Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3234

Search results for: flat shell element

3234 Modeling Thin Shell Structures by a New Flat Shell Finite Element

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Ashraf Ayoub, Ounis Abdelhafid, Chebili Rachid

Abstract:

In this paper, a new computationally-efficient rectangular flat shell finite element named 'ACM_RSBEC' is presented. The formulated element is obtained by superposition of a new rectangular membrane element 'RSBEC' based on the strain approach and the well known plate bending element 'ACM'. This element can be used for the analysis of thin shell structures, no matter how the geometrical shape might be. Tests on standard problems have been examined. The convergence of the new formulated element is also compared to other types of quadrilateral shell elements. The presented shell element ‘ACM_RSBEC’ has been demonstrated to be effective and useful in analysing thin shell structures.

Keywords: finite element, flat shell element, strain based approach, static condensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
3233 Optimal Design of Composite Cylindrical Shell Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Haider M. Alsaeq

Abstract:

The present research is an attempt to figure out the best configuration of composite cylindrical shells of the sandwich type, i.e. the lightest design of such shells required to sustain a certain load over a certain area. The optimization is based on elastic-plastic geometrically nonlinear incremental-iterative finite element analysis. The nine-node degenerated curved shell element is used in which five degrees of freedom are specified at each nodal point, with a layered model. The formulation of the geometrical nonlinearity problem is carried out using the well-known total Lagrangian principle. For the structural optimization problem, which is dealt with as a constrained nonlinear optimization, the so-called Modified Hooke and Jeeves method is employed by considering the weight of the shell as the objective function with stress and geometrical constraints. It was concluded that the optimum design of composite sandwich cylindrical shell that have a rigid polyurethane foam core and steel facing occurs when the area covered by the shell becomes almost square with a ratio of core thickness to facing thickness lies between 45 and 49, while the optimum height to length ration varies from 0.03 to 0.08 depending on the aspect ratio of the shell and its boundary conditions.

Keywords: composite structure, cylindrical shell, optimization, non-linear analysis, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
3232 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Flat Plate-Inclined Column Connection

Authors: Rabab Allouzi, Amer Alkloub

Abstract:

As the complex shaped buildings become a popular trend for architects, this paper is presented to investigate the performance of reinforced concrete flat plate-inclined column connection. The studies on the inclined column and flat plate connections are not sufficient in comparison to those on the conventional structures. The effect of column angle of inclination on the punching shear strength is found significant and studied herein. This paper presents a non-linear finite element based modeling approach to estimate behavior of RC flat plate inclined column connection. Results from simulations of RC flat plate-straight column connection show good agreement with experimental response of specimens tested by other researchers. The model is further used to study the response of inclined columns to punching at various ranges of inclination angles. The inclination angle can be included in the punching shear strength provisions provided by ACI 318-14 to account for the effect of column inclination.

Keywords: punching shear, non-linear finite element, inclined columns, reinforced concrete connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
3231 E-Bike FE Model Analysis: Connection Stiffness of Elements with Different DOFs

Authors: Lele Zhang, Hui Leng Choo, Alexander Konyukhov, Shuguang Li

Abstract:

Finite Element (FE) model of simplified e-bike structure was generated by main frame with two tiers, which consisted of pipe, mass, beam, and shell elements (pipe 289, beam188, shell 181, shell 281, combin14, link11, mass21). These elements would be introduced and demonstrated using mathematical formulas. Based on coupling theory, constrain equations was proposed. Exporting all the parameters obtained from theory part, the connection stiffness matrix of the whole e-bike structure between each of these elements was detected.

Keywords: coupling theory, stiffness matrix, e-bike, finite element model

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
3230 Numerical Simulation of Punching Shear of Flat Plates with Low Reinforcement

Authors: Fatema-Tuz-Zahura, Raquib Ahsan

Abstract:

Punching shear failure is usually the governing failure mode of flat plate structures. Punching failure is brittle in nature which induces more vulnerability to this type of structure. In the present study, a 3D finite element model of a flat plate with low reinforcement ratio and without any transverse reinforcement has been developed. Punching shear stress and the deflection data were obtained on the surface of the flat plate as well as through the thickness of the model from numerical simulations. The obtained data were compared with the experimental results. Variation of punching stress with respect to deflection as obtained from numerical results is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results; the range of variation of punching stress is within 5%. The numerical simulation shows an early and gradual onset of nonlinearity, whereas the same is late and abrupt as observed in the experimental results. The range of variation of punching stress for different slab thicknesses between experimental and numerical results is less than 15%. The developed numerical model is useful to complement available punching test series performed in the past. The results obtained from the numerical model will be helpful for designing retrofitting schemes of flat plates.

Keywords: flat plate, finite element model, punching shear, reinforcement ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
3229 Evaluation of Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Slab Punching Shear Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Zhi Zhang, Liling Cao, Seyedbabak Momenzadeh, Lisa Davey

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) flat slab-column systems are commonly used in residential or office buildings, as the flat slab provides efficient clearance resulting in more stories at a given height than regular reinforced concrete beam-slab system. Punching shear of slab-column joints is a critical component of two-way reinforced concrete flat slab design. The unbalanced moment at the joint is transferred via slab moment and shear forces. ACI 318 provides an equation to evaluate the punching shear under the design load. It is important to note that the design code considers gravity and environmental load when considering the design load combinations, while it does not consider the effect from differential foundation settlement, which may be a governing load condition for the slab design. This paper describes how prestressed reinforced concrete slab punching shear is evaluated based on ACI 318 provisions and finite element analysis. A prestressed reinforced concrete slab under differential settlements is studied using the finite element modeling methodology. The punching shear check equation is explained. The methodology to extract data for punching shear check from the finite element model is described and correlated with the corresponding code provisions. The study indicates that the finite element analysis results should be carefully reviewed and processed in order to perform accurate punching shear evaluation. Conclusions are made based on the case studies to help engineers understand the punching shear behavior in prestressed and non-prestressed reinforced concrete slabs.

Keywords: differential settlement, finite element model, prestressed reinforced concrete slab, punching shear

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3228 Some Properties of Cut Locus of a Flat Torus

Authors: Pakkinee Chitsakul

Abstract:

In this article, we would like to show that there is no cut point of any point in a plane, but there exists the cut locus of a point in a flat torus. By the results, we would like to determine the structure of cut locus of a flat torus.

Keywords: cut locus, flat torus, geodesics

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
3227 Some Trends in Analysis of Two-Way Solid Slabs

Authors: Reem I. Al-Ya' Goub, Nasim Shatarat

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of analytical and comparative study among software programs' outputs in analysis of some two way solid slabs; flat plate, flat slab with beams and flat slab with drop panels problems that already been analyzed using Classical Equivalent Frame Method (CEFM) by several reinforced concrete book authors. The primary objective of this research is to determine the moment results using various software programs. Then, a summary of the results and differences percentages were obtained to show how analysis procedure effects the outputs of calculations that vary from software program to another when comparing them with the results of CEFM. Moment values were obtained using either the Equivalent Frame Method (EFM) or Finite Element Method (FEM) that's used among many software programs. The results of the analyses demonstrate that software programs vary markedly in terms of the information they provide to the structural designer regarding values of the model insertion, stiffness, effective moment of inertia used and specially the moment values.

Keywords: two-way solid slabs, flat plate, flat slab with beams, flat slab with drop panels, analysis, modeling, EFM, CEFM, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
3226 Analysis of Residual Stresses and Angular Distortion in Stiffened Cylindrical Shell Fillet Welds Using Finite Element Method

Authors: M. R. Daneshgar, S. E. Habibi, E. Daneshgar, A. Daneshgar

Abstract:

In this paper, a two-dimensional method is developed to simulate the fillet welds in a stiffened cylindrical shell, using finite element method. The stiffener material is aluminum 2519. The thermo-elasto-plastic analysis is used to analyze the thermo-mechanical behavior. Due to the high heat flux rate of the welding process, two uncouple thermal and mechanical analysis are carried out instead of performing a single couple thermo-mechanical simulation. In order to investigate the effects of the welding procedures, two different welding techniques are examined. The resulted residual stresses and distortions due to different welding procedures are obtained. Furthermore, this study employed the technique of element birth and death to simulate the weld filler variation with time in fillet welds. The obtained results are in good agreement with the published experimental and three-dimensional numerical simulation results. Therefore, the proposed 2D modeling technique can effectively give the corresponding results of 3D models. Furthermore, by inspection of the obtained residual hoop and transverse stresses and angular distortions, proper welding procedure is suggested.

Keywords: stiffened cylindrical shell, fillet welds, residual stress, angular distortion, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
3225 Three-Dimensional Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Semi-Spherical Shell

Authors: Yu-Hsi Huang, Ying-Der Tsai

Abstract:

Piezoelectric circular plates can provide out-of-plane vibrational displacements on low frequency and in-plane vibrational displacements on high frequency. Piezoelectric semi-spherical shell, which is double-curvature structure, can induce three-dimensional vibrational displacements over a large frequency range. In this study, three-dimensional vibrational characteristics of piezoelectric semi-spherical shells with free boundary conditions are investigated using three experimental methods and finite element numerical modeling. For the experimental measurements, amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI) is used to obtain resonant frequencies and radial and azimuthal mode shapes. This optical technique utilizes a full-field and non-contact optical system that measures both the natural frequency and corresponding vibration mode shape simultaneously in real time. The second experimental technique used, laser displacement meter is a point-wise displacement measurement method that determines the resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric shell. An impedance analyzer is used to determine the in-plane resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric semi-spherical shell. The experimental results of the resonant frequencies and mode shapes for the piezoelectric shell are verified with the result from finite element analysis. Excellent agreement between the experimental measurements and numerical calculation is presented on the three-dimensional vibrational characteristics of the piezoelectric semi-spherical shell.

Keywords: piezoelectric semi-spherical shell, mode shape, resonant frequency, electronic speckle pattern interferometry, radial vibration, azimuthal vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
3224 Modeling Revolution Shell Structures by MATLAB Programming-Axisymmetric and Nonaxisymmetric Shells

Authors: Hamadi Djamal, Labiodh Bachir, Ounis Abdelhafid, Chaalane Mourad

Abstract:

The objective of this work is setting numerically operational finite element CAXI_L for the axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric shells. This element is based on the Reissner-Mindlin theory and mixed model formulation. The MATLAB language is used for the programming. In order to test the elaborated program, some applications are carried out.

Keywords: axisymmetric shells, nonaxisymmetric behaviour, finite element, MATLAB programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
3223 Numerical Study of Flow around Flat Tube between Parallel Walls

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi

Abstract:

Flow around a flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube and it is varied in range of 100 to 300. Equations are solved by using finite volume method and results are presented in form of drag and lift coefficient. Results show that drag coefficient of flat tube is up to 66% lower than circular tube with equivalent diameter. In addition, by increasing l/D from 1 to 2, the drag coefficient of flat tube is decreased about 14-27%.

Keywords: laminar flow, flat-tube, drag coefficient, cross-flow, heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
3222 Pleated Surfaces: Experimentation and Examples

Authors: Maritza Granados Manjarrés

Abstract:

This paper makes part of an investigation project which experiments with flat surfaces in order to pleat them using tessellations and flat origami conditions. The aim of the investigation is to eventually propose not only a methodology on how to pleat those surfaces but also to find an structural system to make them work as building skins. This stage of the investigation emphasizes on the experimentation with flat surfaces and different kinds of folding patterns and shows the many examples that can be made from this experimentation.

Keywords: flat origami, fold, space, surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
3221 Generation of Mesoporous Silica Shell onto SSZ-13 and Its Effects on Methanol to Olefins

Authors: Ying Weiyong

Abstract:

The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites compromising SSZ-13 cores and mesoporous silica shells were synthesized successfully with the soft template of cetytrimethylammonium. The shell thickness could be tuned from 25 nm to 100 nm by varying the TEOS/SSZ-13 ratio. The BET and SEM results show the core-shell composites possessing the tunable surface area (544.7-811.0 m2/g) with plenty of mesopores (2.7 nm). The acidity intensity of the strong acid sites on SSZ-13 was remarkably impaired with the decoration of the mesoporous silica shell, which leads to the suppression of the hydrogen transfer reaction in MTO reaction. The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites exhibit better methanol to olefins reaction performance with a prolonged lifetime and the improvement of light olefins selectivity.

Keywords: core-shell, mesoporous silica, methanol to olefins, SSZ-13

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
3220 Comparison of Analytical Method and Software for Analysis of Flat Slab Subjected to Various Parametric Loadings

Authors: Hema V. Vanar, R. K. Soni, N. D. Shah

Abstract:

Slabs supported directly on columns without beams are known as Flat slabs. Flat slabs are highly versatile elements widely used in construction, providing minimum depth, fast construction and allowing flexible column grids. The main objective of this thesis is comparison of analytical method and soft ware for analysis of flat slab subjected to various parametric loadings. Study presents analysis of flat slab is performed under different types of gravity.

Keywords: fat slab, parametric load, analysis, software

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
3219 Optimization of Element Type for FE Model and Verification of Analyses with Physical Tests

Authors: Mustafa Tufekci, Caner Guven

Abstract:

In Automotive Industry, sliding door systems that are also used as body closures, are safety members. Extreme product tests are realized to prevent failures in a design process, but these tests realized experimentally result in high costs. Finite element analysis is an effective tool used for the design process. These analyses are used before production of a prototype for validation of design according to customer requirement. In result of this, the substantial amount of time and cost is saved. Finite element model is created for geometries that are designed in 3D CAD programs. Different element types as bar, shell and solid, can be used for creating mesh model. The cheaper model can be created by the selection of element type, but combination of element type that was used in model, number and geometry of element and degrees of freedom affects the analysis result. Sliding door system is a good example which used these methods for this study. Structural analysis was realized for sliding door mechanism by using FE models. As well, physical tests that have same boundary conditions with FE models were realized. Comparison study for these element types, were done regarding test and analyses results then the optimum combination was achieved.

Keywords: finite element analysis, sliding door mechanism, element type, structural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
3218 Seawater Changes' Estimation at Tidal Flat in Korean Peninsula Using Drone Stereo Images

Authors: Hyoseong Lee, Duk-jin Kim, Jaehong Oh, Jungil Shin

Abstract:

Tidal flat in Korean peninsula is one of the largest biodiversity tidal flats in the world. Therefore, digital elevation models (DEM) is continuously demanded to monitor of the tidal flat. In this study, DEM of tidal flat, according to different times, was produced by means of the Drone and commercial software in order to measure seawater change during high tide at water-channel in tidal flat. To correct the produced DEMs of the tidal flat where is inaccessible to collect control points, the DEM matching method was applied by using the reference DEM instead of the survey. After the ortho-image was made from the corrected DEM, the land cover classified image was produced. The changes of seawater amount according to the times were analyzed by using the classified images and DEMs. As a result, it was confirmed that the amount of water rapidly increased as the time passed during high tide.

Keywords: tidal flat, drone, DEM, seawater change

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
3217 Analytical Solution for Multi-Segmented Toroidal Shells under Uniform Pressure

Authors: Nosakhare Enoma, Alphose Zingoni

Abstract:

The requirements for various toroidal shell forms are increasing due to new applications, available storage space and the consideration of appearance. Because of the complexity of some of these structural forms, the finite element method is nowadays mainly used for their analysis, even for simple static studies. This paper presents an easy-to-use analytical algorithm for pressurized multi-segmented toroidal shells of revolution. The membrane solution, which acts as a particular solution of the bending-theory equations, is developed based on membrane theory of shells, and a general approach is formulated for quantifying discontinuity effects at the shell junctions using the well-known Geckeler’s approximation. On superimposing these effects, and applying the ensuing solution to the problem of the pressurized toroid with four segments, closed-form stress results are obtained for the entire toroid. A numerical example is carried out using the developed method. The analytical results obtained show excellent agreement with those from the finite element method, indicating that the proposed method can be also used for complementing and verifying FEM results, and providing insights on other related problems.

Keywords: bending theory of shells, membrane hypothesis, pressurized toroid, segmented toroidal vessel, shell analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
3216 Structural and Optical Characterization of [email protected] Core–Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: A. Pourahmad, Sh. Gharipour

Abstract:

The present work describes the preparation and characterization of nanosized SiO2@PbS core-shell particles by using a simple wet chemical route. This method utilizes silica spheres formation followed by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method assisted lead sulphide shell layer formation. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis spectroscopic, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. The morphological studies revealed the uniformity in size distribution with core size of 250 nm and shell thickness of 18 nm. The electron microscopic images also indicate the irregular morphology of lead sulphide shell layer. The structural studies indicate the face-centered cubic system of PbS shell with no other trace for impurities in the crystal structure.

Keywords: core-shell, nanostructure, semiconductor, optical property, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
3215 Exergy Model for a Solar Water Heater with Flat Plate Collector

Authors: P. Sathyakala, G. Sai Sundara Krishnan

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to derive an exergy model for a solar water heater with honey comb structure in order to identify the element which has larger irreversibility in the system. This will help us in finding the means to reduce the wasted work potential so that the overall efficiency of the system can be improved by finding the ways to reduce those wastages.

Keywords: exergy, energy balance, entropy balance, work potential, degradation, honey comb, flat plate collector

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
3214 The Use of the Flat Field Panel for the On-Ground Calibration of Metis Coronagraph on Board of Solar Orbiter

Authors: C. Casini, V. Da Deppo, P. Zuppella, P. Chioetto, A. Slemer, F. Frassetto, M. Romoli, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, V. Andretta, E. Antonucci, A. Bemporad, M. Casti, Y. De Leo, M. Fabi, S. Fineschi, F. Frassati, C. Grimani, G. Jerse, P. Heinzel, K. Heerlein, A. Liberatore, E. Magli, G. Naletto, G. Nicolini, M.G. Pelizzo, P. Romano, C. Sasso, D. Spadaro, M. Stangalini, T. Straus, R. Susino, L. Teriaca, M. Uslenghi, A. Volpicelli

Abstract:

Solar Orbiter, launched on February 9th 2020, is an ESA/NASA mission conceived to study the Sun. The payload is composed of 10 instruments, among which there is the Metis coronagraph. A coronagraph aims at taking images of the solar corona: the occulter element simulates a total solar eclipse. This work presents some of the results obtained in the visible light band (580-640 nm) using a flat field panel source. The flat field panel gives a uniform illumination; consequently, it has been used during the on-ground calibration for several purposes: evaluating the response of each pixel of the detector (linearity); and characterizing the Field of View of the coronagraph. As a conclusion, a major result is the verification that the requirement for the Field of View (FoV) of Metis is fulfilled. Some investigations are in progress in order to verify that the performance measured on-ground did not change after launch.

Keywords: solar orbiter, Metis, coronagraph, flat field panel, calibration, on-ground, performance

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3213 Numerical Investigation of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of a Flat Tube in Cross-Flow of Air

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi

Abstract:

Heat transfer from flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube which is varied in range of 100 to 300. In these range of Reynolds number flow is considered to be laminar, unsteady, and incompressible. Equations are solved by using finite volume method. Results show that increasing l/D from 1 to 2 has insignificant effect on heat transfer and Nusselt number of flat tube is slightly lower than circular tube. However, thermal-hydraulic performance of flat tube is up to 2.7 times greater than circular tube.

Keywords: laminar flow, flat tube, convective heat transfer, heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
3212 Effects of Palm Kernel Expeller Processing on the Ileal Populations of Lactobacilli and Escherichia Coli in Broiler Chickens

Authors: B. Navidshad

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of enzymatic treatment and shell content of palm kernel expeller (PKE) on the ileal Lactobacilli and Escherichia coli populations in broiler chickens. At the finisher phase, one hundred male broiler chickens (Cobb-500) were fed a control diet or the diets containing 200 g/kg of normal PKE (70 g/kg shell), low shell PKE (30 g/kg shell), enzymatic treated PKE or low shell-enzymatic treated PKE. The quantitative real-time PCR were used to determine the ileal bacteria populations. The lowest ileal Lactobacilli population was found in the chickens fed the low shell PKE diet. Dietary normal PKE or low shell-enzymatic treated PKE decreased the Escherichia coli population compared to the control diet. The results suggested that PKE could be included up to 200 g/kg in the finisher diet, however, any screening practice to reduce the shell content of PKE without enzymatic degradation of β-mannan, decrease ileal Lactobacilli population.

Keywords: palm kernel expeller, exogenous enzyme, shell content, ileum bacteria, broiler chickens

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
3211 Flat-Top Apodization of Laser Beams by Means of Acousto-Optics

Authors: Sergey I. Chizhikov, Vladimir Y. Molchanov, Konstantin B. Yushkov

Abstract:

We demonstrate a method for adaptive spatial shaping of laser beams by means of acousto-optic Bragg diffraction. Transformation of the angular spectrum during Bragg diffraction is used to convert Gaussian intensity distribution into a flat-top one. Theoretical model is supported by the experiment.

Keywords: acousto-optics, flat top, beam shaping, Bragg diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
3210 Research on Static and Dynamic Behavior of New Combination of Aluminum Honeycomb Panel and Rod Single-Layer Latticed Shell

Authors: Xu Chen, Zhao Caiqi

Abstract:

In addition to the advantages of light weight, resistant corrosion and ease of processing, aluminum is also applied to the long-span spatial structures. However, the elastic modulus of aluminum is lower than that of the steel. This paper combines the high performance aluminum honeycomb panel with the aluminum latticed shell, forming a new panel-and-rod composite shell structure. Through comparative analysis between the static and dynamic performance, the conclusion that the structure of composite shell is noticeably superior to the structure combined before.

Keywords: combination of aluminum honeycomb panel, rod latticed shell, dynamic performence, response spectrum analysis, seismic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
3209 Shear Strength of Reinforced Web Openings in Steel Beams

Authors: K. S. Sivakumaran, Bo Chen

Abstract:

The floor beams of steel buildings, cold-formed steel floor joists, in particular, often require large web openings, which may affect their shear capacities. A cost effective way to mitigate the detrimental effects of such openings is to weld/fasten reinforcements. A difficulty associated with an experimental investigation to establish suitable reinforcement schemes for openings in shear zone is that moment always coexists with the shear, and thus, it is impossible to create pure shear state in experiments, resulting in moment influenced results. However, finite element analysis can be conveniently used to investigate the pure shear behaviour of webs including webs with reinforced opening. This paper presents that the details associated with the finite element analysis of thick/thin-plates (representing the web of hot-rolled steel beam, and the web of a cold-formed steel member) having a large reinforced openings. The study considered thin simply supported rectangular plates subjected to inplane shear loadings until failure (including post-buckling behaviour). The plate was modelled using geometrically non-linear quadrilateral shell elements, and non-linear stress-strain relationship based on experiments. Total Lagrangian (TL) with large displacement/small strain formulation was used for such analysis. The model also considered the initial geometric imperfections. This study considered three reinforcement schemes, namely, flat, lip, and angle reinforcements. This paper discusses the modelling considerations and presents the results associated with the various reinforcement schemes under consideration. The paper briefly compares the analysis results with the experimental results.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, finite element analysis, opening, reinforcement, shear resistance

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3208 Non-Linear Finite Element Investigation on the Behavior of CFRP Strengthened Steel Square HSS Columns under Eccentric Loading

Authors: Tasnuba Binte Jamal, Khan Mahmud Amanat

Abstract:

Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite materials have proven to have valuable properties and suitability to be used in the construction of new buildings and in upgrading the existing ones due to its effectiveness, ease of implementation and many more. In the present study, a numerical finite element investigation has been conducted using ANSYS 18.1 to study the behavior of square HSS AISC sections under eccentric compressive loading strengthened with CFRP materials. A three-dimensional finite element model for square HSS section using shell element was developed. Application of CFRP strengthening was incorporated in the finite element model by adding an additional layer of shell elements. Both material and geometric nonlinearities were incorporated in the model. The developed finite element model was applied to simulate experimental studies done by past researchers and it was found that good agreement exists between the current analysis and past experimental results, which established the acceptability and validity of the developed finite element model to carry out further investigation. Study was then focused on some selected non-compact AISC square HSS columns and the effects of number of CFRP layers, amount of eccentricities and cross-sectional geometry on the strength gain of those columns were observed. Load was applied at a distance equal to the column dimension and twice that of column dimension. It was observed that CFRP strengthening is comparatively effective for smaller eccentricities. For medium sized sections, strengthening tends to be effective at smaller eccentricities as well. For relatively large AISC square HSS columns, with increasing number of CFRP layers (from 1 to 3 layers) the gain in strength is approximately 1 to 38% to that of unstrengthened section for smaller eccentricities and slenderness ratio ranging from 27 to 54. For medium sized square HSS sections, effectiveness of CFRP strengthening increases approximately by about 12 to 162%. The findings of the present study provide a better understanding of the behavior of HSS sections strengthened with CFRP subjected to eccentric compressive load.

Keywords: CFRP strengthening, eccentricity, finite element model, square hollow section

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3207 Shell Lime: An Eco-Friendly and Cost-Efficient Alternative for Agricultural Lime

Authors: Hene L. Hapinat, Mae D. Dumapig

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the lime potential of 3 mollusks, namely: Crassostrea iredalei (Oyster shell), Turritella terebra (Turret shell), and Anodontia edentula (Mangrove clam shell) as alternative for commercially produced agricultural lime. The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and the lime concentration using Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE) of each shellfish species were measured and tested for the enhancement of an acidic soil. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments replicated 3 times. The treatments were as follows: Treatment A- 100 g agricultural lime; B- 100 g oyster shell lime; C- 100 g turret shell lime; and D- 100 g mangrove clam shell lime. Each treatment was combined to the acidic soil sample. The results were statistically analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Square Difference (LSD) at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. Results revealed that lime produced from the 3 selected mollusks can be a potential source of alternative and/or supplement materials for agricultural lime in dealing with soil acidity, entailing lower cost of farm production.

Keywords: shell lime, pH, calcium carbonate concentrations, mollusks, agricultural lime, lime potential concentration, acidic soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
3206 Production Process of Coconut-Shell Product in Amphawa District

Authors: Wannee Sutthachaidee

Abstract:

The study of the production process of coconut-shell product in Amphawa, Samutsongkram Province is objected to study the pattern of the process of coconut-shell product by focusing in the 3 main processes which are inbound logistics process, production process and outbound process. The result of the research: There were 4 main results from the study. Firstly, most of the manufacturer of coconut-shell product is usually owned by a single owner and the quantity of the finished product is quite low and the main labor group is local people. Secondly, the production process can be divided into 4 stages which are pre-production process, production process, packaging process and distribution process. Thirdly, each 3 of the logistics process of coconut shell will find process which may cause the problem to the business but the process which finds the most problem is the production process because the production process needs the skilled labor and the quantity of the labor does not match with the demand from the customers. Lastly, the factors which affect the production process of the coconut shell can be founded in almost every process of the process such as production design, packaging design, sourcing supply and distribution management.

Keywords: production process, coconut-shell product, Amphawa District, inbound logistics process

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
3205 Hot Spot Stress Analysis and Parametric Study on Rib-To-Deck Welded Connections in Orthotropic Steel Bridge Decks

Authors: Dibu Dave Mbako, Bin Cheng

Abstract:

This paper study the stress variation of the welded joints in the rib-to-deck connection structure, the influence stress of the deck plate and u-rib thickness at different positions. A Finite-element model of orthotropic steel deck structure using solid element and shell element was established in ABAQUS. Under a single wheel load, the static response was analyzed to understand the structural behaviors and examine stress distribution. A parametric study showed that the geometric parameters have a significant effect on the hot spot stress at the weld toe, but has little impact on the stress concentration factor. The increase of the thickness of the deck plate will lead to the decrease of the hot spot stress at the weld toe and the maximum deflection of the deck plate. The surface stresses of the deck plate are significantly larger than those of the rib near the joint in the 80% weld penetration into the u-rib.

Keywords: orthotropic steel bridge deck, rib-to-deck connection, hot spot stress, finite element method, stress distribution

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