Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Sudhanshu Sekhar

29 Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Low Light Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Induced by Low Light Stress at Active Tillering Stage

Authors: Darshan Panda, Lambodar Behera, M. J. Baig, Sudhanshu Sekhar

Abstract:

Low light intensity is a significant limitation for grain yield and quality in rice. However, yield is not significantly reduced in low-light tolerant rice varieties. The work, therefore, planned for comparative transcriptome profiling under low light stress to decipher the genes involved and molecular mechanism of low light tolerance in rice. At the active tillering stage, 50% low light exposure for one day, three days, and five days were given to Swarnaprabha (low light tolerant) and IR8 (low light sensitive) rice varieties. Illumina (HiSeq) platform was used for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 6,652 and 12,042 genes were differentially expressed due to low light intensity in Swarnaprabha and IR8, respectively, as compared to control. CAB, LRP, SBPase, MT15, TF PCL1, and Photosystem I & II complex related gene expressions were mostly increased in Swarnaprabha upon the longer duration of low light exposure, which was not found in IR8 as compared to control. Their expressions were validated by qRT-PCR. The overall study suggested that the maintenance of grain yield in the tolerant variety under low light might be the result of accelerated expression of the genes, which enable the plant to keep the photosynthetic processes moving at the same pace even under low light.

Keywords: rice, low light, photosynthesis, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
28 Reliability Analysis in Power Distribution System

Authors: R. A. Deshpande, P. Chandhra Sekhar, V. Sankar

Abstract:

In this paper, we discussed the basic reliability evaluation techniques needed to evaluate the reliability of distribution systems which are applied in distribution system planning and operation. Basically, the reliability study can also help to predict the reliability performance of the system after quantifying the impact of adding new components to the system. The number and locations of new components needed to improve the reliability indices to certain limits are identified and studied.

Keywords: distribution system, reliability indices, urban feeder, rural feeder

Procedia PDF Downloads 657
27 Rural Electrification in India-Challenges and Solutions

Authors: P. Chandhra Sekhar, R. A. Deshpande, T. Raghunatha

Abstract:

The government of India has given special attention on rural electrification under Rajiv Gandhi Grameena Vidyuthikarana Yojana (RGGVY) during 10th plan and 11th plan. Government of India electrified about 107523 villages and 21164003 BPL Households. This paper briefs about various rural electrification programs initiated by government of India and status of RGGVY in India. The paper mainly describes about challenges in the rural electrification, new ideas recently implemented and suggestions for improvement in the rural electrification.

Keywords: rural electrification, RGGVY, NJY, BPL

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
26 Development of a BriMAIN System for Health Monitoring of Railway Bridges

Authors: Prakher Mishra, Dikshant Bodana, Saloni Desai, Sudhanshu Dixit, Sopan Agarwal, Shriraj Patel

Abstract:

Railways are sometimes lifeline of nations as they consist of huge network of rail lines and bridges. Reportedly many of the bridges are aging, weak, distressed and accident prone. It becomes a really challenging task for Engineers and workers to keep up a regular maintenance schedule for proper functioning which itself is quite a hard hitting job. In this paper we have come up with an innvovative wireless system of maintenance called BriMAIN. In this system we have installed two types of sensors, first one is called a force sensor which will continously analyse the readings of pressure at joints of the bridges and secondly an MPU-6050 triaxial gyroscope+accelerometer which will analyse the deflection of the deck of the bridge. Apart from this a separate database is also being made at the server room so that the data can be visualized by the engineers and a warning can be issued in case reading of the sensors goes above threshold.

Keywords: Accelerometer, B-MAIN, Gyroscope, MPU-6050

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
25 Throughflow Effects on Thermal Convection in Variable Viscosity Ferromagnetic Liquids

Authors: G. N. Sekhar, P. G. Siddheshwar, G. Jayalatha, R. Prakash

Abstract:

The problem of thermal convection in temperature and magnetic field sensitive Newtonian ferromagnetic liquid is studied in the presence of uniform vertical magnetic field and throughflow. Using a combination of Galerkin and shooting techniques the critical eigenvalues are obtained for stationary mode. The effect of Prandtl number (Pr > 1) on onset is insignificant and nonlinearity of non-buoyancy magnetic parameter M3 is found to have no influence on the onset of ferroconvection. The magnetic buoyancy number, M1 and variable viscosity parameter, V have destabilizing influences on the system. The effect of throughflow Peclet number, Pe is to delay the onset of ferroconvection and this effect is independent of the direction of flow.

Keywords: ferroconvection, magnetic field dependent viscosity, temperature dependent viscosity, throughflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
24 Design of Decimation Filter Using Cascade Structure for Sigma Delta ADC

Authors: Misbahuddin Mahammad, P. Chandra Sekhar, Metuku Shyamsunder

Abstract:

The oversampled output of a sigma-delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by decimation filters. The decimation filters work twofold; they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR (oversampling rate) and they remove the out band quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. The speed, area and power consumption of oversampled converter are governed largely by decimation filters in sigma-delta A/D converters. The scope of the work is to design a decimation filter for sigma-delta ADC and simulation using MATLAB. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated comb (CIC) filter. A second decimation filter is using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient.

Keywords: sigma delta modulator, CIC filter, decimation filter, compensation filter, noise shaping

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
23 Stiffness and Modulus of Subgrade Reaction of the Soft Soil Improved by Stone Columns

Authors: Sudheer Kumar J., Sudhanshu Sharma

Abstract:

Stone columns are extensively used as constructive and environmentally sustainable improvement methods for improving stiffness, modulus of subgrade reaction, and maximum lateral displacement in the multilayer soil system. The advantage of using stone columns in improving the single-layer soft soil as a ground reinforcement element for supporting various structures up to shallow depth is well researched, but the understanding of strengthening the multiplayer soil system for a deeper level requires further studies. In this paper, a series of cases have been conducted to study the behaviour of ordinary stone columns (OSC), geosynthetic encased stone columns (GESC) over various objectives for strengthening multilayer soil system up to deep level. A finite element analyses were carried out using the software package PLAXIS to study further correlate the results. The study aims to find the stiffness of composite soil, modulus of subgrade reaction, which is generally required for designing of various foundations, and also discusses the maximum horizontal displacement location, which is the major failure criteria seen after the installation of stone columns.

Keywords: stone columns, geotextile, finite element method, stiffness, modulus of subgrade reaction, maximum lateral displacement point

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
22 Causes and Impacts of Marine Heatwaves in the Bay of Bengal Region in the Recent Period

Authors: Sudhanshu Kumar, Raghvendra Chandrakar, Arun Chakraborty

Abstract:

In the ocean, the temperature extremes have the potential to devastate marine habitats, ecosystems together with ensuing socioeconomic consequences. In recent years, these extreme events are more frequent and intense globally and their increasing trend is expected to continue in the upcoming decades. It recently attracted public interest, as well as scientific researchers, which motivates us to analyze the current marine heatwave (MHW) events in the Bay of Bengal region. we have isolated 107 MHW events (above 90th percentile threshold) in this region of the Indian Ocean and investigated the variation in duration, intensity, and frequency of MHW events during our test period (1982-2021). Our study reveals that in the study region the average of three MHW events per year with an increasing linear trend of 1.11 MHW events per decade. In the analysis, we found the longest MHW event which lasted about 99 days, which is far greater than an average MHW event duration. The maximum intensity was 5.29°C (above the climatology-mean), while the mean intensity was 2.03°C. In addition, we observed net heat flux accompanied by anticyclonic eddies to be the primary cause of these events. Moreover, we concluded that these events affect sea surface height and oceanic productivity, highlighting the adverse impact of MHWs on marine ecosystems.

Keywords: marine heatwaves, global warming, climate change, sea surface temperature, marine ecosystem

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
21 Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) CS6 promoter

Authors: Indranil Mondal, Debjyoti Bhakat, Asish Kumar mukhophadhyay, Nabendu Sekhar Chatterjee

Abstract:

CS6 is the prevalent CF in our region and deciphering its molecular regulators would play a pivotal role in reducing the burden of ETEC pathogenesis. In prokaryotes, most of the genes are under the control of one operon and the promoter present upstream of the gene regulates the transcription of that gene. Here the promoter of CS6 had been characterized by computational method and further analyzed by β-galactosidase assay and sequencing. Promoter constructs and deletions were prepared as required to analyze promoter activity. The effect of different additives on CS6 promoters was analyzed by the β-galactosidase assay. Bioinformatic analysis done by Softberry/BPROM predicted fur, lrp, and crp boxes, -10 and -35 region upstream of CS6 gene. The promoter construction in no promoter plasmid pTL61T showed that region -573 to +1 is actually the promoter region as predicted. Sequential deletion of the region upstream of CS6 revealed that promoter activity remains the same when -573bp to -350bp deleted. But after the deletion of upstream region -350 bp to -255bp, promoter expression decreases drastically to 26%. Further deletion also decreases promoter activity up to a little range. So the region -355bp to -255bp holds the promoter sequence for the CS6 gene. Additives like iron, NaCl, etc., modulates promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. From the promoter analysis, it can be said that the minimum region lies between -254 and +1. Important region(s) lies between -350 bp to -255 bp upstream in the promoter, which might have important elements needed to control CS6 gene expression.

Keywords: microbiology, promoter, colonization factor, ETEC

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
20 Pufferfish Skin Collagens and Their Role in Inflation

Authors: Kirti, Samanta Sekhar Khora

Abstract:

Inflation serves different purposes in different organisms and adds beauty to their behavioral attributes. Pufferfishes are also known as blowfish, swellfish, and globefish due to their remarkable ability to puff themselves up like a balloon when threatened. This ability to inflate can be correlated with anatomical features that are unique to pufferfishes. Pufferfish skin provides a rigid framework to support the body contents and a flexible covering to allow whatever changes are necessary for remarkable inflation mechanism. Skin, the outer covering of animals is made up of collagen fibers arranged in more or less ordered arrays. The ventral skin of pufferfish stretches more than dorsal skin during inflation. So, this study is of much of the interest in comparing the structure and mechanical properties of these two skin regions. The collagen fibers were found to be arranged in different ordered arrays for ventral and dorsal skin and concentration of fibers were also found to be different for these two skin parts. Scanning electron microscopy studies of the ventral skin showed a unidirectional arrangement of the collagen fibers, which provide more stretching capacity. Dorsal skin, on the other hand, has an orthogonal arrangement of fibers. This provides more stiffness to the ventral skin at the time of inflation. In this study, the possible role of collagen fibers was determined which significantly contributed to the remarkable inflation mechanism of pufferfishes.

Keywords: collagen, histology, inflation, pufferfish, scanning electron microscopy, Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
19 Non-Invasive Data Extraction from Machine Display Units Using Video Analytics

Authors: Ravneet Kaur, Joydeep Acharya, Sudhanshu Gaur

Abstract:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to transform manufacturing by improving shop floor processes such as production, maintenance and quality. However, industrial datasets are notoriously difficult to extract in a real-time, streaming fashion thus, negating potential AI benefits. The main example is some specialized industrial controllers that are operated by custom software which complicates the process of connecting them to an Information Technology (IT) based data acquisition network. Security concerns may also limit direct physical access to these controllers for data acquisition. To connect the Operational Technology (OT) data stored in these controllers to an AI application in a secure, reliable and available way, we propose a novel Industrial IoT (IIoT) solution in this paper. In this solution, we demonstrate how video cameras can be installed in a factory shop floor to continuously obtain images of the controller HMIs. We propose image pre-processing to segment the HMI into regions of streaming data and regions of fixed meta-data. We then evaluate the performance of multiple Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technologies such as Tesseract and Google vision to recognize the streaming data and test it for typical factory HMIs and realistic lighting conditions. Finally, we use the meta-data to match the OCR output with the temporal, domain-dependent context of the data to improve the accuracy of the output. Our IIoT solution enables reliable and efficient data extraction which will improve the performance of subsequent AI applications.

Keywords: human machine interface, industrial internet of things, internet of things, optical character recognition, video analytics

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
18 Dynamics of Mach Zehnder Modulator in Open and Closed Loop Bias Condition

Authors: Ramonika Sengupta, Stuti Kachhwaha, Asha Adhiya, K. Satya Raja Sekhar, Rajwinder Kaur

Abstract:

Numerous efforts have been done in the past decade to develop the methods of secure communication that are free from interception and eavesdropping. In fiber optic communication, chaotic optical carrier signals are used for data encryption in secure data transmission. Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZM) are the key components for generating the chaotic signals to be used as optical carriers. This paper presents the dynamics of a lithium niobate MZM modulator under various biasing conditions. The chaotic fluctuations of the intensity of a laser diode have been generated using the electro-optic MZM modulator operating in a highly nonlinear regime. The modulator is driven in closed loop by its own output at an earlier time. When used as an electro-optic oscillator employing delayed feedback, the MZM displays a wide range of output waveforms of varying complexity. The dynamical behavior of the system ranges from periodic to nonlinear oscillations. The nonlinearity displayed by the system is reproducible and is easily controllable. In this paper, we demonstrate a wide variety of optical signals generated by MZM using easily controllable device parameters in both open and close loop bias conditions.

Keywords: chaotic carrier, fiber optic communication, Mach-Zehnder modulator, secure data transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
17 Effect of Tool Size and Cavity Depth on Response Characteristics during Electric Discharge Machining on Superalloy Metal - An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Sudhanshu Kumar

Abstract:

Electrical discharge machining, also known as EDM, process is one of the most applicable machining process for removal of material in hard to machine materials like superalloy metals. EDM process utilizes electrical energy into sparks to erode the metals in presence of dielectric medium. In the present investigation, superalloy, Inconel 718 has been selected as workpiece and electrolytic copper as tool electrode. Attempt has been made to understand the effect of size of tool with varying cavity depth during drilling of hole through EDM process. In order to systematic investigate, tool size in terms of tool diameter and cavity depth along with other important electrical parameters namely, peak current, pulse-on time and servo voltage have been varied at three different values and the experiments has been designed using fractional factorial (Taguchi) method. Each experiment has been repeated twice under the same condition in order to understand the variability within the experiments. The effect of variations in parameters has been evaluated in terms of material removal rate, tool wear rate and surface roughness. Results revel that change in tool diameter during machining affects the response characteristics significantly. Larger tool diameter yielded 13% more material removal rate than smaller tool diameter. Analysis of the effect of variation in cavity depth is notable. There is no significant effect of cavity depth on material removal rate, tool wear rate and surface quality. This indicates that number of experiments can be performed to analyze other parameters effect even at smaller depth of cavity which can reduce the cost and time of experiments. Further, statistical analysis has been carried out to identify the interaction effect between parameters.

Keywords: EDM, Inconel 718, material removal rate, roughness, tool wear, tool size

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
16 Synthesis of Plant-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Using Erythrina indica Extract and Evaluation of Their Anti-Microbial Activities

Authors: Chandra Sekhar Singh, P. Chakrapani, B. Arun Jyothi, A. Roja Rani

Abstract:

The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) involves biocompatible ingredients under physiological conditions of temperature and pressure. Moreover, the biologically active molecules involved in the green synthesis of NPs act as functionalizing ligands, making these NPs more suitable for biomedical applications. Among the most important bioreductants are plant extracts, which are relatively easy to handle, readily available, low cost, and have been well explored for the green synthesis of other nanomaterials. Various types of metallic NPs have already been synthesized using plant extracts. They have wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In our study, we were described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1mM AgNO3 solution through the aqueous extract of Erythrina indica as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM analysis showed the average particle size of 30 nm as well as revealed their spherical structure. Further these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against different human pathogens viz. two Gram positive namely Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis bacteria and two were Gram negative bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). This is for the first time reporting that Erythrina indica plant extract was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, antibacterial activity, FTIR, TEM, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
15 Machine Learning Strategies for Data Extraction from Unstructured Documents in Financial Services

Authors: Delphine Vendryes, Dushyanth Sekhar, Baojia Tong, Matthew Theisen, Chester Curme

Abstract:

Much of the data that inform the decisions of governments, corporations and individuals are harvested from unstructured documents. Data extraction is defined here as a process that turns non-machine-readable information into a machine-readable format that can be stored, for instance, in a database. In financial services, introducing more automation in data extraction pipelines is a major challenge. Information sought by financial data consumers is often buried within vast bodies of unstructured documents, which have historically required thorough manual extraction. Automated solutions provide faster access to non-machine-readable datasets, in a context where untimely information quickly becomes irrelevant. Data quality standards cannot be compromised, so automation requires high data integrity. This multifaceted task is broken down into smaller steps: ingestion, table parsing (detection and structure recognition), text analysis (entity detection and disambiguation), schema-based record extraction, user feedback incorporation. Selected intermediary steps are phrased as machine learning problems. Solutions leveraging cutting-edge approaches from the fields of computer vision (e.g. table detection) and natural language processing (e.g. entity detection and disambiguation) are proposed.

Keywords: computer vision, entity recognition, finance, information retrieval, machine learning, natural language processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
14 Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Role of Long Non-Coding RNA NEAT1 in Dengue Patients

Authors: Abhaydeep Pandey, Shweta Shukla, Saptamita Goswami, Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Vishnampettai Ramachandran, Sudhanshu Vrati, Arup Banerjee

Abstract:

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the important regulators of gene expression and play important role in viral replication and disease progression. The role of lncRNA genes in the pathogenesis of Dengue virus-mediated pathogenesis is currently unknown. Methods: To gain additional insights, we utilized an unbiased RNA sequencing followed by in silico analysis approach to identify the differentially expressed lncRNA and genes that are associated with dengue disease progression. Further, we focused our study on lncRNAs NEAT1 (Nuclear Paraspeckle Assembly Transcript 1) as it was found to be differentially expressed in PBMC of dengue infected patients. Results: The expression of lncRNAs NEAT1, as compared to dengue infection (DI), was significantly down-regulated as the patients developed the complication. Moreover, pairwise analysis on follow up patients confirmed that suppression of NEAT1 expression was associated with rapid fall in platelet count in dengue infected patients. Severe dengue patients (DS) (n=18; platelet count < 20K) when recovered from infection showing high NEAT1 expression as it observed in healthy donors. By co-expression network analysis and subsequent validation, we revealed that coding gene; IFI27 expression was significantly up-regulated in severe dengue cases and negatively correlated with NEAT1 expression. To discriminate DI from dengue severe, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated. It revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% (95%CI: 85.69 – 97.22) and area under the curve (AUC) = 0.97 for NEAT1. Conclusions: Altogether, our first observations demonstrate that monitoring NEAT1and IFI27 expression in dengue patients could be useful in understanding dengue virus-induced disease progression and may be involved in pathophysiological processes.

Keywords: dengue, lncRNA, NEAT1, transcriptome

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
13 Transcriptome Analysis for Insights into Disease Progression in Dengue Patients

Authors: Abhaydeep Pandey, Shweta Shukla, Saptamita Goswami, Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Vishnampettai Ramachandran, Sudhanshu Vrati, Arup Banerjee

Abstract:

Dengue virus infection is now considered as one of the most important mosquito-borne infection in human. The virus is known to promote vascular permeability, cerebral edema leading to Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or Dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Dengue infection has known to be endemic in India for over two centuries as a benign and self-limited disease. In the last couple of years, the disease symptoms have changed, manifesting severe secondary complication. So far, Delhi has experienced 12 outbreaks of dengue virus infection since 1997 with the last reported in 2014-15. Without specific antivirals, the case management of high-risk dengue patients entirely relies on supportive care, involving constant monitoring and timely fluid support to prevent hypovolemic shock. Nonetheless, the diverse clinical spectrum of dengue disease, as well as its initial similarity to other viral febrile illnesses, presents a challenge in the early identification of this high-risk group. WHO recommends the use of warning signs to identify high-risk patients, but warning signs generally appear during, or just one day before the development of severe illness, thus, providing only a narrow window for clinical intervention. The ability to predict which patient may develop DHF and DSS may improve the triage and treatment. With the recent discovery of high throughput RNA sequencing allows us to understand the disease progression at the genomic level. Here, we will collate the results of RNA-Sequencing data obtained recently from PBMC of different categories of dengue patients from India and will discuss the possible role of deregulated genes and long non-coding RNAs NEAT1 for development of disease progression.

Keywords: long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), dengue, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), dengue shock syndrome (DSS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
12 A Survey of the Sleep-Disturbed Bedroom Environmental Factors and the Occupants Bedroom Windows or Door Opening Behaviors

Authors: Chenxi Liao, Mizuho Akimoto, Mariya Bivolarova, Sekhar Chandra, Xiaojun Fan, Li Lan, Jelle Laverge, Pawel Wargocki

Abstract:

The bedroom environment plays an important role in maintaining good sleep quality, which is vital for humans health and next-day performance. A survey of the sleep-disturbed bedroom environmental factors and the occupants’ bedroom windows (BW) or bedroom door (BD) opening behaviors was launched in the capital region of Denmark in 2020 by an online questionnaire. People were asked if they were disturbed by too warm temperature, too cool temperature, noise, or stuffy air during sleep. Also, they reported their BW or the BD opening behaviors in the morning, afternoon, evening, and during sleep. A total of 512 responses were received. Too warm temperature was reported the most among the four sleep-disturbed factors, following too cool temperature, noise, and stuffy air. Whether or not opening BW or the BD was commonly used to improve or change the bedroom environment. The respondents who were disturbed by too warm temperature during sleep opened BW for a longer time in the morning compared to those who were never disturbed by it (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01-1.62). Those who were disturbed by too cool temperatures tended to open BW less frequently in the morning (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.97-1.57). They preferred keeping BW open in the whole day if they realized stuffy air disturbing their sleep, although only a few of them still opened BW during sleep. Those who were disturbed by too cool temperature (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.92) and noise (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96) were more likely to sleep with the BD open in a lesser frequency. Opening BW, increasing ventilation rates, could relieve disturbing by stuffy air during sleep, but induced other sleep-disturbed factors such as too cool in winter and noise. Also, opening BW only when people were not sleep was not sufficient to exempt disturbing by stuffy air during sleep. Using mechanical ventilation in bedrooms is necessary to ensure good air quality and meanwhile to avoid thermal discomfort and noise during sleep. Future studies are required to figure out the required flow rate of fresh air of mechanical ventilation during sleep.

Keywords: bedroom environmental, survey, occupants behaviors, windows, door

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
11 The Impact of Insider Trading on Open Market Share Repurchase: A Study in Indian Context

Authors: Sarthak Kumar Jena, Chandra Sekhar Mishra, Prabina Rajib

Abstract:

Purpose: This paper aims to derive undervaluation signal from the insiders trading of Indian companies where the ownership is complex and concentrated, investors protection is weak, and the insider rules and regulations are not stringent like developed country. This study examines the relationship between insider trading with short term and long term abnormal return. The study also examines the relationship between insider trading and the actual share repurchase by the firm. Methodology: A sample of 78 companies over the period 2008-2013 are analyzed in the study due to not availability of insider data in Indian context. For preliminary analysis T-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test is used to find the difference between the insider trading before and after the share repurchase announcement. Tobit model is used to find out whether insider trading influence shares repurchase decisions or not. Return on the basis of market model and buy hold are calculated in the previous year and the following year of share repurchase announcement. Findings: The paper finds that insider trading around share repurchase is more than control firms and there is positive and significant difference in insider buying between the previous year of share buyback announcement and the following year of buyback announcement. Insider buying before share repurchase announcement has a positive influence on share repurchase decisions. We find insider buying has a positive and significant relationship with announcement return, whereas insider selling has a negative significant relationship with announcement return. Actual share repurchase and program completion also depend on insider trading before share repurchase. Research limitation: The study is constrained by the small sample size, so the results should be viewed by keeping this limitation in mind. Originality: The paper is to our best knowledge the first study based on Indian context to extend the insider trading literature to share repurchase event and examine insider trading to find out undervaluation signal associated with insider buying.

Keywords: insider trading, buyback, open market share repurchase, signalling

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
10 Combining Corpus Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis to Study Power Relations in Hindi Newspapers

Authors: Vandana Mishra, Niladri Sekhar Dash, Jayshree Charkraborty

Abstract:

This present paper focuses on the application of corpus linguistics techniques for critical discourse analysis (CDA) of Hindi newspapers. While Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in corpora (samples) of 'real world' text, CDA is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse that views language as a form of social practice. CDA has mainly been studied from a qualitative perspective. However, we can say that recent studies have begun combining corpus linguistics with CDA in analyzing large volumes of text for the study of existing power relations in society. The corpus under our study is also of a sizable amount (1 million words of Hindi newspaper texts) and its analysis requires an alternative analytical procedure. So, we have combined both the quantitative approach i.e. the use of corpus techniques with CDA’s traditional qualitative analysis. In this context, we have focused on the Keyword Analysis Sorting Concordance Lines of the selected Keywords and calculating collocates of the keywords. We have made use of the Wordsmith Tool for all these analysis. The analysis starts with identifying the keywords in the political news corpus when compared with the main news corpus. The keywords are extracted from the corpus based on their keyness calculated through statistical tests like chi-squared test and log-likelihood test on the frequent words of the corpus. Some of the top occurring keywords are मोदी (Modi), भाजपा (BJP), कांग्रेस (Congress), सरकार (Government) and पार्टी (Political party). This is followed by the concordance analysis of these keywords which generates thousands of lines but we have to select few lines and examine them based on our objective. We have also calculated the collocates of the keywords based on their Mutual Information (MI) score. Both concordance and collocation help to identify lexical patterns in the political texts. Finally, all these quantitative results derived from the corpus techniques will be subjectively interpreted in accordance to the CDA’s theory to examine the ways in which political news discourse produces social and political inequality, power abuse or domination.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, corpus linguistics, Hindi newspapers, power relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
9 The Understanding of Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Diabetic Rats Treated with Andrographis paniculata and Erythrina indica Methanol Extract

Authors: Chakrapani Pullagummi, Arun Jyothi Bheemagani, B. Chandra Sekhar Singh, Prem Kumar, A. Roja Rani

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion and its action. The objective of present study was alloxan induced diabetes in S.D (Sprague Dawley) rats, treated with leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata and bark extract of Erythrina indica. Plant extract treated rats were analyzed biochemically and molecularly. on normal and diabetic rats. The changes in MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose (by GOD method) levels in blood of both normal and diabetic rat were analyzed. Diabetes induced rats were treated with methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica bark which are of medicinal importance. Later after inducing diabetes the rats were treated with medicinal plant extracts, Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica bark which are well known for their anti diabetic and antioxidative property in order to control the glucose and MDA levels. The blood plasma of diabetic and normal rats was analyzed for the levels of MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose levels. Results of this study suggested that the Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica can be used as a potential natural antidiabetic agent for treating and postponing the appearance of complications that arise due to Diabetes. Molecular study deals with the analysis of binding mechanism of 2 selected natural compounds from Andrographis and Erythrina extracts against the novel target for type T2D namely PPAR-γ compared with Rosiglitazone (standard compound). The results revealed that most of the selected herbal lead compounds were effective targets against the receptors. These compounds showed favorable interactions with the amino acid residues thereby substantiating their proven efficacy as anti-diabetic compounds.

Keywords: andrographis paniculata, erythrina indica, alloxan, lipid peroxidation, blood glucose level, PPAR-γ

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
8 Experimental Studies on the Effect of Premixing Methods in Anaerobic Digestor with Corn Stover

Authors: M. Sagarika, M. Chandra Sekhar

Abstract:

Agricultural residues are producing in large quantities in India and account for abundant but underutilized source of renewable biomass in agriculture. In India, the amount of crop residues available is estimated to be approximately 686 million tons. Anaerobic digestion is a promising option to utilize the surplus agricultural residues and can produce biogas and digestate. Biogas is mainly methane (CH4), which can be utilized as an energy source in replacement for fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil, in other hand, digestate contains high amounts of nutrients, can be employed as fertilizer. Solid state anaerobic digestion (total solids ≥ 15%) is suitable for agricultural residues, as it reduces the problems like stratification and floating issues that occur in liquid anaerobic digestion (total solids < 15%). The major concern in solid-state anaerobic digestion is the low mass transfer of feedstock and inoculum that resulting in low performance. To resolve this low mass transfer issue, effective mixing of feedstock and inoculum is required. Mechanical mixing using stirrer at the time of digestion process can be done, but it is difficult to operate the stirring of feedstock with high solids percentage and high viscosity. Complete premixing of feedstock and inoculum is an alternative method, which is usual in lab scale studies but may not be affordable due to high energy demand in large-scale digesters. Developing partial premixing methods may reduce this problem. Current study is to improve the performance of solid-state anaerobic digestion of corn stover at feedstock to inoculum ratios 3 and 5, by applying partial premixing methods and to compare the complete premixing method with two partial premixing methods which are two alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum and three alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum where higher inoculum ratios in the top layers. From experimental studies it is observed that, partial premixing method with three alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum yielded good methane.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, premixing methods, methane yield, corn stover, volatile solids

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
7 Construction and Demolition Waste Management in Indian Cities

Authors: Vaibhav Rathi, Soumen Maity, Achu R. Sekhar, Abhijit Banerjee

Abstract:

Construction sector in India is extremely resource and carbon intensive. It contributes to significantly to national greenhouse emissions. At the resource end the industry consumes significant portions of the output from mining. Resources such as sand and soil are most exploited and their rampant extraction is becoming constant source of impact on environment and society. Cement is another resource that is used in abundance in building and construction and has a direct impact on limestone resources. Though India is rich in cement grade limestone resource, efforts have to be made for sustainable consumption of this resource to ensure future availability. Use of these resources in high volumes in India is a result of rapid urbanization. More cities have grown to a population of million plus in the last decade and million plus cities are growing further. To cater to needs of growing urban population of construction activities are inevitable in the coming future thereby increasing material consumption. Increased construction will also lead to substantial increase in end of life waste generation from Construction and Demolition (C&D). Therefore proper management of C&D waste has the potential to reduce environmental pollution as well as contribute to the resource efficiency in the construction sector. The present study deals with estimation, characterisation and documenting current management practices of C&D waste in 10 Indian cities of different geographies and classes. Based on primary data the study draws conclusions on the potential of C&D waste to be used as an alternative to primary raw materials. The estimation results show that India generates 716 million tons of C&D waste annually, placing the country as second largest C&D waste generator in the world after China. The study also aimed at utilization of C&D waste in to building materials. The waste samples collected from various cities have been used to replace 100% stone aggregates in paver blocks without any decrease in strength. However, management practices of C&D waste in cities still remains poor instead of notification of rules and regulations notified for C&D waste management. Only a few cities have managed to install processing plant and set up management systems for C&D waste. Therefore there is immense opportunity for management and reuse of C&D waste in Indian cities.

Keywords: building materials, construction and demolition waste, cities, environmental pollution, resource efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
6 Identification and Quantification of Lisinopril from Pure, Formulated and Urine Samples by Micellar Thin Layer Chromatography

Authors: Sudhanshu Sharma

Abstract:

Lisinopril, 1-[N-{(s)-I-carboxy-3 phenyl propyl}-L-proline dehydrate is a lysine analog of enalaprilat, the active metabolite of enalapril. It is long-acting, non-sulhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor that is used for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure in daily dosage 10-80 mg. Pharmacological activity of lisinopril has been proved in various experimental and clinical studies. Owing to its importance and widespread use, efforts have been made towards the development of simple and reliable analytical methods. As per our literature survey, lisinopril in pharmaceutical formulations has been determined by various analytical methodologies like polaragraphy, potentiometry, and spectrophotometry, but most of these analytical methods are not too suitable for the Identification of lisinopril from clinical samples because of the interferences caused by the amino acids and amino groups containing metabolites present in biological samples. This report is an attempt in the direction of developing a simple and reliable method for on plate identification and quantification of lisinopril in pharmaceutical formulations as well as from human urine samples using silica gel H layers developed with a new mobile phase comprising of micellar solutions of N-cetyl-N, N, N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Micellar solutions have found numerous practical applications in many areas of separation science. Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) has gained immense popularity and wider applicability due to operational simplicity, cost effectiveness, relatively non-toxicity and enhanced separation efficiency, low aggressiveness. Incorporation of aqueous micellar solutions as mobile phase was pioneered by Armstrong and Terrill as they accentuated the importance of TLC where simultaneous separation of ionic or non-ionic species in a variety of matrices is required. A peculiarity of the micellar mobile phases (MMPs) is that they have no macroscopic analogues, as a result the typical separations can be easily achieved by using MMPs than aqueous organic mobile phases. Previously MMPs were successfully employed in TLC based critical separations of aromatic hydrocarbons, nucleotides, vitamin K1 and K5, o-, m- and p- aminophenol, amino acids, separation of penicillins. The human urine analysis for identification of selected drugs and their metabolites has emerged as an important investigation tool in forensic drug analysis. Among all chromatographic methods available only thin layer chromatography (TLC) enables a simple fast and effective separation of the complex mixtures present in various biological samples and is recommended as an approved testing for forensic drug analysis by federal Law. TLC proved its applicability during successful separation of bio-active amines, carbohydrates, enzymes, porphyrins, and their precursors, alkaloid and drugs from urine samples.

Keywords: lisnopril, surfactant, chromatography, micellar solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
5 Modeling and Optimizing of Sinker Electric Discharge Machine Process Parameters on AISI 4140 Alloy Steel by Central Composite Rotatable Design Method

Authors: J. Satya Eswari, J. Sekhar Babub, Meena Murmu, Govardhan Bhat

Abstract:

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is an unconventional manufacturing process based on removal of material from a part by means of a series of repeated electrical sparks created by electric pulse generators at short intervals between a electrode tool and the part to be machined emmersed in dielectric fluid. In this paper, a study will be performed on the influence of the factors of peak current, pulse on time, interval time and power supply voltage. The output responses measured were material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness. Finally, the parameters were optimized for maximum MRR with the desired surface roughness. RSM involves establishing mathematical relations between the design variables and the resulting responses and optimizing the process conditions. RSM is not free from problems when it is applied to multi-factor and multi-response situations. Design of experiments (DOE) technique to select the optimum machining conditions for machining AISI 4140 using EDM. The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimal factors of the electro-discharge machining (EDM) process investigate feasibility of design of experiment techniques. The work pieces used were rectangular plates of AISI 4140 grade steel alloy. The study of optimized settings of key machining factors like pulse on time, gap voltage, flushing pressure, input current and duty cycle on the material removal, surface roughness is been carried out using central composite design. The objective is to maximize the Material removal rate (MRR). Central composite design data is used to develop second order polynomial models with interaction terms. The insignificant coefficients’ are eliminated with these models by using student t test and F test for the goodness of fit. CCD is first used to establish the determine the optimal factors of the electro-discharge machining (EDM) for maximizing the MRR. The responses are further treated through a objective function to establish the same set of key machining factors to satisfy the optimization problem of the electro-discharge machining (EDM) process. The results demonstrate the better performance of CCD data based RSM for optimizing the electro-discharge machining (EDM) process.

Keywords: electric discharge machining (EDM), modeling, optimization, CCRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
4 Ground Improvement Using Deep Vibro Techniques at Madhepura E-Loco Project

Authors: A. Sekhar, N. Ramakrishna Raju

Abstract:

This paper is a result of ground improvement using deep vibro techniques with combination of sand and stone columns performed on a highly liquefaction susceptible site (70 to 80% sand strata and balance silt) with low bearing capacities due to high settlements located (earth quake zone V as per IS code) at Madhepura, Bihar state in northern part of India. Initially, it was envisaged with bored cast in-situ/precast piles, stone/sand columns. However, after detail analysis to address both liquefaction and improve bearing capacities simultaneously, it was analyzed the deep vibro techniques with combination of sand and stone columns is excellent solution for given site condition which may be first time in India. First after detail soil investigation, pre eCPT test was conducted to evaluate the potential depth of liquefaction to densify silty sandy soils to improve factor of safety against liquefaction. Then trail test were being carried out at site by deep vibro compaction technique with sand and stone columns combination with different spacings of columns in triangular shape with different timings during each lift of vibro up to ground level. Different spacings and timing was done to obtain the most effective spacing and timing with vibro compaction technique to achieve maximum densification of saturated loose silty sandy soils uniformly for complete treated area. Then again, post eCPT test and plate load tests were conducted at all trail locations of different spacings and timing of sand and stone columns to evaluate the best results for obtaining the required factor of safety against liquefaction and the desired bearing capacities with reduced settlements for construction of industrial structures. After reviewing these results, it was noticed that the ground layers are densified more than the expected with improved factor of safety against liquefaction and achieved good bearing capacities for a given settlements as per IS codal provisions. It was also worked out for cost-effectiveness of lightly loaded single storied structures by using deep vibro technique with sand column avoiding stone. The results were observed satisfactory for resting the lightly loaded foundations. In this technique, the most important is to mitigating liquefaction with improved bearing capacities and reduced settlements to acceptable limits as per IS: 1904-1986 simultaneously up to a depth of 19M. To our best knowledge it was executed first time in India.

Keywords: ground improvement, deep vibro techniques, liquefaction, bearing capacity, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
3 A Qualitative Study of Inclusive Growth through Microfinance in India

Authors: Amit Kumar Bardhan, Barnali Nag, Chandra Sekhar Mishra

Abstract:

Microfinance is considered as one of the key drivers of financial inclusion and pro-poor financial growth. Microfinance in India became popular through Self Help Group (SHG) movement initiated by NABARD. In terms of outreach and loan portfolio, SHG Bank Linkage programme (SHG-BLP) has emerged as the largest microfinance initiative in the world. The success of financial inclusion lies in the successful implementation of SHG-BLP. SHGs are generally promoted by social welfare organisations like NGOs, welfare societies, government agencies, Co-operatives etc. and even banks are also involved in SHG formation. Thus, the pro-poor implementation of the scheme largely depends on the credibility of the SHG Promoting Institutions (SHPIs). The rural poor lack education, skills and financial literacy and hence need continuous support and proper training right from planning to implementation. In this study, we have made an attempt to inspect the reasons behind low penetration of SHG financing to the poorest of the poor both from demand and supply side perspective. Banks, SHPIs, and SHGs are three key essential stakeholders in SHG-BLP programmes. All of them have a vital role in programme implementation. The objective of this paper is to find out the drivers and hurdles in the path of financial inclusion through SHG-BLP and the role of SHPIs in reaching out to the ultra poor. We try to address questions like 'what are the challenges faced by SHPIs in targeting the poor?' and, 'what are factors behind the low credit linkage of SHGs?' Our work is based on a qualitative study of SHG programmes in semi-urban towns in the states of West Bengal and Odisha in India. Data are collected through unstructured questionnaire and in-depth interview from the members of SHGs, SHPIs and designated banks. The study provides some valuable insights about the programme and a comprehensive view of problems and challenges faced by SGH, SHPIs, and banks. On the basis of our understanding from the survey, some findings and policy recommendations that seem relevant are: increasing level of non-performing assets (NPA) of commercial banks and wilful default in expectation of loan waiver and subsidy are the prime reasons behind low rate of credit linkage of SHGs. Regular changes in SHG schemes and no incentive for after linkage follow up results in dysfunctional SHGs. Government schemes are mostly focused on creation of SHG and less on livelihood promotion. As a result, in spite of increasing (YoY) trend of number of SHGs promoted, there is no real impact on welfare growth. Government and other SHPIs should focus on resource based SHG promotion rather only increasing the number of SHGs.

Keywords: financial inclusion, inclusive growth, microfinance, Self-Help Group (SHG), Self-Help Group Promoting Institution (SHPI)

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
2 Enhanced Field Emission from Plasma Treated Graphene and 2D Layered Hybrids

Authors: R. Khare, R. V. Gelamo, M. A. More, D. J. Late, Chandra Sekhar Rout

Abstract:

Graphene emerges out as a promising material for various applications ranging from complementary integrated circuits to optically transparent electrode for displays and sensors. The excellent conductivity and atomic sharp edges of unique two-dimensional structure makes graphene a propitious field emitter. Graphene analogues of other 2D layered materials have emerged in material science and nanotechnology due to the enriched physics and novel enhanced properties they present. There are several advantages of using 2D nanomaterials in field emission based devices, including a thickness of only a few atomic layers, high aspect ratio (the ratio of lateral size to sheet thickness), excellent electrical properties, extraordinary mechanical strength and ease of synthesis. Furthermore, the presence of edges can enhance the tunneling probability for the electrons in layered nanomaterials similar to that seen in nanotubes. Here we report electron emission properties of multilayer graphene and effect of plasma (CO2, O2, Ar and N2) treatment. The plasma treated multilayer graphene shows an enhanced field emission behavior with a low turn on field of 0.18 V/μm and high emission current density of 1.89 mA/cm2 at an applied field of 0.35 V/μm. Further, we report the field emission studies of layered WS2/RGO and SnS2/RGO composites. The turn on field required to draw a field emission current density of 1μA/cm2 is found to be 3.5, 2.3 and 2 V/μm for WS2, RGO and the WS2/RGO composite respectively. The enhanced field emission behavior observed for the WS2/RGO nanocomposite is attributed to a high field enhancement factor of 2978, which is associated with the surface protrusions of the single-to-few layer thick sheets of the nanocomposite. The highest current density of ~800 µA/cm2 is drawn at an applied field of 4.1 V/μm from a few layers of the WS2/RGO nanocomposite. Furthermore, first-principles density functional calculations suggest that the enhanced field emission may also be due to an overlap of the electronic structures of WS2 and RGO, where graphene-like states are dumped in the region of the WS2 fundamental gap. Similarly, the turn on field required to draw an emission current density of 1µA/cm2 is significantly low (almost half the value) for the SnS2/RGO nanocomposite (2.65 V/µm) compared to pristine SnS2 (4.8 V/µm) nanosheets. The field enhancement factor β (~3200 for SnS2 and ~3700 for SnS2/RGO composite) was calculated from Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots and indicates emission from the nanometric geometry of the emitter. The field emission current versus time plot shows overall good emission stability for the SnS2/RGO emitter. The DFT calculations reveal that the enhanced field emission properties of SnS2/RGO composites are because of a substantial lowering of work function of SnS2 when supported by graphene, which is in response to p-type doping of the graphene substrate. Graphene and 2D analogue materials emerge as a potential candidate for future field emission applications.

Keywords: graphene, layered material, field emission, plasma, doping

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
1 Identification of Text Domains and Register Variation through the Analysis of Lexical Distribution in a Bangla Mass Media Text Corpus

Authors: Mahul Bhattacharyya, Niladri Sekhar Dash

Abstract:

The present research paper is an experimental attempt to investigate the nature of variation in the register in three major text domains, namely, social, cultural, and political texts collected from the corpus of Bangla printed mass media texts. This present study uses a corpus of a moderate amount of Bangla mass media text that contains nearly one million words collected from different media sources like newspapers, magazines, advertisements, periodicals, etc. The analysis of corpus data reveals that each text has certain lexical properties that not only control their identity but also mark their uniqueness across the domains. At first, the subject domains of the texts are classified into two parameters namely, ‘Genre' and 'Text Type'. Next, some empirical investigations are made to understand how the domains vary from each other in terms of lexical properties like both function and content words. Here the method of comparative-cum-contrastive matching of lexical load across domains is invoked through word frequency count to track how domain-specific words and terms may be marked as decisive indicators in the act of specifying the textual contexts and subject domains. The study shows that the common lexical stock that percolates across all text domains are quite dicey in nature as their lexicological identity does not have any bearing in the act of specifying subject domains. Therefore, it becomes necessary for language users to anchor upon certain domain-specific lexical items to recognize a text that belongs to a specific text domain. The eventual findings of this study confirm that texts belonging to different subject domains in Bangla news text corpus clearly differ on the parameters of lexical load, lexical choice, lexical clustering, lexical collocation. In fact, based on these parameters, along with some statistical calculations, it is possible to classify mass media texts into different types to mark their relation with regard to the domains they should actually belong. The advantage of this analysis lies in the proper identification of the linguistic factors which will give language users a better insight into the method they employ in text comprehension, as well as construct a systemic frame for designing text identification strategy for language learners. The availability of huge amount of Bangla media text data is useful for achieving accurate conclusions with a certain amount of reliability and authenticity. This kind of corpus-based analysis is quite relevant for a resource-poor language like Bangla, as no attempt has ever been made to understand how the structure and texture of Bangla mass media texts vary due to certain linguistic and extra-linguistic constraints that are actively operational to specific text domains. Since mass media language is assumed to be the most 'recent representation' of the actual use of the language, this study is expected to show how the Bangla news texts reflect the thoughts of the society and how they leave a strong impact on the thought process of the speech community.

Keywords: Bangla, corpus, discourse, domains, lexical choice, mass media, register, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 103