Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 953

Search results for: granular computing

953 Application of Granular Computing Paradigm in Knowledge Induction

Authors: Iftikhar U. Sikder

Abstract:

This paper illustrates an application of granular computing approach, namely rough set theory in data mining. The paper outlines the formalism of granular computing and elucidates the mathematical underpinning of rough set theory, which has been widely used by the data mining and the machine learning community. A real-world application is illustrated, and the classification performance is compared with other contending machine learning algorithms. The predictive performance of the rough set rule induction model shows comparative success with respect to other contending algorithms.

Keywords: concept approximation, granular computing, reducts, rough set theory, rule induction

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
952 Building a Hierarchical, Granular Knowledge Cube

Authors: Alexander Denzler, Marcel Wehrle, Andreas Meier

Abstract:

A knowledge base stores facts and rules about the world that applications can use for the purpose of reasoning. By applying the concept of granular computing to a knowledge base, several advantages emerge. These can be harnessed by applications to improve their capabilities and performance. In this paper, the concept behind such a construct, called a granular knowledge cube, is defined, and its intended use as an instrument that manages to cope with different data types and detect knowledge domains is elaborated. Furthermore, the underlying architecture, consisting of the three layers of the storing, representing, and structuring of knowledge, is described. Finally, benefits as well as challenges of deploying it are listed alongside application types that could profit from having such an enhanced knowledge base.

Keywords: granular computing, granular knowledge, hierarchical structuring, knowledge bases

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
951 A Type-2 Fuzzy Model for Link Prediction in Social Network

Authors: Mansoureh Naderipour, Susan Bastani, Mohammad Fazel Zarandi

Abstract:

Predicting links that may occur in the future and missing links in social networks is an attractive problem in social network analysis. Granular computing can help us to model the relationships between human-based system and social sciences in this field. In this paper, we present a model based on granular computing approach and Type-2 fuzzy logic to predict links regarding nodes’ activity and the relationship between two nodes. Our model is tested on collaboration networks. It is found that the accuracy of prediction is significantly higher than the Type-1 fuzzy and crisp approach.

Keywords: social network, link prediction, granular computing, type-2 fuzzy sets

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
950 Analysis of Reinforced Granular Pile in Soft Soil

Authors: G. Nitesh

Abstract:

Stone column or granular pile is a proven technique to mitigate settlement in soft soil. Granular pile increases both rate of consolidation and stiffness of the ground. In this paper, a method to analyze further reduction in settlement of granular column reinforced with lime pile is presented treating the system as a unit cell and considering one-dimensional compression approach. The core of the granular pile is stiffened with a steel rod or lime column. Influence of a wide range of parameters such as area ratio of granular pile-soft soil, area ratio of lime pile-granular pile, modular ratio of granular pile and modular ratio of lime pile with respect to granular pile on settlement reduction factor, etc. are obtained and presented.

Keywords: lime pile, granular pile, soft soil, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
949 Investigating the Efficiency of Granular Sludge for Recovery of Phosphate from Wastewater

Authors: Sara Salehi, Ka Yu Cheng, Anna Heitz, Maneesha Ginige

Abstract:

This study investigated the efficiency of granular sludge for phosphorous (P) recovery from wastewater. A laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated under alternating aerobic/anaerobic conditions to enrich a P accumulating granular biomass. This study showed that an overall 45-fold increase in P concentration could be achieved by reducing the volume of the P capturing liquor by 5-fold in the anaerobic P release phase. Moreover, different fractions of the granular biomass have different individual contributions towards generating a concentrated stream of P.

Keywords: granular sludge, PAOs, P recovery, SBR

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
948 Some Studies on Prestressed Reinforced Granular Beds Overlying Weak Soil

Authors: J. Jayamohan, R. Shivashankar, Nileena Sureshkumar

Abstract:

The results of finite element analyses carried out to determine the stress distribution along the geogrid reinforcement and at the interface between Prestressed Reinforced Granular Bed (PRGB) and underlying weak soil are presented in this paper. The influence of parameters such as magnitude of prestress, direction of prestress, thickness of granular bed, strength of granular bed, etc. are studied. The results of finite element analyses are validated by carrying out laboratory scale load tests. Prestressing the reinforcement results in distributing the stresses on the underlying weak soil over a wider area, thereby reducing settlements. Results obtained from finite element analyses are found to be in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: finite element analysis, geogrid, prestress, reinforced granular bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
947 Non-Linear Behavior of Granular Materials in Pavement Design

Authors: Mounir Tichamakdj, Khaled Sandjak, Boualem Tiliouine

Abstract:

The design of flexible pavements is currently carried out using a multilayer elastic theory. However, for thin-surface pavements subject to light or medium traffic volumes, the importance of the non-linear stress-strain behavior of unbound granular materials requires the use of more sophisticated numerical models for the structural design of these pavements. The simplified analysis of the nonlinear behavior of granular materials in pavement design will be developed in this study. To achieve this objective, an equivalent linear model derived from a volumetric shear stress model is used to simulate the nonlinear elastic behavior of two unlinked local granular materials often used in pavements. This model is included here to adequately incorporate material non-linearity due to stress dependence and stiffness of the granular layers in the flexible pavement analysis. The sensitivity of the pavement design criteria to the likely variations in asphalt layer thickness and the mineralogical nature of unbound granular materials commonly used in pavement structures are also evaluated.

Keywords: granular materials, linear equivalent model, non-linear behavior, pavement design, shear volumetric strain model

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
946 Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.

Keywords: granular pile, load-carrying capacity, settlement, geogrid reinforcement, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
945 Experimental Study on Weak Cohesion Less Soil Using Granular Piles with Geogrid Reinforcement

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Pisini

Abstract:

Granular piles are becoming popular as a technique of deep ground improvement not only in soft cohesive soils but also in loose cohesionless deposits. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in sand (loose sand and medium dense sand i.e. relative density at 15% and 30%) with geogrid reinforcement. In this experimental study, a group of five piles installed in sand (at different spacing i.e s = 2d, 3d and 4d) the length and diameter of the pile (L = 0.4 m and d= 50 mm) kept as same for all series of experiments. Geogrid reinforcement is provided on granular piles with a limited number of laboratory tests. It has been conducted in laboratory to study the behavior of a granular pile with reinforced geogrid layers supporting a square footing at different s/d ratios. The influence of geogrid layers providing on granular piles investigated through model tests. In this paper the experimental study carried out results in significant increase in load carrying capacity and decrease in settlement reduction of the weak cohesionless soil. Also, the behavior of load carrying capacity and settlement with changing the s/d ratio has been carried out through a parametric study.

Keywords: granular piles, cohesionless soil, geogrid reinforcement, load carrying capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
944 Fractal Nature of Granular Mixtures of Different Concretes Formulated with Different Methods of Formulation

Authors: Fatima Achouri, Kaddour Chouicha, Abdelwahab Khatir

Abstract:

It is clear that concrete of quality must be made with selected materials chosen in optimum proportions that remain after implementation, a minimum of voids in the material produced. The different methods of formulations what we use, are based for the most part on a granular curve which describes an ‘optimal granularity’. Many authors have engaged in fundamental research on granular arrangements. A comparison of mathematical models reproducing these granular arrangements with experimental measurements of compactness have to verify that the minimum porosity P according to the following extent granular exactly a power law. So the best compactness in the finite medium are obtained with power laws, such as Furnas, Fuller or Talbot, each preferring a particular setting between 0.20 and 0.50. These considerations converge on the assumption that the optimal granularity Caquot approximates by a power law. By analogy, it can then be analyzed as a granular structure of fractal-type since the properties that characterize the internal similarity fractal objects are reflected also by a power law. Optimized mixtures may be described as a series of installments falling granular stuff to better the tank on a regular hierarchical distribution which would give at different scales, by cascading effects, the same structure to the mix. Likely this model may be appropriate for the entire extent of the size distribution of the components, since the cement particles (and silica fume) correctly deflocculated, micrometric dimensions, to chippings sometimes several tens of millimeters. As part of this research, the aim is to give an illustration of the application of fractal analysis to characterize the granular concrete mixtures optimized for a so-called fractal dimension where different concretes were studying that we proved a fractal structure of their granular mixtures regardless of the method of formulation or the type of concrete.

Keywords: concrete formulation, fractal character, granular packing, method of formulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
943 Effect of Capillary Forces on Wet Granular Avalanches

Authors: Ahmed Jarray, Vanessa Magnanimo, Stefan Luding

Abstract:

Granular avalanches are ubiquitous in nature and occur in numerous industrial processes associated with particulate systems. When a small amount of liquid is added to a pile of particles, pendular bridges form and the particles are attracted by capillary forces, creating complex structure and flow behavior. We have performed an extensive series of experiments to investigate the effect of capillary force and particle size on wet granular avalanches, and we established a methodology that ensures the control of the granular flow in a rotating drum. The velocity of the free surface and the angle of repose of the particles in the rotating drum are determined using particle tracking method. The capillary force between the particles is significantly reduced by making the glass beads hydrophobic via chemical silanization. We show that the strength of the capillary forces between two adjacent particles can be deliberately manipulated through surface modification of the glass beads, thus, under the right conditions; we demonstrate that the avalanche dynamics can be controlled. The results show that the avalanche amplitude decreases when increasing the capillary force. We also find that liquid-induced cohesion increases the width of the gliding layer and the dynamic angle of repose, however, it decreases the velocity of the free surface.

Keywords: avalanche dynamics, capillary force, granular material, granular flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
942 Effect of Boundary Condition on Granular Pressure of Gas-Solid Flow in a Rotating Drum

Authors: Rezwana Rahman

Abstract:

Various simulations have been conducted to understand the particle's macroscopic behavior in the solid-gas multiphase flow in rotating drums in the past. In these studies, the particle-wall no-slip boundary condition was usually adopted. However, the non-slip boundary condition is rarely encountered in real systems. A little effort has been made to investigate the particle behavior at slip boundary conditions. The paper represents a study of the gas-solid flow in a horizontal rotating drum at a slip boundary wall condition. Two different sizes of particles with the same density have been considered. The Eulerian–Eulerian multiphase model with the kinetic theory of granular flow was used in the simulations. The granular pressure at the rolling flow regime with specularity coefficient 1 was examined and compared with that obtained based on the no-slip boundary condition. The results reveal that the profiles of granular pressure distribution on the transverse plane of the drum are similar for both boundary conditions. But, overall, compared with those for the no-slip boundary condition, the values of granular pressure for specularity coefficient 1 are larger for the larger particle and smaller for the smaller particle.

Keywords: boundary condition, eulerian–eulerian, multiphase, specularity coefficient, transverse plane

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941 Settlement Performance of Soft Clay Reinforced with Granular Columns

Authors: Muneerah Jeludin, V. Sivakumar

Abstract:

Numerous laboratory-based research studies on the behavior of ground improved with granular columns with respect to bearing capacity have been well-documented. However, information on its settlement performance is still scarce. Laboratory model study on the settlement behavior of soft clay reinforced with granular columns was conducted and results are presented. The investigation uses a soft kaolin clay sample of 300 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length. The clay samples were reinforced with single and multiple granular columns of various lengths using the displacement and replacement installation method. The results indicated that that no settlement reduction was achieved for a short single floating column. The settlement reduction factors reported for L/d ratios of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 are in the range of 1 to 2. The findings obtained in this research showed that the reduction factors are considerably less and that load-sharing mechanism between columns and surrounding clay is complex, particularly for column groups and is affected by other factors such as negative skin friction.

Keywords: ground improvement, model test, reinforced soil, settlement

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940 A Survey on Internet of Things and Fog Computing as a Platform for Internet of Things

Authors: Samira Kalantary, Sara Taghipour, Mansoure Ghias Abadi

Abstract:

The Internet of Things (IOT) is a technological revolution that represents the future of computing and communications. IOT is the convergence of Internet with RFID, NFC, Sensor, and smart objects. Fog Computing is the natural platform for IOT. At present, the IOT as a new network communication technology has rapidly shifted from concept to application under fog computing virtual storage computing platform. In this paper, we describe everything about IOT and difference between cloud computing and fog computing.

Keywords: cloud computing, fog computing, Internet of Things (IoT), IOT application

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939 The Effect of the Parameters of the Grinding on the Characteristics of the Deposit Phosphate Ore of Kef Es Sennoun, Djebel Onk-Tebessa, Algeria

Authors: N. Benabdeslam, N. Bouzidi, F. Atmani, R. Boucif, A. Sakhri

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to provide answers for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved during grinding. To obtain a phosphate powder, we carry out sieving - grinding circuits for each parameter influencing the process. The analysis of the average particle size of the different tests carried out served in the first place as a basis for the determination of the granulometric curve area, the characteristics and the granular coefficients, then the exploitation of the different results for the calculation of the energies consumed for the fragmentation of different ore types, the energy coefficients as well as the ability to grind. Indeed, a time of 5 to 10 minutes can be chosen as the optimal grinding time in a disc mill for a % in weight of the highest pass. However, grinding time can influence the granular characteristics of ore.

Keywords: characteristic granular, grinding, mineralogical composition, phosphate ore, parameters

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938 Evaluation of Internal Friction Angle in Overconsolidated Granular Soil Deposits Using P- and S-Wave Seismic Velocities

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu

Abstract:

Determination of the internal friction angle (φ) in natural soil deposits is an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The main objective of this study was to examine the evaluation of this parameter in overconsolidated granular soil deposits by using the P-wave velocity and the anisotropic components of S-wave velocity (i.e., both the vertical component (SV) and the horizontal component (SH) of S-wave). To this end, seventeen pairs of P-wave and S-wave seismic refraction profiles were carried out at three different granular sites in Iran using non-invasive seismic wave methods. The acquired shot gathers were processed, from which the P-wave, SV-wave and SH-wave velocities were derived. The reference values of φ and overconsolidation ratio (OCR) in the soil deposits were measured through laboratory tests. By assuming cross-anisotropy of the soils, the P-wave and S-wave velocities were utilized to develop an equation for calculating the coefficient of lateral earth pressure at-rest (K₀) based on the theory of elasticity for a cross-anisotropic medium. In addition, to develop an equation for OCR estimation in granular geomaterials in terms of SH/SV velocity ratios, a general regression analysis was performed on the resulting information from this research incorporated with the respective data published in the literature. The calculated K₀ values coupled with the estimated OCR values were finally employed in the Mayne and Kulhawy formula to evaluate φ in granular soil deposits. The results showed that reliable values of φ could be estimated based on the seismic wave velocities. The findings of this study may be used as the appropriate approaches for economic and non-invasive determination of in-situ φ in granular soil deposits using the surface seismic surveys.

Keywords: angle of internal friction, overconsolidation ratio, granular soils, P-wave velocity, SV-wave velocity, SH-wave velocity

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937 Development and Performance of Aerobic Granular Sludge at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Mustafa M. Bob, Siti Izaidah Azmi, Mohd Hakim Ab Halim, Nur Syahida Abdul Jamal, Aznah Nor-Anuar, Zaini Ujang

Abstract:

In this research, the formation and development of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for domestic wastewater treatment application in hot climate conditions was studied using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The performance of the developed AGS in the removal of organic matter and nutrients from wastewater was also investigated. The operation of the reactor was based on the sequencing batch system with a complete cycle time of 3 hours that included feeding, aeration, settling, discharging and idling. The reactor was seeded with sludge collected from the municipal wastewater treatment plant in Madinah city, Saudi Arabia and operated at a temperature of 40ºC using synthetic wastewater as influent. Results showed that granular sludge was developed after an operation period of 30 days. The developed granular sludge had a good settling ability with the average size of the granules ranging from 1.03 to 2.42 mm. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorus (TP) were 87.31%, 91.93% and 61.25% respectively. These results show that AGS can be developed at elevated temperatures and it is a promising technique to treat domestic wastewater in hot and low humidity climate conditions such as those encountered in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: aerobic granular sludge, hot climate, sequencing batch reactor, domestic wastewater treatment

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936 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
935 Energy Content and Spectral Energy Representation of Wave Propagation in a Granular Chain

Authors: Rohit Shrivastava, Stefan Luding

Abstract:

A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Studying the energy as well as spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting) or non-destructive testing for the study of internal structure of solids. The study of Energy content (Kinetic, Potential and Total Energy) of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain can assist in understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder as a function of propagation distance. The spectral analysis of the energy signal can assist in understanding dispersion as well as attenuation due to scattering in different frequencies (scattering attenuation). The selection of one-dimensional granular chain also helps in studying only the P-wave attributes of the wave and removing the influence of shear or rotational waves. Granular chains with different mass distributions have been studied, by randomly selecting masses from normal, binary and uniform distributions and the standard deviation of the distribution is considered as the disorder parameter, higher standard deviation means higher disorder and lower standard deviation means lower disorder. For obtaining macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used. Interpreting information from a Total Energy signal turned out to be much easier in comparison to displacement, velocity or acceleration signals of the wave, hence, indicating a better analysis method for wave propagation through granular materials. Increasing disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal and decreases the Energy of higher frequency signals transmitted, but at the same time the energy of spatially localized high frequencies also increases. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long periods of time.

Keywords: discrete elements, energy attenuation, mass disorder, granular chain, spectral energy, wave propagation

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934 Influence of Flight Design on Discharging Profiles of Granular Material in Rotary Dryer

Authors: I. Benhsine, M. Hellou, F. Lominé, Y. Roques

Abstract:

During the manufacture of fertilizer, it is necessary to add water for granulation purposes. The water content is then removed or reduced using rotary dryers. They are commonly used to dry wet granular materials and they are usually fitted with lifting flights. The transport of granular materials occurs when particles cascade from the lifting flights and fall into the air stream. Each cascade consists of a lifting and a falling cycle. Lifting flights are thus of great importance for the transport of granular materials along the dryer. They also enhance the contact between solid particles and the air stream. Optimization of the drying process needs an understanding of the behavior of granular materials inside a rotary dryer. Different approaches exist to study the movement of granular materials inside the dryer. Most common of them are based on empirical formulations or on study the movement of the bulk material. In the present work, we are interested in the behavior of each particle in the cross section of the dryer using Discrete Element Method (DEM) to understand. In this paper, we focus on studying the hold-up, the cascade patterns, the falling time and the falling length of the particles leaving the flights. We will be using two segment flights. Three different profiles are used: a straight flight (180° between both segments), an angled flight (with an angle of 150°), and a right-angled flight (90°). The profile of the flight affects significantly the movement of the particles in the dryer. Changing the flight angle changes the flight capacity which leads to different discharging profile of the flight, thus affecting the hold-up in the flight. When the angle of the flight is reduced, the range of the discharge angle increases leading to a more uniformed cascade pattern in time. The falling length and the falling time of the particles also increase up to a maximum value then they start decreasing. Moreover, the results show an increase in the falling length and the falling time up to 70% and 50%, respectively, when using a right-angled flight instead of a straight one.

Keywords: discrete element method, granular materials, lifting flight, rotary dryer

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933 Long Wavelength Coherent Pulse of Sound Propagating in Granular Media

Authors: Rohit Kumar Shrivastava, Amalia Thomas, Nathalie Vriend, Stefan Luding

Abstract:

A mechanical wave or vibration propagating through granular media exhibits a specific signature in time. A coherent pulse or wavefront arrives first with multiply scattered waves (coda) arriving later. The coherent pulse is micro-structure independent i.e. it depends only on the bulk properties of the disordered granular sample, the sound wave velocity of the granular sample and hence bulk and shear moduli. The coherent wavefront attenuates (decreases in amplitude) and broadens with distance from its source. The pulse attenuation and broadening effects are affected by disorder (polydispersity; contrast in size of the granules) and have often been attributed to dispersion and scattering. To study the effect of disorder and initial amplitude (non-linearity) of the pulse imparted to the system on the coherent wavefront, numerical simulations have been carried out on one-dimensional sets of particles (granular chains). The interaction force between the particles is given by a Hertzian contact model. The sizes of particles have been selected randomly from a Gaussian distribution, where the standard deviation of this distribution is the relevant parameter that quantifies the effect of disorder on the coherent wavefront. Since, the coherent wavefront is system configuration independent, ensemble averaging has been used for improving the signal quality of the coherent pulse and removing the multiply scattered waves. The results concerning the width of the coherent wavefront have been formulated in terms of scaling laws. An experimental set-up of photoelastic particles constituting a granular chain is proposed to validate the numerical results.

Keywords: discrete elements, Hertzian contact, polydispersity, weakly nonlinear, wave propagation

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932 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha

Abstract:

The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200, and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength decreases as particle size increases.

Keywords: particle size, shear strength, granular material, direct shear test

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931 Fog Computing- Network Based Computing

Authors: Navaneeth Krishnan, Chandan N. Bhagwat, Aparajit P. Utpat

Abstract:

Cloud Computing provides us a means to upload data and use applications over the internet. As the number of devices connecting to the cloud grows, there is undue pressure on the cloud infrastructure. Fog computing or Network Based Computing or Edge Computing allows to move a part of the processing in the cloud to the network devices present along the node to the cloud. Therefore the nodes connected to the cloud have a better response time. This paper proposes a method of moving the computation from the cloud to the network by introducing an android like appstore on the networking devices.

Keywords: cloud computing, fog computing, network devices, appstore

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930 Settlement Performance of Granular Column Reinforced Soil

Authors: Muneerah Jeludin

Abstract:

The vibrated column has been widely used over the last three decades to improve the performance of soft ground and engineered compacted fill. The main reason for adopting this technique is that it is economically viable and environmental friendly. The performance of granular column with regards to bearing capacity has been well documented; however, information regarding the settlement behavior of granular columns is still limited. This paper aims to address the findings from a laboratory model study in terms of its settlement improvement. A 300 mm diameter and 400 mm high kaolin clay model was used in this investigation. Columns of various heights were installed in the clay bed using replacement method. The results in relation to load sharing mechanism between the column and surrounding clay just under the footing indicated that in short column, the available shaft resistance was not significant and introduces a potential for end braing failure as opposed to bulging failure in long columns. The settlement improvement factor corroborates well with field observations.

Keywords: ground improvement, model test, reinforced soil, foundation

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929 Effect of Cloud Computing on Enterprises

Authors: Amir Rashid

Abstract:

Today is the world of innovations where everyone is looking for a change. Organizations are now looking toward virtualization in order to minimize their computing cost. Cloud Computing has also introduced itself by the means of reducing computing cost. It offers different approach to make computing better by improving utilization and reducing infrastructure and administrative costs. Cloud Computing is basically the amalgamation of Utility Computing and SaaS (Software as a Service). Cloud Computing is quite new to organizations as it is still at its deploying stage. Due to this reason, organizations are not confident whether to adopt it or not. This thesis investigates the problem for organization concerning the security and cost issues. Benefits and drawbacks are being highlighted which organizations can have or suffer in order to adopt Cloud Computing. In Conclusion, Cloud Computing is a better option available for small and medium organizations with a comparison to large companies both in terms of data security and cost.

Keywords: cloud computing, security, cost, elasticity, PaaS, IaaS, SaaS

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
928 Effect of Unbound Granular Materials Nonlinear Resilient Behaviour on Pavement Response and Performance of Low Volume Roads

Authors: Khaled Sandjak, Boualem Tiliouine

Abstract:

Structural analysis of flexible pavements has been and still is currently performed using multi-layer elastic theory. However, for thinly surfaced pavements subjected to low to medium volumes of traffics, the importance of non-linear stress-strain behaviour of unbound granular materials (UGM) requires the use of more sophisticated numerical models for structural design and performance of such pavements. In the present work, nonlinear unbound aggregates constitutive model is implemented within an axisymmetric finite element code developed to simulate the nonlinear behaviour of pavement structures including two local aggregates of different mineralogical nature, typically used in Algerian pavements. The performance of the mechanical model is examined about its capability of representing adequately, under various conditions, the granular material non-linearity in pavement analysis. In addition, deflection data collected by falling weight deflectometer (FWD) are incorporated into the analysis in order to assess the sensitivity of critical pavement design criteria and pavement design life to the constitutive model. Finally, conclusions of engineering significance are formulated.

Keywords: FWD backcalculations, finite element simulations, Nonlinear resilient behaviour, pavement response and performance, RLT test results, unbound granular materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
927 Rock-Bed Thermocline Storage: A Numerical Analysis of Granular Bed Behavior and Interaction with Storage Tank

Authors: Nahia H. Sassine, Frédéric-Victor Donzé, Arnaud Bruch, Barthélemy Harthong

Abstract:

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems are central elements of various types of power plants operated using renewable energy sources. Packed bed TES can be considered as a cost–effective solution in concentrated solar power plants (CSP). Such a device is made up of a tank filled with a granular bed through which heat-transfer fluid circulates. However, in such devices, the tank might be subjected to catastrophic failure induced by a mechanical phenomenon known as thermal ratcheting. Thermal stresses are accumulated during cycles of loading and unloading until the failure happens. For instance, when rocks are used as storage material, the tank wall expands more than the solid medium during charge process, a gap is created between the rocks and tank walls and the filler material settles down to fill it. During discharge, the tank contracts against the bed, resulting in thermal stresses that may exceed the wall tank yield stress and generate plastic deformation. This phenomenon is repeated over the cycles and the tank will be slowly ratcheted outward until it fails. This paper aims at studying the evolution of tank wall stresses over granular bed thermal cycles, taking into account both thermal and mechanical loads, with a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM). Simulations were performed to study two different thermal configurations: (i) the tank is heated homogeneously along its height or (ii) with a vertical gradient of temperature. Then, the resulting loading stresses applied on the tank are compared as well the response of the internal granular material. Besides the study of the influence of different thermal configurations on the storage tank response, other parameters are varied, such as the internal angle of friction of the granular material, the dispersion of particles diameters as well as the tank’s dimensions. Then, their influences on the kinematics of the granular bed submitted to thermal cycles are highlighted.

Keywords: discrete element method (DEM), thermal cycles, thermal energy storage, thermocline

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926 Load Balancing Algorithms for SIP Server Clusters in Cloud Computing

Authors: Tanmay Raj, Vedika Gupta

Abstract:

For its groundbreaking and substantial power, cloud computing is today’s most popular breakthrough. It is a sort of Internet-based computing that allows users to request and receive numerous services in a cost-effective manner. Virtualization, grid computing, and utility computing are the most widely employed emerging technologies in cloud computing, making it the most powerful. However, cloud computing still has a number of key challenges, such as security, load balancing, and non-critical failure adaption, to name a few. The massive growth of cloud computing will put an undue strain on servers. As a result, network performance will deteriorate. A good load balancing adjustment can make cloud computing more productive and in- crease client fulfillment execution. Load balancing is an important part of cloud computing because it prevents certain nodes from being overwhelmed while others are idle or have little work to perform. Response time, cost, throughput, performance, and resource usage are all parameters that may be improved using load balancing.

Keywords: cloud computing, load balancing, computing, SIP server clusters

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925 Nonlinear Response of Infinite Beams on a Multilayer Tensionless Extensible Geosynthetic – Reinforced Earth Bed under Moving Load

Authors: K. Karuppasamy

Abstract:

In this paper analysis of an infinite beam resting on multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic reinforced granular fill - poor soil system overlying soft soil strata under moving the load with constant velocity is presented. The beam is subjected to a concentrated load moving with constant velocity. The upper reinforced granular bed is modeled by a rough membrane embedded in Pasternak shear layer overlying a series of compressible nonlinear Winkler springs representing the underlying the very poor soil. The multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic layer has been assumed to deform such that at the interface the geosynthetic and the soil have some deformation. Nonlinear behavior of granular fill and the very poor soil has been considered in the analysis by means of hyperbolic constitutive relationships. Governing differential equations of the soil foundation system have been obtained and solved with the help of appropriate boundary conditions. The solution has been obtained by employing finite difference method by means of Gauss-Siedel iterative scheme. Detailed parametric study has been conducted to study the influence of various parameters on the response of soil – foundation system under consideration by means of deflection and bending moment in the beam and tension mobilized in the geosynthetic layer. These parameters include the magnitude of applied load, the velocity of the load, damping, the ultimate resistance of the poor soil and granular fill layer. The range of values of parameters has been considered as per Indian Railways conditions. This study clearly observed that the comparisons of multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic reinforcement with poor foundation soil and magnitude of applied load, relative compressibility of granular fill and ultimate resistance of poor soil has significant influence on the response of soil – foundation system. However, for the considered range of velocity, the response has been found to be insensitive towards velocity. The ultimate resistance of granular fill layer has also been found to have no significant influence on the response of the system.

Keywords: infinite beams, multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic, granular layer, moving load and nonlinear behavior of poor soil

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924 Influence of the Granular Mixture Properties on the Rheological Properties of Concrete: Yield Stress Determination Using Modified Chateau et al. Model

Authors: Rachid Zentar, Mokrane Bala, Pascal Boustingorry

Abstract:

The prediction of the rheological behavior of concrete is at the center of current concerns of the concrete industry for different reasons. The shortage of good quality standard materials combined with variable properties of available materials imposes to improve existing models to take into account these variations at the design stage of concrete. The main reasons for improving the predictive models are, of course, saving time and cost at the design stage as well as to optimize concrete performances. In this study, we will highlight the different properties of the granular mixtures that affect the rheological properties of concrete. Our objective is to identify the intrinsic parameters of the aggregates which make it possible to predict the yield stress of concrete. The work was done using two typologies of grains: crushed and rolled aggregates. The experimental results have shown that the rheology of concrete is improved by increasing the packing density of the granular mixture using rolled aggregates. The experimental program realized allowed to model the yield stress of concrete by a modified model of Chateau et al. through a dimensionless parameter following Krieger-Dougherty law. The modelling confirms that the yield stress of concrete depends not only on the properties of cement paste but also on the packing density of the granular skeleton and the shape of grains.

Keywords: crushed aggregates, intrinsic viscosity, packing density, rolled aggregates, slump, yield stress of concrete

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