Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 120

Search results for: masonry

120 The Necessity of Retrofitting for Masonry Buildings in Turkey

Authors: Soner Güler, Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel

Abstract:

Masonry buildings constitute major part of building stock in Turkey. Masonry buildings were built up especially in rural areas and underdeveloped regions due to economic reasons. Almost all of these masonry buildings are not designed and detailed according to any design guidelines by designers. As a result of this, masonry buildings were totally collapsed or heavily damaged when subjected to destructive earthquake effects. Thus, these masonry buildings that were built up in our country must be retrofitted to improve their seismic performance. In this study, new seismic retrofitting techniques that is easy to apply and low-cost are summarized and the importance of seismic retrofitting is also emphasized for existing masonry buildings in Turkey.

Keywords: masonry buildings, earthquake effects, seismic retrofitting techniques, seismic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
119 Observed Damages to Adobe Masonry Buildings after 2011 Van Earthquake

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Soner Güler, Mustafa Gülen

Abstract:

Masonry is the oldest building materials since ancient times. Adobe, stone, brick are the most widespread materials used in the construction of masonry buildings. Masonry buildings compose of a large part of building stock especially in rural areas and underdeveloped regions of Turkey. The seismic performance of adobe masonry buildings is vulnerable against earthquake effects. In this study, after 2011 Van earthquake with magnitude 7.2 Mw, damages occurred in existing adobe masonry buildings in Van city is investigated. The observed damages and reasons of adobe masonry buildings in design and construction phase are specified and evaluated.

Keywords: adobe masonry buildings, earthquake effects, damages, seismic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
118 Better Knowledge and Understanding of the Behavior of Masonry Buildings in Earthquake

Authors: A. R. Mirzaee, M. Khajehpour

Abstract:

Due to Simple Design, reasonable cost and easy implementation most people are reluctant to build buildings with masonry construction. Masonry Structures performance at earthquake are so limited. Of most earthquakes occurred in Iran and other countries, we can easily see that most of the damages are for masonry constructions and this is the evidence that we lack proper understanding of the performance of masonry buildings in earthquake. In this paper, according to field studies, conducted in past earthquakes. To evaluate the strengths and weaknesses points of the masonry constructions and also provide a solution to prevent such damage should be presented, and also program Examples of the correct bearing wall and tie-column design with the valid regulations (MSJC-08 (ASD)) will be explained.

Keywords: Masonry constructions, performance at earthquake, MSJC-08 (ASD), bearing wall, tie-column

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
117 Structural Engineering Forensic Evaluation of Misdiagnosed Concrete Masonry Wall Cracking

Authors: W. C. Bracken

Abstract:

Given that concrete masonry walls are expected to experience shrinkage combined with thermal expansion and contraction, and in some cases even carbonation, throughout their service life, cracking is to be expected. However, after concrete masonry walls have been placed into service, originally anticipated and accounted for cracking is often misdiagnosed as a structural defect. Such misdiagnoses often result in or are used to support litigation. This paper begins by discussing the causes and types of anticipated cracking within concrete masonry walls followed by a discussion on the processes and analyses that exists for properly evaluating them and their significance. From here, the paper then presents a case of misdiagnosed concrete masonry cracking and the flawed logic employed to support litigation.

Keywords: concrete masonry, masonry wall cracking, structural defect, structural damage, construction defect, forensic investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
116 Properties of Modified Dry Masonry Mixtures for Effective Masonry Units

Authors: Vyacheslav S. Semenov, Tamara A. Rozovskaya

Abstract:

The paper is devoted to the problem of the development of dry light-weight mixtures with hollow ceramics microspheres (CMS) for masonry works. For the one-layer fencing structures including effective masonry units, the use of “warm” masonry mortars is necessary. The used light-weight masonry mortars do not provide the brand strength and thermal uniformity of the fencing structures because of high average density. The CMS are effective light-weight aggregate for such mortars. The influence of the dosage of CMS on the physics-and-mechanics parameters and the technological properties of the masonry mortars were studied. The optimal mixture compositions have been obtained and their main properties have been determined. The influence of an air-entraining admixture and redispersible polymer powders on the average density and physics-and-mechanics parameters of the masonry mortars were studied. The optimal compositions of light-weight dry masonry mixtures with CMS have been suggested.

Keywords: dry mortar mixtures, light-weight dry mixtures, hollow ceramics microspheres, masonry mortars, “warm” mortars, air-entraining admixture, redispersible polymer powders

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
115 Development of Palm Kernel Shell Lightweight Masonry Mortar

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole

Abstract:

There need to construct building walls with lightweight masonry bricks/blocks and mortar to reduce the weight and cost of cooling/heating of buildings in hot/cold climates is growing partly due to legislations on energy use and global warming. In this paper, the development of Palm Kernel Shell masonry mortar (PKSMM) prepared with Portland cement and crushed PKS fine aggregate (an agricultural waste) is demonstrated. We show that PKSMM can be used as a lightweight mortar for the construction of lightweight masonry walls with good thermal insulation efficiency than the natural river sand commonly used for masonry mortar production.

Keywords: building walls, fine aggregate, lightweight masonry mortar, palm kernel shell, wall thermal insulation efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
114 The Behavior of Masonry Wall Constructed Using Biaxial Interlocking Concrete Block, Solid Concrete Block and Cement Sand Brick Subjected to the Compressive Load

Authors: Fauziah Aziz, Mohd.fadzil Arshad, Hazrina Mansor, Sedat Kömürcü

Abstract:

Masonry is an isotropic and heterogeneous material due to the presence of the different components within the assembly process. Normally the mortar plays a significant role in the compressive behavior of the traditional masonry structures. Biaxial interlocking concrete block is a masonry unit that comes out with the interlocking concept. This masonry unit can improve the quality of the construction process, reduce the cost of labor, reduce high skill workmanship, and speeding the construction time. Normally, the interlocking concrete block masonry unit in the market place was designed in a way interlocking concept only either x or y-axis, shorter in length, and low compressive strength value. However, the biaxial interlocking concrete block is a dry-stack concept being introduced in this research, offered the specialty compared to the normal interlocking concrete available in the market place due to its length and the geometry of the groove and tongue. This material can be used as a non-load bearing wall, or load-bearing wall depends on the application of the masonry. But, there is a lack of technical data that was produced before. This paper presents a finding on the compressive resistance of the biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry wall compared to the other traditional masonry walls. Two series of biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry walls, namely M1 and M2, a series of solid concrete block and cement sand brick walls M3, and M4 have tested the compressive resistance. M1 is the masonry wall of a hollow biaxial interlocking concrete block meanwhile; M2 is the grouted masonry wall, M3 is a solid concrete block masonry wall, and M4 is a cement sand brick masonry wall. All the samples were tested under static compressive load. The results examine that M2 is higher in compressive resistance compared to the M1, M3, and M4. It shows that the compressive strength of the concrete masonry units plays a significant role in the capacity of the masonry wall.

Keywords: interlocking concrete block, compressive resistance, concrete masonry unit, masonry

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
113 Effects of Blast Load on Historic Stone Masonry Buildings in Canada: A Review and Analytical Study

Authors: Abass Braimah, Maha Hussein Abdallah

Abstract:

The global ascendancy of terrorist attacks on building infrastructure with economic and heritage significance has increased awareness of the possibility of terrorism in Canada. Many structures in Canada that are at risk of terrorist attacks include government buildings, built many years ago of historic stone masonry construction. Although many researchers are investigating ways to retrofit masonry stone buildings to mitigate the effect of blast loadings, lack of knowledge on the dynamic behavior of historic stone masonry structures under blast loads makes it difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of the retrofitting techniques. This paper presents a review of open-source literature for the experimental and numerical stone masonry structures under blast loads. This review yielded very little information of the response of the historic stone masonry structures under blast loads. Thus, a comprehensive study is needed to understand the blast load effects on historic stone masonry buildings. The out-of-plane response of historic masonry structures to blast loads is investigated by using single-degree-of-freedom analysis. This approach presents equations that can be used effectively in the analysis of historic masonry walls to out-of-plane blast loading.

Keywords: blast loads, historical buildings, masonry structure, single-degree-of-freedom analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
112 The Review for Repair of Masonry Structures Using the Crack Stitching Technique

Authors: Sandile Daniel Ngidi

Abstract:

Masonry structures often crack due to different factors, which include differential movement of structures, thermal expansion, and seismic waves. Retrofitting is introduced to ensure that these cracks do not expand to a point of making the wall fail. Crack stitching is one of many repairing methods used to repair cracked masonry walls. It is done by stitching helical stainless steel reinforcement bars to reconnect and stabilize the wall. The basic element of this reinforcing system is the mechanical interlink between the helical stainless-steel bar and the grout, which makes it such a flexible and well-known masonry repair system. The objective of this review was to use previous experimental work done by different authors to check the efficiency and effectiveness of using the crack stitching technique to repair and stabilize masonry walls. The technique was found to be effective to rejuvenate the strength of a masonry structure to be stronger than initial strength. Different factors were investigated, which include economic features, sustainability, buildability, and suitability of this technique for application in developing communities.

Keywords: brickforce, crack-stitching, masonry concrete, reinforcement, wall panels

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
111 Impact of Masonry Joints on Detection of Humidity Distribution in Aerated Concrete Masonry Constructions by Electric Impedance Spectrometry Measurements

Authors: Sanita Rubene, Martins Vilnitis, Juris Noviks

Abstract:

Aerated concrete is a load bearing construction material, which has high heat insulation parameters. Walls can be erected from aerated concrete masonry constructions and in perfect circumstances additional heat insulation is not required. The most common problem in aerated concrete heat insulation properties is the humidity distribution throughout the cross section of the masonry elements as well as proper and conducted drying process of the aerated concrete construction because only dry aerated concrete masonry constructions can reach high heat insulation parameters. In order to monitor drying process of the masonry and detect humidity distribution throughout the cross section of aerated concrete masonry construction application of electrical impedance spectrometry is applied. Further test results and methodology of this non-destructive testing method is described in this paper.

Keywords: aerated concrete, electrical impedance spectrometry, humidity distribution, non-destructive testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
110 Evaluation of Flange Effects on the Lateral In-Plane Response of Brick Masonry Walls

Authors: Hizb Ullah Sajid, Muhammad Ashraf, Naveed Ahmad Qaisar Ali, Sikandar Hayat Sajid

Abstract:

This research study investigates experimentally the effects of flanges (transverse walls) on the lateral in-plane response of brick masonry walls. The experimental work included lateral in-plane quasi-static cyclic tests on full-scale walls (both with & without flanges). The flanges were introduced at both ends of the in-plane wall. In particular the damage mechanism, lateral in-plane stiffness & strength, deformability and energy dissipation of the two classes of walls are compared and the differences are quantified to help understand the effects of flanges on the in-plane response of masonry walls. The available analytical models for the in-plane shear strength & deformation evaluation of masonry walls are critically analyzed. Recommendations are made for the lateral in-plane capacity assessment of brick masonry walls including the contribution of transverse walls.

Keywords: brick masonry, damage mechanism, flanges effects, in-plane response

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
109 Behavior of the Masonry Infill in Structures Subjected to the Horizontal Loads

Authors: Mezigheche Nawel, Gouasmia Abdelhacine, Athmani Allaeddine, Merzoud Mouloud

Abstract:

Masonry infill walls are inevitable in the self-supporting structures, but their contribution in the resistance of earthquake loads is generally neglected in the structural analyses. The principal aim of this work through a numerical study of the behavior of masonry infill walls in structures subjected to horizontal load is to propose by finite elements numerical modeling, a more reliable approach, faster and close to reality. In this study, 3D finite element analysis was developed to study the behavior of masonry infill walls in structures subjected to horizontal load: The finite element software being used was ABAQUS, it is observed that more rigidity of the masonry filling is significant, more the structure is rigid, so we can conclude that the filling brings an additional rigidity to the structure not to be neglected. It is also observed that when the framework is subjected to horizontal loads, the framework separates from the filling on the level of the tended diagonal.

Keywords: finite element, masonry infill walls, rigidity of the masonry, tended diagonal

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
108 Effect of Masonry Infill in R.C. Framed Buildings

Authors: Pallab Das, Nabam Zomleen

Abstract:

Effective dissipation of lateral loads that are coming due to seismic force determines the strength, durability and safety concern of the structure. Masonry infill has high stiffness and strength capabilities which can be put into an effective utilization for lateral load dissipation by incorporating it into building construction, but masonry behaves in highly nonlinear manner, so it is highly important to find out generalized, yet a rational approach to determine its nonlinear behavior and failure mode and it’s response when it is incorporated into building. But most of the countries do not specify the procedure for design of masonry infill wall. Whereas, there are many analytical modeling method available in literature, e.g. equivalent diagonal strut method, finite element modeling etc. In this paper the masonry infill is modeled and 6-storey bare framed building and building with masonry infill is analyzed using SAP-200014 in order to find out inter-storey drift by time-history analysis and capacity curve by Pushover analysis. The analysis shows that, while, the structure is well within CP performance level for both the case, whereas, there is considerable reduction of inter-storey drift of about 28%, when the building is analyzed with masonry infill wall.

Keywords: capacity curve, masonry infill, nonlinear analysis, time history analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
107 A Case Study of Building Behavior Damaged during 26th Oct, 2015 Earthquake in Northern Areas of Pakistan

Authors: Rahmat Ali, Amjad Naseer, Abid A. Shah

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This paper is an attempt to presents the performance of building observed during 26th Oct, 2015 earthquake in District Swat and Shangla region. Most of the buildings in the earthquake hit areas were built with Rubble stone masonry, dress Stone Masonry, brick masonry with and without RC column, Brick masonry with RC beams and column, Block Masonry with and without RC column. It was found that most of the buildings were built without proper supervision and without following any codes. A majority of load bearing masonry walls were highly affected during the earthquake. The load bearing walls built with rubble stone masonry were collapsed resulting huge damages and loss of property and life. Load bearing bricks masonry walls were also affected in most of the region. In some residential buildings the bricks were crushed in a single brick walls. Severe cracks were also found in double brick masonry walls. In RC frame structure beams and columns were also seriously affected. A majority of building structures were non-engineered. Some buildings designed by unskilled local consultants were also affected during the earthquake. Several architectural and structural mistakes were also found in various buildings designed by local consultant. It was found that the structures were collapsed prematurely either because of unskillful labor and using substandard materials or avoiding delicate repair, maintenance, and health monitoring activities because of lack of available sophisticated technology in our country.

Keywords: cracks, collapse, earthquake, masonry, repair

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
106 Mechanical Properties Analysis of Masonry Residue Mortar as Cement Replacement

Authors: Camila Parodi, Viviana Letelier, Giacomo Moriconi

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The cement industry is responsible for around a 5% of the CO2 emissions worldwide and considering that concrete is one of the most used materials in construction its total effect is important. An alternative to reduce the environmental impact of concrete production is to incorporate certain amount of residues in the dosing, limiting the replacement percentages to avoid significant losses in the mechanical properties of the final material. Previous researches demonstrate the feasibility of using brick and rust residues, separately, as a cement replacement. This study analyses the variation in the mechanical properties of mortars by incorporating masonry residue composed of clay bricks and cement mortar. In order to improve the mechanical properties of masonry residue, this was subjected to a heat treatment of 650 ° C for four hours and its effect is analyzed in this study. Masonry residue was obtained from a demolition of masonry perimetral walls. The residues were crushed and sieved and the maximum size of particles used was 75 microns. The percentages of cement replaced by masonry residue were 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of masonry residue addition and its heat treatment in the mechanical properties of mortars is evaluated through compressive and flexural strength tests after 7, 14 and 28 curing days. Results show that increasing the amount of masonry residue used increases the losses in compressive strength and flexural strength. However, the use of up to a 20% of masonry residue, when a heat treatment is applied, allows obtaining mortars with similar compressive strength to the control mortar. Masonry residues mortars without a heat treatment show losses in compressive strengths between 15% and 27% with respect to masonry residues with heat treatment, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the heat treatment. From this analysis it can be conclude that it is possible to use up to 20% of masonry residue with heat treatment as cement replacement without significant losses in mortars mechanical properties, reducing considerably the environmental impact of the final material.

Keywords: cement replacement, environmental impact, masonry residue, mechanical properties of recycled mortars

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
105 The Effect of Masonry Infills on the Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ameri, Ali Massumi, Behnam Mahboubi

Abstract:

The performance of masonry infilled frames during the past earthquakes shows that the infill panels play a major role as earthquake-resistant elements. The present study examines the influence of infill panels on seismic behavior of RC frame structures. For this purpose, several low- and mid-rise RC frames (two-, four-, seven-, and ten story) were numerically investigated. Reinforced masonry infill panels were then placed within the frames and the models were subjected to several nonlinear incremental static and dynamic analyses. The results of analyses showed that the use of reinforced masonry infill panels in RC frame structures can have beneficial effects on structural performance. It was confirmed that the use of masonry infill panels results in an increment in strength and stiffness of the framed buildings, followed by a reduction in displacement demand for the structural systems.

Keywords: reinforced masonry infill panels, nonlinear static analysis, incremental dynamic analysis, low-rise reinforced concrete frames, mid-rise reinforced concrete frames

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
104 Investigating Re-Use a Historical Masonry Arch Bridge

Authors: H. A. Erdogan

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Historical masonry arch bridges built centuries ago have fulfilled their function until recent decades. However, from the beginning of 20th century, these bridges have remained inadequate as a result of increasing speed, size and capacity of the means of transport. Although new bridges have been built in many places, masonry bridges located within the city limits still need to be used. When the size and transportation loads of modern vehicles are taken into account, it is apparent that historical masonry arch bridges would be exposed to greater loads than their initial design loads. Because of that, many precautions taken either remain insufficient or damage these bridges. In this study, the history of Debbaglar Bridge, one of the historic bridges located in the city center of Aksaray/Turkey is presented and its existing condition is evaluated. Structural analysis of the bridge under present conditions and loads is explained. Moreover, the retrofit and restoration application prepared considering the analysis data is described.

Keywords: adaptive re-use, Aksaray debbaglar bridge, masonry bridge, reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
103 Investigation of Dynamic Heat Transfer in Masonry Walls

Authors: Joelle Al Fakhoury, Emilio Sassine, Yassine Cherif, Joseph Dgheim, Emmanuel Antczak

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Hollow block masonry is the most used building technology in the Lebanese context. These blocks are manufactured in an artisanal way and have unknown thermal properties; their overall thermos-physical performance is thus unknown and also poorly investigated scientifically in both single wall and also double wall configurations. In this work, experimental measurements and numerical simulations are performed for a better understanding of the heat transfer in masonry walls. This study was realized using an experimental setup consisting of a masonry hollow block wall (0.1m x 1m x 1m) and two heat boxes, such that each covers one side of the wall. The first is a reference box having a constant interior temperature, and the other is a control box having an adjustable interior temperature. At first, the numerical model is validated using an experimental setup; then 3D numerical analyzes are held in order to investigate the effect of the air gap, the mortar joints, and the plastering on the thermal performance of masonry walls for a better understanding of the heat transfer process and the recommendation of suitable thermal improvements.

Keywords: masonry wall, hollow blocks, heat transfer, wall instrumentation, thermal improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
102 An Investigation into the Interaction of Concrete Frames and Infilled Masonry Walls with Emphasis on the Connections

Authors: Hamid Fazlollahi, Behzad Rafezy, Hassan Afshin

Abstract:

There masonry infill increases the stiffness of reinforced concrete frames, thus increasing the force of the earthquake also the interaction between the frame and infill, which can have devastating effects on structures. In contrast presence of infill to increase the structural strength and stability. What is seen in the construction and design of structures has largely ignored the effects of infill and regardless infill structure and its positive and negative effects analyzes and designs, that it is not economically justified and the positive effects of positive infill to be increased and almost all of the useful capacity of moment frames used for infill. In this paper, by using ABAQUS software, reinforced concrete frame with masonry infill will be modeled, then add a mechanical rubber element to modify the interaction between the frame and infill and thus reduce the losses caused by the presence of infill explains. Finally, by comparing the analytical curves, benefits of this approach we will study and to present the results of the interaction between the frame and infill masonry needs modification and methods it will provide.

Keywords: masonry infill, mechanical rubber, reinforced concrete frame, interaction, ductility

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
101 Performance Based Design of Masonry Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames for Near-Field Earthquakes Using Energy Methods

Authors: Alok Madan, Arshad K. Hashmi

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Performance based design (PBD) is an iterative exercise in which a preliminary trial design of the building structure is selected and if the selected trial design of the building structure does not conform to the desired performance objective, the trial design is revised. In this context, development of a fundamental approach for performance based seismic design of masonry infilled frames with minimum number of trials is an important objective. The paper presents a plastic design procedure based on the energy balance concept for PBD of multi-story multi-bay masonry infilled reinforced concrete (R/C) frames subjected to near-field earthquakes. The proposed energy based plastic design procedure was implemented for trial performance based seismic design of representative masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames with various practically relevant distributions of masonry infill panels over the frame elevation. Non-linear dynamic analyses of the trial PBD of masonry infilled R/C frames was performed under the action of near-field earthquake ground motions. The results of non-linear dynamic analyses demonstrate that the proposed energy method is effective for performance based design of masonry infilled R/C frames under near-field as well as far-field earthquakes.

Keywords: masonry infilled frame, energy methods, near-fault ground motions, pushover analysis, nonlinear dynamic analysis, seismic demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
100 A Study of Mortars with Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as Fine Aggregate and Its Influence on Properties of Burnt Clay Brick Masonry

Authors: Vibha Venkataramu, B. V. Venkatarama Reddy

Abstract:

Natural river sand is the most preferred choice as fine aggregate in masonry mortars. Uncontrolled mining of sand from riverbeds for several decades has had detrimental effects on the environment. Several countries across the world have put strict restrictions on sand mining from riverbeds. However, in countries like India, the huge infrastructural boom has made the local construction industry to look for alternative materials to sand. This study aims at understanding the suitability of granulated blast furnace slag (GBS) as fine aggregates in masonry mortars. Apart from characterising the material properties of GBS, such as particle size distribution, pH, chemical composition, etc., of GBS, tests were performed on the mortars with GBS as fine aggregate. Additionally, the properties of five brick tall, stack bonded masonry prisms with various types of GBS mortars were studied. The mortars with mix proportions 1: 0: 6 (cement: lime: fine aggregate), 1: 1: 6, and 1: 0: 3 were considered for the study. Fresh and hardened properties of mortar, such as flow and compressive strength, were studied. To understand the behaviour of GBS mortars on masonry, tests such as compressive strength and flexure bond strength were performed on masonry prisms made with a different type of GBS mortars. Furthermore, the elastic properties of masonry with GBS mortars were also studied under compression. For comparison purposes, the properties of corresponding control mortars with natural sand as fine aggregate and masonry prisms with sand mortars were also studied under similar testing conditions. From the study, it was observed the addition of GBS negatively influenced the flow of mortars and positively influenced the compressive strength. The GBS mortars showed 20 to 25 % higher compressive strength at 28 days of age, compared to corresponding control mortars. Furthermore, masonry made with GBS mortars showed nearly 10 % higher compressive strengths compared to control specimens. But, the impact of GBS on the flexural strength of masonry was marginal.

Keywords: building materials, fine aggregate, granulated blast furnace slag in mortars, masonry properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
99 Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frames Infilled by Masonry Walls with Different Heights

Authors: Ji-Wook Mauk, Yu-Suk Kim, Hyung-Joon Kim

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This study carried out comparative seismic performance of reinforced concrete frames infilled by masonry walls with different heights. Partial and fully infilled RC frames were modeled for the research objectives and the analysis model for a bare reinforced concrete frame was established for comparison. Non-linear static analyses for the studied frames were performed to investigate their structural behavior under extreme loading conditions and to find out their collapse mechanism. It was observed from analysis results that the strengths of the partial infilled RC frames are increased and their ductility is reduced, as infilled masonry walls are higher. Especially, Reinforced concrete frames with a higher partial infilled masonry wall would experience shear failures. Non-linear dynamic analyses using 10 earthquake records show that the bare and fully infilled reinforced concrete frames present stable collapse mechanism while the reinforced concrete frames with a partially infilled masonry wall collapse in more brittle manner due to short-column effects.

Keywords: fully infilled RC frame, partially infilled RC frame, masonry wall, short-column effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
98 Numerical Simulations on the Torsional Behavior of Multistory Concrete Masonry Buildings

Authors: Alvaro Jose Cordova, Hsuan Teh Hu

Abstract:

The use of concrete masonry constructions in developing countries has become very frequent, especially for domestic purpose. Most of them with asymmetric wall configurations in plan resulting in significant torsional actions when subjected to seismic loads. The study consisted on the finding of a material model for hollow unreinforced concrete masonry and a validation with experimental data found in literature. Numerical simulations were performed to 20 buildings with variations in wall distributions and heights. Results were analyzed by inspection and with a non-linear static method. The findings revealed that eccentricities as well as structure rigidities have a strong influence on the overall response of concrete masonry buildings. In addition, slab rotations depicted more accurate information about the torsional behavior than maximum versus average displacement ratios. The failure modes in low buildings were characterized by high tensile strains in the first floor. Whereas in tall buildings these strains were lowered significantly by higher compression stresses due to a higher self-weight. These tall buildings developed multiple plastic hinges along the height. Finally, the non-linear static analysis exposed a brittle response for all masonry assemblies. This type of behavior is undesired in any construction and the need for a material model for reinforced masonry is pointed out.

Keywords: concrete damaged plasticity, concrete masonry, macro-modeling, nonlinear static analysis, torsional capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
97 Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Behaviour of Three-Leaf Masonry Walls under In-Plane Loading

Authors: Osama Amer, Yaser Abdel-Aty, Mohamed Abd El Hady

Abstract:

The present paper illustrates an experimental approach to provide understanding of the mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms of different typologies of unreinforced three-leaf masonry walls of historical Islamic architectural heritage in Egypt. The main objective of this study is to investigate the propagation of possible cracking, ultimate load, deformations and failure mechanisms. Experimental data on interface-shear and compression tests on large scale three-leaf masonry wallets are provided. The wallets were built basically of Egyptian limestone and modified lime mortar. External wallets were built of stone blocks while the inner leaf was built of rubble limestone. Different loading conditions and dimensions of core layer for two types of collar joints (with and without shear keys) are considered in the tests. Mechanical properties of the constituent materials of masonry were tested and a database of characteristic properties was created. The results of the experiments will highlight the properties, force-displacement curves, stress distribution of multiple-leaf masonry walls contributing to the derivation of rational design rules and validation of numerical models.

Keywords: masonry, three-leaf walls, mechanical behavior, testing, architectural heritage

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
96 The Influence of Strengthening on the Fundamental Frequency and Stiffness of a Confined Masonry Wall with an Opening for а Door

Authors: Emin Z. Mahmud

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This paper presents the observations from a series of shaking-table tests done on a 1:1 scaled confined masonry wall model, with opening for a door – specimens CMDuS (confined masonry wall with opening for a door before strengthening) and CMDS (confined masonry wall with opening for a door after strengthening). Frequency and stiffness changes before and after GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) wall strengthening are analyzed. Definition of dynamic properties of the models was the first step of the experimental testing, which enabled acquiring important information about the achieved stiffness (natural frequencies) of the model. The natural frequency was defined in the Y direction of the model by applying resonant frequency search tests. It is important to mention that both specimens CMDuS and CMDS are subjected to the same effects. The tests are realized in the laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS), Skopje. The specimens were examined separately on the shaking table, with uniaxial, in-plane excitation. After testing, samples were strengthened with GFRP and re-tested. The initial frequency of the undamaged model CMDuS is 13.55 Hz, while at the end of the testing, the frequency decreased to 6.38 Hz. This emphasizes the reduction of the initial stiffness of the model due to damage, especially in the masonry and tie-beam to tie-column connection. After strengthening of the damaged wall, the natural frequency increases to 10.89 Hz. This highlights the beneficial effect of the strengthening. After completion of dynamic testing at CMDS, the natural frequency is reduced to 6.66 Hz.

Keywords: behaviour of masonry structures, Eurocode, frequency, masonry, shaking table test, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
95 Assessment of the Energy Balance Method in the Case of Masonry Domes

Authors: M. M. Sadeghi, S. Vahdani

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Masonry dome structures had been widely used for covering large spans in the past. The seismic assessment of these historical structures is very complicated due to the nonlinear behavior of the material, their rigidness, and special stability configuration. The assessment method based on energy balance concept, as well as the standard pushover analysis, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods in the case of masonry dome structures. The Soltanieh dome building is used as an example to which two methods are applied. The performance points are given from superimposing the capacity, and demand curves in Acceleration Displacement Response Spectra (ADRS) and energy coordination are compared with the nonlinear time history analysis as the exact result. The results show a good agreement between the dynamic analysis and the energy balance method, but standard pushover method does not provide an acceptable estimation.

Keywords: energy balance method, pushover analysis, time history analysis, masonry dome

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
94 Seismic Behavior of Masonry Reinforced Concrete Composite Columns

Authors: Hassane Ousalem, Hideki Kimura, Akitoshi Hamada, Masuda Hiroyuki

Abstract:

To provide tall unreinforced brick masonry walls of a century-old existing building with sufficient resistance against earthquake loading actions, additional reinforced concrete columns were integrated into the building at some designated locations and jointed to the existing masonry walls through dowel shear steel bars, resulting in composite structural elements. As conditions at the interface between the existing masonry and newly added reinforced concrete parts were not well grasped and the behavior of such composite elements would be complex, the experimental investigation was carried out. Three relatively large specimens were tested to investigate the overall behavior of brick masonry-reinforced concrete composite elements under lateral cyclic loadings. Confining the brick walls on only one side or on two opposite sides, as well as providing different amounts of dowel shear steel bars at the interface were the main parameters of the investigation. Test results showed that such strengthening provide a good seismic performance even at very large lateral drifts and the investigated amount of shear dowel lead to a good performance level that would result in a considerable cost reduction of the strengthening.

Keywords: unreinforced masonry, reinforced concrete, composite column, seismic strengthening, structural testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
93 Numerical Modelling of Dry Stone Masonry Structures Based on Finite-Discrete Element Method

Authors: Ž. Nikolić, H. Smoljanović, N. Živaljić

Abstract:

This paper presents numerical model based on finite-discrete element method for analysis of the structural response of dry stone masonry structures under static and dynamic loads. More precisely, each discrete stone block is discretized by finite elements. Material non-linearity including fracture and fragmentation of discrete elements as well as cyclic behavior during dynamic load are considered through contact elements which are implemented within a finite element mesh. The application of the model was conducted on several examples of these structures. The performed analysis shows high accuracy of the numerical results in comparison with the experimental ones and demonstrates the potential of the finite-discrete element method for modelling of the response of dry stone masonry structures.

Keywords: dry stone masonry structures, dynamic load, finite-discrete element method, static load

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
92 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Mustafa Paşa Mosque in Skopje

Authors: Ozden Saygili, Eser Cakti

Abstract:

The masonry building stock in Istanbul and in other cities of Turkey are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. Determination of the safety of masonry structures against earthquakes is a complex challenge. This study deals with experimental tests and non-linear dynamic analysis of masonry structures modeled through discrete element method. The 1:10 scale model of Mustafa Paşa Mosque was constructed and the data were obtained from the sensors on it during its testing on the shake table. The results were used in the calibration/validation of the numerical model created on the basis of the 1:10 scale model built for shake table testing. 3D distinct element model was developed that represents the linear and nonlinear behavior of the shake table model as closely as possible during experimental tests. Results of numerical analyses with those from the experimental program were compared and discussed.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, non-linear modeling, shake table tests, masonry

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
91 Ceramic Ware Waste Potential as Co-Ballast in Dense Masonry Unit Production

Authors: A. A. Ajayi-Banji, M. A. Adegbile, T. D. Akpenpuun, J. Bello, O. Omobowale, D. A. Jenyo

Abstract:

Ceramic ware waste applicability as coarse aggregate was considered in this study for dense masonry unit production. The waste was crushed into 1.4 mm particle size and mixed with natural fine aggregate in the ratio 2:3. Portland ordinary cement, aggregate, and water mix ratio was 1:7:0.5. Masonry units produced were cured for 7, 21 and 28 days prior to compressive test. The result shows that curing age have a significant effect on all the compressive strength indices inspected except for Young’s modulus. Crushing force and the compressive strength of the ceramic-natural fine aggregate blocks increased by 11.7 – 54.7% and 11.6 – 59.2% respectively. The highest ceramic-natural fine block compressive strength at yield and peak, 4.97 MPa, was obtained after 21 days curing age. Ceramic aggregate introduced into the dense blocks improved the suitability of the blocks for construction purposes.

Keywords: ceramic ware waste, co-ballast, dense masonry unit, compressive strength, curing time

Procedia PDF Downloads 295