Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3294

Search results for: blue light

3294 Visualization of Latent Sweat Fingerprints Deposit on Paper by Infrared Radiation and Blue Light

Authors: Xiaochun Huang, Xuejun Zhao, Yun Zou, Feiyu Yang, Wenbin Liu, Nan Deng, Ming Zhang, Nengbin Cai


A simple device termed infrared radiation (IR) was developed for rapid visualization of sweat fingerprints deposit on paper with blue light (450 nm, 11 W). In this approach, IR serves as the pretreatment device before the sweat fingerprints was illuminated by blue light. An annular blue light source was adopted for visualizing latent sweat fingerprints. Sample fingerprints were examined under various conditions after deposition, and experimental results indicate that the recovery rate of the latent sweat fingerprints is in the range of 50%-100% without chemical treatments. A mechanism for the observed visibility is proposed based on transportation and re-impregnation of fluorescer in paper at the region of water. And further exploratory experimental results gave the full support to the visible mechanism. Therefore, such a method as IR-pretreated in detecting latent fingerprints may be better for examination in the case where biological information of samples is needed for consequent testing.

Keywords: forensic science, visualization, infrared radiation, blue light, latent sweat fingerprints, detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
3293 Effect of Blue Light on Some Physiological Characters of Two Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

Authors: Mozhgan Farzamisepehr, Samira Salehi


Salinity is one of the most important environmental factors limiting the growth and production of crops in plants. This limitation is due to the effect of salinity stress on plant physiology aspects and its development. The structure of the plants is regulated by the optical signals emanating from the environment. Light is an energy source for photosynthetic organs, and the type of optical wavelength plays an important role in growth. In order to investigate the effect of blue light on delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (proline precursor) in 2 wheat cultivar, resistant to salinity (BAM) and sensitive to salinity (Tajan), in a culture medium with 5 treatments Salinity (control), 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl were exposed to light and white light. After five days of growth of wheat seedlings, the growth indices (fresh weight, dry weight and longitudinal growth), proline, chlorophyll a, b, sodium and potassium contents, peroxidase enzyme activity, malondialdehyde and pyrolin-5- Carboxylate (Proline precursor) contents were measured. Data were analyzed using Duncan statistical test. Blue light increased the amount of proline and PSC in the salinity-resistant cultivar. In sensitive cultivar, the amount of potassium under white light was higher than blue light in different amounts of salt. The amount of sodium accumulated under the influence of blue light in different amounts of salt in the resistant cultivar was higher than the sensitive cultivar. The peroxidation activity of resistant wheat cultivar was higher and blue light did not increase peroxidation activity, but the amount of malondialdehyde in sensitive cultivar increased under the blue light regime and in increasing amounts of salt. The fresh and dry weight of plants in resistant cultivar was highest under white light and plant length in the resistant cultivar and under increasing amounts of salt was higher than cultivar sensitive to both light and white light.

Keywords: salinity, wheat, blue light, proline precursor

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3292 A Field Study of Monochromatic Light Effects on Antibody Responses to Newcastle Disease by HI Test and the Correlation with ELISA

Authors: Seyed Mehrzad Pahlavani, Mozaffar Haji Jafari Anaraki, Sayma Mohammadi


A total of 34700 day-old broilers were exposed to green, blue and yellow light using a light-emitting diode system for 6 weeks to investigate the effects of light wave length on antibody responses to Newcastle disease by HI test and the correlation with ELISA. 3 poultry house broiler farms with the same conditions was selected and the lightening system of each was set according to the requirement. Blood samples were taken from 20 chicks on days 1, 24 and 46 and the Newcastle virus specific antibody was titered in serum using HI an ELISA test. On day 24, the probability value of more than 0/05 was observed in HI and ELISA tests of all groups while at the end of breeding period, the average HI serum antibody titer was more in the green light than the yellow one while the blue light was not significantly different from both. At the last titration, the green light has got the highest titer of Newcastle antibodies. There were no significant differences of Newcastle antibody titers between all groups and ages in broiler pullets in ELISA. According to the sampling and analysis of HI and ELISA serum tests, there were no significant relationships between all broiler pullets breeding in green, blue and yellow light on days 24 and 46 and the P-value was more than 0/05. It is suggested that the monochromatic light is effective on broilers immunity against Newcastle disease.

Keywords: monochromatic light, Newcastle disease, HI test, ELISA test

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3291 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Pure and Ag-Doped SnO₂ Nanoparticles as Catalyst

Authors: M. S. Abd El-Sadek, Mahmoud A. Omar, Gharib M. Taha


Photodegradation of methylene blue in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO₂) nanoparticles under solar light irradiation are known to be an effective photocatalytic process. In this study, pure and silver (Ag) doped tin dioxide (SnO₂) nanoparticles were prepared at calcination temperature (800ºC) by a modified sol-gel method and studied for their photocatalytic activity with methylene blue as a test contaminant. The characterization of undoped and doped SnO₂ photocatalyst was studied by X-rays diffraction patterns (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX). The catalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous media was studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer to monitor the degradation process by measuring its absorption spectra. The main absorption peak of methylene blue is observed at λ= 664 nm. The change in the percent of silver in the catalyst affects the photoactivity of SnO₂ on the degradation of methylene blue. The photoactivity of pure SnO₂ was found to be a maximum at dose 0.2 gm of the catalyst with 100 ml of 5 ppm methylene blue in the water. Within 210 min of photodegradation (under sunlight) after leaving the reaction for 90 minutes in the dark to avoid the effect of adsorption, the pure SnO₂ at calcination temperature 800ºC exhibited the best photocatalytic degradation with removal percentage of 93.66% on methylene blue degradation under solar light.

Keywords: SnO₂ nanoparticles, methylene blue degradation, photocatalysis, silver doped-SnO₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
3290 Spectra Analysis in Sunset Color Demonstrations with a White-Color LED as a Light Source

Authors: Makoto Hasegawa, Seika Tokumitsu


Spectra of light beams emitted from white-color LED torches are different from those of conventional electric torches. In order to confirm if white-color LED torches can be used as light sources for popular sunset color demonstrations in spite of such differences, spectra of travelled light beams and scattered light beams with each of a white-color LED torch (composed of a blue LED and yellow-color fluorescent material) and a conventional electric torch as a light source were measured and compared with each other in a 50 cm-long water tank for sunset color demonstration experiments. Suspension liquid was prepared from acryl-emulsion and tap-water in the water tank, and light beams from the white-color LED torch or the conventional electric torch were allowed to travel in this suspension liquid. Sunset-like color was actually observed when the white-color LED torch was used as the light source in sunset color demonstrations. However, the observed colors when viewed with naked eye look slightly different from those obtainable with the conventional electric torch. At the same time, with the white-color LED, changes in colors in short to middle wavelength regions were recognized with careful observations. From those results, white-color LED torches are confirmed to be applicable as light sources in sunset color demonstrations, although certain attentions have to be paid. Further advanced classes will be successfully performed with white-color LED torches as light sources.

Keywords: blue sky demonstration, sunset color demonstration, white LED torch, physics education

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3289 Efficiency Enhancement of Blue OLED by Incorporating Ag Nanoplate Layers

Authors: So-Jeong Kim, Nak-Kwan Chung, Jintae Kim, Juyoung Yun


The metal nanoplates are potentially used for electroluminescence enhancement of OLEDs owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance. In our study, enhanced electroluminescence in blue organic light-emitting diodes is demonstrated by incorporating silver nanoplates into poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonic acid. To have surface plasmon resonance absorption peak matching with photoluminescent (PL) peak of blue, Ag nanoplates with triangular shape are used in this study. Finally, about 30 % enhancement in electroluminescence intensity and current efficiency for blue emission devices is obtained via Ag nanoplates.

Keywords: efficiency enhancement, nanoplate, OLED, surface plasmon resonance

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3288 Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter

Authors: Priyanka R. Oberoi, Chandra B. Maurya, Prakash A. Mahanwar


Ionizing radiation can cause a drastic change in the physical and chemical properties of the material exposed. Numerous medical devices are sterilized by ionizing radiation. In the current research paper, an attempt was made to develop precise and inexpensive polymeric film dosimeter which can be used for controlling radiation dosage. Polymeric film containing (pH sensitive dye) indicator dye Bromophenol blue (BPB) was casted to check the effect of Gamma radiation on its optical and physical properties. The film was exposed to gamma radiation at 4 kGy/hr in the range of 0 to 300 kGy at an interval of 50 kGy. Release of vinyl acetate from an emulsion on high radiation reacts with the BPB fading the color of the film from blue to light blue and then finally colorless, indicating a change in pH from basic to acidic form. The change was characterized by using CIE l*a*b*, ultra-violet spectroscopy and FT-IR respectively.

Keywords: bromophenol blue, dosimeter, gamma radiation, polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
3287 Evaluation of Sustainable Blue Economy Development Performance: Method and Case

Authors: Mingbao Chen


After Rio+20, the blue economy rises all over the world, and it has become the focus field of national development. At present, the blue economy has become a new growth point in the field of global economy and the direction of the development of ‘green’ in the ocean. However, in fact, the key factors affecting the development of the blue economy have not been explored in depth, and the development policies and performance of the blue economy have not been scientifically evaluated. This cannot provide useful guidance for the development of the blue economy. Therefore, it is urgent to establish a quantitative evaluation framework to measure the performance of the blue economic development. Based on the full understanding of the connotation and elements of the blue economy, and studying the literature, this article has built an universality and operability evaluation index system, including ecological environment, social justice, sustainable growth, policy measures, and so on. And this article also established a sound evaluation framework of blue economic development performance. At the same time, this article takes China as a sample to test the framework of the adaptability, and to assess the performance of China's blue economic.

Keywords: Blue economy, development performance, evaluation framework, assess method

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3286 Transcriptomic Analyses of Kappaphycus alvarezii under Different Wavelengths of Light

Authors: Vun Yee Thien, Kenneth Francis Rodrigues, Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong, Wilson Thau Lym Yong


Transcriptomes associated with the process of photosynthesis have offered insights into the mechanism of gene regulation in terrestrial plants; however, limited information is available as far as macroalgae are concerned. This investigation aims to decipher the underlying mechanisms associated with photosynthesis in the red alga, Kappaphycus alvarezii, by performing a differential expression analysis on a de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis of gene expression was designed to examine the alteration of light qualities and its effect on physiological mechanisms in the red alga. High-throughput paired-end RNA-sequencing was applied to profile the transcriptome of K. alvarezii irradiated with different wavelengths of light (blue 492-455 nm, green 577-492 nm and red 780-622 nm) as compared to the full light spectrum, resulted in more than 60 million reads individually and assembled using Trinity and SOAPdenovo-Trans. The transcripts were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant (nr) protein, SwissProt, KEGG and COG databases with a cutoff E-value of 1e-5 and nearly 30% of transcripts were assigned to functional annotation by Blast searches. Differential expression analysis was performed using edgeR. The DEGs were designated to six categories: BL (blue light) regulated, GL (green light) regulated, RL (red light) regulated, BL or GL regulated, BL or RL regulated, GL or RL regulated, and either BL, GL or RL regulated. These DEGs were mapped to terms in KEGG database and compared with the whole transcriptome background to search for genes that regulated by light quality. The outcomes of this study will enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying light-induced responses in red algae.

Keywords: de novo transcriptome sequencing, differential gene expression, Kappaphycus alvareziired, red alga

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3285 The Effect of Blue Lighting on Feeding Behaviour, Growth, and Corticosterone of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Sri Harimurti, Diah Reni Asih


This study was designated to investigate the effect of intermittent and continuous blue lighting on the feeding behaviour, growth and corticosterone hormone concentration of broiler. Two thousands and seven hundreds unsexed day-old broiler were divided into three groups of lighting treatment. Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 300 birds. The treatments were ordinary lighting (C), intermittent blue lighting (IBL) and continuous blue lighting (CBL). The data were collected in the study were feeding behaviour such as feeding duration and frequency of feeding, growth rate of birds and corticosterone hormone concentration. Results showed that the CBL have significant effect (P<0,05) on duration and frequency of feeding and growth rate of birds. The CBL have the highest feeding duration, the lowest frequency of feeding that those 290.33±1.52 minutes/day, 35.58±0.50 times/day at 15 to 28 days of age.The concentration of corticosterone hormone of IBL and CBL were a significant (P<0.05) decrease. The conclusion of this study indicated that continuous blue lighting may be a good tool for improving welfare management of broiler.

Keywords: blue light, broiler chickens, corticosterone hormone, feeding behaviour, growth rate

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3284 Hierarchical Scheme for Detection of Rotating Mimo Visible Light Communication Systems Using Mobile Phone Camera

Authors: Shih-Hao Chen, Chi-Wai Chow


Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) scheme can extend the transmission capacity for the light-emitting-diode (LED) visible light communication (VLC) system. The MIMO VLC system using the popular mobile-phone camera as the optical receiver (Rx) to receive MIMO signal from n x n Red-Green-Blue (RGB) LED array is desirable. The key step of decoding the received RGB LED array signals is detecting the direction of received array signals. If the LED transmitter (Tx) is rotated, the signal may not be received correctly and cause an error in the received signal. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a novel hierarchical transmission scheme which can reduce the computation complexity of rotation detection in LED array VLC system. We use the n x n RGB LED array as the MIMO Tx. A novel two dimension Hadamard coding scheme is proposed and demonstrated. The detection correction rate is above 95% in the indoor usage distance. Experimental results confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: Visible Light Communication (VLC), Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), Red-Green-Blue (RGB), Hadamard coding scheme

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3283 The Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 25 Dye by Polypyrrole/Titanium Dioxide and Polypyrrole/Zinc Oxide Composites

Authors: Ljerka Kratofil Krehula, Martina Perlog, Jasmina Stjepanović, Vanja Gilja, Marijana Kraljić Roković, Zlata Hrnjak-Murgić


The composite preparation of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide photocatalysts with the conductive polymers gives the opportunity to carry out the catalysis reactions not only under UV light but also under visible light. Such processes may efficiently use sunlight in degradation of different organic pollutants and present new design for wastewater treatment. The paper presents the preparation procedure, material characteristics and photocatalytic efficiency of polypyrrole/titanium dioxide and polypyrrole/zinc oxide composites (PPy/TiO2 and PPy/ZnO). The obtained composite samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic efficiency of the samples was determined following the decomposition of Acid Blue 25 dye (AB 25) under UV and visible light by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The efficiency of degradation is determined by total organic carbon content (TOC) after photocatalysis processes. The results show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of the samples under visible light, so the prepared composite samples are recognized as efficient catalysts in degradation process of AB 25 dye. It can be concluded that the preparation of TiO2 or ZnO composites with PPy can serve as a very efficient method for the improvement of TiO2 and ZnO photocatalytic performance under visible light.

Keywords: composite, photocatalysis, polypyrrole, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide

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3282 Color Conversion Films with CuInS2/ZnS Quantum Dots Embedded Polystyrene Nanofibers by Electrospinning Process

Authors: Wonkyung Na, Namhun Kim, Heeyeop Chae


Quantum dots (QDs) are getting attentions due to their excellent optical properties in display, solar cell, biomolecule detection and lighting applications. Energy band gap can be easilty controlled by controlling their size and QDs are proper to apply in light-emitting-diode(LED) and lighting application, especially. Typically cadmium (Cd) containing QDs show a narrow photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and high quantum yield. However, Cd is classified as a hazardous materials and the use of Cd is being tightly regulated under 100ppm level in many countries.InP and CuInS2 (CIS) are being investigated as Cd-free QD materials and it is recently demonstrated that the performance of those Cd-free QDs is comparable to their Cd-based rivals.Due to a broad emission spectrum, CuInS2 QDs are also proper to be applied to white LED.4 For the lighting applications, the QD should be made in forms of color conversion films. Various film processes are reported with QDs in polymer matrixes. In this work, we synthesized the CuInS2 (CIS) QDs and QD embedded polystyrene color conversion films were fabricated for white color emission with electro-spinning process. As a result, blue light from blue LED is converted to white light with high color rendering index (CRI) of 72 by the color conversion films.

Keywords: CuInS2/ZnS, electro-spinning, color conversion films, white light emitting diodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 639
3281 The Sustainable Blue Economy Innovation and Growth: Data Based on China for 2006-2015 Years

Authors: Mingbao Chen


The blue economy is a new comprehensive marine economy integrated with resources, industries, and regions, and is an upgraded version of the marine economy. The blue economy attaches great importance to the coordinated development of the ecological environment and the economy, which is an emerging economic form advocated by all countries in the world. This paper constructs the model including four variables:natural capital, economic capital, intellectual capital, cultural capital. Theoretically, this paper deduces the function mechanism of variables on economic growth, and empirically calculates the driving force and influence of the blue economy on the national economy by using data of China's 2006-2015 year. The results show that natural capital and economic capital remain the main factors of blue growth in the blue economy. And with the development of economic society and technological progress, the role of intellectual capital and cultural capital is bigger and bigger. Therefore, promoting the development of marine science and technology and culture is the focus of the future blue economic development.

Keywords: blue growth, natural capital, intellectual capital, cultural capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
3280 Comparison of the Indocyanine Green Dye Method versus the Combined Method of Indigo Carmine Blue Dye with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Conservative Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

Authors: Nobuyuki Takemoto, Ai Koyanagi, Masanori Yasuda, Hiroshi Yamamoto


Background: Fluorescence imaging (FI) is one of the methods to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). However, the procedure is technically complicated and requires procedural skills, as SLN biopsy must be conducted in dim light conditions. As an improved version of this method, we introduced a combined method (Combined mixed dye and fluorescence; CMF) consisting of indigo carmine blue dye and FI. The direct visualization of SLNs under shadowless surgical light conditions is facilitated by the addition of the blue dye. We compared the SLN detection rates of CMF with that of the indocyanine green (ICG) dye method (ICG-D). Methods: A total of 202 patients with stage ≤ IIA breast cancer who underwent breast conservative therapy with separate incision from January 2004 to February 2017 were reviewed. Details of the two methods are as follows: (1) ICG-D: 2ml of ICG (10mg) was used and the green-stained SLNs were resected via a 3-4cm axillary incision; (2) CMF: A combination of 1ml of ICG (5mg) and 1-3ml of indigo carmine (4-12mg) was used. Using Photodynamic Eye (PDE), a 1.5-2 cm incision was made near the point of disappearance of the fluorescence and SLNs with intermediate color of blue and green were resected. Results: There were 92 ICG-D and 110 CMF cases. CMF resulted in a significantly higher detection rate than ICG-D (96.4% vs. 83.7%; p=0.003). This difference was particularly notable in those aged ≥ 60 years (98.3% vs. 74.3%) and individuals with BMI ≥ 25kg/m2 (90.3% vs. 58.3%). Conclusion: CMF is an effective method to identify SLNs which is safe, efficient, and cost-effective. Furthermore, radiation exposure can be avoided, and it can be performed in institutes without nuclear medicine facilities. CMF achieves a high SLN identification rate, and most of this procedure is feasible under shadowless surgical light conditions. CMF can reliably perform SLN biopsy even in those aged ≥ 60 years and individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2.

Keywords: sentinel lymph node biopsy, identification rate, indocyanine green (ICG), indigocarmine, fluorescence

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3279 Building a Stochastic Simulation Model for Blue Crab Population Evolution in Antinioti Lagoon

Authors: Nikolaos Simantiris, Markos Avlonitis


This work builds a simulation platform, modeling the spatial diffusion of the invasive species Callinectes sapidus (blue crab) as a random walk, incorporating also generation, fatality, and fishing rates modeling the time evolution of its population. Antinioti lagoon in West Greece was used as a testbed for applying the simulation model. Field measurements from June 2020 to June 2021 on the lagoon’s setting, bathymetry, and blue crab juveniles provided the initial population simulation of blue crabs, as well as biological parameters from the current literature were used to calibrate simulation parameters. The scope of this study is to render the authors able to predict the evolution of the blue crab population in confined environments of the Ionian Islands region in West Greece. The first result of the simulation experiments shows the possibility for a robust prediction for blue crab population evolution in the Antinioti lagoon.

Keywords: antinioti lagoon, blue crab, stochastic simulation, random walk

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3278 Enhancement of Light Extraction of Luminescent Coating by Nanostructuring

Authors: Aubry Martin, Nehed Amara, Jeff Nyalosaso, Audrey Potdevin, FrançOis ReVeret, Michel Langlet, Genevieve Chadeyron


Energy-saving lighting devices based on LightEmitting Diodes (LEDs) combine a semiconductor chip emitting in the ultraviolet or blue wavelength region to one or more phosphor(s) deposited in the form of coatings. The most common ones combine a blue LED with the yellow phosphor Y₃Al₅O₁₂:Ce³⁺ (YAG:Ce) and a red phosphor. Even if these devices are characterized by satisfying photometric parameters (Color Rendering Index, Color Temperature) and good luminous efficiencies, further improvements can be carried out to enhance light extraction efficiency (increase in phosphor forward emission). One of the possible strategies is to pattern the phosphor coatings. Here, we have worked on different ways to nanostructure the coating surface. On the one hand, we used the colloidal lithography combined with the Langmuir-Blodgett technique to directly pattern the surface of YAG:Tb³⁺ sol-gel derived coatings, YAG:Tb³⁺ being used as phosphor model. On the other hand, we achieved composite architectures combining YAG:Ce coatings and ZnO nanowires. Structural, morphological and optical properties of both systems have been studied and compared to flat YAG coatings. In both cases, nanostructuring brought a significative enhancement of photoluminescence properties under UV or blue radiations. In particular, angle-resolved photoluminescence measurements have shown that nanostructuring modifies photons path within the coatings, with a better extraction of the guided modes. These two strategies have the advantage of being versatile and applicable to any phosphor synthesizable by sol-gel technique. They then appear as promising ways to enhancement luminescence efficiencies of both phosphor coatings and the optical devices into which they are incorporated, such as LED-based lighting or safety devices.

Keywords: phosphor coatings, nanostructuring, light extraction, ZnO nanowires, colloidal lithography, LED devices

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3277 The Retinoprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Fungal Ingredient 3,4-Dihydroxybenzalacetone through Inhibition of Retinal Müller and Microglial Activation

Authors: Yu-Wen Cheng, Jau-Der Ho, Liang-Huan Wu, Fan-Li Lin, Li-Huei Chen, Hung-Ming Chang, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, George Hsiao


Retina glial activation and neuroinflammation have been confirmed to cause devastating responses in retinodegenerative diseases. The expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) could be exerted as the crucial pathological factors in glaucoma- and blue light-induced retinal injuries. The present study aimed to investigate the retinoprotective effects and mechanisms of fungal ingredient 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) isolated from Phellinus linteus in the retinal glial activation and retinodegenerative animal models. According to the cellular studies, DBL significantly and concentration-dependently abrogated MMP-9 activation and expression in TNFα-stimulated retinal Müller (rMC-1) cells. We found the inhibitory activities of DBL were strongly through the STAT- and ERK-dependent pathways. Furthermore, DBL dramatically attenuated MMP-9 activation in the stimulated Müller cells exposed to conditioned media from LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. On the other hand, DBL strongly suppressed LPS-induced production of NO and ROS and expression of iNOS in microglia BV-2 cells. Consistently, the phosphorylation of STAT was substantially blocked by DBL in LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. In the evaluation of retinoprotective functions, the high IOP-induced scotopic electroretinographic (ERG) deficit and blue light-induced abnormal pupillary light response (PLR) were assessed. The deficit scotopic ERG responses markedly recovered by DBL in a rat model of glaucoma-like ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. DBL also reduced the aqueous gelatinolytic activity and retinal MMP-9 expression in high IOP-injured conditions. Additionally, DBL could restore the abnormal PLR and reduce retinal MMP-9 activation. In summary, DBL could ameliorate retinal neuroinflammation and MMP-9 activation by predominantly inhibiting STAT3 activation in the retinal Müller cells and microglia, which exhibits therapeutic potential for glaucoma and other retinal degenerative diseases.

Keywords: glaucoma, blue light, DBL, retinal Müller cell, MMP-9, STAT, Microglia, iNOS, ERG, PLR

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3276 Adsorption of Methylene Blue by Pectin from Durian (Durio zibethinus) Seeds

Authors: Siti Nurkhalimah, Devita Wijiyanti, Kuntari


Methylene blue is a popular water-soluble dye that is used for dyeing a variety of substrates such as bacteria, wool, and silk. Methylene blue discharged into the aquatic environment will cause health problems for living things. Treatment method for industrial wastewater may be divided into three main categories: physical, chemical, and biological. Among them, adsorption technology is generally considered to be an effective method for quickly lowering the concentration of dissolved dyes in a wastewater. This has attracted considerable research into low-cost alternative adsorbents for adsorbing or removing coloring matter. In this research, pectin from durian seeds was utilized here to assess their ability for the removal of methylene blue. Adsorption parameters are contact time and dye concentration were examined in the batch adsorption processes. Pectin characterization was performed by FTIR spectrometry. Methylene blue concentration was determined by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR results show that the samples showed the typical fingerprint in IR spectrogram. The adsorption result on 10 mL of 5 mg/L methylene blue solution achieved 95.12% when contact time 10 minutes and pectin 0.2 g.

Keywords: pectin, methylene blue, adsorption, durian seed

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3275 Visible-Light Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye Molecules over ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 Composite

Authors: Sudarat Issarapanacheewin, Katcharin Wetchakun, Sukon Phanichphant, Wiyong Kangwansupamonkon, Natda Wetchakun


The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm) were studied in this research. The structural and photophysical properties of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite on the photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. The as-prepared ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite photocatalyst exhibits wide absorption in the visible-light region and display superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities in degradation of MB and RhB. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to electron-hole separation with the appropriate band potential and the physicochemical properties of ZnWO4 and Bi2WO6. The main active species for the degradation of organic dyes were investigated to explain the enhancement of photocatalytic performance of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of aqueous MB and RhB dyes and charge transfer of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite was proposed.

Keywords: composite, dyes, photocatalytic activity, ZnWO4-Bi2WO6

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3274 Influence of Sintering Temperatures in Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ Tri-Doped Y₂O₃ Nanophosphors

Authors: Hyeon Mi Noh, Ju Hyun Oh, Jung Hyun Jeong, Haeyoung Choi, Jung Hwan Kim


The Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ tri-doped Y₂O₃ nanophosphors were synthesized by solvothermal method and its temperature dependence of the white upconversion emission has been studied by using 975 nm laser diode. The upconversion emission spectra in 1 mol% Er³⁺/5 mol% Yb³⁺/xTm³ tri-doped Y₂O₃ nanophosphors sintered at 1000 °C with x from 0 to 0.5 mol%. The blue emission intensity increase with Tm³⁺ concentration from 0 to 0.5 mol%, it is due to the 2F7/2→2F5/2 transition of Yb³⁺ around 10,000 cm-1 could easily reach the Tm³⁺ sates. The white light is composed with the blue (1G4→3H6 of Tm³⁺), green (2H11/2, 4S3/2→4I15/2 of Er³⁺), and red (4F9/2→4I15/2 of Er³⁺) upconversion radiations. The Y₂O₃: Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ nanophosphors show from white to green upconversion emission at power of 600 mW/cm² as sintering temperature increased. The calculated Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates can be located in the white area with various sintering temperatures, in sintered at 1000 °C, and their color coordinates are very close to the standard white-light emission (0.33, 0.33). Their upconversion processes were explained by measuring the upconversion luminescence spectra and pump power dependence and energy level diagram.

Keywords: white upconversion emission, nanophosphors, energy transfer, solvothermal method

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3273 Variability of Hydrological Modeling of the Blue Nile

Authors: Abeer Samy, Oliver C. Saavedra Valeriano, Abdelazim Negm


The Blue Nile Basin is the most important tributary of the Nile River. Egypt and Sudan are almost dependent on water originated from the Blue Nile. This multi-dependency creates conflicts among the three countries Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia making the management of these conflicts as an international issue. Good assessment of the water resources of the Blue Nile is an important to help in managing such conflicts. Hydrological models are good tool for such assessment. This paper presents a critical review of the nature and variability of the climate and hydrology of the Blue Nile Basin as a first step of using hydrological modeling to assess the water resources of the Blue Nile. Many several attempts are done to develop basin-scale hydrological modeling on the Blue Nile. Lumped and semi distributed models used averages of meteorological inputs and watershed characteristics in hydrological simulation, to analyze runoff for flood control and water resource management. Distributed models include the temporal and spatial variability of catchment conditions and meteorological inputs to allow better representation of the hydrological process. The main challenge of all used models was to assess the water resources of the basin is the shortage of the data needed for models calibration and validation. It is recommended to use distributed model for their higher accuracy to cope with the great variability and complexity of the Blue Nile basin and to collect sufficient data to have more sophisticated and accurate hydrological modeling.

Keywords: Blue Nile Basin, climate change, hydrological modeling, watershed

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3272 Informing Lighting Designs Through a Comprehensive Review of Light Pollution Impacts

Authors: Stephen M. Simmons, Stuart W. Baur, William L. Gillis


In recent years, increasing concern has been shown towards the issue of light pollution, especially with the spread of brighter, more blue-rich LED bulbs. Much research has been conducted in order to study the effects of artificial light at night, and many adverse impacts have been discovered, such as circadian disruption, degradation of the night sky, and interference oftheprocesses and behaviors of plants and animals. Despite a plethora of informationin the literature regarding the numerous illeffects of this type of pollution, there does not appear to be a complete summary of these impacts, including their magnitudes, which would facilitate the balancing of risks and benefits in the design of an exterior lighting system. This paperprovides a comprehensive review of the known impacts of light pollution, divided into four categories - human health, night sky, plants, and animals; additionally, it includes a synopsis of what likely remains unknown at this point in time. This review will attempt to showcase the relative significance of differentimpacts within each category, as well as their sensitivity to changes in lighting specifications (brightness, color temperature, shielding, and mounting height). Methods to be employed in this research include an extensive literature review and the gathering of expert knowledge and opinions. The findings of this review will be used to inform the creation of an optimized lighting design for the Missouri University of Science and Technology campus. It is hoped that future research willexplore the known impacts of light pollution further, as well as search for what still remains to be found regarding the consequencesof artificial light at night.

Keywords: comprehensive review, impacts, light pollution, lighting design, literature review

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3271 Photo-Fenton Decolorization of Methylene Blue Adsolubilized on Co2+ -Embedded Alumina Surface: Comparison of Process Modeling through Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Prateeksha Mahamallik, Anjali Pal


In the present study, Co(II)-adsolubilized surfactant modified alumina (SMA) was prepared, and methylene blue (MB) degradation was carried out on Co-SMA surface by visible light photo-Fenton process. The entire reaction proceeded on solid surface as MB was embedded on Co-SMA surface. The reaction followed zero order kinetics. Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used for modeling the decolorization of MB by photo-Fenton process as a function of dose of Co-SMA (10, 20 and 30 g/L), initial concentration of MB (10, 20 and 30 mg/L), concentration of H2O2 (174.4, 348.8 and 523.2 mM) and reaction time (30, 45 and 60 min). The prediction capabilities of both the methodologies (RSM and ANN) were compared on the basis of correlation coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), standard error of prediction (SEP), relative percent deviation (RPD). Due to lower value of RMSE (1.27), SEP (2.06) and RPD (1.17) and higher value of R2 (0.9966), ANN was proved to be more accurate than RSM in order to predict decolorization efficiency.

Keywords: adsolubilization, artificial neural network, methylene blue, photo-fenton process, response surface methodology

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3270 Achievement of Livable and Healthy City through the Design of Green and Blue Infrastructure: A Case Study on City of Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelat


due to towards the rapid urbanization, cities throughout the world faced to rapid growth through gray infrastructure. Therefore designing cities based on green and blue infrastructure can offer the best solution to support healthy urban environment. This conformation with a wide range of ecosystem service has a positive impact on the regulation of air temperature, noise reduction, air quality, and also create a pleasant environment for humans activities. Research mainly focuses on the concept and principles of green and blue infrastructure in the city of Esfahan at the center of Iran in order to create a livable and healthy environment. Design principles for green and blue infrastructure are classified into two different but interconnect evaluations. Healthy green infrastructure assessing based on; volume, shape, location, dispersion, and maintenance. For blue infrastructure there are three aspects of water and ecosystem which are; the contribution of water on medical health, the contribution of water on mental health, and creating possibilities to exercise.

Keywords: healthy cities, livability, urban landscape, green and blue infrastructure

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3269 Development of Perovskite Quantum Dots Light Emitting Diode by Dual-Source Evaporation

Authors: Antoine Dumont, Weiji Hong, Zheng-Hong Lu


Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are steadily becoming the new standard for luminescent display devices because of their energy efficiency and relatively low cost, and the purity of the light they emit. Our research focuses on the optical properties of the lead halide perovskite CsPbBr₃ and its family that is showing steadily improving performances in LEDs and solar cells. The objective of this work is to investigate CsPbBr₃ as an emitting layer made by physical vapor deposition instead of the usual solution-processed perovskites, for use in LEDs. The deposition in vacuum eliminates any risk of contaminants as well as the necessity for the use of chemical ligands in the synthesis of quantum dots. Initial results show the versatility of the dual-source evaporation method, which allowed us to create different phases in bulk form by altering the mole ratio or deposition rate of CsBr and PbBr₂. The distinct phases Cs₄PbBr₆, CsPbBr₃ and CsPb₂Br₅ – confirmed through XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and X-ray diffraction analysis – have different optical properties and morphologies that can be used for specific applications in optoelectronics. We are particularly focused on the blue shift expected from quantum dots (QDs) and the stability of the perovskite in this form. We already obtained proof of the formation of QDs through our dual source evaporation method with electron microscope imaging and photoluminescence testing, which we understand is a first in the community. We also incorporated the QDs in an LED structure to test the electroluminescence and the effect on performance and have already observed a significant wavelength shift. The goal is to reach 480nm after shifting from the original 528nm bulk emission. The hole transport layer (HTL) material onto which the CsPbBr₃ is evaporated is a critical part of this study as the surface energy interaction dictates the behaviour of the QD growth. A thorough study to determine the optimal HTL is in progress. A strong blue shift for a typically green emitting material like CsPbBr₃ would eliminate the necessity of using blue emitting Cl-based perovskite compounds and could prove to be more stable in a QD structure. The final aim is to make a perovskite QD LED with strong blue luminescence, fabricated through a dual-source evaporation technique that could be scalable to industry level, making this device a viable and cost-effective alternative to current commercial LEDs.

Keywords: material physics, perovskite, light emitting diode, quantum dots, high vacuum deposition, thin film processing

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3268 Powdered Beet Red Roots Using as Adsorbent to Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Abdulali Bashir Ben Saleh


The powdered beet red roots (PBRR) were used as an adsorbent to remove dyes namely methylene blue dye (as a typical cationic or basic dye) from aqueous solutions. The present study shows that used beet red roots powder exhibit adsorption trend for the dye. The adsorption processes were carried out at various conditions of concentrations, processing time and a wide range of pH between 2.5-11. Adsorption isotherm equations such as Freundlich, and Langmuir were applied to calculate the values of respective constants. Adsorption study was found that the currently introduced adsorbent can be used to remove cationic dyes such as methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: beet red root, removal of deys, methylene blue, adsorption

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3267 Photocatalytic Activity of Pure and Doped CeO2 Nanoparticles

Authors: Mohamed Khedr, Ahmed Farghali, Waleed El Rouby, Abdelrhman Hamdeldeen


Pure CeO2, Sm and Gd doped CeO2 were successfully prepared via hydrothermal method. The effect of hydrothermal temperature, reaction time and precursors were investigated. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-Raman Spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The prepared pure and doped CeO2 nanoparticles were used as photo-catalyst for the degradation of Methylene blue (MB) dye under UV light irradiation. The results showed that Gd doped CeO2 nano-particles have the best catalytic degradation effect for MB under UV irradiation. The degradation pathways of MB were followed using liquid chromatography (LC/MS) and it was found that Gd doped CeO2 was able to oxidize MB dye with a complete mineralization of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms into CO2, NH4+, NO3- and SO42-.

Keywords: CeO2, doped CeO2, photocatalysis, methylene blue

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3266 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor


Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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3265 Microfluidic Based High Throughput Screening System for Photodynamic Therapy against Cancer Cells

Authors: Rina Lee, Chung-Hun Oh, Eunjin Lee, Jeongyun Kim


The Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses a photosensitizer as a drug to damage and kill cancer cells. After injecting the photosensitizer into the bloodstream, the drug is absorbed by cancer cells selectively. Then the area to be treated is exposed to specific wavelengths of light and the photosensitizer produces a form of oxygen that kills nearby cancer cells. PDT is has an advantage to destroy the tumor with minimized side-effects on normal cells. But, PDT is not a completed method for cancer therapy. Because the mechanism of PDT is quite clear yet and the parameters such as intensity of light and dose of photosensitizer are not optimized for different types of cancers. To optimize these parameters, we suggest a novel microfluidic system to automatically control intensity of light exposure with a personal computer (PC). A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip is composed with (1) a cell culture channels layer where cancer cells were trapped to be tested with various dosed photofrin (1μg/ml used for the test) as the photosensitizer and (2) a color dye layer as a neutral density (ND) filter to reduce intensity of light which exposes the cell culture channels filled with cancer cells. Eight different intensity of light (10%, 20%, …, 100%) are generated through various concentrations of blue dye filling the ND filter. As a light source, a light emitting diode (LED) with 635nm wavelength was placed above the developed PDMS microfluidic chip. The total time for light exposure was 30 minutes and HeLa and PC3 cell lines of cancer cells were tested. The cell viability of cells was evaluated with a Live/Dead assay kit (L-3224, Invitrogen, USA). The stronger intensity of light exposed, the lower viability of the cell was observed, and vice versa. Therefore, this system was demonstrated through investigating the PDT against cancer cell to optimize the parameters as critical light intensity and dose of photosensitizer. Our results suggest that the system can be used for optimizing the combinational parameters of light intensity and photosensitizer dose against diverse cancer cell types.

Keywords: photodynamic therapy, photofrin, high throughput screening, hela

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