of Crocus sativus against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Sally A. El Awdan, Rehab R. Hegazy, Dina F. Mansour, Hanan A. Ogaly, Marwan Abdelbaset

Abstract:

Disorders of the cerebral circulation are the leading cause of numerous neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) is considered to be a reliable and reproducible rodent model of cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the neuroprotective effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) in a rat model of left middle cerebral artery MCAO. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and subjected to 1 h of MCAO followed by 48 h reperfusion or sham surgery. One group of the ischemia operated animals was kept as left brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Another 2 operated groups received saffron extract (100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) four times (60 min before the surgery, during the surgery, and on days 1 and 2 after the occlusion). During the experiment, behavioral tests were performed. After 72 h the animals were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies. Saffron administration revealed an improvement in I/R-induced alteration of locomotor balance and coordination ability of rats. Moreover, saffron decreased the brain content of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, brain natriuretic peptide and vascular endothelial growth factor with significant increase of reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical evaluation of caspase-3 and Bax protein expression revealed reduction in I/R-enhanced apoptosis in saffron treated rats. In conclusion, saffron treatment decreases ischemic brain injury in association with inhibition of apoptotic and oxidative cell death in a dose dependent manner.

Keywords: caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, Crocus sativus, rats, vascular endothelial growth factor

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2 Different Methods Anthocyanins Extracted from Saffron

Authors: Hashem Barati, Afshin Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

The flowers of saffron contain anthocyanins. Generally, extraction of anthocyanins takes place at low temperatures (below 30 °C), preferably under vacuum (to minimize degradation) and in an acidic environment. In order to extract anthocyanins, the dried petals were added to 30 ml of acidic ethanol (pH=2). Amount of petals, extraction time, temperature, and ethanol percentage which were selected. Total anthocyanin content was a function of both variables of ethanol percent and extraction time.To prepare SW with pH of 3.5, different concentrations of 100, 400, 700, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm of sodium metabisulfite were added to aqueous sodium citrate. At this selected concentration, different extraction times of 20, 40, 60, 120, 180 min were tested to determine the optimum extraction time. When the extraction time was extended from 20 to 60 min, the total recovered anthocyanins of sulfur method changed from 650 to 710 mg/100 g. In the EW method Cellubrix and Pectinex enzymes were added separately to the buffer solution at different concentrations of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7%, 10%, and 12.5% and held for 2 hours reaction time at an ambient temperature of 40 °C. There was a considerable and significant difference in trends of Acys content of tepals extracted by pectinex enzymes at 5% concentration and AE solution.

Keywords: saffron, anthocyanins, acidic environment, acidic ethanol, pectinex enzymes, Cellubrix enzymes, sodium metabisulfite

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1 Inhibitory Effects of Crocin from Crocus sativus L. on Cell Proliferation of a Medulloblastoma Human Cell Line

Authors: Kyriaki Hatziagapiou, Eleni Kakouri, Konstantinos Bethanis, Alexandra Nikola, Eleni Koniari, Charalabos Kanakis, Elias Christoforides, George Lambrou, Petros Tarantilis

Abstract:

Medulloblastoma is a highly invasive tumour, as it tends to disseminate throughout the central nervous system early in its course. Despite the high 5-year-survival rate, a significant number of patients demonstrate serious long- or short-term sequelae (e.g., myelosuppression, endocrine dysfunction, cardiotoxicity, neurological deficits and cognitive impairment) and higher mortality rates, unrelated to the initial malignancy itself but rather to the aggressive treatment. A strong rationale exists for the use of Crocus sativus L (saffron) and its bioactive constituents (crocin, crocetin, safranal) as pharmaceutical agents, as they exert significant health-promoting properties. Crocins are water soluble carotenoids. Unlike other carotenoids, crocins are highly water-soluble compounds, with relatively low toxicity as they are not stored in adipose and liver tissues. Crocins have attracted wide attention as promising anti-cancer agents, due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, interference with transduction pathways implicated in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis (disruption of mitotic spindle assembly, inhibition of DNA topoisomerases, cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis or cell differentiation) and sensitization of cancer cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The current research aimed to study the potential cytotoxic effect of crocins on TE671 medulloblastoma cell line, which may be useful in the optimization of existing and development of new therapeutic strategies. Crocins were extracted from stigmas of saffron in ultrasonic bath, using petroleum-ether, diethylether and methanol 70%v/v as solvents and the final extract was lyophilized. Identification of crocins according to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was determined comparing the UV-vis spectra and the retention time (tR) of the peaks with literature data. For the biological assays crocin was diluted to nuclease and protease free water. TE671 cells were incubated with a range of concentrations of crocins (16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mg/ml) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Analysis of cell viability after incubation with crocins was performed with Alamar Blue viability assay. The active ingredient of Alamar Blue, resazurin, is a blue, nontoxic, cell permeable compound virtually nonfluorescent. Upon entering cells, resazurin is reduced to a pink and fluorescent molecule, resorufin. Viable cells continuously convert resazurin to resorufin, generating a quantitative measure of viability. The colour of resorufin was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the solution at 600 nm with a spectrophotometer. HPLC analysis indicated that the most abundant crocins in our extract were trans-crocin-4 and trans-crocin-3. Crocins exerted significant cytotoxicity in a dose and time-dependent manner (p < 0.005 for exposed cells to any concentration at 48, 72 and 96 hours versus cells not exposed); as their concentration and time of exposure increased, the reduction of resazurin to resofurin decreased, indicating reduction in cell viability. IC50 values for each time point were calculated ~3.738, 1.725, 0.878 and 0.7566 mg/ml at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, respectively. The results of our study could afford the basis of research regarding the use of natural carotenoids as anticancer agents and the shift to targeted therapy with higher efficacy and limited toxicity. Acknowledgements: The research was funded by Fellowships of Excellence for Postgraduate Studies IKY-Siemens Programme.

Keywords: crocetin, crocin, medulloblastoma, saffron

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