Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 109

Search results for: Hafiza Javaria Ashraf

109 Molecular Characterization and Identification of C-Type Lectin in Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver

Authors: Hafiza Javaria Ashraf, Xinghong Wang, Zhanghong Shi, Youming Hou

Abstract:

Insect’s innate immunity depends on a variety of defense responses for the recognition of invading pathogens. Pathogen recognition involves particular proteins known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These PRRs interact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present on the surface of pathogens to distinguish between self and non-self. C-type lectins (CTLs) belong to a superfamily of PPRs which involved in insect immunity and defense mechanism. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier is a devastating pest of Palm cultivations in China. Although studies on R. ferrugineus immune mechanism and host defense have conducted, however, the role of CTL in immune responses of R. ferrugineus remains elusive. Here, we report RfCTL, which is a secreted protein containing a single-CRD domain. The open reading frame (ORF) of CTL is 226 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 168 amino acids. Transcript expression analysis revealed that RfCTL highly expressed in immune-related tissues, i.e., hemolymph and fat body. The abundance of RfCTL in the gut and fat body dramatically increased upon Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial challenges, suggesting a role in defense against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infection. Taken together, we inferred that RfCTL might be involved in the immune defense of R. ferrugineus and established a solid foundation for future studies on R. ferrugineus CTL domain proteins for better understanding of insect immunity.

Keywords: Biological Invasion, c-type lectin, insect immunity, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver

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108 Efficacy of Different Plant Extracts against Brevicoryne brassicae and Their Effects on Pollinators

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Asim Abbasi, Hafiza Javaria Ashraf, Muhammad Hussnain Babar

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Brevicoryne brassicae (Aphid) is not only the major biotic constraint of rapeseed crop but also transmits 20 different viral pathogens that cause diseases in crucifers. Aphids cause major losses to rapeseed by stunting growth and yield, with real damage being contamination of harvested heads. The misuse of pesticides has led to tremendous economic losses and hazards to human health and environmental pollution. Thus, newer approaches for pest control are continuously being sought. The naturally occurring, biologically active plant-based products seem to have a prominent role in the development of future commercial pesticides not only for increased productivity but their eco-friendly nature. The present experiment was carried out in Research Area of Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad to check the efficacy of different botanicals against rapeseed aphid. The tested botanicals were, neem seed extract, neem leaf extract, dathora seed extract, kaner leaf extract and aak leaf extract. Insecticide, advantage 20 EC served as the positive control in the experiment. Data was recorded before and after 1, 3 and 7 days of treatment application. The results of the experiment revealed that neem seed extract exhibited maximum mortality (48.42%) followed by dathora (45.54%) and kaner leaf extract (40.29%) after 7 days of treatment application. However minimum mortality i.e. 26.64% was observed in case of aak leaf extract. Advantage encountered maximum mortality i.e. 86.14%. All treatments caused maximum mortality after 7 days of treatment application. In case of pollinators maximum population reduction was observed in case of insecticide (74.29%) while minimum reduction was observed in neem leaf extract (11.57%). Hence it was concluded that unlike insecticides, plant based products can be a better option for regulating pests and conserving beneficial insect fauna.

Keywords: Mortality, Pollinators, aphid, plant based

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107 A Review on Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Asim Abbasi, Iqra, Hafiza Javaria Ashraf

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The share of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in the global burden of infectious diseases is almost 17%. The advent of new drugs and latest research in medical science helped mankind to compete with these lethal diseases but still diseases transmitted by different mosquito species, including filariasis, malaria, viral encephalitis and dengue are serious threats for people living in disease endemic areas. Injudicious and repeated use of pesticides posed selection pressure on mosquitoes leading to development of resistance. Hence biological control agents are under serious consideration of scientific community to be used in vector control programmes. Fish have a history of predating immature stages of different aquatic insects including mosquitoes. The noteworthy examples in Africa and Asia includes, Aphanius discolour and a fish in the Panchax group. Moreover, common mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis predates mostly on temporary water mosquitoes like anopheline as compared to permanent water breeders like culicines. Mosquitoes belonging to genus Toxorhynchites have a worldwide distribution and are mostly associated with the predation of other mosquito larvae habituating with them in natural and artificial water containers. These species are harmless to humans as their adults do not suck human blood but feeds on floral nectar. However, their activity is mostly temperature dependent as Toxorhynchites brevipalpis consume 359 Aedes aegypti larvae at 30-32 ºC in contrast to 154 larvae at 20-26 ºC. Although many bacterial species were isolated from mosquito cadavers but those belonging to genus Bacillus are found highly pathogenic against them. The successful species of this genus include Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus. The prime targets of B. thuringiensis are mostly the immatures of genus Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Psorophora while B. sphaericus is specifically toxic against species of Culex, Psorophora and Culiseta. The entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to family, mermithidae are also pathogenic to different mosquito species. Eighty different species of mosquitoes including Anopheles, Aedes and Culex proved to be highly vulnerable to the attack of two mermithid species, Romanomermis culicivorax and R. iyengari. Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus was the first described pathogenic virus, isolated from the cadavers of mosquito specie, Culex tarsalis. Other viruses which are pathogenic to culicine includes, iridoviruses, cytopolyhedrosis viruses, entomopoxviruses and parvoviruses. Protozoa species belonging to division microsporidia are the common pathogenic protozoans in mosquito populations which kill their host by the chronic effects of parasitism. Moreover, due to their wide prevalence in anopheline mosquitoes and transversal and horizontal transmission from infected to healthy host, microsporidia of the genera Nosema and Amblyospora have received much attention in various mosquito control programmes. Fungal based mycopesticides are used in biological control of insect pests with 47 species reported virulent against different stages of mosquitoes. These include both aquatic fungi i.e. species of Coelomomyces, Lagenidium giganteum and Culicinomyces clavosporus, and the terrestrial fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Hence, it was concluded that the integrated use of all these biological control agents can be a healthy contribution in mosquito control programmes and become a dire need of the time to avoid repeated use of pesticides.

Keywords: protozoa, entomopathogenic nematodes, Toxorhynchites, vector-borne

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106 Transmogrification of the Danse Macabre Image: Capturing the Journey towards Creativity

Authors: Javaria Farooqui

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This study, “Transmogrification of the Danse Macabre Image: Capturing the Journey towards Creativity,” traces the evolution of the concept of Danse Macabre. In Every man death takes away the sinful when they least expect it, in Solyman and Perseda everyone falls prey to death irrespective of their deeds and in Tauba-tun-Nasuh, the sinner is plagued. The climatic point in this brief research comes with the Modern texts, The Moon and Sixpence, Roohe-e-Insani and Amédéé, ou Comment s’en débarrasser, when Danse Macabre extends its boundaries, uniting the idea of creativity with death. Similarly in the visual context, Danse Macabre image, initially a horrifying idea, becomes a part of the present day comics and serves an entertaining rather than a cathartic purpose.

Keywords: Medieval, Character, Death, Danse macabre, transmogrification

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105 Gravitational Wave Solutions in Modified Gravity Theories

Authors: Hafiza Rizwana Kausar

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In this paper, we formulate the wave equation in modified theories, particularly in f(R) theory, scalar-tensor theory, and metric palatine f(X) theory. We solve the wave equation in each case and try to find maximum possible solutions in the form polarization modes. It is found that modified theories present at most six modes however the mentioned metric theories allow four polarization modes, two of which are tensor in nature and other two are scalars.

Keywords: gravitational waves, modified theories, polariozation modes, scalar tensor theories

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104 A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc NETworks (MANET)

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Hafiza Khaddija Saman

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The increase in availability and popularity of mobile wireless devices has led researchers to develop a wide variety of Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) protocols to exploit the unique communication opportunities presented by these devices. Devices are able to communicate directly using the wireless spectrum in a peer-to-peer fashion, and route messages through intermediate nodes, however, the nature of wireless shared communication and mobile devices result in many routing and security challenges which must be addressed before deploying a MANET. In this paper, we investigate the range of MANET routing protocols available and discuss the functionalities of several ranging from early protocols such as DSDV to more advanced such as MAODV, our protocol study focuses upon works by Perkins in developing and improving MANET routing. A range of literature relating to the field of MANET routing was identified and reviewed, we also reviewed literature on the topic of securing AODV based MANETs as this may be the most popular MANET protocol. The literature review identified a number of trends within research papers such as exclusive use of the random waypoint mobility model, excluding key metrics from simulation results and not comparing protocol performance against available alternatives.

Keywords: Communication, manet, ad-hoc, protocol

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103 Sustainable Renovation of Cultural Buildings Case Study: Red Bay National Historic Site, Canada

Authors: Richard Briginshaw, Hana Alaojeli, Javaria Ahmad, Hamza Gaffar, Nourtan Murad

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Sustainable renovations to cultural buildings and sites require a high level of competency in the sometimes conflicting areas of social/historical demands, environmental concerns, and the programmatic and technical requirements of the project. A detailed analysis of the existing site, building and client program are critical to reveal both challenges and opportunities. This forms the starting point for the design process – empirical explorations that search for a balanced and inspired architectural solution to the project. The Red Bay National Historic Site on the Labrador Coast of eastern Canada is a challenging project to explore and resolve these ideas. Originally the site of a 16ᵗʰ century whaling station occupied by Basque sailors from France and Spain, visitors now experience this history at the interpretive center, along with the unique geography, climate, local culture and vernacular architecture of the area. Working with our client, Parks Canada, the project called for significant alterations and expansion to the existing facility due to an increase in the number of annual visitors. Sustainable aspects of the design are focused on sensitive site development, passive energy strategies such as building orientation and building envelope efficiency, active renewable energy systems, carefully considered material selections, water efficiency, and interiors that respond to human comfort and a unique visitor experience.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Sustainability, Green Building, renovations and expansion, cultural project

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102 First Record of Eotragus noyei from the Middle Siwalik Dhok Pathan Formation of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Akhtar, Abdul M. Khan, Ayesha Iqbal, Hafiza I. Naz

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The fossil remains described in this study have been recovered during fieldwork by the authors from the Dhok Pathan Formation of Middle Siwaliks Pakistan in December, 2015. The sample comprises maxillary and mandibular fragments along with isolated upper and lower teeth. The morphometric analysis of the specimens led us to recognize the sample as belonging to Eotragus noyei, which has been considered as the smallest and the oldest bovid in the Siwaliks. Eotragus noyei is characterized by brachydont teeth, finely rugose enamel, more inclined buccal walls of the molars and small lingual cingula. The inclination of the metaconal area has caused rotation of the metastyle in relation to the antero-posterior tooth axis and thus situated more lingually. The protocone in second upper premolar is well developed and situated posteriorly and also has an anterior lingual constriction. The metaconule in the third upper molar is smaller than the protocone. The dentition in Eotragus noyei is smaller in size as compared to Eotragus sansaniensis and Eotragus lampangensis. In Eotragus noyei the buccal walls in molars are more inclined while in Eotragus sansaniensis they are less inclined. The genus Eotragus has been reported previously in the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan; however, the recognition of the present sample as Eotragus noyei has extended the range of this species from Lower to the Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan.

Keywords: late Miocene, Dhok Pathan, Boselaphini, Chakwal

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101 Reproductive Traits for Holstein Cattle

Authors: Ashraf M. Ward, Ruban S. Yu

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Data consisting of 2757 records from tow Holstein herds made between 2000 and 2010 were used to examine environmental factors affecting age at first calving (AFC) and calving intervals (CI) and consequently estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends. The overall means and standard errors for AFC and CI were 39.4 ± 7.2 months and 487.5 ± 151.6 days respectively. The respective heritability estimates were 0.091 ± 0.05 and 0.044 ± 0.032, while the repeatability estimate for CI was 0.096 ± 0.001. The genetic trends for CI and AFC were -0.6 d/yr and -0.01 mo/yr respectively and were both significant (P < 0.001), indicating a decrease in mean breeding value over the study period. Phenotypic trends were -0.31 mo/yr and -0.35 d/yr for AFC and CI respectively though non-significant (P > 0.05). The low heritability for CI and AFC indicated that temporary environmental influences were much greater than genetic influences or permanent environmental influences on these traits.

Keywords: Reproductive, Heritability, Holstein, genetic parameters

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100 The Effects of Integrating Knowledge Management and e-Learning: Productive Work and Learning Coverage

Authors: Ashraf Ibrahim Awad

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It is important to formulate suitable learning environments ca-pable to be customized according to value perceptions of the university. In this paper, light is shed on the concepts of integration between knowledge management (KM), and e-learning (EL) in the higher education sector of the economy in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A discussion on and how KM and EL can be integrated and leveraged for effective education and training is presented. The results are derived from the literature and interviews with 16 of the academics in eight universities in the Emirate. The conclusion is that KM and EL have much to offer each other, but this is not yet reflected at the implementation level, and their boundaries are not always clear. Interviews have shown that both concepts perceived to be closely related and, responsibilities for these initiatives are practiced by different departments or units.

Keywords: e-Learning, Knowledge Management, Universities, UAE, learning integration

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99 Production Cement Mortar and Concrete by Using Nano Clay

Authors: Mohammad Ashraf, Kawther Mohamed

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This research tackles a new kind of additions (Nano Clay) and its effect on the features of concrete and both fresh and hardened cement mortar, as well as setting an optimal percentage of adding it to achieve the desired results and obtain on a strong concrete and mortar can be used for skyscrapers. The cementations additions are mineral materials in the form of a fine powder, added to concrete or cement mortar as partly cement substitutes, which means to be added instead of an equivalent amount of cement in order to improve and enhance some features of concrete or both the newly made and hardened cementations materials.

Keywords: nano clay in structure engineering, nanotechnology in construction industry, advanced additions in concrete, special concrete for skyscrapers

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98 An Ultra-Low Output Impedance Power Amplifier for Tx Array in 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Ashraf Abuelhaija, Klaus Solbach

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In Ultra high-field MRI scanners (3T and higher), parallel RF transmission techniques using multiple RF chains with multiple transmit elements are a promising approach to overcome the high-field MRI challenges in terms of inhomogeneity in the RF magnetic field and SAR. However, mutual coupling between the transmit array elements disturbs the desirable independent control of the RF waveforms for each element. This contribution demonstrates a 18 dB improvement of decoupling (isolation) performance due to the very low output impedance of our 1 kW power amplifier.

Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), EM coupling, inter-element isolation, parallel transmit

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97 Obstacle Detection and Path Tracking Application for Disables

Authors: Aliya Ashraf, Mehreen Sirshar, Fatima Akhtar, Farwa Kazmi, Jawaria Wazir

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Vision, the basis for performing navigational tasks, is absent or greatly reduced in visually impaired people due to which they face many hurdles. For increasing the navigational capabilities of visually impaired people a desktop application ODAPTA is presented in this paper. The application uses camera to capture video from surroundings, apply various image processing algorithms to get information about path and obstacles, tracks them and delivers that information to user through voice commands. Experimental results show that the application works effectively for straight paths in daylight.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Face Detection, visually impaired, CCD camera, ODAPTA, Region of Interest (ROI), driver fatigue, expression recognition

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96 Modeling Thin Shell Structures by a New Flat Shell Finite Element

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Ounis Abdelhafid, Ashraf Ayoub, Chebili Rachid

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In this paper, a new computationally-efficient rectangular flat shell finite element named 'ACM_RSBEC' is presented. The formulated element is obtained by superposition of a new rectangular membrane element 'RSBEC' based on the strain approach and the well known plate bending element 'ACM'. This element can be used for the analysis of thin shell structures, no matter how the geometrical shape might be. Tests on standard problems have been examined. The convergence of the new formulated element is also compared to other types of quadrilateral shell elements. The presented shell element ‘ACM_RSBEC’ has been demonstrated to be effective and useful in analysing thin shell structures.

Keywords: finite element, flat shell element, strain based approach, static condensation

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95 Exponential Spline Solution for Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems with an Uncertain-But-Bounded Parameter

Authors: waheed zahra, Mohamed El-Beltagy, Ashraf El Mhlawy, Reda Elkhadrawy

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In this paper, we consider singular perturbation reaction-diffusion boundary value problems, which contain a small uncertain perturbation parameter. To solve these problems, we propose a numerical method which is based on an exponential spline and Shishkin mesh discretization. While interval analysis principle is used to deal with the uncertain parameter, sensitivity analysis has been conducted using different methods. Numerical results are provided to show the applicability and efficiency of our method, which is ε-uniform convergence of almost second order.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, interval analysis, singular perturbation problem, shishkin mesh, two small parameters, exponential spline

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94 Vertical Distribution of Heavy Metals and Enrichment in Core Marine Sediments of East Malaysia by INAA and ICP-MS

Authors: Elias Saion, Ahmadreza Ashraf, Elham Gharib Shahi, Chee Kong Yap, Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah

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Fifty-five core marine sediments from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea of coastal East Malaysia was analyzed for heavy metals using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy. The enrichment factor of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn varied from 0.42 to 4.26, 0.50 to 2.34, 0.31 to 0.82, 0.20 to 0.61, 0.91 to 1.92, 0.23 to 1.52, and 0.90 to 1.28 respectively, with the modified degree of contamination values below 0.6. Comparative data show that coastal East Malaysia is of low levels of contamination.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, enrichment factor, coastal East Malaysia, core marine sediments, INAA and ICP method, modified degree of contamination

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93 Informational Efficiency and Integration: Evidence from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Shariah Equity Market

Authors: Sania Ashraf

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The paper focuses on the prevalence of informational efficiency and integration of GCC Shariah Equity market for the period of 01st January 2010 to 31st June 2015 with daily equity returns of Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. The study employs traditional as well as the modern approach of tracing out the efficiency and integration in the return series. From the results of efficiency it was observed that the market lacked efficiency in terms of its past information. The results of integration test clearly indicates that there was a long memory in the returns of GCC Shariah during the study period. Hence it was concluded and proved that the returns of all GCC Equity Shariah were not informationally efficient but fractionally integrated during the study period.

Keywords: Integration, Efficiency, serial correlation, hurst exponent, Fama, GCC shariah

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92 Urban Land Cover from GF-2 Satellite Images Using Object Based and Neural Network Classifications

Authors: Lamyaa Gamal El-Deen Taha, Ashraf Sharawi

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China launched satellite GF-2 in 2014. This study deals with comparing nearest neighbor object-based classification and neural network classification methods for classification of the fused GF-2 image. Firstly, rectification of GF-2 image was performed. Secondly, a comparison between nearest neighbor object-based classification and neural network classification for classification of fused GF-2 was performed. Thirdly, the overall accuracy of classification and kappa index were calculated. Results indicate that nearest neighbor object-based classification is better than neural network classification for urban mapping.

Keywords: multilayer perceptron, GF-2 images, feature extraction-rectification, nearest neighbour object based classification, segmentation algorithms, neural network classification

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91 Assessment of Adequacy of Pile Load Determination Formulas

Authors: Ashraf Eid

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Many formulas are set to estimate the pile load capacity based on the in-situ pile load tests. However, discrepancy is obvious between the results of these applications. Some formulas are more adequate than others with respect to soil formation and its characteristics. In this research, attempts were undertaken to evaluate the adequacy of the most well-known formulas based on a series of pile load tests carried out in Port Said city in the northeast of Egypt for major residential projects. Comparisons were undertaken between the different formulas supported by the results of in-situ Cone Penetration Tests (CPT). Based on this study, a guide for engineers for using the proper formula can be adopted with consideration of soil type and characteristics. The Egyptian Code which relies on the results of some formulas is involved in the study as a guiding aspect in the pile design.

Keywords: CPT, pile load formula, load test of piles, Egyptian code

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90 Usability Issues of Smart Phone Applications: For Visually Challenged People

Authors: Anam Ashraf, Arif Raza

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In this era of globalization, adoption of technology is quite difficult for people with physical disabilities compared to people with normal abilities. The advancement in mobile based accessible applications has opened up several different avenues for the visually challenged across the globe. Smartphones applications are not very common for blind people, but they access and use these applications in their daily lives to some extent. Several smartphone applications have a number of usability issues for the visually impaired. In this paper, we evaluate the usability of various android and iPhone applications for blind people through analysis and surveys. This paper aspires to provide guidance in order to increase smartphone application accessibility for the visually impaired. An abstract application design is also proposed to overcome usability issues in smartphone applications for visually challenged people.

Keywords: Human Computer Interaction, Usability engineering, eyes-free shell, visually challenged

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89 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Ashraf, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed

Abstract:

Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.

Keywords: body size, condition factor, Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis

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88 A Synthetic Strategy to Attach 2,6-Dichlorophenolindophenol onto Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Application for Electrocatalytic Determination of Sulfide

Authors: Alireza Mohadesi, Ashraf Salmanipour

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A chemically modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic determination of sulfide was developed using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) covalently immobilized with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP). The immobilization of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol with MWCNTs was performed with a new synthetic strategy and characterized by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammetric response of DPIP grafted onto MWCNTs indicated that it promotes the low potential, sensitive and stable determination of sulfide. The dependence of response currents on the concentration of sulfide was examined and was linear in the range of 10 - 1100 µM. The detection limit of sulfide was 5 µM and RSD for 100 and 500 µM sulfides were 1.8 and 1.3 %. Many interfering species had little or no effect on the determination of sulfide. The procedure was applied to determination of sulfide in waters samples.

Keywords: biological samples, functionalized carbon nanotubes, sulfide

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87 Development of a Numerical Model to Predict Wear in Grouted Connections for Offshore Wind Turbine Generators

Authors: Paul Dallyn, Ashraf El-Hamalawi, Alessandro Palmeri, Bob Knight

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In order to better understand the long term implications of the grout wear failure mode in large-diameter plain-sided grouted connections, a numerical model has been developed and calibrated that can take advantage of existing operational plant data to predict the wear accumulation for the actual load conditions experienced over a given period, thus limiting the need for expensive monitoring systems. This model has been derived and calibrated based on site structural condition monitoring (SCM) data and supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) data for two operational wind turbine generator substructures afflicted with this challenge, along with experimentally derived wear rates.

Keywords: Wind energy, Wear, numerical model, grouted connection, offshore structure

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86 The Role of Public Education in Increasing Public Awareness through Mass Media with Emphasis on Newspapers and TV: Coping with Possible Earthquake in Tehran

Authors: Naser Charkhsaz, Ashraf Sadat Mousavi, Navvab Shamspour

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This study aimed to evaluate the role of state education in increasing public awareness through mass media (with emphasis on newspapers and TV) coping with possible earthquake in Tehran. All residents aged 15 to 65 who live in the five regions of Tehran (North, South, East, West and Center) during the plan implementation were selected and studied. The required sample size in each region was calculated based on the Cochran formula (n=380). In order to collect and analyze the data, a questionnaire with reliability (82%) and a one-sample t-test has been used, respectively. The results showed that warnings related to the Tehran earthquake affected people in the pre-contemplation stage, while public education through mass media did not promote public awareness about prevention, preparedness and rehabilitation.

Keywords: Media, Knowledge, Disaster, Iranian Red Crescent society

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85 The Impact of Using Building Information Modeling Technology in Construction Projects Management

Authors: Mohammad Ashraf

Abstract:

This research links the use of Building Information Modeling technology in constructions and infrastructure projects, starting from the moment when considering the establishment of a project to demolishing or renovating it, going through the design work, planning, procurement and implementation. BIM Software's which used are Revit, Navisworks and Asta Project in the case study for the Atletico Madrid Stadium project (Wanda Stadium). Also, the project improves through various phases of construction (planning - implementation - management). Besides, the level of the details managed within this project advances gradually. In addition, the construction process problems become about 30 % less than before, resulting from high coordination between designing, implementation and follow through that is done by the project management office (PMO). The current disposition in the industry is to tightly manage the detail contained within the planning and coordination phases of construction, but we miss the opportunity to manage that data as it matures and grows into the execution and commissioning phases.

Keywords: Design, Planning, Construction Management, critical path method, BIM technology, procurements

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84 Inhibition of Pipelines Corrosion Using Natural Extracts

Authors: Eman Alzahrani, Hala M. Abo-Dief, Ashraf T. Mohamed

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The present work is aimed at examining carbon steel oil pipelines corrosion using three natural extracts (Eruca Sativa, Rosell and Mango peels) that are used as inhibitors of different concentrations ranging from 0.05-0.1wt. %. Two sulphur compounds are used as corrosion mediums. Weight loss method was used for measuring the corrosion rate of the carbon steel specimens immersed in technical white oil at 100ºC at various time intervals in absence and presence of the two sulphur compounds. The corroded specimens are examined using the chemical wear test, scratch test and hardness test. The scratch test is carried out using scratch loads from 0.5 Kg to 2.0 Kg. The scratch width is obtained at various scratch load and test conditions. The Brinell hardness test is carried out and investigated for both corroded and inhibited specimens. The results showed that three natural extracts can be used as environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors.

Keywords: inhibition, natural extract, oil pipelines corrosion, sulphur compounds

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83 Evaluation of Flange Effects on the Lateral In-Plane Response of Brick Masonry Walls

Authors: Muhammad Ashraf, Hizb Ullah Sajid, Naveed Ahmad Qaisar Ali, Sikandar Hayat Sajid

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This research study investigates experimentally the effects of flanges (transverse walls) on the lateral in-plane response of brick masonry walls. The experimental work included lateral in-plane quasi-static cyclic tests on full-scale walls (both with & without flanges). The flanges were introduced at both ends of the in-plane wall. In particular the damage mechanism, lateral in-plane stiffness & strength, deformability and energy dissipation of the two classes of walls are compared and the differences are quantified to help understand the effects of flanges on the in-plane response of masonry walls. The available analytical models for the in-plane shear strength & deformation evaluation of masonry walls are critically analyzed. Recommendations are made for the lateral in-plane capacity assessment of brick masonry walls including the contribution of transverse walls.

Keywords: brick masonry, damage mechanism, flanges effects, in-plane response

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
82 Assessment of Planet Image for Land Cover Mapping Using Soft and Hard Classifiers

Authors: Lamyaa Gamal El-Deen Taha, Ashraf Sharawi

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Planet image is a new data source from planet lab. This research is concerned with the assessment of Planet image for land cover mapping. Two pixel based classifiers and one subpixel based classifier were compared. Firstly, rectification of Planet image was performed. Secondly, a comparison between minimum distance, maximum likelihood and neural network classifications for classification of Planet image was performed. Thirdly, the overall accuracy of classification and kappa coefficient were calculated. Results indicate that neural network classification is best followed by maximum likelihood classifier then minimum distance classification for land cover mapping.

Keywords: multilayer perceptron, rectification, neural network classification, planet image, land cover mapping, soft classifiers, hard classifiers

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
81 Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma System and Its Applications

Authors: Muhammad Ashraf, Waqas A. Toor, Anis U. Baig, Nuaman Shafqat, Raafia Irfan

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A 2.45GHz microwave plasma system and its few applications have been developed. Argon and helium plasma is produced by metallic nozzle and also in a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure, using WR-340 waveguide and its tapered version. The waveguide applicator is also simulated in HFSS and field patterns are analyzed for maximum power absorption in the load. The system is tuned to operate at less than 10% reflected power. Various experimental techniques are used to initiate and sustain the plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma of atmospheric air is also produced without using any other shielding gas. The plasma flame is also characterized by its spectrum. Spectral analyses of plasma flame can be used for online analysis of combustion gases produced in industry. The applications of the system include glass and quartz processing, vitrification, emission spectroscopy, plasma coating. Low pressure plasma applications of the system include intense UV light for water purification and ozone generation.

Keywords: HFSS high frequency structure simulator, Microwave plasma, UV ultraviolet, WR rectangular waveguide

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80 A Parasitic Resonator-Based Diamond Shape Microstrip Antenna for Ultra-Wide-Band Applications

Authors: Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Norbahiah Misran, M. Naimur Rahman, M. Zulfiker Mahmud, Farhad Bin Ashraf

Abstract:

This study proposes a diamond-shaped microstrip patch antenna for ultra-wideband applications. The antenna is made up of a diamond shape radiating patch, partial ground plane, and three asterisk-shaped parasitic elements. The parasitic elements are positioned above the ground plane to enhance the bandwidth and gain. The proposed antenna has a compact dimension of 30 x 25 x 1.6 mm3 and achieves an overall bandwidth (S11<-10dB) is 5.8 GHz from 2.7 GHz to 8.5 GHz. The antenna attains more than 4 dBi realized the gain and 80% efficiency over the bandwidth with omnidirectional radiation pattern. The design and simulation of the proposed antenna are performed in Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio. The observation during the analysis of the simulated data reveals that the proposed antenna is suitable for Ultra wide-band (UWB) applications where high gain is required.

Keywords: microstrip antenna, diamond-shaped antenna, parasitic resonator, UWB applications

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