Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6088

Search results for: Growth Hormone Gene

6088 Detection of Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene in Holstein Cattle

Authors: Emine Şahin, Murat Soner Balcıoğlu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the growth hormone (bGH) gene polymorphism in the Holstein cattle growing around Antalya in Turkey. In order to determine the bGH-AluI polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was performed. A 891 bp fragment of bGH was amplified and two types of alleles C and D for bGH were observed. In this study, the frequencies of C and D alleles were 0.8438 and 0.1562, respectively. The genotype frequencies for CC, CD and DD were 0.787, 0.191 and 0.022, respectively. According to the results of the chi-square test, a significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not determined for the bGH locus in the population.

Keywords: Growth Hormone Gene, Holstein , Polymorphism, RFLP

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6087 Associations between Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene on Milk Production, Fat and Protein Content in Friesian Holstein Cattle

Authors: Tety Hartatik, Dian Kurniawati, Adiarto

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to determine the associations between polymorphism of the bovine growth hormone (GH) gene (Leu/Val, L/V) and milk production of Friesian Holstein Cattle. A total of 62 cows which consist of two Friesian Holstein groups (cattle from New Zealand are 19 heads and cattle from Australia are 43 heads). We perform the PCR and RFLP method for analyzing the genotype of the target gene GH 211 bp in the part of intron 4 and exon 5 of GH gene. The frequencies of genotypes LL were higher than genotype LV. The number of genotype LL in New Zealand and Australia groups are 84% and 79%, respectively. The number of genotype LV in New Zealand and Australia groups are 16% and 21%, respectively. The association between Leu/Val polymorphism on milk production, fat and protein content in both groups does not show the significant effect. However base on the groups (cows from New Zealand compare with those from Australia) show the significant effect on fat and protein content.

Keywords: Friesian Holstein, fat content, growth hormone gene, milk production, PCR-RLFP, protein content

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6086 Bioinformatic Study of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Gene in Different Buffalo Breeds

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Adeela Ajmal, Kim EuiSoo, Noor-ul-Ain

Abstract:

World wild, buffalo production is considered as most important component of food industry. Efficient buffalo production is related with reproductive performance of this species. Lack of knowledge of reproductive efficiency and its related genes in buffalo species is a major constraint for sustainable buffalo production. In this study, we performed some bioinformatics analysis on Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene and explored the possible relationship of this gene among different buffalo breeds and with other farm animals. We also found the evolution pattern for this gene among these species. We investigate CDS lengths, Stop codon variation, homology search, signal peptide, isoelectic point, tertiary structure, motifs and phylogenetic tree. The results of this study indicate 4 different motif in this gene, which are Activin-recp, GS motif, STYKc Protein kinase and transmembrane. The results also indicate that this gene has very close relationship with cattle, bison, sheep and goat. Multiple alignment (MA) showed high conservation of motif which indicates constancy of this gene during evolution. The results of this study can be used and applied for better understanding of this gene for better characterization of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) gene structure in different farm animals, which would be helpful for efficient breeding plans for animal’s production.

Keywords: buffalo, FSHR gene, bioinformatics, production

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6085 Detection of MspI Polymorphism and SNP of GH Gene in Some Camel Breeds Reared in Egypt

Authors: Sekena H. Abd El-Aziem, Heba A. M. Abd El-Kader, Sally S. Alam, Othman E. Othman

Abstract:

Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone synthesized and secreted by the somatotroph cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in a circadian and pulsatile manner, the pattern of which plays an important role in postnatal longitudinal growth and development, tissue growth, lactation, reproduction as well as protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this study was to detect the genetic polymorphism of GH gene in five camel breeds reared in Egypt; Sudany, Somali, Mowaled, Maghrabi and Falahy, using PCR-RFLP technique. Also this work aimed to identify the single nucleotide polymorphism between different genotypes detected in these camel breeds. The amplified fragment of camel GH at 613-bp was digested with the restriction enzyme MspI and the result revealed the presence of three different genotypes; CC, CT and TT in tested breeds and significant differences were recorded in the genotype frequencies between these camel breeds. The result showed that the Maghrabi breed that is classified as a dual purpose camels had higher frequency for allele C (0.75) than those in the other tested four breeds. The sequence analysis declared the presence of a SNP (C→T) at position 264 in the amplified fragment which is responsible for the destruction of the restriction site C^CGG and consequently the appearance of two different alleles C and T. The nucleotide sequences of camel GH alleles T and C were submitted to nucleotide sequences database NCBI/Bankit/GenBank and have accession numbers: KP143517 and KP143518, respectively. It is concluded that only one SNP C→T was detected in GH gene among the five tested camel breeds reared in Egypt and this nucleotide substitution can be used as a marker for the genetic biodiversity between camel breeds reared in Egypt. Also, due to the possible association between allele C and higher growth rate, we can used it in MAS for camels and enter the camels possess this allele in breeding program as a way for enhancement of growth trait in camel breeds reared in Egypt.

Keywords: camel breeds in Egypt, GH, PCR-RFLP, SNPs

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6084 The Effect of Blue Lighting on Feeding Behaviour, Growth, and Corticosterone of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Sri Harimurti, Diah Reni Asih

Abstract:

This study was designated to investigate the effect of intermittent and continuous blue lighting on the feeding behaviour, growth and corticosterone hormone concentration of broiler. Two thousands and seven hundreds unsexed day-old broiler were divided into three groups of lighting treatment. Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 300 birds. The treatments were ordinary lighting (C), intermittent blue lighting (IBL) and continuous blue lighting (CBL). The data were collected in the study were feeding behaviour such as feeding duration and frequency of feeding, growth rate of birds and corticosterone hormone concentration. Results showed that the CBL have significant effect (P<0,05) on duration and frequency of feeding and growth rate of birds. The CBL have the highest feeding duration, the lowest frequency of feeding that those 290.33±1.52 minutes/day, 35.58±0.50 times/day at 15 to 28 days of age.The concentration of corticosterone hormone of IBL and CBL were a significant (P<0.05) decrease. The conclusion of this study indicated that continuous blue lighting may be a good tool for improving welfare management of broiler.

Keywords: blue light, broiler chickens, corticosterone hormone, feeding behaviour, growth rate

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6083 The Relationship between Level of Anxiety and the Development of Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency

Authors: Ewa Mojs, Katarzyna Wiechec, Maia Kubiak, Wlodzimierz Samborski

Abstract:

Interactions between mother’s psychological condition and child’s health status are complex and derive from the nature of the mother-child relationship. The aim of the study was to analyze the issue of anxiety amongst mothers of short children in the aspect of growth hormone therapy. The study was based on a group of 101 mothers of originally short-statured children – 70 with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and 31 undergoing the diagnostic process, without any treatment. Collected medical data included child's gender, height and weight, chronological age, bone age delay, and rhGH therapy duration. For all children, the height SDS and BMI SDS were calculated. To evaluate anxiety in mothers, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used. Obtained results revealed low trait anxiety levels, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. State anxiety levels were average when mothers of all children were analyzed together, but when divided into groups, statistical differences appeared. Mothers of children without diagnosis and treatment had significantly higher levels of state anxiety than mothers of children with GHD receiving appropriate therapy. These results show, that the occurrence of growth failure in children is not related to high maternal trait anxiety, but the lack of diagnosis and lack of appropriate treatment generates higher levels of maternal state anxiety than the process of rh GH therapy in the offspring. Commencement of growth hormone therapy induce a substantial reduction of the state anxiety in mothers, and the duration of treatment causes its further decrease.

Keywords: anxiety, development, growth hormone deficiency, motherhood

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6082 Polymorphism in Myostatin Gene and Its Association with Growth Traits in Kurdi Sheep of Northern Khorasan

Authors: Masoud Alipanah, Sekineh Akbari, Gholamreza Dashab

Abstract:

Myostatin genes or factor 8 affecting on growth and making differentiation works (GDF8) as a moderator in the development of skeletal muscle inhibitor. If mutations occurs in the coding region of myostatin, alter its inhibitory role and the muscle growth is increased. In this study, blood samples were collected randomly from 60 Kurdish sheep in northern Khorasan and DNA extraction was performed using a modified salt. A fragment 337 bp from exon 3 myostatin gene and-specific primers by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were amplified. In order to detect different forms of an allele at this locus HaeΙΙΙ restriction enzymes and PCR-RFLP analysis were used. Band patterns clarification was performed using agarose gel electrophoresis. The frequency of genotypes mm, Mm, and MM, were respectively detected, 0, 0.15 and 0.85. The allele frequency for alleles m and M, were respectively, 0.07 and 0.93. The statistical analyses indicated that m allele was significantly associated with body weight. The results of this study suggest that the Myostatin gene possibly is a candidate gene that affects growth traits in Kurdish sheep.

Keywords: GDF8 gene, Kurdi Sheep of Northern Khorasan, polymorphism, weight traits

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6081 Effect of Deer Antler Extract on Osteogenic Gene Expression and Longitudinal Bone Growth of Adolescent Male Rats

Authors: Kang-Hyun Leem, Myung-Gyou Kim, Hye Kyung Kim

Abstract:

Deer antler, traditionally used as a tonic and valuable drug in oriental medicine, has been considered to possess bone-strengthening activity. The upper section, mid section, and base of the antler has been known to exhibit different biological properties. Present study was performed to examine the effects of different parts of deer antler extract (DH) on osteogenic gene expressions in MG-63 cells and longitudinal bone growth in adolescent male rats. The expressions of osteogenic genes, collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osteopontin, were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Longitudinal bone growth was measured in 3-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats using fluorescence microscopy. To examine the effects on the growth plate metabolism, the total height of growth plate and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were measured. Collagen and osteocalcin mRNA expressions were increased by all three parts of the DH treatment while osteopontin gene expression was not affected by any of the DH treatment. Alkaline phosphatase gene expression was increased by upper and mid part of DH while base part of DH fails to affect alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The upper and mid parts of the DH treatment enhanced longitudinal bone growth and total height of growth plate. The induction of BMP-2 protein expression in growth plate assessed by immunostaining was also promoted by upper and mid parts of the DH treatment. These results suggest that DH, especially upper and mid parts, stimulate osteogenic gene expressions and have the effect on bone growth in adolescent rats and might be used for the growth delayed adolescent and inherent growth failure patient.

Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, deer antler, longitudinal bone growth, osteogenic genes

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6080 Construction of a Fusion Gene Carrying E10A and K5 with 2A Peptide-Linked by Using Overlap Extension PCR

Authors: Tiancheng Lan

Abstract:

E10A is a kind of replication-defective adenovirus which carries the human endostatin gene to inhibit the growth of tumors. Kringle 5(K5) has almost the same function as angiostatin to also inhibit the growth of tumors since they are all the byproduct of the proteolytic cleavage of plasminogen. Tumor size increasing can be suppressed because both of the endostatin and K5 can restrain the angiogenesis process. Therefore, in order to improve the treatment effect on tumor, 2A peptide is used to construct a fusion gene carrying both E10A and K5. Using 2A peptide is an ideal strategy when a fusion gene is expressed because it can avoid many problems during the expression of more than one kind of protein. The overlap extension PCR is also used to connect 2A peptide with E10A and K5. The final construction of fusion gene E10A-2A-K5 can provide a possible new method of the anti-angiogenesis treatment with a better expression performance.

Keywords: E10A, Kringle 5, 2A peptide, overlap extension PCR

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6079 Polymorphisms of Calpastatin Gene and Its Association with Growth Traits in Indonesian Thin Tail Sheep

Authors: Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong, Cece Sumantri, Ronny Rachman Noor, Rachmat Herman, Mohamad Yamin

Abstract:

Calpastatin involved in various physiological processes in the body such as the protein turnover, growth, fusion and mioblast migration. Thus, allegedly Calpastatin gene diversity (CAST) have an association with growth and potential use as candidate genes for growth trait. This study aims to identify the association between the genetic diversity of CAST gene with some growth properties such as body dimention (morphometric), body weight and daily weight gain in sheep. A total of 157 heads of Thin Tail Sheep (TTS) reared intensively for fattening purposes in the uniform environmental conditions. Overall sheep used were male, and maintained for 3 months. The parameters of growth properties were measured among others: body weight gain (ADG) (g/head / day), body weight (kg), body length (cm), chest circumference (cm), height (cm). All the sheep were genotyped by using PCR-SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) methods. CAST gene in locus fragment intron 5 - exon 6 were amplified with a predicted length of about 254 bp PCR products. Then the sheep were stratified based on their CAST genotypes. The result of this research showed that no association were found between the CAST gene variations with morphometric body weight, but there was a significant association with daily body weight gain (ADG) in sheep observed. CAST-23 and CAST-33 genotypes has higher average daily gain than other genotypes. CAST-23 and CAST-33 genotypes that carrying the CAST-2 and CAST-3 alleles potential to be used in the selection of the nature of the growth trait of the TTS sheep.

Keywords: body weight, calpastatin, genotype, growth trait, thin tail sheep

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6078 Integration of Microarray Data into a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model to Study Flux Distribution after Gene Knockout

Authors: Mona Heydari, Ehsan Motamedian, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati

Abstract:

Prediction of perturbations after genetic manipulation (especially gene knockout) is one of the important challenges in systems biology. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced that integrates microarray data into the metabolic model. The algorithm was used to study the change in the cell phenotype after knockout of Gss gene in Escherichia coli BW25113. Algorithm implementation indicated that gene deletion resulted in more activation of the metabolic network. Growth yield was more and less regulating gene were identified for mutant in comparison with the wild-type strain.

Keywords: metabolic network, gene knockout, flux balance analysis, microarray data, integration

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6077 The Expression of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene with Fat Accumulations and Serum Biochemical Levels in Betong (KU Line) and Broiler Chickens

Authors: W. Loongyai, N. Saengsawang, W. Danvilai, C. Kridtayopas, P. Sopannarath, C. Bunchasak

Abstract:

Betong chicken is a slow growing and a lean strain of chicken, while the rapid growth of broiler is accompanied by increased fat. We investigated the growth performance, fat accumulations, lipid serum biochemical levels and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression of female Betong (KU line) at the age of 4 and 6 weeks. A total of 80 female Betong chickens (KU line) and 80 female broiler chickens were reared under open system (each group had 4 replicates of 20 chicks per pen). The results showed that feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) of broiler chicken were significantly higher than Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01), while feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Betong (KU line) at week 6 were significantly lower than broiler chicken (P < 0.01) at 6 weeks. At 4 and 6 weeks, two birds per replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. Carcass weight did not significantly differ between treatments; the percentage of abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat yield was higher in the broiler (P < 0.01) at 4 and 6 week. Total cholesterol and LDL level of broiler were higher than Betong (KU line) at 4 and 6 weeks (P < 0.05). Abdominal fat samples were collected for total RNA extraction. The cDNA was amplified using primers specific for LPL gene expression and analysed using real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression of LPL gene was not different when compared between Betong (KU line) and broiler chickens at the age of 4 and 6 weeks (P > 0.05). Our results indicated that broiler chickens had high growth rate and fat accumulation when compared with Betong (KU line) chickens, whereas LPL gene expression did not differ between breeds.

Keywords: lipoprotein lipase gene, Betong (KU line), broiler, abdominal fat, gene expression

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6076 THRAP2 Gene Identified as a Candidate Susceptibility Gene of Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases Pedigree in Tunisian Population

Authors: Ghazi Chabchoub, Mouna Feki, Mohamed Abid, Hammadi Ayadi

Abstract:

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), including Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), are inherited as complex traits. Genetic factors associated with AITDs have been tentatively identified by candidate gene and genome scanning approaches. We analysed three intragenic microsatellite markers in the thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 2 gene (THRAP2), mapped near D12S79 marker, which have a potential role in immune function and inflammation [THRAP2-1(TG)n, THRAP2-2 (AC)n and THRAP2-3 (AC)n]. Our study population concerned 12 patients affected with AITDs belonging to a multiplex Tunisian family with high prevalence of AITDs. Fluorescent genotyping was carried out on ABI 3100 sequencers (Applied Biosystems USA) with the use of GENESCAN for semi-automated fragment sizing and GENOTYPER peak-calling software. Statistical analysis was performed using the non parametric Lod score (NPL) by Merlin software. Merlin outputs non-parametric NPLall (Z) and LOD scores and their corresponding asymptotic P values. The analysis for three intragenic markers in the THRAP2 gene revealed strong evidence for linkage (NPL=3.68, P=0.00012). Our results suggested the possible role of THRAP2 gene in AITDs susceptibility in this family.

Keywords: autoimmunity, autoimmune disease, genetic, linkage analysis

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6075 Genome-Wide Association Study Identify COL2A1 as a Susceptibility Gene for the Hand Development Failure of Kashin-Beck Disease

Authors: Feng Zhang

Abstract:

Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic osteochondropathy. The mechanism of hand growth and development failure of KBD remains elusive now. In this study, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of palmar length-width ratio (LWR) of KBD, totally involving 493 Chinese Han KBD patients. Affymetrix Genome Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 was applied for SNP genotyping. Association analysis was conducted by PLINK software. Imputation analysis was performed by IMPUTE against the reference panel of the 1000 genome project. In the GWAS, the most significant association was observed between palmar LWR and rs2071358 of COL2A1 gene (P value = 4.68×10-8). Imputation analysis identified 3 SNPs surrounding rs2071358 with significant or suggestive association signals. Replication study observed additional significant association signals at both rs2071358 (P value = 0.017) and rs4760608 (P value = 0.002) of COL2A1 gene after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggest that COL2A1 gene was a novel susceptibility gene involved in the growth and development failure of hand of KBD.

Keywords: Kashin-Beck disease, genome-wide association study, COL2A1, hand

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6074 The Effect of Strength Training and Consumption of Glutamine Supplement on GH/IGF1 Axis

Authors: Alireza Barari

Abstract:

Physical activity and diet are factors that influence the body's structure. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of four weeks of resistance training, and glutamine supplement consumption on growth hormone (GH), and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) Axis. 40 amateur male bodybuilders, participated in this study. They were randomly divided into four equal groups, Resistance (R), Glutamine (G), Resistance with Glutamine (RG), and Control (C). The R group was assigned to a four week resistance training program, three times/week, three sets of 10 exercises with 6-10 repetitions, at the 80-95% 1RM (One Repetition Maximum), with 120 seconds rest between sets), G group is consuming l-glutamine (0.1 g/kg-1/day-1), RG group resistance training with consuming L-glutamine, and C group continued their normal lifestyle without exercise training. GH, IGF1, IGFBP-III plasma levels were measured before and after the protocol. One-way ANOVA indicated significant change in GH, IGF, and IGFBP-III between the four groups, and the Tukey test demonstrated significant increase in GH, IGF1, IGFBP-III plasma levels in R, and RG group. Based upon these findings, we concluded that resistance training at 80-95% 1RM intensity, and resistance training along with oral glutamine shows significantly increase secretion of GH, IGF-1, and IGFBP-III in amateur males, but the addition of oral glutamine to the exercise program did not show significant difference in GH, IGF-1, and IGFBP-III.

Keywords: strength, glutamine, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1

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6073 Acute Effects of Local Vibration on Muscle Activation, Metabolic and Hormone Responses

Authors: Zong Yan Cai, Wen-Chyuan Chen, Chih-Min Wu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of local vibration on muscle activation, metabolic and hormone responses. Totally 12 healthy, physically inactive, male adults participated in this study and completed LV exercise session. During LV exercise session, four custom-made vibrations (diameter: 20 mm; thickness: 8 mm; weight: 0.022 g) were locally placed over the belly of the thigh of each subject’s non-dominant leg in supine lying position, and subjects received 10 sets for 1 min at the frequency of 35-40Hz, with 1–2 min of rest between sets. The surface electromyography (EMG) were obtained from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris, and the subjects’ rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were measured. EMG data, RPE values as well as HR were obtained by averaging the results of 10 sets of each exercise session. Blood samples were drawn before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15min and 30min after exercise in each session for analysis of lactic acid (LA), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). The results indicated that the HR did not increase after LV (63.18±3.5 to 63.25±2.58 beat/min, p > 0.05). The average RPE values during the LV exposure were at 2.86±0.39. The root mean square % EMG values from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris were 19.02±2.19 and 8.25±2.20 respectively. There were no significant differences after acute LV exercise among LA, GH and T values as compared with baseline values (LA: 0.68±0.11 to 0.7±0.1 mmol/L; GH: 0.06±0.05 to 0.57±0.27 ng/mL; T: 551.33±46.62 to 520.42±43.78 ng/dL, p>0.05). However, the LV treatment caused a significant decrease in C values after exercise (16.56±1.05 to 11.64±1.85 nmol/L, p<0.05). In conclusion, acute LV exercise only slightly increase muscle activation which may not cause effective exercise response. However, acute LV exercise reduces C level, which may reduce the catabolic response. The probable reason might partly due to the vibration rhythmically which massage on muscles.

Keywords: cortisol, growth hormone, lactic acid, testosterone

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6072 Effects of Aerobic, Resistance, and Concurrent Training on Secretion of Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Elderly Women

Authors: Kh Jalali Dehkordi, A. Jalali Dehkordi, A. Tofighi

Abstract:

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic, resistance, and concurrent training on secretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in elderly women. Methods: A total number of 60 elderly women were randomly allocated to four groups of aerobic training (n = 15), resistance training (n = 15), concurrent training (n = 15), and control (n = 15). Blood samples were taken before and 4 weeks after the initiation of exercise training and also at the end of the 8-week course of training. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2Peak) was measured after 48 hours using Rockport walk test. Inferential analysis of the collected data was performed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were further evaluated by the least significant difference (LSD) test. The relation between VO2Peak and secretion of GH and IGF-1 was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The significance level was considered as P ≤ 0.05 in all tests. Findings: The results showed that 8 weeks of regular exercise significantly increased levels of GH and IGF-1. A significant increase was also observed in VO2Peak values after 8 weeks of regular exercise (P < 0.05). VO2Peak was directly correlated with GH and IGF (P < 0.001, r = 0.72). Conclusion: In conclusion, regular exercise significantly increased levels of anabolic hormones. Moreover, the combined-exercise training better enhanced GH and IGF-1. VO2Peak increased with increases in GH and IGF-1 levels.

Keywords: women, training, GH, IGF-1

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6071 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling of Detoxication Properties of Some 1,2-Dithiole-3-Thione Derivatives

Authors: Nadjib Melkemi, Salah Belaidi

Abstract:

Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have been performed on nineteen molecules of 1,2-dithiole-3-thione analogues. The compounds used are the potent inducers of enzymes involved in the maintenance of reduced glutathione pools as well as phase-2 enzymes important to electrophile detoxication. A multiple linear regression (MLR) procedure was used to design the relationships between molecular descriptor and detoxication properties of the 1,2-dithiole-3-thione derivatives. The predictivity of the model was estimated by cross-validation with the leave-one-out method. Our results suggest a QSAR model based of the following descriptors: qS2, qC3, qC5, qS6, DM, Pol, log P, MV, SAG, HE and EHOMO for the specific activity of quinone reductase; qS1, qS2, qC3, qC4, qC5, qS6, DM, Pol, logP, MV, SAG, HE and EHOMO for the production of growth hormone. To confirm the predictive power of the models, an external set of molecules was used. High correlation between experimental and predicted activity values was observed, indicating the validation and the good quality of the derived QSAR models.

Keywords: QSAR, quinone reductase activity, production of growth hormone, MLR

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6070 Comparison between Effects of Free Curcumin and Curcumin Loaded NIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles on Telomerase and Pinx1 Gene Expression in Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Y. Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, F. Badrzadeh, N. Zarghami, S. Jalilzadeh-Tabrizi, R. Zamani

Abstract:

Herbal compounds such as curcumin which decrease telomerase and gene expression have been considered as beneficial tools for lung cancer treatment. In this article, we compared the effects of pure curcumin and curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles on telomerase and PinX1 gene expression in a lung cancer cell line. A tetrazolium-based assay was used for determination of cytotoxic effects of curcumin on the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line and telomerase and pinX1 gene expression was measured with real-time PCR. MTT assay showed that Curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA inhibited the growth of the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line in a time and dose-dependent manner. Our q-PCR results showed that the expression of telomerase gene was effectively reduced as the concentration of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA increased while expression of the PinX1 gene became elevated. The results showed that curcumin loaded NIPAAm-MAA exerted cytotoxic effects on the Calu-6 cell line through down-regulation of telomerase and stimulation of pinX1 gene expression. NIPPAm-MAA could be the good carrier for such kinds of hydrophobic agent.

Keywords: curcumin, NIPAAm-MAA, PinX1, telomerase, lung cancer cells

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6069 Construction of the Large Scale Biological Networks from Microarrays

Authors: Fadhl Alakwaa

Abstract:

One of the sustainable goals of the system biology is understanding gene-gene interactions. Hence, gene regulatory networks (GRN) need to be constructed for understanding the disease ontology and to reduce the cost of drug development. To construct gene regulatory from gene expression we need to overcome many challenges such as data denoising and dimensionality. In this paper, we develop an integrated system to reduce data dimension and remove the noise. The generated network from our system was validated via available interaction databases and was compared to previous methods. The result revealed the performance of our proposed method.

Keywords: gene regulatory network, biclustering, denoising, system biology

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6068 Time-Course Lipid Accumulation and Transcript Analyses of Lipid Biosynthesis Gene of Chlorella sp.3 under Nitrogen Limited Condition

Authors: Jyoti Singh, Swati Dubey, Mukta Singh, R. P. Singh

Abstract:

The freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. is alluring considerable interest as a source for biofuel production due to its fast growth rate and high lipid content. Under nitrogen limited conditions, they can accumulate significant amounts of lipids. Thus, it is important to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of their lipid metabolism. In this study under nitrogen limited conditions, regular pattern of growth characteristics lipid accumulation and gene expression analysis of key regulatory genes of lipid biosynthetic pathway were carried out in microalgae Chlorella sp 3. Our results indicated that under nitrogen limited conditions there is a significant increase in the lipid content and lipid productivity, achieving 44.21±2.64 % and 39.34±0.66 mg/l/d at the end of the cultivation, respectively. Time-course transcript patterns of lipid biosynthesis genes i.e. acetyl coA carboxylase (accD) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (dgat) showed that during late log phase of microalgae Chlorella sp.3 both the genes were significantly up regulated as compared to early log phase. Moreover, the transcript level of the dgat gene is two-fold higher than the accD gene. The results suggested that both the genes responded sensitively to the nitrogen limited conditions during the late log stage, which proposed their close relevance to lipid biosynthesis. Further, this transcriptome data will be useful for engineering microalgae species by targeting these genes for genetic modification to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production.

Keywords: biofuel, gene, lipid, microalgae

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6067 Disruption of MoNUC1 Gene Mediates Conidiation in Magnaporthe oryzae

Authors: Irshad Ali Khan, Jian-Ping Lu, Xiao-Hong Liu, Fu-Cheng Lin

Abstract:

This study reports the functional analysis of a gene MoNUC1 in M. oryzae, which is homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NUC1 encoding a mitochondrial nuclease protein. The MoNUC1 having a gene locus MGG_05324 is 1002-bp in length and encodes an identical protein of 333 amino acids. We disrupted the gene through gene disruption strategy and isolated two mutants confirmed by southern blotting. The deleted mutants were then used for phenotypic studies and their phenotypes were compared to those of the Guy-11 strain. The mutants were first grown on CM medium to find the effect of MoNUC1 gene disruption on colony growth and the mutants were found to show normal culture colony growth similar to that of the Guy-11 strain. Conidial germination and appressorial formation were also similar in both the mutants and Guy-11 strains showing that this gene plays no significant role in these phenotypes. For pathogenicity, the mutants and Guy-11 mycelium blocks were inoculated on blast susceptible barley seedlings and it was found that both the strains exhibited full pathogenicity showing coalesced and necrotic blast lesions suggesting that this gene is not involved in pathogenicity. Mating of the mutants with 2539 strain formed numerous perithecia showing that MoNUC1 is not essential for sexual reproduction in M. oryzae. However, the mutants were found to form reduced conidia (1.06±8.03B and 1.08±9.80B) than those of the Guy-11 strain (1.46±10.61A) and we conclude that this protein is not required for the blast fungus to cause pathogenicity but plays significant role in conidiation. Proteins of signal transduction pathways that could be disrupted/ intervened genetically or chemically could lead to antifungal products of important fungal cereal diseases and reduce rice yield losses. Tipping the balance toward understanding the whole of pathogenesis, rather than simply conidiation will take some time, but clearly presents the most exciting challenge of all.

Keywords: appressorium formation, conidiation, NUC1, Magnaporthe oryzae, pathogenicity

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6066 Screening of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in the Rhizo- and Endosphere of Sunflower (Helianthus anus) and Their Role in Enhancing Growth and Yield Attriburing Trairs and Colonization Studies

Authors: A. Majeed, M.K. Abbasi, S. Hameed, A. Imran, T. Naqqash, M. K. Hanif

Abstract:

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living soil bacteria that aggressively colonize the rhizosphere/plant roots, and enhance the growth and yield of plants when applied to seed or crops. Root associated (endophytic and rhizospheric) PGPR were isolated from Sunflower (Helianthus anus) grown in soils collected from 16 different sites of sub division Dhirkot, Poonch, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. A total of 150 bacterial isolates were isolated, purified, screened in vitro for their plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics. 11 most effective isolates were selected on the basis of biochemical assays (nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, growth hormone production, biocontrol assay, and carbon substrates utilization assay through gas chromatography (GCMS), spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC, fungal and bacterial dual plate assay and BIOLOG GN2/GP2 microplate assay respectively) and were tested on the crop under controlled and field conditions. From the inoculation assay, the most promising 4 strains (on the basis of increased root/shoot weight, root/shoot length, seed oil content, and seed yield) were than selected for colonization studies through confocal laser scanning and transmission electron microscope. 16Sr RNA gene analysis showed that these bacterial isolates belong to Pseudononas, Enterobacter, Azospirrilum, and Citobacter genera. This study is the clear evident that such isolates have the potential for application as inoculants adapted to poor soils and local crops to minimize the chemical fertilizers harmful for soil and environment

Keywords: PGPR, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, colonization

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
6065 Identification of Mx Gene Polymorphism in Indragiri Hulu duck by PCR-RFLP

Authors: Restu Misrianti

Abstract:

The amino acid variation of Asn (allele A) at position 631 in Mx gene was specific to positive antiviral to avian viral desease. This research was aimed at identifying polymorphism of Mx gene in duck using molecular technique. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to select the genotype of AA, AG and GG. There were thirteen duck from Indragiri Hulu regency (Riau Province) used in this experiment. DNA amplification results showed that the Mx gene in duck is found in a 73 bp fragment. Mx gene in duck did not show any polymorphism. The frequency of the resistant allele (AA) was 0%, while the frequency of the susceptible allele (GG) was 100%.

Keywords: duck, Mx gene, PCR, RFLP

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6064 Identification of Conserved Domains and Motifs for GRF Gene Family

Authors: Jafar Ahmadi, Nafiseh Noormohammadi, Sedegeh Fabriki Ourang

Abstract:

GRF, Growth regulating factor, genes encode a novel class of plant-specific transcription factors. The GRF proteins play a role in the regulation of cell numbers in young and growing tissues and may act as transcription activations in growth and development of plants. Identification of GRF genes and their expression are important in plants to performance of the growth and development of various organs. In this study, to better understanding the structural and functional differences of GRFs family, 45 GRF proteins sequences in A. thaliana, Z. mays, O. sativa, B. napus, B. rapa, H. vulgare, and S. bicolor, have been collected and analyzed through bioinformatics data mining. As a result, in secondary structure of GRFs, the number of alpha helices was more than beta sheets and in all of them QLQ domains were completely in the biggest alpha helix. In all GRFs, QLQ, and WRC domains were completely protected except in AtGRF9. These proteins have no trans-membrane domain and due to have nuclear localization signals act in nuclear and they are component of unstable proteins in the test tube.

Keywords: domain, gene family, GRF, motif

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
6063 The Utilization of Salicylic Acid of the Extract from Avocado Skin as an Inhibitor of Ethylene Production to Keep the Quality of Banana in Storage

Authors: Adira Nofeadri Ryofi, Alvin Andrianus, Anna Khairunnisa, Anugrah Cahyo Widodo, Arbhyando Tri Putrananda, Arsy Imanda N. Raswati, Gita Rahmaningsih, Ina Agustina

Abstract:

The consumption level of fresh bananas from 2005 until 2010, increased from 8.2 to 10 kg/capita/year. The commercial scale of banana generally harvested when it still green to make the banana avoid physical damage, chemical, and disease after harvest and ripe fruit. That first metabolism activity can be used as a synthesis reaction. Ripening fruit was influenced by ethylene hormone that synthesized in fruit which is experiencing ripe and including hormone in the ripening fruit process in klimaterik phase. This ethylene hormone is affected by the respiration level that would speed up the restructuring of carbohydrates inside the fruit, so the weighting of fruit will be decreased. Compared to other klimaterik fruit, banana is a fruit that has a medium ethylene production rate and the rate of respiration is low. The salicylic acid can regulate the result number of the growth process or the development of fruits and plants. Salicylic acid serves to hinder biosynthesis ethylene and delay senses. The research aims to understand the influence of salicylic acid concentration that derived from the waste of avocado skin in inhibition process to ethylene production that the maturation can be controlled, so it can keep the quality of banana for storage. It is also to increase the potential value of the waste of avocado skin that were still used in industrial cosmetics.

Keywords: ethylene hormone, extract avocado skin, inhibitor, salicylic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
6062 Macronutrients and the FTO Gene Expression in Hypothalamus: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

Authors: Saeid Doaei

Abstract:

The various studies have examined the relationship between FTO gene expression and macronutrients levels. In order to obtain better viewpoint from this interactions, all of the existing studies were reviewed systematically. All published papers have been obtained and reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords from databases such as CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane, from 1990 to 2016. The results indicated that all of 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria (from a total of 428 published article) found FTO gene expression changes at short-term follow-ups. Four of six studies found an increased FTO gene expression after calorie restriction, while two of them indicated decreased FTO gene expression. The effect of protein, carbohydrate and fat were separately assessed and suggested by all of six studies. In conclusion, the level of FTO gene expression in hypothalamus is related to macronutrients levels. Future research should evaluate the long-term impact of dietary interventions.

Keywords: obesity, gene expression, FTO, macronutrients

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
6061 A Study of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristic, Meat Quality and Association of Polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II Gene with Fat Accumulation in the Female Broiler, Thai Native and Betong Chickens (KU Line)

Authors: C. Kridtayopas, W. Danvilai, P. Sopannarath, A. Kayan, W. Loongyai

Abstract:

Both Betong chicken (KU Line) and Thai Native chickens were the high quality of the meat and low carcass fat compared to broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the growth performance, carcass characteristic, meat quality and association of polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene with fat accumulation in the female broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens at 4-14 weeks. The chickens were used and reared under the same environment and management (100 chicks per breed). The results showed that body weight (BW) of broiler chickens was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01) through all the experiment. At 4-8 weeks of age, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broiler chickens was significantly better than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01), then increased at week 8-14. The percentage of breast, abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat of broiler chickens was significantly greater than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01). However, Thai Native chickens showed the highest percentage of liver (P < 0.01) when compared to other breeds. In addition, the percentage of wing of Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than broiler chickens. Meat quality was also determined and found that, pH of breast meat left from slaughter 45 minutes (pH45) and 24 hours (pH24) of broiler was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01) whereas the percentage of drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss and shear force was not significantly different between breeds. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to genotype the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene in the broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens. The results found that, the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene at VLDL6 loci was not associated with fat accumulation in those studied population.

Keywords: ApoVLDL-II gene, Betong (KU line) chickens, broiler chickens, carcass characteristic, growth performance, meat quality, Thai native chickens

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
6060 Study and Melanocyte Adrenocorticotropic Effects on Sugar Metabolism and Immune Response in Rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus

Authors: A. Bouaouiche, M. S. Boulakoud

Abstract:

The functioning of the pineal gland, the transducer body of environmental information to the neuroendocrine system is subject to a circadian rhythm. Melatonin is the main neuro-hormone expressing this operation. It is synthesized in the pinealocytes after conversion serotonin via N-acetyl-transferase enzyme, itself subject to a photoperiodic modulation (activation dark inhibition by light). Some authors have suggested that melatonin is involved in diabetic disease and found that it could have a diabetogenic effect. To this study the effect of this hormone on glucose metabolism has long been subject to controversy. Agreeing in effect and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic effect. In order to illustrate the level of interaction of melatonin with neuro-immune- corticotropin axis and its impact on carbohydrate metabolism, we studied the impact homeostatic (glucose) through the solicitation of two control systems (gland pineal and corticotropin axis). We then found that melatonin could have an indirect influence on insulin control (glucose metabolism) to the levels of the growth hormone axis (somatostatin) and adrenocorticotropic (corticotropin). In addition, we have suggested that melatonin might limit the hyperglycemic action of corticosteroids by direct action at peripheral level.

Keywords: pinéal gland, melatonin, neuro-immuno-corticotrop, metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
6059 Regulation of the Regeneration of Epidermal Langerhans Cells by Stress Hormone

Authors: Junichi Hosoi

Abstract:

Epidermal Langerhans cells reside in upper layer of epidermis and play a role in immune surveillance. The finding of the close association of nerve endings to Langerhans cells triggered the research on systemic regulation of Langerhans cells. They disappear from epidermis after exposure to environmental and internal stimuli and reappear about a week later. Myeloid progenitor cells are assumed to be one of the sources of Langerhans cells. We examined the effects of cortisol on the reappearance of Langerhans cells in vitro. Cord-blood derived CD34-positive cells were cultured in the medium supplemented with stem cell factor/Flt3 ligand/granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor/tumor necrosis factor alpha/bone morphologic protein 7/transforming growth factor beta in the presence or absence of cortisol. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for CD1a (cluster differentiation 1a), a marker of Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells, and CD39 (cluster differentiation factor 39), extracellular adenosine triphosphatase. Both CD1a-positive cells and CD39-positive cells were decreased by treatment with cortisol (suppression by 35% and 22% compared to no stress hormone, respectively). Differentiated Langerhans cells are attracted to epidermis by chemokines that are secreted from keratinocytes. Epidermal keratinocytes were cultured in the presence or absence of cortisol and analyzed for the expression of CCL2 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 2) and CCL20 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 20), which are typical attractants of Langerhans cells, by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The expression of both chemokines, CCL2 and CCL20, were suppressed by treatment with cortisol (suppression by 38% and 48% compared to no stress hormone, respectively). We examined the possible regulation of the suppression by cortisol with plant extracts. The extracts of Ganoderma lucidum and Iris protected the suppression of the differentiation to CD39-positive cells and also the suppression of the gene expression of LC-chemoattractants. These results suggest that cortisol, which is either systemic or locally produced, blocks the supply of epidermal Langerhans cells at 2 steps, differentiation from the precursor and attraction to epidermis. The suppression is possibly blocked by some plant extracts.

Keywords: Langerhans cell, stress, CD39, chemokine

Procedia PDF Downloads 103