Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Farwa Kazmi

6 Obstacle Detection and Path Tracking Application for Disables

Authors: Aliya Ashraf, Mehreen Sirshar, Fatima Akhtar, Farwa Kazmi, Jawaria Wazir


Vision, the basis for performing navigational tasks, is absent or greatly reduced in visually impaired people due to which they face many hurdles. For increasing the navigational capabilities of visually impaired people a desktop application ODAPTA is presented in this paper. The application uses camera to capture video from surroundings, apply various image processing algorithms to get information about path and obstacles, tracks them and delivers that information to user through voice commands. Experimental results show that the application works effectively for straight paths in daylight.

Keywords: visually impaired, ODAPTA, Region of Interest (ROI), driver fatigue, face detection, expression recognition, CCD camera, artificial intelligence

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5 A Problem with IFOC and a New PWM Based 180 Degree Conduction Mode

Authors: Usman Nasir, Minxiao Han, S. M. R. Kazmi


Three phase inverters being used today are based on field orientation control (FOC) and sine wave PWM (SPWM) techniques because 120 degree or 180 degree conduction methods produce high value of THD (total harmonic distortion) in the power system. The indirect field orientation control (IFOC) method is difficult to implement in real systems due to speed sensor accuracy issue. This paper discusses the problem with IFOC and a PWM based 180 degree conduction mode for the three phase inverter. The modified control method improves THD and this paper also compares the results obtained using modified control method with the conventional 180 degree conduction mode.

Keywords: three phase inverters, IFOC, THD, sine wave PWM (SPWM)

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4 Static Priority Approach to Under-Frequency Based Load Shedding Scheme in Islanded Industrial Networks: Using the Case Study of Fatima Fertilizer Company Ltd - FFL

Authors: S. H. Kazmi, T. Ahmed, K. Javed, A. Ghani


In this paper static scheme of under-frequency based load shedding is considered for chemical and petrochemical industries with islanded distribution networks relying heavily on the primary commodity to ensure minimum production loss, plant downtime or critical equipment shutdown. A simplistic methodology is proposed for in-house implementation of this scheme using underfrequency relays and a step by step guide is provided including the techniques to calculate maximum percentage overloads, frequency decay rates, time based frequency response and frequency based time response of the system. Case study of FFL electrical system is utilized, presenting the actual system parameters and employed load shedding settings following the similar series of steps. The arbitrary settings are then verified for worst overload conditions (loss of a generation source in this case) and comprehensive system response is then investigated.

Keywords: islanding, under-frequency load shedding, frequency rate of change, static UFLS

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3 TP53 Mutations in Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer in Young Pakistani Patients

Authors: Nadia Naseem, Farwa Batool, Nasir Mehmood, AbdulHannan Nagi


Background: The incidence and mortality of breast cancer vary significantly in geographically distinct populations. In Pakistan, breast cancer has shown an increase in incidence in young females and is characterized by more aggressive behavior. The tumor suppressor TP53 gene is a crucial genetic factor that plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis. This study investigated the TP53 mutations in molecular subtypes of both nodes negative and positive breast cancer in young Pakistani patients. Material and Methods: p53, Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR), Her-2 neu and Ki 67 expressions were analyzed immunohistochemically in a series of 75 node negative (A) and 75 node positive (B) young (aged: 19-40 years) breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2014 to 2017 at two leading hospitals of Punjab, Pakistan. Tumor tissue specimens and peripheral blood samples were examined for TP53 mutations by direct sequencing of the gene (exons 4-9). The relation of TP53 mutations to these markers and clinicopathological data was investigated. Results: Mean age of the patients was 32.4 + 9.1 SD. Invasive breast carcinoma was the most frequent histological variant (A=92%, B=94.6%). Grade 3 carcinoma was the commonest grade (A=72%, B=81.3%). Triple negative cases (ER-, PR-, Her-2) formed most of the molecular subtypes (A=44%, B=50.6%). A total of 17.2% (A: 6.6%, B: 10.6%) patients showed TP53 mutations. Mutations were significantly more frequent in triple negative cases (A: 74.8%, B: 62.2%) compared to HER2-positive patients (P < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis of the whole patient group, the independent prognosticator were triple negative cases (P=0.021), TP53 overexpression by IHC (P=0.001) and advanced-stage disease (P=0.007). No statistically significant correlation between TP53 mutations and clinicopathological parameters was found (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It is concluded that TP53 mutations are infrequently present in breast carcinoma of young Pakistani population and there was no significant correlation between p53 mutation and early onset disease. Immunohistochemically detected TP53 expression in our resource-constrained to set up can be beneficial in predicting mutations at the younger age in our population.

Keywords: immunohistochemistry (IHC), invasive breast carcinoma (IBC), Pakistan, TP53

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2 Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Behaviour in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Cambodia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Farwa Rizvi, Joanne Williams, Humaira Maheen, Elizabeth Hoban


There is an increase in risky sexual behavior and unsafe sex in adolescent girls and young women aged 15 to 24 years in Cambodia, which negatively affects their reproductive health by increasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Risky sexual behavior includes ‘having sex at an early age, having multiple sexual partners, having sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and unprotected sexual behaviors’. A systematic review of quantitative research conducted in Cambodia was undertaken, using the theoretical framework of the Social Ecological Model to identify the personal, social and cultural factors associated with risky sexual behavior and unsafe sex in young Cambodian women. PRISMA guidelines were used to search databases including Medline Complete, PsycINFO, CINAHL Complete, Academic Search Complete, Global Health, and Social Work Abstracts. Additional searches were conducted in Science Direct, Google Scholar and in the grey literature sources. A risk-of-bias tool developed explicitly for the systematic review of cross-sectional studies was used. Summary item on the overall risk of study bias after the inter-rater response showed that the risk-of-bias was high in two studies, moderate in one study and low in one study. The search strategy included a combination of subject terms and free text terms. The medical subject headings (MeSH) terms included were; contracept* or ‘birth control’ or ‘family planning’ or pregnan* or ‘safe sex’ or ‘protected intercourse’ or ‘unprotected intercourse’ or ‘protected sex’ or ‘unprotected sex’ or ‘risky sexual behaviour*’ or ‘abort*’ or ‘planned parenthood’ or ‘unplanned pregnancy’ AND ( barrier* or obstacle* or challenge* or knowledge or attitude* or factor* or determinant* or choic* or uptake or discontinu* or acceptance or satisfaction or ‘needs assessment’ or ‘non-use’ or ‘unmet need’ or ‘decision making’ ) AND Cambodia*. Initially, 300 studies were identified by using key words and finally, four quantitative studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. The four studies were published between 2010 and 2016. The study participants ranged in age from 10-24 years, single or married, with 3 to 10 completed years of education. The mean age at sexual debut was reported to be 18 years. Using the perspective of the Social Ecological Model, risky sexual behavior was associated with individual-level factors including young age at sexual debut, low education, unsafe sex under the influence of alcohol and substance abuse, multiple sexual partners or transactional sex. Family level factors included living away from parents, orphan status and low levels of family support. Peer and partner level factors included peer delinquency and lack of condom use. Low socioeconomic status at the society level was also associated with risky sexual behaviour. There is scant research on sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in Cambodia. Individual, family and social factors were significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour. More research is required to inform potential preventive strategies and policies that address young women’s sexual and reproductive health.

Keywords: adolescents, high-risk sex, sexual activity, unplanned pregnancies

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1 Spatial Assessment of Creek Habitats of Marine Fish Stock in Sindh Province

Authors: Syed Jamil H. Kazmi, Faiza Sarwar


The Indus delta of Sindh Province forms the largest creeks zone of Pakistan. The Sindh coast starts from the mouth of Hab River and terminates at Sir Creek area. In this paper, we have considered the major creeks from the site of Bin Qasim Port in Karachi to Jetty of Keti Bunder in Thatta District. A general decline in the mangrove forest has been observed that within a span of last 25 years. The unprecedented human interventions damage the creeks habitat badly which includes haphazard urban development, industrial and sewage disposal, illegal cutting of mangroves forest, reduced and inconsistent fresh water flow mainly from Jhang and Indus rivers. These activities not only harm the creeks habitat but affected the fish stock substantially. Fishing is the main livelihood of coastal people but with the above-mentioned threats, it is also under enormous pressure by fish catches resulted in unchecked overutilization of the fish resources. This pressure is almost unbearable when it joins with deleterious fishing methods, uncontrolled fleet size, increase trash and by-catch of juvenile and illegal mesh size. Along with these anthropogenic interventions study area is under the red zone of tropical cyclones and active seismicity causing floods, sea intrusion, damage mangroves forests and devastation of fish stock. In order to sustain the natural resources of the Indus Creeks, this study was initiated with the support of FAO, WWF and NIO, the main purpose was to develop a Geo-Spatial dataset for fish stock assessment. The study has been spread over a year (2013-14) on monthly basis which mainly includes detailed fish stock survey, water analysis and few other environmental analyses. Environmental analysis also includes the habitat classification of study area which has done through remote sensing techniques for 22 years’ time series (1992-2014). Furthermore, out of 252 species collected, fifteen species from estuarine and marine groups were short-listed to measure the weight, health and growth of fish species at each creek under GIS data through SPSS system. Furthermore, habitat suitability analysis has been conducted by assessing the surface topographic and aspect derivation through different GIS techniques. The output variables then overlaid in GIS system to measure the creeks productivity. Which provided the results in terms of subsequent classes: extremely productive, highly productive, productive, moderately productive and less productive. This study has revealed the Geospatial tools utilization along with the evaluation of the fisheries resources and creeks habitat risk zone mapping. It has also been identified that the geo-spatial technologies are highly beneficial to identify the areas of high environmental risk in Sindh Creeks. This has been clearly discovered from this study that creeks with high rugosity are more productive than the creeks with low levels of rugosity. The study area has the immense potential to boost the economy of Pakistan in terms of fish export, if geo-spatial techniques are implemented instead of conventional techniques.

Keywords: fish stock, geo-spatial, productivity analysis, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 172