Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: larch

6 Full Length Transcriptome Sequencing and Differential Expression Gene Analysis of Hybrid Larch under PEG Stress

Authors: Zhang Lei, Zhao Qingrong, Wang Chen, Zhang Sufang, Zhang Hanguo

Abstract:

Larch is the main afforestation and timber tree species in Northeast China, and drought is one of the main factors limiting the growth of Larch and other organisms in Northeast China. In order to further explore the mechanism of Larch drought resistance, PEG was used to simulate drought stress. The full-length sequencing of Larch embryogenic callus under PEG simulated drought stress was carried out by combining Illumina-Hiseq and SMRT-seq. A total of 20.3Gb clean reads and 786492 CCS reads were obtained from the second and third generation sequencing. The de-redundant transcript sequences were predicted by lncRNA, 2083 lncRNAs were obtained, and the target genes were predicted, and a total of 2712 target genes were obtained. The de-redundant transcripts were further screened, and 1654 differentially expressed genes (DEGs )were obtained. Among them, different DEGs respond to drought stress in different ways, such as oxidation-reduction process, starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone pathway, carbon metabolism, lignin catabolic/biosynthetic process and so on. This study provides basic full-length sequencing data for the study of Larch drought resistance, and excavates a large number of DEGs in response to drought stress, which helps us to further understand the function of Larch drought resistance genes and provides a reference for in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanism of Larch drought resistance.

Keywords: larch, drought stress, full-length transcriptome sequencing, differentially expressed genes

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5 Influence of Extractives Leaching from Larch Wood on Durability of Semi-Transparent Oil-Based Coating during Accelerated Weathering

Authors: O. Dvorak, M. Panek, E. Oberhofnerova, I. Sterbova

Abstract:

Extractives contained in larch wood (Larix decidua, Mill.) reduce the service-life of exterior coating systems, especially transparent and semi-transparent. The aim of this work was to find out whether the initial several-week leaching of extractives from untreated wood in the exterior will positively affect the selected characteristics and the overall life of the semi-transparent oil-based coating. Samples exposed to exterior leaching for 10 or 20 weeks, and the reference samples without leaching were then treated with a coating system. Testing was performed by the method of artificial accelerated weathering in the UV chamber combined with thermal cycling during 6 weeks. The changes of colour, gloss, surface wetting, microscopic analyses of surfaces, and visual damage of paint were evaluated. Only 20-week initial leaching had a positive effect. Both to increase the color stability during aging, but also to slightly increase the overall life of the tested semi-transparent coating system on larch wood.

Keywords: larch wood, coating, durability. extractives

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4 Comparison of Two Artificial Accelerated Weathering Methods of Larch Wood with Natural Weathering in Exterior Conditions

Authors: I. Sterbova, E. Oberhofnerova, M. Panek, M. Pavelek

Abstract:

With growing popularity, wood of European larch (Larix decidua, Mill.) is being more often applied into the exterior, usually as facade elements, also without surface treatment. The aim of this work was to compare two laboratory tests of artificial accelerated weathering of wood with two ways of natural weathering in the exterior. To assess changes in selected surface characteristics of larch wood, accelerated weathering methods in the Xenotest and UV chamber were used, both in combination with temperature cycling, for 6 weeks. They were compared with natural weathering results at exposition under 45° and 90° in the exterior for 12 months. The changes of colour, gloss, contact angle of water and also changes in visual characteristics were evaluated. The results of wood surfaces changes after 6 weeks of accelerated weathering in Xenotest are closer to 12 months of natural weathering in the exterior at an angle of 90° compared to the UV chamber testing. The results, especially the colour changes, of the samples exposed at an angle of 45° in the exterior were significantly different. Testing in Xenotest more closely simulates the weathering of façade elements in the exterior compared to the UV chamber testing.

Keywords: larch wood, wooden facade, wood accelerated weathering, weathering methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
3 Determination of Resistance to Freezing of Bonded Façade Joint

Authors: B. Nečasová, P. Liška, J. Šlanhof

Abstract:

Verification of vented wooden façade system with bonded joints is presented in this paper. The potential of bonded joints is studied and described in more detail. The paper presents the results of an experimental and theoretical research about the effects of freeze cycling on the bonded joint. For the purpose of tests spruce timber profiles were chosen for the load bearing substructure. Planks from wooden plastic composite and Siberian larch are representing facade cladding. Two types of industrial polyurethane adhesives intended for structural bonding were selected. The article is focused on the preparation as well as on the subsequent curing and conditioning of test samples. All test samples were subjected to 15 cycles that represents sudden temperature changes, i.e. immersion in a water bath at (293.15 ± 3) K for 6 hours and subsequent freezing to (253.15 ± 2) K for 18 hours. Furthermore, the retention of bond strength between substructure and cladding was tested and strength in shear was determined under tensile stress. Research data indicate that little, if any, damage to the bond results from freezing cycles. Additionally, the suitability of selected group of adhesives in combination with timber substructure was confirmed.

Keywords: adhesive system, bonded joints, wooden lightweight façade, timber substructure

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2 Effect of Pressure and Glue Spread on the Bonding Properties of CLT Panels Made from Low-Grade Hardwood

Authors: Sumanta Das, Miroslav Gašparík, Tomáš Kytka, Anil Kumar Sethy

Abstract:

In this modern century, Cross-laminated timber (CLT) evolved as an excellent material for building and high load-bearing structural applications worldwide. CLT is produced mainly from softwoods such as Norway spruce, White fir, Scots pine, European larch, Douglas fir, and Swiss stone pine. The use of hardwoods in CLT production is still at an early stage, and the utilization of hardwoods is expected to provide the opportunity for obtaining higher bending stiffness and shear resistance to CLT panels. In load-bearing structures like CLT, bonding is an important character that is needed to evaluate. One particular issue with using hardwood lumber in CLT panels is that it is often more challenging to achieve a strong, durable adhesive bond. Several researches in the past years have already evaluated the bonding properties of CLT panels from hardwood both from higher and lower densities. This research aims to identify the effect of pressure and glue spread and evaluate which poplar lumber characteristics affect adhesive bond quality. Three-layered CLT panels were prepared from poplar wood with one-component polyurethane (PUR) adhesive by applying pressure of 0.6 N/mm2 and 1 N/mm2 with a glue spread rate of 160 and 180 g/m2. The delamination and block shear tests were carried out as per EN 16351:2015, and the wood failure percentage was also evaluated. The results revealed that glue spread rate and applied pressure significantly influenced both the shear bond strength and wood failure percentage of the CLT. However, samples with lower pressure 0.6 N/mm2 and less glue spread rate showed delamination, and in samples with higher pressure 1 N/mm2 and higher glue spread rate, no delamination was observed. All the properties determined by this study met the minimum requirement mentioned in EN 16351:2015 standard.

Keywords: cross-laminated timber, delamination, glue spread rate, poplar, pressure, PUR, shear strength, wood failure percentage

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1 Potential of Irish Orientated Strand Board in Bending Active Structures

Authors: Matt Collins, Bernadette O'Regan, Tom Cosgrove

Abstract:

To determine the potential of a low cost Irish engineered timber product to replace high cost solid timber for use in bending active structures such as gridshells a single Irish engineered timber product in the form of orientated strand board (OSB) was selected. A comparative study of OSB and solid timber was carried out to determine the optimum properties that make a material suitable for use in gridshells. Three parameters were identified to be relevant in the selection of a material for gridshells. These three parameters are the strength to stiffness ratio, the flexural stiffness of commercially available sections, and the variability of material and section properties. It is shown that when comparing OSB against solid timber, OSB is a more suitable material for use in gridshells that are at the smaller end of the scale and that have tight radii of curvature. Typically, for solid timber materials, stiffness is used as an indicator for strength and engineered timber is no different. Thus, low flexural stiffness would mean low flexural strength. However, when it comes to bending active gridshells, OSB offers a significant advantage. By the addition of multiple layers, an increased section size is created, thus endowing the structure with higher stiffness and higher strength from initial low stiffness and low strength materials while still maintaining tight radii of curvature. This allows OSB to compete with solid timber on large scale gridshells. Additionally, a preliminary sustainability study using a set of sustainability indicators was carried out to determine the relative sustainability of building a large-scale gridshell in Ireland with a primary focus on economic viability but a mention is also given to social and environmental aspects. For this, the Savill garden gridshell in the UK was used as the functional unit with the sustainability of the structural roof skeleton constructed from UK larch solid timber being compared with the same structure using Irish OSB. Albeit that the advantages of using commercially available OSB in a bending active gridshell are marginal and limited to specific gridshell applications, further study into an optimised engineered timber product is merited.

Keywords: bending active gridshells, high end timber structures, low cost material, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 320