Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: GNSS

27 Location Detection of Vehicular Accident Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units Navigator

Authors: Neda Navidi, Rene Jr. Landry


Vehicle tracking and accident recognizing are considered by many industries like insurance and vehicle rental companies. The main goal of this paper is to detect the location of a car accident by combining different methods. The methods, which are considered in this paper, are Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units (GNSS/IMU)-based navigation and vehicle accident detection algorithms. They are expressed by a set of raw measurements, which are obtained from a designed integrator black box using GNSS and inertial sensors. Another concern of this paper is the definition of accident detection algorithm based on its jerk to identify the position of that accident. In fact, the results convinced us that, even in GNSS blockage areas, the position of the accident could be detected by GNSS/INS integration with 50% improvement compared to GNSS stand alone.

Keywords: driver behavior monitoring, integration, IMU, GNSS, monitoring, tracking

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26 Determination of Surface Deformations with Global Navigation Satellite System Time Series

Authors: Ibrahim Tiryakioglu, Mehmet Ali Ugur, Caglar Ozkaymak


The development of GNSS technology has led to increasingly widespread and successful applications of GNSS surveys for monitoring crustal movements. However, multi-period GPS survey solutions have not been applied in monitoring vertical surface deformation. This study uses long-term GNSS time series that are required to determine vertical deformations. In recent years, the surface deformations that are parallel and semi-parallel to Bolvadin fault have occurred in Western Anatolia. These surface deformations have continued to occur in Bolvadin settlement area that is located mostly on alluvium ground. Due to these surface deformations, a number of cracks in the buildings located in the residential areas and breaks in underground water and sewage systems have been observed. In order to determine the amount of vertical surface deformations, two continuous GNSS stations have been established in the region. The stations have been operating since 2015 and 2017, respectively. In this study, GNSS observations from the mentioned two GNSS stations were processed with GAMIT/GLOBK (GNSS Analysis Massachusetts Institute of Technology/GLOBal Kalman) program package to create a coordinate time series. With the time series analyses, the GNSS stations’ behavior models (linear, periodical, etc.), the causes of these behaviors, and mathematical models were determined. The study results from the time series analysis of these two 2 GNSS stations shows approximately 50-80 mm/yr vertical movement.

Keywords: Bolvadin fault, GAMIT, GNSS time series, surface deformations

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25 Global Navigation Satellite System and Precise Point Positioning as Remote Sensing Tools for Monitoring Tropospheric Water Vapor

Authors: Panupong Makvichian


Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is nowadays a common technology that improves navigation functions in our life. Additionally, GNSS is also being employed on behalf of an accurate atmospheric sensor these times. Meteorology is a practical application of GNSS, which is unnoticeable in the background of people’s life. GNSS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a positioning method that requires data from a single dual-frequency receiver and precise information about satellite positions and satellite clocks. In addition, careful attention to mitigate various error sources is required. All the above data are combined in a sophisticated mathematical algorithm. At this point, the research is going to demonstrate how GNSS and PPP method is capable to provide high-precision estimates, such as 3D positions or Zenith tropospheric delays (ZTDs). ZTDs combined with pressure and temperature information allows us to estimate the water vapor in the atmosphere as precipitable water vapor (PWV). If the process is replicated for a network of GNSS sensors, we can create thematic maps that allow extract water content information in any location within the network area. All of the above are possible thanks to the advances in GNSS data processing. Therefore, we are able to use GNSS data for climatic trend analysis and acquisition of the further knowledge about the atmospheric water content.

Keywords: GNSS, precise point positioning, Zenith tropospheric delays, precipitable water vapor

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24 A Study of Adaptive Fault Detection Method for GNSS Applications

Authors: Je Young Lee, Hee Sung Kim, Kwang Ho Choi, Joonhoo Lim, Sebum Chun, Hyung Keun Lee


A purpose of this study is to develop efficient detection method for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications based on adaptive estimation. Due to dependence of radio frequency signals, GNSS measurements are dominated by systematic errors in receiver’s operating environment. Thus, to utilize GNSS for aerospace or ground vehicles requiring high level of safety, unhealthy measurements should be considered seriously. For the reason, this paper proposes adaptive fault detection method to deal with unhealthy measurements in various harsh environments. By the proposed method, the test statistics for fault detection is generated by estimated measurement noise. Pseudorange and carrier-phase measurement noise are obtained at time propagations and measurement updates in process of Carrier-Smoothed Code (CSC) filtering, respectively. Performance of the proposed method was evaluated by field-collected GNSS measurements. To evaluate the fault detection capability, intentional faults were added to measurements. The experimental result shows that the proposed detection method is efficient in detecting unhealthy measurements and improves the accuracy of GNSS positioning under fault occurrence.

Keywords: adaptive estimation, fault detection, GNSS, residual

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23 Comparison of Loosely Coupled and Tightly Coupled INS/GNSS Architecture for Guided Rocket Navigation System

Authors: Rahmat Purwoko, Bambang Riyanto Trilaksono


This paper gives comparison of INS/GNSS architecture namely Loosely Coupled and Tightly Coupled using Hardware in the Loop Simulation in Guided Missile RKX-200 rocket model. INS/GNSS Tightly Coupled architecture requires pseudo-range, pseudo-range rate, and position and velocity of each satellite in constellation from GPS (Global Positioning System) measurement. The Loosely Coupled architecture use estimated position and velocity from GNSS receiver. INS/GNSS architecture also requires angular rate and specific force measurement from IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit). Loosely Coupled arhitecture designed using 15 states Kalman Filter and Tightly Coupled designed using 17 states Kalman Filter. Integration algorithm calculation using ECEF frame. Navigation System implemented Zedboard All Programmable SoC.

Keywords: kalman filter, loosely coupled, navigation system, tightly coupled

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22 An Improved Robust Algorithm Based on Cubature Kalman Filter for Single-Frequency Global Navigation Satellite System/Inertial Navigation Tightly Coupled System

Authors: Hao Wang, Shuguo Pan


The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal received by the dynamic vehicle in the harsh environment will be frequently interfered with and blocked, which generates gross error affecting the positioning accuracy of the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated navigation. Therefore, this paper put forward an improved robust Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) algorithm for single-frequency GNSS/INS tightly coupled system ambiguity resolution. Firstly, the dynamic model and measurement model of a single-frequency GNSS/INS tightly coupled system was established, and the method for GNSS integer ambiguity resolution with INS aided is studied. Then, we analyzed the influence of pseudo-range observation with gross error on GNSS/INS integrated positioning accuracy. To reduce the influence of outliers, this paper improved the CKF algorithm and realized an intelligent selection of robust strategies by judging the ill-conditioned matrix. Finally, a field navigation test was performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm based on the double-differenced solution mode. The experiment has proved the improved robust algorithm can greatly weaken the influence of separate, continuous, and hybrid observation anomalies for enhancing the reliability and accuracy of GNSS/INS tightly coupled navigation solutions.

Keywords: GNSS/INS integrated navigation, ambiguity resolution, Cubature Kalman filter, Robust algorithm

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21 An Adaptive Back-Propagation Network and Kalman Filter Based Multi-Sensor Fusion Method for Train Location System

Authors: Yu-ding Du, Qi-lian Bao, Nassim Bessaad, Lin Liu


The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is regarded as an effective approach for the purpose of replacing the large amount used track-side balises in modern train localization systems. This paper describes a method based on the data fusion of a GNSS receiver sensor and an odometer sensor that can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. A digital track map is needed as another sensor to project two-dimensional GNSS position to one-dimensional along-track distance due to the fact that the train’s position can only be constrained on the track. A model trained by BP neural network is used to estimate the trend positioning error which is related to the specific location and proximate processing of the digital track map. Considering that in some conditions the satellite signal failure will lead to the increase of GNSS positioning error, a detection step for GNSS signal is applied. An adaptive weighted fusion algorithm is presented to reduce the standard deviation of train speed measurement. Finally an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used for the fusion of the projected 1-D GNSS positioning data and the 1-D train speed data to get the estimate position. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well, which can reduce positioning error notably.

Keywords: multi-sensor data fusion, train positioning, GNSS, odometer, digital track map, map matching, BP neural network, adaptive weighted fusion, Kalman filter

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20 Determination of Tide Height Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)

Authors: Faisal Alsaaq


Hydrographic surveys have traditionally relied on the availability of tide information for the reduction of sounding observations to a common datum. In most cases, tide information is obtained from tide gauge observations and/or tide predictions over space and time using local, regional or global tide models. While the latter often provides a rather crude approximation, the former relies on tide gauge stations that are spatially restricted, and often have sparse and limited distribution. A more recent method that is increasingly being used is Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning which can be utilised to monitor height variations of a vessel or buoy, thus providing information on sea level variations during the time of a hydrographic survey. However, GNSS heights obtained under the dynamic environment of a survey vessel are affected by “non-tidal” processes such as wave activity and the attitude of the vessel (roll, pitch, heave and dynamic draft). This research seeks to examine techniques that separate the tide signal from other non-tidal signals that may be contained in GNSS heights. This requires an investigation of the processes involved and their temporal, spectral and stochastic properties in order to apply suitable recovery techniques of tide information. In addition, different post-mission and near real-time GNSS positioning techniques will be investigated with focus on estimation of height at ocean. Furthermore, the study will investigate the possibility to transfer the chart datums at the location of tide gauges.

Keywords: hydrography, GNSS, datum, tide gauge

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19 Ultra-Tightly Coupled GNSS/INS Based on High Degree Cubature Kalman Filtering

Authors: Hamza Benzerrouk, Alexander Nebylov


In classical GNSS/INS integration designs, the loosely coupled approach uses the GNSS derived position and the velocity as the measurements vector. This design is suboptimal from the standpoint of preventing GNSSoutliers/outages. The tightly coupled GPS/INS navigation filter mixes the GNSS pseudo range and inertial measurements and obtains the vehicle navigation state as the final navigation solution. The ultra‐tightly coupled GNSS/INS design combines the I (inphase) and Q(quadrature) accumulator outputs in the GNSS receiver signal tracking loops and the INS navigation filter function intoa single Kalman filter variant (EKF, UKF, SPKF, CKF and HCKF). As mentioned, EKF and UKF are the most used nonlinear filters in the literature and are well adapted to inertial navigation state estimation when integrated with GNSS signal outputs. In this paper, it is proposed to move a step forward with more accurate filters and modern approaches called Cubature and High Degree cubature Kalman Filtering methods, on the basis of previous results solving the state estimation based on INS/GNSS integration, Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) and High Degree Cubature Kalman Filter with (HCKF) are the references for the recent developed generalized Cubature rule based Kalman Filter (GCKF). High degree cubature rules are the kernel of the new solution for more accurate estimation with less computational complexity compared with the Gauss-Hermite Quadrature (GHQKF). Gauss-Hermite Kalman Filter GHKF which is not selected in this work because of its limited real-time implementation in high-dimensional state-spaces. In ultra tightly or a deeply coupled GNSS/INS system is dynamics EKF is used with transition matrix factorization together with GNSS block processing which is well described in the paper and assumes available the intermediary frequency IF by using a correlator samples with a rate of 500 Hz in the presented approach. GNSS (GPS+GLONASS) measurements are assumed available and modern SPKF with Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) are compared with new versions of CKF called high order CKF based on Spherical-radial cubature rules developed at the fifth order in this work. Estimation accuracy of the high degree CKF is supposed to be comparative to GHKF, results of state estimation are then observed and discussed for different initialization parameters. Results show more accurate navigation state estimation and more robust GNSS receiver when Ultra Tightly Coupled approach applied based on High Degree Cubature Kalman Filter.

Keywords: GNSS, INS, Kalman filtering, ultra tight integration

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18 Experimental Monitoring of the Parameters of the Ionosphere in the Local Area Using the Results of Multifrequency GNSS-Measurements

Authors: Andrey Kupriyanov


In recent years, much attention has been paid to the problems of ionospheric disturbances and their influence on the signals of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) around the world. This is due to the increase in solar activity, the expansion of the scope of GNSS, the emergence of new satellite systems, the introduction of new frequencies and many others. The influence of the Earth's ionosphere on the propagation of radio signals is an important factor in many applied fields of science and technology. The paper considers the application of the method of transionospheric sounding using measurements from signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems to determine the TEC distribution and scintillations of the ionospheric layers. To calculate these parameters, the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model of the ionosphere, refined in the local area, is used. The organization of operational monitoring of ionospheric parameters is analyzed using several NovAtel GPStation6 base stations. It allows performing primary processing of GNSS measurement data, calculating TEC and fixing scintillation moments, modeling the ionosphere using the obtained data, storing data and performing ionospheric correction in measurements. As a result of the study, it was proved that the use of the transionospheric sounding method for reconstructing the altitude distribution of electron concentration in different altitude range and would provide operational information about the ionosphere, which is necessary for solving a number of practical problems in the field of many applications. Also, the use of multi-frequency multisystem GNSS equipment and special software will allow achieving the specified accuracy and volume of measurements.

Keywords: global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), GPstation6, international reference ionosphere (IRI), ionosphere, scintillations, total electron content (TEC)

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17 Accuracy of Autonomy Navigation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems through Imagery

Authors: Sidney A. Lima, Hermann J. H. Kux, Elcio H. Shiguemori


The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) usually navigate through the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) associated with an Inertial Navigation System (INS). However, GNSS can have its accuracy degraded at any time or even turn off the signal of GNSS. In addition, there is the possibility of malicious interferences, known as jamming. Therefore, the image navigation system can solve the autonomy problem, because if the GNSS is disabled or degraded, the image navigation system would continue to provide coordinate information for the INS, allowing the autonomy of the system. This work aims to evaluate the accuracy of the positioning though photogrammetry concepts. The methodology uses orthophotos and Digital Surface Models (DSM) as a reference to represent the object space and photograph obtained during the flight to represent the image space. For the calculation of the coordinates of the perspective center and camera attitudes, it is necessary to know the coordinates of homologous points in the object space (orthophoto coordinates and DSM altitude) and image space (column and line of the photograph). So if it is possible to automatically identify in real time the homologous points the coordinates and attitudes can be calculated whit their respective accuracies. With the methodology applied in this work, it is possible to verify maximum errors in the order of 0.5 m in the positioning and 0.6º in the attitude of the camera, so the navigation through the image can reach values equal to or higher than the GNSS receivers without differential correction. Therefore, navigating through the image is a good alternative to enable autonomous navigation.

Keywords: autonomy, navigation, security, photogrammetry, remote sensing, spatial resection, UAS

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16 A Cooperative Signaling Scheme for Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon


Recently, the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) such as Galileo and GPS is employing more satellites to provide a higher degree of accuracy for the location service, thus calling for a more efficient signaling scheme among the satellites used in the overall GNSS network. In that the network throughput is improved, the spatial diversity can be one of the efficient signaling schemes; however, it requires multiple antenna that could cause a significant increase in the complexity of the GNSS. Thus, a diversity scheme called the cooperative signaling was proposed, where the virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signaling is realized with using only a single antenna in the transmit satellite of interest and with modeling the neighboring satellites as relay nodes. The main drawback of the cooperative signaling is that the relay nodes receive the transmitted signal at different time instants, i.e., they operate in an asynchronous way, and thus, the overall performance of the GNSS network could degrade severely. To tackle the problem, several modified cooperative signaling schemes were proposed; however, all of them are difficult to implement due to a signal decoding at the relay nodes. Although the implementation at the relay nodes could be simpler to some degree by employing the time-reversal and conjugation operations instead of the signal decoding, it would be more efficient if we could implement the operations of the relay nodes at the source node having more resources than the relay nodes. So, in this paper, we propose a novel cooperative signaling scheme, where the data signals are combined in a unique way at the source node, thus obviating the need of the complex operations such as signal decoding, time-reversal and conjugation at the relay nodes. The numerical results confirm that the proposed scheme provides the same performance in the cooperative diversity and the bit error rate (BER) as the conventional scheme, while reducing the complexity at the relay nodes significantly. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the National GNSS Research Center program of Defense Acquisition Program Administration and Agency for Defense Development.

Keywords: global navigation satellite network, cooperative signaling, data combining, nodes

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15 Depth Camera Aided Dead-Reckoning Localization of Autonomous Mobile Robots in Unstructured GNSS-Denied Environments

Authors: David L. Olson, Stephen B. H. Bruder, Adam S. Watkins, Cleon E. Davis


In global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), denied settings such as indoor environments, autonomous mobile robots are often limited to dead-reckoning navigation techniques to determine their position, velocity, and attitude (PVA). Localization is typically accomplished by employing an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which, while precise in nature, accumulates errors rapidly and severely degrades the localization solution. Standard sensor fusion methods, such as Kalman filtering, aim to fuse precise IMU measurements with accurate aiding sensors to establish a precise and accurate solution. In indoor environments, where GNSS and no other a priori information is known about the environment, effective sensor fusion is difficult to achieve, as accurate aiding sensor choices are sparse. However, an opportunity arises by employing a depth camera in the indoor environment. A depth camera can capture point clouds of the surrounding floors and walls. Extracting attitude from these surfaces can serve as an accurate aiding source, which directly combats errors that arise due to gyroscope imperfections. This configuration for sensor fusion leads to a dramatic reduction of PVA error compared to traditional aiding sensor configurations. This paper provides the theoretical basis for the depth camera aiding sensor method, initial expectations of performance benefit via simulation, and hardware implementation, thus verifying its veracity. Hardware implementation is performed on the Quanser Qbot 2™ mobile robot, with a Vector-Nav VN-200™ IMU and Kinect™ camera from Microsoft.

Keywords: autonomous mobile robotics, dead reckoning, depth camera, inertial navigation, Kalman filtering, localization, sensor fusion

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14 Introducing Global Navigation Satellite System Capabilities into IoT Field-Sensing Infrastructures for Advanced Precision Agriculture Services

Authors: Savvas Rogotis, Nikolaos Kalatzis, Stergios Dimou-Sakellariou, Nikolaos Marianos


As precision holds the key for the introduction of distinct benefits in agriculture (e.g., energy savings, reduced labor costs, optimal application of inputs, improved products, and yields), it steadily becomes evident that new initiatives should focus on rendering Precision Agriculture (PA) more accessible to the average farmer. PA leverages on technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), earth observation, robotics and positioning systems (e.g., the Global Navigation Satellite System – GNSS - as well as individual positioning systems like GPS, Glonass, Galileo) that allow: from simple data georeferencing to optimal navigation of agricultural machinery to even more complex tasks like Variable Rate Applications. An identified customer pain point is that, from one hand, typical triangulation-based positioning systems are not accurate enough (with errors up to several meters), while on the other hand, high precision positioning systems reaching centimeter-level accuracy, are very costly (up to thousands of euros). Within this paper, a Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS) is introduced, that can be adapted to any existing IoT field-sensing station infrastructure. The latter should cover a minimum set of requirements, and in particular, each station should operate as a fixed, obstruction-free towards the sky, energy supplying unit. Station augmentation will allow them to function in pairs with GNSS rovers following the differential GNSS base-rover paradigm. This constitutes a key innovation element for the proposed solution that encompasses differential GNSS capabilities into an IoT field-sensing infrastructure. Integrating this kind of information supports the provision of several additional PA beneficial services such as spatial mapping, route planning, and automatic field navigation of unmanned vehicles (UVs). Right at the heart of the designed system, there is a high-end GNSS toolkit with base-rover variants and Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) capabilities. The GNSS toolkit had to tackle all availability, performance, interfacing, and energy-related challenges that are faced for a real-time, low-power, and reliable in the field operation. Specifically, in terms of performance, preliminary findings exhibit a high rover positioning precision that can even reach less than 10-centimeters. As this precision is propagated to the full dataset collection, it enables tractors, UVs, Android-powered devices, and measuring units to deal with challenging real-world scenarios. The system is validated with the help of Gaiatrons, a mature network of agro-climatic telemetry stations with presence all over Greece and beyond ( > 60.000ha of agricultural land covered) that constitutes part of “gaiasense” ( smart farming (SF) solution. Gaiatrons constantly monitor atmospheric and soil parameters, thus, providing exact fit to operational requirements asked from modern SF infrastructures. Gaiatrons are ultra-low-cost, compact, and energy-autonomous stations with a modular design that enables the integration of advanced GNSS base station capabilities on top of them. A set of demanding pilot demonstrations has been initiated in Stimagka, Greece, an area with a diverse geomorphological landscape where grape cultivation is particularly popular. Pilot demonstrations are in the course of validating the preliminary system findings in its intended environment, tackle all technical challenges, and effectively highlight the added-value offered by the system in action.

Keywords: GNSS, GBAS, precision agriculture, RTK, smart farming

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13 Measurement of Ionospheric Plasma Distribution over Myanmar Using Single Frequency Global Positioning System Receiver

Authors: Win Zaw Hein, Khin Sandar Linn, Su Su Yi Mon, Yoshitaka Goto


The Earth ionosphere is located at the altitude of about 70 km to several 100 km from the ground, and it is composed of ions and electrons called plasma. In the ionosphere, these plasma makes delay in GPS (Global Positioning System) signals and reflect in radio waves. The delay along the signal path from the satellite to the receiver is directly proportional to the total electron content (TEC) of plasma, and this delay is the largest error factor in satellite positioning and navigation. Sounding observation from the top and bottom of the ionosphere was popular to investigate such ionospheric plasma for a long time. Recently, continuous monitoring of the TEC using networks of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) observation stations, which are basically built for land survey, has been conducted in several countries. However, in these stations, multi-frequency support receivers are installed to estimate the effect of plasma delay using their frequency dependence and the cost of multi-frequency support receivers are much higher than single frequency support GPS receiver. In this research, single frequency GPS receiver was used instead of expensive multi-frequency GNSS receivers to measure the ionospheric plasma variation such as vertical TEC distribution. In this measurement, single-frequency support ublox GPS receiver was used to probe ionospheric TEC. The location of observation was assigned at Mandalay Technological University in Myanmar. In the method, the ionospheric TEC distribution is represented by polynomial functions for latitude and longitude, and parameters of the functions are determined by least-squares fitting on pseudorange data obtained at a known location under an assumption of thin layer ionosphere. The validity of the method was evaluated by measurements obtained by the Japanese GNSS observation network called GEONET. The performance of measurement results using single-frequency of GPS receiver was compared with the results by dual-frequency measurement.

Keywords: ionosphere, global positioning system, GPS, ionospheric delay, total electron content, TEC

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12 Investigation of User Position Accuracy for Stand-Alone and Hybrid Modes of the Indian Navigation with Indian Constellation Satellite System

Authors: Naveen Kumar Perumalla, Devadas Kuna, Mohammed Akhter Ali


Satellite Navigation System such as the United States Global Positioning System (GPS) plays a significant role in determining the user position. Similar to that of GPS, Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is a Satellite Navigation System indigenously developed by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), India, to meet the country’s navigation applications. This system is also known as Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC). The NavIC system’s main objective, is to offer Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) services to users in its two service areas i.e., covering the Indian landmass and the Indian Ocean. Six NavIC satellites are already deployed in the space and their receivers are in the performance evaluation stage. Four NavIC dual frequency receivers are installed in the ‘Advanced GNSS Research Laboratory’ (AGRL) in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, University College of Engineering, Osmania University, India. The NavIC receivers can be operated in two positioning modes: Stand-alone IRNSS and Hybrid (IRNSS+GPS) modes. In this paper, analysis of various parameters such as Dilution of Precision (DoP), three Dimension (3D) Root Mean Square (RMS) Position Error and Horizontal Position Error with respect to Visibility of Satellites is being carried out using the real-time IRNSS data, obtained by operating the receiver in both positioning modes. Two typical days (6th July 2017 and 7th July 2017) are considered for Hyderabad (Latitude-17°24'28.07’N, Longitude-78°31'4.26’E) station are analyzed. It is found that with respect to the considered parameters, the Hybrid mode operation of NavIC receiver is giving better results than that of the standalone positioning mode. This work finds application in development of NavIC receivers for civilian navigation applications.

Keywords: DoP, GPS, IRNSS, GNSS, position error, satellite visibility

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11 Analysis of Autonomous Orbit Determination for Lagrangian Navigation Constellation with Different Dynamical Models

Authors: Gao Youtao, Zhao Tanran, Jin Bingyu, Xu Bo


Global navigation satellite system(GNSS) can deliver navigation information for spacecraft orbiting on low-Earth orbits and medium Earth orbits. However, the GNSS cannot navigate the spacecraft on high-Earth orbit or deep space probes effectively. With the deep space exploration becoming a hot spot of aerospace, the demand for a deep space satellite navigation system is becoming increasingly prominent. Many researchers discussed the feasibility and performance of a satellite navigation system on periodic orbits around the Earth-Moon libration points which can be called Lagrangian point satellite navigation system. Autonomous orbit determination (AOD) is an important performance for the Lagrangian point satellite navigation system. With this ability, the Lagrangian point satellite navigation system can reduce the dependency on ground stations. AOD also can greatly reduce total system cost and assure mission continuity. As the elliptical restricted three-body problem can describe the Earth-Moon system more accurately than the circular restricted three-body problem, we study the autonomous orbit determination of Lagrangian navigation constellation using only crosslink range based on elliptical restricted three body problem. Extended Kalman filter is used in the autonomous orbit determination. In order to compare the autonomous orbit determination results based on elliptical restricted three-body problem to the results of autonomous orbit determination based on circular restricted three-body problem, we give the autonomous orbit determination position errors of a navigation constellation include four satellites based on the circular restricted three-body problem. The simulation result shows that the Lagrangian navigation constellation can achieve long-term precise autonomous orbit determination using only crosslink range. In addition, the type of the libration point orbit will influence the autonomous orbit determination accuracy.

Keywords: extended Kalman filter, autonomous orbit determination, quasi-periodic orbit, navigation constellation

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10 Long-Term Subcentimeter-Accuracy Landslide Monitoring Using a Cost-Effective Global Navigation Satellite System Rover Network: Case Study

Authors: Vincent Schlageter, Maroua Mestiri, Florian Denzinger, Hugo Raetzo, Michel Demierre


Precise landslide monitoring with differential global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is well known, but technical or economic reasons limit its application by geotechnical companies. This study demonstrates the reliability and the usefulness of Geomon (Infrasurvey Sàrl, Switzerland), a stand-alone and cost-effective rover network. The system permits deploying up to 15 rovers, plus one reference station for differential GNSS. A dedicated radio communication links all the modules to a base station, where an embedded computer automatically provides all the relative positions (L1 phase, open-source RTKLib software) and populates an Internet server. Each measure also contains information from an internal inclinometer, battery level, and position quality indices. Contrary to standard GNSS survey systems, which suffer from a limited number of beacons that must be placed in areas with good GSM signal, Geomon offers greater flexibility and permits a real overview of the whole landslide with good spatial resolution. Each module is powered with solar panels, ensuring autonomous long-term recordings. In this study, we have tested the system on several sites in the Swiss mountains, setting up to 7 rovers per site, for an 18 month-long survey. The aim was to assess the robustness and the accuracy of the system in different environmental conditions. In one case, we ran forced blind tests (vertical movements of a given amplitude) and compared various session parameters (duration from 10 to 90 minutes). Then the other cases were a survey of real landslides sites using fixed optimized parameters. Sub centimetric-accuracy with few outliers was obtained using the best parameters (session duration of 60 minutes, baseline 1 km or less), with the noise level on the horizontal component half that of the vertical one. The performance (percent of aborting solutions, outliers) was reduced with sessions shorter than 30 minutes. The environment also had a strong influence on the percent of aborting solutions (ambiguity search problem), due to multiple reflections or satellites obstructed by trees and mountains. The length of the baseline (distance reference-rover, single baseline processing) reduced the accuracy above 1 km but had no significant effect below this limit. In critical weather conditions, the system’s robustness was limited: snow, avalanche, and frost-covered some rovers, including the antenna and vertically oriented solar panels, leading to data interruption; and strong wind damaged a reference station. The possibility of changing the sessions’ parameters remotely was very useful. In conclusion, the rover network tested provided the foreseen sub-centimetric-accuracy while providing a dense spatial resolution landslide survey. The ease of implementation and the fully automatic long-term survey were timesaving. Performance strongly depends on surrounding conditions, but short pre-measures should allow moving a rover to a better final placement. The system offers a promising hazard mitigation technique. Improvements could include data post-processing for alerts and automatic modification of the duration and numbers of sessions based on battery level and rover displacement velocity.

Keywords: GNSS, GSM, landslide, long-term, network, solar, spatial resolution, sub-centimeter.

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9 Investigation of the Unbiased Characteristic of Doppler Frequency to Different Antenna Array Geometries

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian


Array signal processing techniques have been recently developing in a variety application of the performance enhancement of receivers by refraining the power of jamming and interference signals. In this scenario, biases induced to the antenna array receiver degrade significantly the accurate estimation of the carrier phase. Owing to the integration of frequency becomes the carrier phase, we have obtained the unbiased doppler frequency for the high precision estimation of carrier phase. The unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the power jamming and the other interference signals allows achieving the highly accurate estimation of phase carrier. In this study, we have rigorously investigated the unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the variation of the antenna array geometries. The simulation results have efficiently verified that the Doppler frequency remains also unbiased and accurate to the variation of antenna array geometries.

Keywords: array signal processing, unbiased doppler frequency, GNSS, carrier phase, and slowly fluctuating point target

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8 Vertical Accuracy Evaluation of Indian National DEM (CartoDEM v3) Using Dual Frequency GNSS Derived Ground Control Points for Lower Tapi Basin, Western India

Authors: Jaypalsinh B. Parmar, Pintu Nakrani, Ashish Chaurasia


Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is considered as an important data in GIS-based terrain analysis for many applications and assessment of processes such as environmental and climate change studies, hydrologic modelling, etc. Vertical accuracy of DEM having geographically dynamic nature depends on different parameters which affect the model simulation outcomes. Vertical accuracy assessment in Indian landscape especially in low-lying coastal urban terrain such as lower Tapi Basin is very limited. In the present study, attempt has been made to evaluate the vertical accuracy of 30m resolution open source Indian National Cartosat-1 DEM v3 for Lower Tapi Basin (LTB) from western India. The extensive field investigation is carried out using stratified random fast static DGPS survey in the entire study region, and 117 high accuracy ground control points (GCPs) have been obtained. The above open source DEM was compared with obtained GCPs, and different statistical attributes were envisaged, and vertical error histograms were also evaluated.

Keywords: CartoDEM, Digital Elevation Model, GPS, lower Tapi basin

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7 Performance Analysis of Geophysical Database Referenced Navigation: The Combination of Gravity Gradient and Terrain Using Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Jisun Lee, Jay Hyoun Kwon


As an alternative way to compensate the INS (inertial navigation system) error in non-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) environment, geophysical database referenced navigation is being studied. In this study, both gravity gradient and terrain data were combined to complement the weakness of sole geophysical data as well as to improve the stability of the positioning. The main process to compensate the INS error using geophysical database was constructed on the basis of the EKF (Extended Kalman Filter). In detail, two type of combination method, centralized and decentralized filter, were applied to check the pros and cons of its algorithm and to find more robust results. The performance of each navigation algorithm was evaluated based on the simulation by supposing that the aircraft flies with precise geophysical DB and sensors above nine different trajectories. Especially, the results were compared to the ones from sole geophysical database referenced navigation to check the improvement due to a combination of the heterogeneous geophysical database. It was found that the overall navigation performance was improved, but not all trajectories generated better navigation result by the combination of gravity gradient with terrain data. Also, it was found that the centralized filter generally showed more stable results. It is because that the way to allocate the weight for the decentralized filter could not be optimized due to the local inconsistency of geophysical data. In the future, switching of geophysical data or combining different navigation algorithm are necessary to obtain more robust navigation results.

Keywords: Extended Kalman Filter, geophysical database referenced navigation, gravity gradient, terrain

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6 Assessment of Dimensions and Gully Recovery with Gps Receiver and Rpa (Drone)

Authors: Mariana Roberta Ribeiro, Isabela de Cássia Caramello, Roberto Saverio Souza Costa


Currently, one of the most important environmental problems is soil degradation. This wear is the result of inadequate agricultural practices, with water erosion as the main agent. As the runoff water is concentrated in certain points, it can reach a more advanced stage, which are the gullies. In view of this, the objective of this work was to evaluate which methodology is most suitable for the purpose of elaborating a project for the recovery of a gully, relating work time, data reliability, and the final cost. The work was carried out on a rural road in Monte Alto - SP, where there is 0.30 hectares of area under the influence of a gully. For the evaluation, an aerophotogrammetric survey was used with RPA, with georeferenced points, and with a GNSS L1/L2 receiver. To assess the importance of georeferenced points, there was a comparison of altimetric data using the support points with altimetric data using only the aircraft's internal GPS. Another method used was the survey by conventional topography, where coordinates were collected by total station and L1/L2 Geodetic GPS receiver. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the F test (p<0.05), and the means between treatments were compared using the Tukey test (p<0.05). The results showed that the surveys carried out by aerial photogrammetry and by conventional topography showed no significant difference for the analyzed parameters. Considering the data presented, it is possible to conclude that, when comparing the parameters of accuracy, the final volume of the gully, and cost, for the purpose of elaborating a project for the recovery of a gully, the methodologies of aerial photogrammetric survey and conventional topography do not differ significantly. However, when working time, use of labor and project detail are compared, the aerial photogrammetric survey proves to be more viable.

Keywords: drones, erosion, soil conservation, technology in agriculture

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5 ROSgeoregistration: Aerial Multi-Spectral Image Simulator for the Robot Operating System

Authors: Andrew R. Willis, Kevin Brink, Kathleen Dipple


This article describes a software package called ROS-georegistration intended for use with the robot operating system (ROS) and the Gazebo 3D simulation environment. ROSgeoregistration provides tools for the simulation, test, and deployment of aerial georegistration algorithms and is available at A model creation package is provided which downloads multi-spectral images from the Google Earth Engine database and, if necessary, incorporates these images into a single, possibly very large, reference image. Additionally a Gazebo plugin which uses the real-time sensor pose and image formation model to generate simulated imagery using the specified reference image is provided along with related plugins for UAV relevant data. The novelty of this work is threefold: (1) this is the first system to link the massive multi-spectral imaging database of Google’s Earth Engine to the Gazebo simulator, (2) this is the first example of a system that can simulate geospatially and radiometrically accurate imagery from multiple sensor views of the same terrain region, and (3) integration with other UAS tools creates a new holistic UAS simulation environment to support UAS system and subsystem development where real-world testing would generally be prohibitive. Sensed imagery and ground truth registration information is published to client applications which can receive imagery synchronously with telemetry from other payload sensors, e.g., IMU, GPS/GNSS, barometer, and windspeed sensor data. To highlight functionality, we demonstrate ROSgeoregistration for simulating Electro-Optical (EO) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image sensors and an example use case for developing and evaluating image-based UAS position feedback, i.e., pose for image-based Guidance Navigation and Control (GNC) applications.

Keywords: EO-to-EO, EO-to-SAR, flight simulation, georegistration, image generation, robot operating system, vision-based navigation

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4 Implementation of Dozer Push Measurement under Payment Mechanism in Mining Operation

Authors: Anshar Ajatasatru


The decline of coal prices over past years have been significantly increasing the awareness of effective mining operation. A viable step must be undertaken in becoming more cost competitive while striving for best mining practice especially at Melak Coal Mine in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. This paper aims to show how effective dozer push measurement method can be implemented as it is controlled by contract rate on the unit basis of USD ($) per bcm. The method emerges from an idea of daily dozer push activity that continually shifts the overburden until final target design by mine planning. Volume calculation is then performed by calculating volume of each time overburden is removed within determined distance using cut and fill method from a high precision GNSS system which is applied into dozer as a guidance to ensure the optimum result of overburden removal. Accumulation of daily to weekly dozer push volume is found 95 bcm which is multiplied by average sell rate of $ 0,95, thus the amount monthly revenue is $ 90,25. Furthermore, the payment mechanism is then based on push distance and push grade. The push distance interval will determine the rates that vary from $ 0,9 - $ 2,69 per bcm and are influenced by certain push slope grade from -25% until +25%. The amount payable rates for dozer push operation shall be specifically following currency adjustment and is to be added to the monthly overburden volume claim, therefore, the sell rate of overburden volume per bcm may fluctuate depends on the real time exchange rate of Jakarta Interbank Spot Dollar Rate (JISDOR). The result indicates that dozer push measurement can be one of the surface mining alternative since it has enabled to refine method of work, operating cost and productivity improvement apart from exposing risk of low rented equipment performance. In addition, payment mechanism of contract rate by dozer push operation scheduling will ultimately deliver clients by almost 45% cost reduction in the form of low and consistent cost.

Keywords: contract rate, cut-fill method, dozer push, overburden volume

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3 Performance Analysis of the Precise Point Positioning Data Online Processing Service and Using for Monitoring Plate Tectonic of Thailand

Authors: Nateepat Srivarom, Weng Jingnong, Serm Chinnarat


Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is use to improve accuracy by using precise satellite orbit and clock correction data, but this technique is complicated methods and high costs. Currently, there are several online processing service providers which offer simplified calculation. In the first part of this research, we compare the efficiency and precision of four software. There are three popular online processing service providers: Australian Online GPS Processing Service (AUSPOS), CSRS-Precise Point Positioning and CenterPoint RTX post processing by Trimble and 1 offline software, RTKLIB, which collected data from 10 the International GNSS Service (IGS) stations for 10 days. The results indicated that AUSPOS has the least distance root mean square (DRMS) value of 0.0029 which is good enough to be calculated for monitoring the movement of tectonic plates. The second, we use AUSPOS to process the data of geodetic network of Thailand. In December 26, 2004, the earthquake occurred a 9.3 MW at the north of Sumatra that highly affected all nearby countries, including Thailand. Earthquake effects have led to errors of the coordinate system of Thailand. The Royal Thai Survey Department (RTSD) is primarily responsible for monitoring of the crustal movement of the country. The difference of the geodetic network movement is not the same network and relatively large. This result is needed for survey to continue to improve GPS coordinates system in every year. Therefore, in this research we chose the AUSPOS to calculate the magnitude and direction of movement, to improve coordinates adjustment of the geodetic network consisting of 19 pins in Thailand during October 2013 to November 2017. Finally, results are displayed on the simulation map by using the ArcMap program with the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. The pin with the maximum movement is pin no. 3239 (Tak) in the northern part of Thailand. This pin moved in the south-western direction to 11.04 cm. Meanwhile, the directional movement of the other pins in the south gradually changed from south-west to south-east, i.e., in the direction noticed before the earthquake. The magnitude of the movement is in the range of 4 - 7 cm, implying small impact of the earthquake. However, the GPS network should be continuously surveyed in order to secure accuracy of the geodetic network of Thailand.

Keywords: precise point positioning, online processing service, geodetic network, inverse distance weighting

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2 Terrestrial Laser Scans to Assess Aerial LiDAR Data

Authors: J. F. Reinoso-Gordo, F. J. Ariza-López, A. Mozas-Calvache, J. L. García-Balboa, S. Eddargani


The DEMs quality may depend on several factors such as data source, capture method, processing type used to derive them, or the cell size of the DEM. The two most important capture methods to produce regional-sized DEMs are photogrammetry and LiDAR; DEMs covering entire countries have been obtained with these methods. The quality of these DEMs has traditionally been evaluated by the national cartographic agencies through punctual sampling that focused on its vertical component. For this type of evaluation there are standards such as NMAS and ASPRS Positional Accuracy Standards for Digital Geospatial Data. However, it seems more appropriate to carry out this evaluation by means of a method that takes into account the superficial nature of the DEM and, therefore, its sampling is superficial and not punctual. This work is part of the Research Project "Functional Quality of Digital Elevation Models in Engineering" where it is necessary to control the quality of a DEM whose data source is an experimental LiDAR flight with a density of 14 points per square meter to which we call Point Cloud Product (PCpro). In the present work it is described the capture data on the ground and the postprocessing tasks until getting the point cloud that will be used as reference (PCref) to evaluate the PCpro quality. Each PCref consists of a patch 50x50 m size coming from a registration of 4 different scan stations. The area studied was the Spanish region of Navarra that covers an area of 10,391 km2; 30 patches homogeneously distributed were necessary to sample the entire surface. The patches have been captured using a Leica BLK360 terrestrial laser scanner mounted on a pole that reached heights of up to 7 meters; the position of the scanner was inverted so that the characteristic shadow circle does not exist when the scanner is in direct position. To ensure that the accuracy of the PCref is greater than that of the PCpro, the georeferencing of the PCref has been carried out with real-time GNSS, and its accuracy positioning was better than 4 cm; this accuracy is much better than the altimetric mean square error estimated for the PCpro (<15 cm); The kind of DEM of interest is the corresponding to the bare earth, so that it was necessary to apply a filter to eliminate vegetation and auxiliary elements such as poles, tripods, etc. After the postprocessing tasks the PCref is ready to be compared with the PCpro using different techniques: cloud to cloud or after a resampling process DEM to DEM.

Keywords: data quality, DEM, LiDAR, terrestrial laser scanner, accuracy

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1 An E-Maintenance IoT Sensor Node Designed for Fleets of Diverse Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Authors: George Charkoftakis, Panagiotis Liosatos, Nicolas-Alexander Tatlas, Dimitrios Goustouridis, Stelios M. Potirakis


E-maintenance is a relatively new concept, generally referring to maintenance management by monitoring assets over the Internet. One of the key links in the chain of an e-maintenance system is data acquisition and transmission. Specifically for the case of a fleet of heavy-duty vehicles, where the main challenge is the diversity of the vehicles and vehicle-embedded self-diagnostic/reporting technologies, the design of the data acquisition and transmission unit is a demanding task. This clear if one takes into account that a heavy-vehicles fleet assortment may range from vehicles with only a limited number of analog sensors monitored by dashboard light indicators and gauges to vehicles with plethora of sensors monitored by a vehicle computer producing digital reporting. The present work proposes an adaptable internet of things (IoT) sensor node that is capable of addressing this challenge. The proposed sensor node architecture is based on the increasingly popular single-board computer – expansion boards approach. In the proposed solution, the expansion boards undertake the tasks of position identification by means of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS), cellular connectivity by means of 3G/long-term evolution (LTE) modem, connectivity to on-board diagnostics (OBD), and connectivity to analog and digital sensors by means of a novel design of expansion board. Specifically, the later provides eight analog plus three digital sensor channels, as well as one on-board temperature / relative humidity sensor. The specific device offers a number of adaptability features based on appropriate zero-ohm resistor placement and appropriate value selection for limited number of passive components. For example, although in the standard configuration four voltage analog channels with constant voltage sources for the power supply of the corresponding sensors are available, up to two of these voltage channels can be converted to provide power to the connected sensors by means of corresponding constant current source circuits, whereas all parameters of analog sensor power supply and matching circuits are fully configurable offering the advantage of covering a wide variety of industrial sensors. Note that a key feature of the proposed sensor node, ensuring the reliable operation of the connected sensors, is the appropriate supply of external power to the connected sensors and their proper matching to the IoT sensor node. In standard mode, the IoT sensor node communicates to the data center through 3G/LTE, transmitting all digital/digitized sensor data, IoT device identity, and position. Moreover, the proposed IoT sensor node offers WiFi connectivity to mobile devices (smartphones, tablets) equipped with an appropriate application for the manual registration of vehicle- and driver-specific information, and these data are also forwarded to the data center. All control and communication tasks of the IoT sensor node are performed by dedicated firmware. It is programmed with a high-level language (Python) on top of a modern operating system (Linux). Acknowledgment: This research has been co-financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship, and Innovation, under the call RESEARCH—CREATE—INNOVATE (project code: T1EDK- 01359, IntelligentLogger).

Keywords: IoT sensor nodes, e-maintenance, single-board computers, sensor expansion boards, on-board diagnostics

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