Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 510

Search results for: full-length transcriptome sequencing

510 Automatic Reporting System for Transcriptome Indel Identification and Annotation Based on Snapshot of Next-Generation Sequencing Reads Alignment

Authors: Shuo Mu, Guangzhi Jiang, Jinsa Chen

Abstract:

The analysis of Indel for RNA sequencing of clinical samples is easily affected by sequencing experiment errors and software selection. In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of analysis, we developed an automatic reporting system for Indel recognition and annotation based on image snapshot of transcriptome reads alignment. This system includes sequence local-assembly and realignment, target point snapshot, and image-based recognition processes. We integrated high-confidence Indel dataset from several known databases as a training set to improve the accuracy of image processing and added a bioinformatical processing module to annotate and filter Indel artifacts. Subsequently, the system will automatically generate data, including data quality levels and images results report. Sanger sequencing verification of the reference Indel mutation of cell line NA12878 showed that the process can achieve 83% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Analysis of the collected clinical samples showed that the interpretation accuracy of the process was equivalent to that of manual inspection, and the processing efficiency showed a significant improvement. This work shows the feasibility of accurate Indel analysis of clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) transcriptome. This result may be useful for RNA study for clinical samples with microsatellite instability in immunotherapy in the future.

Keywords: automatic reporting, indel, next-generation sequencing, NGS, transcriptome

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509 De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome during Seed Development, and Generation of Genic-SSR Markers in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

Authors: Ozhan Simsek, Dicle Donmez, Burhanettin Imrak, Ahsen Isik Ozguven, Yildiz Aka Kacar

Abstract:

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to be one of the oldest edible fruit tree species, with a wide geographical global distribution. Fruits from the two defined varieties (Hicaznar and 33N26) were taken at intervals after pollination and fertilization at different sizes. Seed samples were used for transcriptome sequencing. Primary sequencing was produced by Illumina Hi-Seq™ 2000. Firstly, we had raw reads, and it was subjected to quality control (QC). Raw reads were filtered into clean reads and aligned to the reference sequences. De novo analysis was performed to detect genes expressed in seeds of pomegranate varieties. We performed downstream analysis to determine differentially expressed genes. We generated about 27.09 gb bases in total after Illumina Hi-Seq sequencing. All samples were assembled together, we got 59,264 Unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of Unigenes are 84.547.276 bp, 1.426 bp, 2,137 bp, and 46.20 %, respectively. Unigenes were annotated with 7 functional databases, finally, 42.681(NR: 72.02%), 39.660 (NT: 66.92%), 30.790 (Swissprot: 51.95%), 20.212 (COG: 34.11%), 27.689 (KEGG: 46.72%), 12.328 (GO: 20.80%), and 33,833 (Interpro: 57.09%) Unigenes were annotated. With functional annotation results, we detected 42.376 CDS, and 4.999 SSR distribute on 16.143 Unigenes.

Keywords: next generation sequencing, SSR, RNA-Seq, Illumina

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508 Full Length Transcriptome Sequencing and Differential Expression Gene Analysis of Hybrid Larch under PEG Stress

Authors: Zhang Lei, Zhao Qingrong, Wang Chen, Zhang Sufang, Zhang Hanguo

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Larch is the main afforestation and timber tree species in Northeast China, and drought is one of the main factors limiting the growth of Larch and other organisms in Northeast China. In order to further explore the mechanism of Larch drought resistance, PEG was used to simulate drought stress. The full-length sequencing of Larch embryogenic callus under PEG simulated drought stress was carried out by combining Illumina-Hiseq and SMRT-seq. A total of 20.3Gb clean reads and 786492 CCS reads were obtained from the second and third generation sequencing. The de-redundant transcript sequences were predicted by lncRNA, 2083 lncRNAs were obtained, and the target genes were predicted, and a total of 2712 target genes were obtained. The de-redundant transcripts were further screened, and 1654 differentially expressed genes (DEGs )were obtained. Among them, different DEGs respond to drought stress in different ways, such as oxidation-reduction process, starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone pathway, carbon metabolism, lignin catabolic/biosynthetic process and so on. This study provides basic full-length sequencing data for the study of Larch drought resistance, and excavates a large number of DEGs in response to drought stress, which helps us to further understand the function of Larch drought resistance genes and provides a reference for in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanism of Larch drought resistance.

Keywords: larch, drought stress, full-length transcriptome sequencing, differentially expressed genes

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507 Transcriptomic Analyses of Kappaphycus alvarezii under Different Wavelengths of Light

Authors: Vun Yee Thien, Kenneth Francis Rodrigues, Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong, Wilson Thau Lym Yong

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Transcriptomes associated with the process of photosynthesis have offered insights into the mechanism of gene regulation in terrestrial plants; however, limited information is available as far as macroalgae are concerned. This investigation aims to decipher the underlying mechanisms associated with photosynthesis in the red alga, Kappaphycus alvarezii, by performing a differential expression analysis on a de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis of gene expression was designed to examine the alteration of light qualities and its effect on physiological mechanisms in the red alga. High-throughput paired-end RNA-sequencing was applied to profile the transcriptome of K. alvarezii irradiated with different wavelengths of light (blue 492-455 nm, green 577-492 nm and red 780-622 nm) as compared to the full light spectrum, resulted in more than 60 million reads individually and assembled using Trinity and SOAPdenovo-Trans. The transcripts were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant (nr) protein, SwissProt, KEGG and COG databases with a cutoff E-value of 1e-5 and nearly 30% of transcripts were assigned to functional annotation by Blast searches. Differential expression analysis was performed using edgeR. The DEGs were designated to six categories: BL (blue light) regulated, GL (green light) regulated, RL (red light) regulated, BL or GL regulated, BL or RL regulated, GL or RL regulated, and either BL, GL or RL regulated. These DEGs were mapped to terms in KEGG database and compared with the whole transcriptome background to search for genes that regulated by light quality. The outcomes of this study will enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying light-induced responses in red algae.

Keywords: de novo transcriptome sequencing, differential gene expression, Kappaphycus alvareziired, red alga

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506 Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Low Light Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Induced by Low Light Stress at Active Tillering Stage

Authors: Darshan Panda, Lambodar Behera, M. J. Baig, Sudhanshu Sekhar

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Low light intensity is a significant limitation for grain yield and quality in rice. However, yield is not significantly reduced in low-light tolerant rice varieties. The work, therefore, planned for comparative transcriptome profiling under low light stress to decipher the genes involved and molecular mechanism of low light tolerance in rice. At the active tillering stage, 50% low light exposure for one day, three days, and five days were given to Swarnaprabha (low light tolerant) and IR8 (low light sensitive) rice varieties. Illumina (HiSeq) platform was used for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 6,652 and 12,042 genes were differentially expressed due to low light intensity in Swarnaprabha and IR8, respectively, as compared to control. CAB, LRP, SBPase, MT15, TF PCL1, and Photosystem I & II complex related gene expressions were mostly increased in Swarnaprabha upon the longer duration of low light exposure, which was not found in IR8 as compared to control. Their expressions were validated by qRT-PCR. The overall study suggested that the maintenance of grain yield in the tolerant variety under low light might be the result of accelerated expression of the genes, which enable the plant to keep the photosynthetic processes moving at the same pace even under low light.

Keywords: rice, low light, photosynthesis, yield

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505 Elucidation of the Sequential Transcriptional Activity in Escherichia coli Using Time-Series RNA-Seq Data

Authors: Pui Shan Wong, Kosuke Tashiro, Satoru Kuhara, Sachiyo Aburatani

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Functional genomics and gene regulation inference has readily expanded our knowledge and understanding of gene interactions with regards to expression regulation. With the advancement of transcriptome sequencing in time-series comes the ability to study the sequential changes of the transcriptome. This method presented here works to augment existing regulation networks accumulated in literature with transcriptome data gathered from time-series experiments to construct a sequential representation of transcription factor activity. This method is applied on a time-series RNA-Seq data set from Escherichia coli as it transitions from growth to stationary phase over five hours. Investigations are conducted on the various metabolic activities in gene regulation processes by taking advantage of the correlation between regulatory gene pairs to examine their activity on a dynamic network. Especially, the changes in metabolic activity during phase transition are analyzed with focus on the pagP gene as well as other associated transcription factors. The visualization of the sequential transcriptional activity is used to describe the change in metabolic pathway activity originating from the pagP transcription factor, phoP. The results show a shift from amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, to energy metabolism during the transition to stationary phase in E. coli.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, gene regulation, network, time-series

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504 Effects of Ascophyllum nodosum in Tomato in the Tropical Caribbean Climate: Effects and Molecular Insights into Mechanisms

Authors: Omar Ali, Adesh Ramsubhag, Jayaraj Jayaraman

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Seaweed extracts have been reported as plant biostimulants which could be a safer, organic alternative to harsh pesticides. The incentive to use seaweed-based biostimulants is becoming paramount in sustainable agriculture. The current study, therefore, screened a commercial extract of A. nodosum in tomatoes, cultivated in Trinidad to showcase the multiple beneficial effects. Foliar treatment with an A. nodosum commercial extract led to significant increases in fruit yield and a significant reduction of incidence of bacterial spots and early blight diseases under both greenhouse and field conditions. Investigations were carried out to reveal the possible mechanisms of action of this biostimulant through defense enzyme assays and transcriptome profiling via RNA sequencing of tomato. Studies into disease control mechanisms by A. nodosum showed that the extract stimulated the activity of enzymes such as peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chitinase, polyphenol oxidase, and β-1,3-glucanase. Additionally, the transcriptome survey revealed the upregulation and enrichment of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of growth hormones, defense enzymes, PR proteins and defense-related secondary metabolites, as well as genes involved in the nutrient mobilization, photosynthesis and primary and secondary metabolic pathways. The results of the transcriptome study also demonstrated the cross-talks between growth and defense responses, confirming the bioelicitor and biostimulant value of seaweed extracts in plants. These effects could potentially implicate the benefits of seaweed extract and validate its usage in sustainable crop production.

Keywords: A. nodosum, biostimulants, elicitor, enzymes, growth responses, seaweeds, tomato, transcriptome analysis

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503 Transcriptome Analysis of Dry and Soaked Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Seeds in Response to Fast Neutron Irradiation

Authors: Yujie Zhou, Hee-Seong Byun, Sang-In Bak, Eui-Joon Kil, Kyung Joo Min, Vivek Chavan, Won Kyong Cho, Sukchan Lee, Seung-Woo Hong, Tae-Sun Park

Abstract:

Fast neutron irradiation (FNI) can cause mutations on plant genome but, in the most of cases, these irradiated plants have not shown significant characteristics phenotypically. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq to generate a high-resolution transcriptome map of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome effected by FNI. To quantify the different transcription levels in tomato irradiated by FNI, tomato seeds were irradiated by using MC-50 cyclotron (KIRAMS, Korea) for 0, 30 and 90 minutes, respectively. To investigate the effects on the pre-soaking condition, experimental groups were divided into dry and soaked seeds, which were soaked for 8 hours before irradiation. There was no noticeable difference in the percentage germination (PG) among dry seeds, while irradiated soaked seeds have about 10 % lower PG compared to the unirradiated control group. Using whole transcriptome sequencing by HiSeq 2000, we analyzed the differential gene expression in response to different time of FNI in dry and soaked seeds. More than 1.4 million base pair reads were mapped onto the tomato reference genome and the expression pattern differences between irradiated and unirradiated seeds were assessed. In 0, 30 and 90 minutes irradiation, 12,135, 28,495 and 28,675 transcripts were generated, respectively. Gene ontology analysis suggested the different enrichment of transcripts involved in response to different FNI. The present study showed that FNI effects on plant gene expression, which can become a new parameters for evaluating the responses against FNI on plants. In addition, the comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in D and S seeds by FNI will also give us a chance to deep explore novel candidate genes for FNI, which could be a good model system to understand the mechanisms behind the adaption of plant to space biology research.

Keywords: tomato (solanum lycopersicum), fast neutron irradiation, RNA-sequence, transcriptome expression

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502 Single Cell Rna Sequencing Operating from Benchside to Bedside: An Interesting Entry into Translational Genomics

Authors: Leo Nnamdi Ozurumba-Dwight

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Single-cell genomic analytical systems have proved to be a platform to isolate bulk cells into selected single cells for genomic, proteomic, and related metabolomic studies. This is enabling systematic investigations of the level of heterogeneity in a diverse and wide pool of cell populations. Single cell technologies, embracing techniques such as high parameter flow cytometry, single-cell sequencing, and high-resolution images are playing vital roles in these investigations on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) molecules and related gene expressions in tracking the nature and course of disease conditions. This entails targeted molecular investigations on unit cells that help us understand cell behavoiur and expressions, which can be examined for their health implications on the health state of patients. One of the vital good sides of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA seq) is its probing capacity to detect deranged or abnormal cell populations present within homogenously perceived pooled cells, which would have evaded cursory screening on the pooled cell populations of biological samples obtained as part of diagnostic procedures. Despite conduction of just single-cell transcriptome analysis, scRNAseq now permits comparison of the transcriptome of the individual cells, which can be evaluated for gene expressional patterns that depict areas of heterogeneity with pharmaceutical drug discovery and clinical treatment applications. It is vital to strictly work through the tools of investigations from wet lab to bioinformatics and computational tooled analyses. In the precise steps for scRNAseq, it is critical to do thorough and effective isolation of viable single cells from the tissues of interest using dependable techniques (such as FACS) before proceeding to lysis, as this enhances the appropriate picking of quality mRNA molecules for subsequent sequencing (such as by the use of Polymerase Chain Reaction machine). Interestingly, scRNAseq can be deployed to analyze various types of biological samples such as embryos, nervous systems, tumour cells, stem cells, lymphocytes, and haematopoietic cells. In haematopoietic cells, it can be used to stratify acute myeloid leukemia patterns in patients, sorting them out into cohorts that enable re-modeling of treatment regimens based on stratified presentations. In immunotherapy, it can furnish specialist clinician-immunologist with tools to re-model treatment for each patient, an attribute of precision medicine. Finally, the good predictive attribute of scRNAseq can help reduce the cost of treatment for patients, thus attracting more patients who would have otherwise been discouraged from seeking quality clinical consultation help due to perceived high cost. This is a positive paradigm shift for patients’ attitudes primed towards seeking treatment.

Keywords: immunotherapy, transcriptome, re-modeling, mRNA, scRNA-seq

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501 Analysis of Genic Expression of Honey Bees Exposed to Sublethal Pesticides Doses Using the Transcriptome Technique

Authors: Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi, Aline Astolfi, Daniel Diego Mendes, Isabella Cristina de Castro Lippi, Jaine da Luz Scheffer, Yan Souza Lima, Juliana Lunardi, Giovanna do Padro Ribeiro, Samir Moura Kadri

Abstract:

NECTAR Brazilian group (Center of Education, Science, and Technology in Rational Beekeeping) conducted studies on the pesticides honey bees effects using the transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyzes for gene expression studies. In this way, we analyzed the effects of Pyraclostrobin and Fipronil on the honey bees with 21 old-days (forager) in laboratory conditions. For this, frames containing sealed brood were removed from the beehives and maintenance on the stove (32°C and 75% humidity) until the bees were born. So, newly emerged workers were marked on the pronotum with a non-toxic pen and reintroduced into their original hives. After 21 days, 120 marked bees were collected with an entomological forces and immediately stored in Petri dishes, perforated to ensure ventilation, and kept fasted for 3 hours. These honeybees were exposed to food contaminated or not with the sublethal dose of Pyraclostrobin (850 ppb/bee) or Fipronil (2.5 ppb/bee). After four hours of exposure, 15 bees from each treatment were referred to transcriptome analysis. Total RNA analysis was extracted from the brain pools (03 brains per pool) using the TRIzol® reagent protocol according to the manufacturer's instructions. cDNA libraries were constructed, and the FASTQC program was used to check adapter content and assess the quality of raw reads. Differential expression analysis was performed with the DESeq2 package. Genes that had an adjusted value of less than 0.05 were considered to be significantly up-regulated. Regarding the Pyraclostrobin, alterations were observed in the pattern of 17 gene related to of antioxidant system, cellular respiration, glucose metabolism, and regulation of juvenile hormone and the hormone insulin. Glyphosate altered the 10 gene related to the digestive system, exoskeleton composition, vitamin E transport, and antioxidant system. The results indicate that the necessity of studies using the sublethal doses to evaluate the pesticides uses and risks on crops and its effects on the honey bees.

Keywords: beekeeping, honey bees, pesticides, transcriptome

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500 The Transcriptome of Carnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus) of Elicited Cells with Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Dianthi

Authors: Juan Jose Filgueira, Daniela Londono-Serna, Liliana Maria Hoyos

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Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is one of the most important products of exportation in the floriculture industry worldwide. Fusariosis is the disease that causes the highest losses on farms, in particular the one produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, called vascular wilt. Gene identification and metabolic routes of the genes that participate in the building of the plant response to Fusarium are some of the current targets in the carnation breeding industry. The techniques for the identifying of resistant genes in the plants, is the analysis of the transcriptome obtained during the host-pathogen interaction. In this work, we report the cell transcriptome of different varieties of carnation that present differential response from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi attack. The cells of the different hybrids produced in the outbreeding program were cultured in vitro and elicited with the parasite in a dual culture. The isolation and purification of mRNA was achieved by using affinity chromatography Oligo dT columns and the transcriptomes were obtained by using Illumina NGS techniques. A total of 85,669 unigenes were detected in all the transcriptomes analyzed and 31,000 annotations were found in databases, which correspond to 36.2%. The library construction of genic expression techniques used, allowed to recognize the variation in the expression of genes such as Germin-like protein, Glycosyl hydrolase family and Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. These have been reported in this study for the first time as part of the response mechanism to the presence of Fusarium oxysporum.

Keywords: Carnation, Fusarium, vascular wilt, transcriptome

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499 BingleSeq: A User-Friendly R Package for Single-Cell RNA-Seq Data Analysis

Authors: Quan Gu, Daniel Dimitrov

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BingleSeq was developed as a shiny-based, intuitive, and comprehensive application that enables the analysis of single-Cell RNA-Sequencing count data. This was achieved via incorporating three state-of-the-art software packages for each type of RNA sequencing analysis, alongside functional annotation analysis and a way to assess the overlap of differential expression method results. At its current state, the functionality implemented within BingleSeq is comparable to that of other applications, also developed with the purpose of lowering the entry requirements to RNA Sequencing analyses. BingleSeq is available on GitHub and will be submitted to R/Bioconductor.

Keywords: bioinformatics, functional annotation analysis, single-cell RNA-sequencing, transcriptomics

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498 The First Transcriptome Assembly of Marama Bean: An African Orphan Crop

Authors: Ethel E. Phiri, Lionel Hartzenberg, Percy Chimwamuromba, Emmanuel Nepolo, Jens Kossmann, James R. Lloyd

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Orphan crops are underresearched and underutilized food plant species that have not been categorized as major food crops, but have the potential to be economically and agronomically significant. They have been documented to have the ability to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. However, limited research has been conducted to uncover their potential as food crop species. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) has classified Marama bean, Tylosema esculentum, as an orphan crop. The plant is one of the 101 African orphan crops that must have their genomes sequenced, assembled, and annotated in the foreseeable future. Marama bean is a perennial leguminous plant that primarily grows in poor, arid soils in southern Africa. The plants produce large tubers that can weigh as much as 200kg. While the foliage provides fodder, the tuber is carbohydrate rich and is a staple food source for rural communities in Namibia. Also, the edible seeds are protein- and oil-rich. Marama Bean plants respond rapidly to increased temperatures and severe water scarcity without extreme consequences. Advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have made it possible to effectively transfer technologies between model- and major crops to orphan crops. In this research, the aim was to assemble the first transcriptomic analysis of Marama Bean RNA-sequence data. Many model plant species have had their genomes sequenced and their transcriptomes assembled. Therefore the availability of transcriptome data for a non-model crop plant species will allow for gene identification and comparisons between various species. The data has been sequenced using the Ilumina Hiseq 2500 sequencing platform. Data analysis is underway. In essence, this research will eventually evaluate the potential use of Marama Bean as a crop species to improve its value in agronomy. data for a non-model crop plant species will allow for gene identification and comparisons between various species. The data has been sequenced using the Ilumina Hiseq 2500 sequencing platform. Data analysis is underway. In essence, this researc will eventually evaluate the potential use of Marama bean as a crop species to improve its value in agronomy.

Keywords: 101 African orphan crops, RNA-Seq, Tylosema esculentum, underutilised crop plants

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497 Clinical Impact of Ultra-Deep Versus Sanger Sequencing Detection of Minority Mutations on the HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotype Interpretations after Virological Failure

Authors: S. Mohamed, D. Gonzalez, C. Sayada, P. Halfon

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Drug resistance mutations are routinely detected using standard Sanger sequencing, which does not detect minor variants with a frequency below 20%. The impact of detecting minor variants generated by ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) on HIV drug-resistance (DR) interpretations has not yet been studied. Fifty HIV-1 patients who experienced virological failure were included in this retrospective study. The HIV-1 UDS protocol allowed the detection and quantification of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase variants related to genotypes A, B, C, E, F, and G. DeepChek®-HIV simplified DR interpretation software was used to compare Sanger sequencing and UDS. The total time required for the UDS protocol was found to be approximately three times longer than Sanger sequencing with equivalent reagent costs. UDS detected all of the mutations found by population sequencing and identified additional resistance variants in all patients. An analysis of DR revealed a total of 643 and 224 clinically relevant mutations by UDS and Sanger sequencing, respectively. Three resistance mutations with > 20% prevalence were detected solely by UDS: A98S (23%), E138A (21%) and V179I (25%). A significant difference in the DR interpretations for 19 antiretroviral drugs was observed between the UDS and Sanger sequencing methods. Y181C and T215Y were the most frequent mutations associated with interpretation differences. A combination of UDS and DeepChek® software for the interpretation of DR results would help clinicians provide suitable treatments. A cut-off of 1% allowed a better characterisation of the viral population by identifying additional resistance mutations and improving the DR interpretation.

Keywords: HIV-1, ultra-deep sequencing, Sanger sequencing, drug resistance

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496 Transcriptome Analysis of Protestia brevitarsis seulensis with Focus On Wing Development and Metamorphosis in Developmental Stages

Authors: Jihye Hwang, Eun Hwa Choi, Su Youn Baek, Bia Park, Gyeongmin Kim, Chorong Shin, Joon Ha Lee, Jae-Sam Hwang, Ui Wook Hwang

Abstract:

White-spotted flower chafers are widely distributed in Asian countries and traditionally used for the treatment of chronic fatigue, blood circulation, and paralysis in the oriental medicine field. The evolution and development of insect wings and metamorphosis remain under-discovered subjects in arthropod evolutionary researches. Gene expression abundance analyses along with developmental stages based on the large-scale RNA-seq data are also still rarely done. Here we report the de novo assembly of a Protestia brevitarsis seulensis transcriptome along four different developmental stages (egg, larva, pupa, and adult) to explore its development and evolution of wings and metamorphosis. The de novo transcriptome assembly consists of 23,551 high-quality transcripts and is approximately 96.7% complete. Out of 8,545 transcripts, 5,183 correspond to the possible orthologs with Drosophila melanogaster. As a result, we could found 265 genes related to wing development and 19 genes related to metamorphosis. The comparison of transcript expression abundance with different developmental stages revealed developmental stage-specific transcripts especially working at the stage of wing development and metamorphosis of P. b. seulensis. This transcriptome quantification along the developmental stages may provide some meaningful clues to elucidate the genetic modulation mechanism of wing development and metamorphosis obtained during the insect evolution.

Keywords: white-spotted flower chafers, transcriptomics, RNA-seq, network biology, wing development, metamorphosis

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495 An Analysis System for Integrating High-Throughput Transcript Abundance Data with Metabolic Pathways in Green Algae

Authors: Han-Qin Zheng, Yi-Fan Chiang-Hsieh, Chia-Hung Chien, Wen-Chi Chang

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As the most important non-vascular plants, algae have many research applications, including high species diversity, biofuel sources, adsorption of heavy metals and, following processing, health supplements. With the increasing availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data for algae genomes and transcriptomes, an integrated resource for retrieving gene expression data and metabolic pathway is essential for functional analysis and systems biology in algae. However, gene expression profiles and biological pathways are displayed separately in current resources, and making it impossible to search current databases directly to identify the cellular response mechanisms. Therefore, this work develops a novel AlgaePath database to retrieve gene expression profiles efficiently under various conditions in numerous metabolic pathways. AlgaePath, a web-based database, integrates gene information, biological pathways, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) datasets in Chlamydomonasreinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219-4. Users can identify gene expression profiles and pathway information by using five query pages (i.e. Gene Search, Pathway Search, Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Search, Gene Group Analysis, and Co-Expression Analysis). The gene expression data of 45 and 4 samples can be obtained directly on pathway maps in C. reinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219-4, respectively. Genes that are differentially expressed between two conditions can be identified in Folds Search. Furthermore, the Gene Group Analysis of AlgaePath includes pathway enrichment analysis, and can easily compare the gene expression profiles of functionally related genes in a map. Finally, Co-Expression Analysis provides co-expressed transcripts of a target gene. The analysis results provide a valuable reference for designing further experiments and elucidating critical mechanisms from high-throughput data. More than an effective interface to clarify the transcript response mechanisms in different metabolic pathways under various conditions, AlgaePath is also a data mining system to identify critical mechanisms based on high-throughput sequencing.

Keywords: next-generation sequencing (NGS), algae, transcriptome, metabolic pathway, co-expression

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494 De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome from the Fluoroacetate Producing Plant, Dichapetalum Cymosum

Authors: Selisha A. Sooklal, Phelelani Mpangase, Shaun Aron, Karl Rumbold

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Organically bound fluorine (C-F bond) is extremely rare in nature. Despite this, the first fluorinated secondary metabolite, fluoroacetate, was isolated from the plant Dichapetalum cymosum (commonly known as Gifblaar). However, the enzyme responsible for fluorination (fluorinase) in Gifblaar was never isolated and very little progress has been achieved in understanding this process in higher plants. Fluorinated compounds have vast applications in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and fine chemicals industries. Consequently, an enzyme capable of catalysing a C-F bond has great potential as a biocatalyst in the industry considering that the field of fluorination is virtually synthetic. As with any biocatalyst, a range of these enzymes are required. Therefore, it is imperative to expand the exploration for novel fluorinases. This study aimed to gain molecular insights into secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Gifblaar using a high-throughput sequencing-based approach. Mechanical wounding studies were performed using Gifblaar leaf tissue in order to induce expression of the fluorinase. The transcriptome of the wounded and unwounded plant was then sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform. A total of 26.4 million short sequence reads were assembled into 77 845 transcripts using Trinity. Overall, 68.6 % of transcripts were annotated with gene identities using public databases (SwissProt, TrEMBL, GO, COG, Pfam, EC) with an E-value threshold of 1E-05. Sequences exhibited the greatest homology to the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana (27 %). A total of 244 annotated transcripts were found to be differentially expressed between the wounded and unwounded plant. In addition, secondary metabolic pathways present in Gifblaar were successfully reconstructed using Pathway tools. Due to lack of genetic information for plant fluorinases, a transcript failed to be annotated as a fluorinating enzyme. Thus, a local database containing the 5 existing bacterial fluorinases was created. Fifteen transcripts having homology to partial regions of existing fluorinases were found. In efforts to obtain the full coding sequence of the Gifblaar fluorinase, primers were designed targeting the regions of homology and genome walking will be performed to amplify the unknown regions. This is the first genetic data available for Gifblaar. It has provided novel insights into the mechanisms of metabolite biosynthesis and will allow for the discovery of the first eukaryotic fluorinase.

Keywords: biocatalyst, fluorinase, gifblaar, transcriptome

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493 Genomics of Adaptation in the Sea

Authors: Agostinho Antunes

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The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of selected marine animal species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

Keywords: marine genomics, evolutionary bioinformatics, human genome sequencing, genomic analyses

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492 Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Role of Long Non-Coding RNA NEAT1 in Dengue Patients

Authors: Abhaydeep Pandey, Shweta Shukla, Saptamita Goswami, Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Vishnampettai Ramachandran, Sudhanshu Vrati, Arup Banerjee

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Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the important regulators of gene expression and play important role in viral replication and disease progression. The role of lncRNA genes in the pathogenesis of Dengue virus-mediated pathogenesis is currently unknown. Methods: To gain additional insights, we utilized an unbiased RNA sequencing followed by in silico analysis approach to identify the differentially expressed lncRNA and genes that are associated with dengue disease progression. Further, we focused our study on lncRNAs NEAT1 (Nuclear Paraspeckle Assembly Transcript 1) as it was found to be differentially expressed in PBMC of dengue infected patients. Results: The expression of lncRNAs NEAT1, as compared to dengue infection (DI), was significantly down-regulated as the patients developed the complication. Moreover, pairwise analysis on follow up patients confirmed that suppression of NEAT1 expression was associated with rapid fall in platelet count in dengue infected patients. Severe dengue patients (DS) (n=18; platelet count < 20K) when recovered from infection showing high NEAT1 expression as it observed in healthy donors. By co-expression network analysis and subsequent validation, we revealed that coding gene; IFI27 expression was significantly up-regulated in severe dengue cases and negatively correlated with NEAT1 expression. To discriminate DI from dengue severe, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated. It revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% (95%CI: 85.69 – 97.22) and area under the curve (AUC) = 0.97 for NEAT1. Conclusions: Altogether, our first observations demonstrate that monitoring NEAT1and IFI27 expression in dengue patients could be useful in understanding dengue virus-induced disease progression and may be involved in pathophysiological processes.

Keywords: dengue, lncRNA, NEAT1, transcriptome

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491 Identification of Odorant Receptors through the Antennal Transcriptome of the Grapevine Pest, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Authors: Ricardo Godoy, Herbert Venthur, Hector Jimenez, Andres Quiroz, Ana Mutis

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In agriculture, grape production has great economic importance at global level, considering that in 2013 it reached 7.4 million hectares (ha) covered by plantations of this fruit worldwide. Chile is the number one exporter in the world with 800,000 tons. However, these values have been threatened by the attack of the grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), since its detection in 2008. Nowadays, the use of semiochemicals, in particular the major component of the sex pheromone, (E,Z)-7.9-dodecadienil acetate, are part of mating disruption methods to control L. botrana. How insect pests can recognize these molecules, is being part of huge efforts to deorphanize their olfactory mechanism at molecular level. Thus, an interesting group of proteins has been identified in the antennae of insects, where odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are known by transporting molecules to odorant receptors (ORs) and a co-receptor (ORCO) causing a behavioral change in the insect. Other proteins such as chemosensory proteins (CSPs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), odorant degrading enzymes (ODEs) and sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) seem to be involved, but few studies have been performed so far. The above has led to an increasing interest in insect communication at a molecular level, which has contributed to both a better understanding of the olfaction process and the design of new pest management strategies. To date, it has been reported that the ORs can detect one or a small group of odorants in a specific way. Therefore, the objective of this study is the identification of genes that encode these ORs using the antennal transcriptome of L. botrana. Total RNA was extracted for females and males of L. botrana, and the antennal transcriptome sequenced by Next Generation Sequencing service using an Illumina HiSeq2500 platform with 50 million reads per sample. Unigenes were assembled using Trinity v2.4.0 package and transcript abundance was obtained using edgeR. Genes were identified using BLASTN and BLASTX locally installed in a Unix system and based on our own Tortricidae database. Those Unigenes related to ORs were characterized using ORFfinder and protein Blastp server. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis was performed with the candidate amino acid sequences for LbotORs including amino acid sequences of other moths ORs, such as Bombyx mori, Cydia pomonella, among others. Our findings suggest 61 genes encoding ORs and one gene encoding an ORCO in both sexes, where the greatest difference was found in the OR6 because of the transcript abundance according to the value of FPKM in females and males was 1.48 versus 324.00. In addition, according to phylogenetic analysis OR6 is closely related to OR1 in Cydia pomonella and OR6, OR7 in Epiphyas postvittana, which have been described as pheromonal receptors (PRs). These results represent the first evidence of ORs present in the antennae of L. botrana and a suitable starting point for further functional studies with selected ORs, such as OR6, which is potentially related to pheromonal recognition.

Keywords: antennal transcriptome, lobesia botrana, odorant receptors (ORs), phylogenetic analysis

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490 Familial Exome Sequencing to Decipher the Complex Genetic Basis of Holoprosencephaly

Authors: Artem Kim, Clara Savary, Christele Dubourg, Wilfrid Carre, Houda Hamdi-Roze, Valerie Dupé, Sylvie Odent, Marie De Tayrac, Veronique David

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Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a rare congenital brain malformation resulting from the incomplete separation of the two cerebral hemispheres. It is characterized by a wide phenotypic spectrum and a high degree of locus heterogeneity. Genetic defects in 16 genes have already been implicated in HPE, but account for only 30% of cases, suggesting that a large part of genetic factors remains to be discovered. HPE has been recently redefined as a complex multigenic disorder, requiring the joint effect of multiple mutational events in genes belonging to one or several developmental pathways. The onset of HPE may result from accumulation of the effects of multiple rare variants in functionally-related genes, each conferring a moderate increase in the risk of HPE onset. In order to decipher the genetic basis of HPE, unconventional patterns of inheritance involving multiple genetic factors need to be considered. The primary objective of this study was to uncover possible disease causing combinations of multiple rare variants underlying HPE by performing trio-based Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) of familial cases where no molecular diagnosis could be established. 39 families were selected with no fully-penetrant causal mutation in known HPE gene, no chromosomic aberrations/copy number variants and without any implication of environmental factors. As the main challenge was to identify disease-related variants among a large number of nonpathogenic polymorphisms detected by WES classical scheme, a novel variant prioritization approach was established. It combined WES filtering with complementary gene-level approaches: transcriptome-driven (RNA-Seq data) and clinically-driven (public clinical data) strategies. Briefly, a filtering approach was performed to select variants compatible with disease segregation, population frequency and pathogenicity prediction to identify an exhaustive list of rare deleterious variants. The exome search space was then reduced by restricting the analysis to candidate genes identified by either transcriptome-driven strategy (genes sharing highly similar expression patterns with known HPE genes during cerebral development) or clinically-driven strategy (genes associated to phenotypes of interest overlapping with HPE). Deeper analyses of candidate variants were then performed on a family-by-family basis. These included the exploration of clinical information, expression studies, variant characteristics, recurrence of mutated genes and available biological knowledge. A novel bioinformatics pipeline was designed. Applied to the 39 families, this final integrated workflow identified an average of 11 candidate variants per family. Most of candidate variants were inherited from asymptomatic parents suggesting a multigenic inheritance pattern requiring the association of multiple mutational events. The manual analysis highlighted 5 new strong HPE candidate genes showing recurrences in distinct families. Functional validations of these genes are foreseen.

Keywords: complex genetic disorder, holoprosencephaly, multiple rare variants, whole exome sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
489 A Clustering-Sequencing Approach to the Facility Layout Problem

Authors: Saeideh Salimpour, Sophie-Charlotte Viaux, Ahmed Azab, Mohammed Fazle Baki

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The Facility Layout Problem (FLP) is key to the efficient and cost-effective operation of a system. This paper presents a hybrid heuristic- and mathematical-programming-based approach that divides the problem conceptually into those of clustering and sequencing. First, clusters of vertically aligned facilities are formed, which are later on sequenced horizontally. The developed methodology provides promising results in comparison to its counterparts in the literature by minimizing the inter-distances for facilities which have more interactions amongst each other and aims at placing the facilities with more interactions at the centroid of the shop.

Keywords: clustering-sequencing approach, mathematical modeling, optimization, unequal facility layout problem

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488 Accurate HLA Typing at High-Digit Resolution from NGS Data

Authors: Yazhi Huang, Jing Yang, Dingge Ying, Yan Zhang, Vorasuk Shotelersuk, Nattiya Hirankarn, Pak Chung Sham, Yu Lung Lau, Wanling Yang

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Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing from next generation sequencing (NGS) data has the potential for applications in clinical laboratories and population genetic studies. Here we introduce a novel technique for HLA typing from NGS data based on read-mapping using a comprehensive reference panel containing all known HLA alleles and de novo assembly of the gene-specific short reads. An accurate HLA typing at high-digit resolution was achieved when it was tested on publicly available NGS data, outperforming other newly-developed tools such as HLAminer and PHLAT.

Keywords: human leukocyte antigens, next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, HLA typing

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
487 Massively Parallel Sequencing Improved Resolution for Paternity Testing

Authors: Xueying Zhao, Ke Ma, Hui Li, Yu Cao, Fan Yang, Qingwen Xu, Wenbin Liu

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Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies allow high-throughput sequencing analyses with a relatively affordable price and have gradually been applied to forensic casework. MPS technology identifies short tandem repeat (STR) loci based on sequence so that repeat motif variation within STRs can be detected, which may help one to infer the origin of the mutation in some cases. Here, we report on one case with one three-step mismatch (D18S51) in family trios based on both capillary electrophoresis (CE) and MPS typing. The alleles of the alleged father (AF) are [AGAA]₁₇AGAG[AGAA]₃ and [AGAA]₁₅. The mother’s alleles are [AGAA]₁₉ and [AGAA]₉AGGA[AGAA]₃. The questioned child’s (QC) alleles are [AGAA]₁₉ and [AGAA]₁₂. Given that the sequence variants in repeat regions of AF and mother are not observed in QC’s alleles, the QC’s allele [AGAA]₁₂ was likely inherited from the AF’s allele [AGAA]₁₅ by loss of three repeat [AGAA]. Besides, two new alleles of D18S51 in this study, [AGAA]₁₇AGAG[AGAA]₃ and [AGAA]₉AGGA[AGAA]₃, have not been reported before. All the results in this study were verified using Sanger-type sequencing. In summary, the MPS typing method can offer valuable information for forensic genetics research and play a promising role in paternity testing.

Keywords: family trios analysis, forensic casework, ion torrent personal genome machine (PGM), massively parallel sequencing (MPS)

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486 Metagenomic analysis of Irish cattle faecal samples using Oxford Nanopore MinION Next Generation Sequencing

Authors: Niamh Higgins, Dawn Howard

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The Irish agri-food sector is of major importance to Ireland’s manufacturing sector and to the Irish economy through employment and the exporting of animal products worldwide. Infectious diseases and parasites have an impact on farm animal health causing profitability and productivity to be affected. For the sustainability of Irish dairy farming, there must be the highest standard of animal health. There can be a lack of information in accounting for > 1% of complete microbial diversity in an environment. There is the tendency of culture-based methods of microbial identification to overestimate the prevalence of species which grow easily on an agar surface. There is a need for new technologies to address these issues to assist with animal health. Metagenomic approaches provide information on both the whole genome and transcriptome present through DNA sequencing of total DNA from environmental samples producing high determination of functional and taxonomic information. Nanopore Next Generation Technologies have the ability to be powerful sequencing technologies. They provide high throughput, low material requirements and produce ultra-long reads, simplifying the experimental process. The aim of this study is to use a metagenomics approach to analyze dairy cattle faecal samples using the Oxford Nanopore MinION Next Generation Sequencer and to establish an in-house pipeline for metagenomic characterization of complex samples. Faecal samples will be obtained from Irish dairy farms, DNA extracted and the MinION will be used for sequencing, followed by bioinformatics analysis. Of particular interest, will be the parasite Buxtonella sulcata, which there has been little research on and which there is no research on its presence on Irish dairy farms. Preliminary results have shown the ability of the MinION to produce hundreds of reads in a relatively short time frame of eight hours. The faecal samples were obtained from 90 dairy cows on a Galway farm. The results from Oxford Nanopore ‘What’s in my pot’ (WIMP) using the Epi2me workflow, show that from a total of 926 classified reads, 87% were from the Kingdom Bacteria, 10% were from the Kingdom Eukaryota, 3% were from the Kingdom Archaea and < 1% were from the Kingdom Viruses. The most prevalent bacteria were those from the Genus Acholeplasma (71 reads), Bacteroides (35 reads), Clostridium (33 reads), Acinetobacter (20 reads). The most prevalent species present were those from the Genus Acholeplasma and included Acholeplasma laidlawii (39 reads) and Acholeplasma brassicae (26 reads). The preliminary results show the ability of the MinION for the identification of microorganisms to species level coming from a complex sample. With ongoing optimization of the pipe-line, the number of classified reads are likely to increase. Metagenomics has the potential in animal health for diagnostics of microorganisms present on farms. This would support wprevention rather than a cure approach as is outlined in the DAFMs National Farmed Animal Health Strategy 2017-2022.

Keywords: animal health, buxtonella sulcata, infectious disease, irish dairy cattle, metagenomics, minION, next generation sequencing

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485 Evolutionary Genomic Analysis of Adaptation Genomics

Authors: Agostinho Antunes

Abstract:

The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of varied species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

Keywords: adaptation, animals, evolution, genomics

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484 Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Industrial Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effects of React Time

Authors: Ali W. Alattabi, Khalid S. Hashim, Hassnen M. Jafer, Ali Alzeyadi

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This study was performed to optimise the react time (RT) and study its effects on the removal rates of nitrogen compounds in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic industrial wastewater. The results showed that increasing the RT from 4 h to 10, 16 and 22 h significantly improved the nitrogen compounds’ removal efficiency, it was increased from 69.5% to 95%, 75.7 to 97% and from 54.2 to 80.1% for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the RT of 22 h was the optimum for nitrogen compounds removal efficiency.

Keywords: ammonia-nitrogen, retention time, nitrate, nitrite, sequencing batch reactor, sludge characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
483 Transcriptome Sequencing of the Spleens Reveals Genes Involved in Antiviral Response in Chickens Infected with Castv

Authors: Sajewicz-Krukowska Joanna, Domańska-Blicharz Katarzyna, Tarasiuk Karolina, Marzec-Kotarska Barbara

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Astroviral infections pose a significant problem in the poultry industry, leading to multiple adverse effects such as decreased egg production, breeding disorders, poor weight gain, and even increased mortality. Commonly observed chicken astrovirus (CAstV) was recently reported to be responsible for "white chicks syndrome" associated with increased embryo/chick mortality. The CAstV-mediated pathogenesis in chicken occurs due to complex interactions between the infectious pathogen and the immune system. Many aspects of CAstV-chicken interactions remain unclear, and there is no information available regarding gene expression changes in the chicken's spleen in response to CAstV infection. We aimed to investigate the molecular background triggered by CAstV infection. Ten 21-day-old SPF White Leghorn chickens were divided into two groups of 5 birds each. One group was inoculated with CAstV, and the other was used as the negative control. On 4th dpi, spleen samples were collected and immediately frozen at -70°C for RNA isolation. We analysed transcriptional profiles of the chickens' spleens at the 4th day following infection using RNA-seq to establish differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The RNA-seq findings were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). A total of 31959 transcripts were identified in response to CAstV infection. Eventually 45 DEGs (p-value<0.05; Log2Foldchange>1)were recognized in the spleen after CAstV infection (26 upregulated DEGs and 19 downregulated DEGs). qRT-PCR performed on 4 genes (IFIT5, OASL, RASD1, DDX60) confirmed RNAseq results. Top differentially expressed genes belonged to novel putative IFN-induced CAstV restriction factors. Most of the DEGs were associated with RIG-I–like signalling pathway or, more generally, with an innate antiviral response(upregulated: BLEC3, CMPK2, IFIT5, OASL, DDX60, IFI6, and downregulated: SPIK5, SELENOP, HSPA2, TMEM158, RASD1, YWHAB). The study provided a global analysis of host transcriptional changes that occur during CAstV infection in vivo and proved the cell cycle in the spleen and immune signalling in chickens were predominantly affected upon CAstV infection.

Keywords: chicken astrovirus, CastV, RNA-seq, transcriptome, spleen

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
482 Language Shapes Thought: An Experimental Study on English and Mandarin Native Speakers' Sequencing of Size

Authors: Hsi Wei

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Does the language we speak affect the way we think? This question has been discussed for a long time from different aspects. In this article, the issue is examined with an experiment on how speakers of different languages tend to do different sequencing when it comes to the size of general objects. An essential difference between the usage of English and Mandarin is the way we sequence the size of places or objects. In English, when describing the location of something we may say, for example, ‘The pen is inside the trashcan next to the tree at the park.’ In Mandarin, however, we would say, ‘The pen is at the park next to the tree inside the trashcan.’ It’s clear that generally English use the sequence of small to big while Mandarin the opposite. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to test if the difference of the languages affects the speakers’ ability to do the different sequencing. There were two groups of subjects; one consisted of English native speakers, another of Mandarin native speakers. Within the experiment, three nouns were showed as a group to the subjects as their native languages. Before they saw the nouns, they would first get an instruction of ‘big to small’, ‘small to big’, or ‘repeat’. Therefore, the subjects had to sequence the following group of nouns as the instruction they get or simply repeat the nouns. After completing every sequencing and repetition in their minds, they pushed a button as reaction. The repetition design was to gather the mere reading time of the person. As the result of the experiment showed, English native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequencing of ‘small to big’; on the other hand, Mandarin native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequence ‘big to small’. To conclude, this study may be of importance as a support for linguistic relativism that the language we speak do shape the way we think.

Keywords: language, linguistic relativism, size, sequencing

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481 Genomics of Aquatic Adaptation

Authors: Agostinho Antunes

Abstract:

The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of selected marine animal species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

Keywords: comparative genomics, adaptive evolution, bioinformatics, phylogenetics, genome mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 455