Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1927

Search results for: mixed use

1927 Mixed Number Algebra and Its Application

Authors: Md. Shah Alam

Abstract:

Mushfiq Ahmad has defined a Mixed Number, which is the sum of a scalar and a Cartesian vector. He has also defined the elementary group operations of Mixed numbers i.e. the norm of Mixed numbers, the product of two Mixed numbers, the identity element and the inverse. It has been observed that Mixed Number is consistent with Pauli matrix algebra and a handy tool to work with Dirac electron theory. Its use as a mathematical method in Physics has been studied. (1) We have applied Mixed number in Quantum Mechanics: Mixed Number version of Displacement operator, Vector differential operator, and Angular momentum operator has been developed. Mixed Number method has also been applied to Klein-Gordon equation. (2) We have applied Mixed number in Electrodynamics: Mixed Number version of Maxwell’s equation, the Electric and Magnetic field quantities and Lorentz Force has been found. (3) An associative transformation of Mixed Number numbers fulfilling Lorentz invariance requirement is developed. (4) We have applied Mixed number algebra as an extension of Complex number. Mixed numbers and the Quaternions have isomorphic correspondence, but they are different in algebraic details. The multiplication of unit Mixed number and the multiplication of unit Quaternions are different. Since Mixed Number has properties similar to those of Pauli matrix algebra, Mixed Number algebra is a more convenient tool to deal with Dirac equation.

Keywords: mixed number, special relativity, quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, pauli matrix

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1926 Reliability Prediction of Tires Using Linear Mixed-Effects Model

Authors: Myung Hwan Na, Ho- Chun Song, EunHee Hong

Abstract:

We widely use normal linear mixed-effects model to analysis data in repeated measurement. In case of detecting heteroscedasticity and the non-normality of the population distribution at the same time, normal linear mixed-effects model can give improper result of analysis. To achieve more robust estimation, we use heavy tailed linear mixed-effects model which gives more exact and reliable analysis conclusion than standard normal linear mixed-effects model.

Keywords: reliability, tires, field data, linear mixed-effects model

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1925 Corrosion of Fe-(9~37) Wt%Cr Alloys at 700-800 °C in N₂-H₂O-H₂S Mixed Gas

Authors: Min Jung Kim

Abstract:

Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 °C for 70 h under 1 atm of N₂, 1 atm of N₂/3.2%H₂O-mixed gas, and 1 atm of N₂/3.1%H₂O/2.42%H₂S-mixed gas. The corrosion rate of Fe-9Cr alloy increased with the addition of H₂O and increased further with the addition of H₂S in N₂/H₂O gas. Fe-9Cr alloy was non-protective in all gas types. In contrast, Fe-(19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys were protective in N₂ and N₂/H₂O-mixed gas because of the formation of the Cr₂O₃ layer. They were, however, non-protective in N₂/H₂O/H₂S-mixed gas because sulfidation dominated, forming the outer FeS layer and the inner Cr₂S₃ layer containing some FeCr₂S₄.

Keywords: Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys, corrosion, sulfidation, FeS

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1924 Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatment for Sewage Wastewater

Authors: E. Marei, A. Hammad, S. Ismail, A. El-Gindy

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the ability of different formula of mixed bacteria as a biological treatments of wastewater after primary treatment as a bio-treatment and bio-removal and bio-adsorbent of different heavy metals in natural circumstances. The wastewater was collected from Sarpium forest site-Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. These treatments were mixture of free cells and mixture of immobilized cells of different bacteria. These different formulas of mixed bacteria were prepared under Lab. condition. The obtained data indicated that, as a result of wastewater bio-treatment, the removal rate was found to be 76.92 and 76.70% for biological oxygen demand, 79.78 and 71.07% for chemical oxygen demand, 32.45 and 36.84 % for ammonia nitrogen as well as 91.67 and 50.0% for phosphate after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. Moreover, the bio-removals of different heavy metals were found to reach 90.0 and 50. 0% for Cu ion, 98.0 and 98.5% for Fe ion, 97.0 and 99.3% for Mn ion, 90.0 and 90.0% Pb, 80.0% and 75.0% for Zn ion after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. The results indicated that 13.86 and 17.43% of removal efficiency and reduction of total dissolved solids were achieved after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively.

Keywords: wastewater bio-treatment , bio-sorption heavy metals, biological desalination, immobilized bacteria, free cell bacteria

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1923 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Mixed Convection within a Complex Geometry

Authors: Y. Lasbet, A. L. Boukhalkhal, K. Loubar

Abstract:

The study of mixed convection is, usually, focused on the straight channels in which the onset of the mixed convection is well defined as function of the ratio between Grashof number and Reynolds number, Gr/Re. This is not the case for a complex channel wherein the mixed convection is not sufficiently examined in the literature. Our paper focuses on the study of the mixed convection in a complex geometry in which our main contribution reveals that the critical value of the ratio Gr/Re for the onset of the mixed convection increases highly in the type of geometry contrary to the straight channel. Furthermore, the accentuated secondary flow in this geometry prevents the thermal stratification in the flow and consequently the buoyancy driven becomes negligible. To perform these objectives, a numerical study in complex geometry for several values of the ratio Gr/Re with prescribed wall heat flux (H2), was realized by using the CFD code.

Keywords: complex geometry, heat transfer, laminar flow, mixed convection, Nusselt number

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1922 Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZIF-7 Crystals and Their Composite ZIF-7/CS Membranes for Water/Ethanol Separation

Authors: Kai-Sheng Ji, Yi-Feng Lin

Abstract:

The pervaporation process for solvent and water separation has attracted research attention due to its lower energy consumption compared with conventional distillation processes. The membranes used for the pervaporation approach should exhibit high flux and separation factors. In this study, the ZIF-7 crystal particles were successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) membranes to form ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes. The as-prepared ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes were used to separate mixtures of water/ethanol at 25℃ in the pervaporation process. The mixed-matrix membranes with different ZIF-7 wt% incorporation showed better separation efficiency than the pristine CS membranes because of the smaller pore size of the mixed-matrix membranes. The separation factor and the flux of the ZIF-7/CS membranes clearly exceed the upper limit of the previously reported CS-based and mixed-matrix membranes.

Keywords: pervaporation, chitosan, ZIF-7, memberane separation

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1921 Land Equivalent Ration of Chickpea - Barley as Affected by Mixed Cropping System and Vermicompost in Water Stress Condition

Authors: Masoud Rafiee

Abstract:

Study of the effect of vermin compost on yield, and Land equivalent ration (LER) of chickpea-barley mixed cropping under normal dry land condition can be useful in order to increase qualitative and quantitative performance. In this case, two factors include fertilizer (vermicompost biological fertilizer, ammonium phosphate chemical fertilizer, vermicompost + %75 chemical fertilizer) and chickpea + barley mixed cropping (sole chickpea, %75 chickpea: %25 barley, %50 chickpea: %50 barley, %25 chickpea: %75 barley, and sole barley) in RCBD in three replications in two experiments include normal and dry land conditions were studied. Result showed that total LER base on dry matter was affected by environment and mixed cropping interaction and was more than 1 in all mixed cropping treatments. In different mixed cropping rates, wet forage yield decreased by decreasing chickpea ratio as well as increasing barley ratio. Total LER mean in base on forage dry matter in mixed-, chemical-, and vermicompost fertilizer treatments were 1.12, 1.05 and 1.10 in normal condition and 1.15, 1.08 and 1.14 in dry land condition, respectively, represented the important of biological fertilizer in mixed cropping systems.

Keywords: land equivalent ration, biological fertilizer, mixed cropping systems, water stress

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1920 One Period Loops of Memristive Circuits with Mixed-Mode Oscillations

Authors: Wieslaw Marszalek, Zdzislaw Trzaska

Abstract:

Interesting properties of various one-period loops of singularly perturbed memristive circuits with mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs) are analyzed in this paper. The analysis is mixed, both analytical and numerical and focused on the properties of pinched hysteresis of the memristive element and other one-period loops formed by pairs of time-series solutions for various circuits' variables. The memristive element is the only nonlinear element in the two circuits. A theorem on periods of mixed-mode oscillations of the circuits is formulated and proved. Replacements of memristors by parallel G-C or series R-L circuits for a MMO response with equivalent RMS values is also discussed.

Keywords: mixed-mode oscillations, memristive circuits, pinched hysteresis, one-period loops, singularly perturbed circuits

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1919 Mixed Sub-Fractional Brownian Motion

Authors: Mounir Zili

Abstract:

We will introduce a new extension of the Brownian motion, that could serve to get a good model of many natural phenomena. It is a linear combination of a finite number of sub-fractional Brownian motions; that is why we will call it the mixed sub-fractional Brownian motion. We will present some basic properties of this process. Among others, we will check that our process is non-Markovian and that it has non-stationary increments. We will also give the conditions under which it is a semimartingale. Finally, the main features of its sample paths will be specified.

Keywords: mixed Gaussian processes, Sub-fractional Brownian motion, sample paths

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1918 Insecticidal Activity of Piper aduncum Fruit and Tephrosia vogelii Leaf Mixed Formulations against Cabbage Pest Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Authors: Eka Candra Lina, Indah Widhianingrum, Mita Eka Putri, Nur Afni Evalia, Muhammad Makky

Abstract:

The emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and wettable powder (WP) of Piper aduncum and Tephrosia vogelii mixed formulations were tested for their activities in the laboratory and their effectiveness in the field against cabbage pest Plutella xyostella. Cabbage leaves soaked in six different mixed formulation concentrations were tested to 2ⁿᵈ instar larvae of P. xylostella with six replications. The observation was conducted everyday until larvae reached 4ᵗʰ instar stage. Correlation between concentration and larvae mortality was analyzed using probit (POLO-PC). The survived larvae was observed by looking at the growth and development, as well as the antifeedant effects. Field efficacy test was based on LC₉₅ value from laboratory test result. The experiment used a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 3 replications to test the populations of P. xylostella larvae and insecticide effectivity. The results showed that the EC and WP mixed formulations showed insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae, with LC₉₅ value of 0.35% and 0.37%, respectively. The highest antifeedant effect on EC mixed formulation was 85.01% and WP mixed formulation was 86.23%. Both mixed formulations also slowed the development of larvae when compared with control. Field effication result showed that applications of EC mixed formulation were able to restrain the population of P. xylostella, with effectivity value of 71.06%. Insecticide effectivity value of EC mixed formulation was higher than WP mixed formulation and Bacillus thuringiensis formulation.

Keywords: botanical insecticide, efficacy, emulsifiable concentrate (EC), Plutella xylostella, wettable powder (WP)

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1917 Mixed-Sub Fractional Brownian Motion

Authors: Mounir Zili

Abstract:

We will introduce a new extension of the Brownian motion, that could serve to get a good model of many natural phenomena. It is a linear combination of a finite number of sub-fractional Brownian motions; that is why we will call it the mixed sub-fractional Brownian motion. We will present some basic properties of this process. Among others, we will check that our process is non-markovian and that it has non-stationary increments. We will also give the conditions under which it is a semi-martingale. Finally, the main features of its sample paths will be specified.

Keywords: fractal dimensions, mixed gaussian processes, sample paths, sub-fractional brownian motion

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1916 A Mixed Method Design to Studying the Effects of Lean Production on Job Satisfaction and Health Work in a French Context

Authors: Gregor Bouville, Celine Schmidt

Abstract:

This article presents a French case study on lean production drawing on a mixed method design which has received little attention in French management research-especially in French human resources research. The purpose is to show that using a mixed method approach in this particular case overstep the limitations of previous studies in lean production studies. The authors use the embedded design as a special articulation of mixed method to analyse and understand the effects of three organizational practices on job satisfaction and workers’ health. Results show that low scheduled autonomy, quality management, time constraint have deleterious effects on job satisfaction. Furthermore, these three practices have ambivalent effects on health work. Interest in the subjects of mixed method has been growing up among French health researchers and practioners, also recently among French management researchers. This study reinforces and refines how mixed methods may offer interesting perspectives in an integrated framework included human resources, management, and health fields. Finally, potentials benefits and limits for those interdisciplinary researches programs are discussed.

Keywords: lean production, mixed method, work organization practices, job satisfaction

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1915 Dual Solutions in Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow: A Stability Analysis

Authors: Anuar Ishak

Abstract:

The mixed convection stagnation point flow toward a vertical plate is investigated. The external flow impinges normal to the heated plate and the surface temperature is assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the stagnation point. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. Numerical results show that dual solutions are possible for a certain range of the mixed convection parameter. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.

Keywords: dual solutions, heat transfer, mixed convection, stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1914 Identity Formation of Mixed-Race Children in Japan

Authors: Shuko Takeshita

Abstract:

This study investigates the identity formation of mixed-race children in Japan. From the latter half of the 1980s to the mid-2000s, Japan experienced an 'intermarriage boom,' which was soon followed by a fairly significant number of children born to these unions. These children are now coming of age. Among mixed-race children, some embraced both cultural traditions, while others chose a monocultural path despite exposure to two cultural traditions as they grew up. What factors are involved in shaping the identity of mixed-race children? How does identity formation actually occur in these children? This study addresses these questions through an interview survey of 139 cross-cultural families since 1999, including 23 Pakistani-Japanese families, 20 Turkish-Japanese families, 26 families comprising other international Muslim husbands and Japanese wives, 33 Filipino-Japanese families, and 37 Brazilian-Japanese families. The results of this two-decade-long study reveal that in cases where one cannot tell at first glance that children are mixed race, there is a tendency for them to hide their mixed background due to fear of bullying at school, as well as for their parents to encourage them to do this. To pass as a Japanese is one strategy for avoiding discrimination and prejudice, and it can provide a measure of ethnic security or a way of coping with social intolerance. Certainly, among my informants, there are some children who were bullied or teased at school, and as a result, they stopped attending or transferred to other schools. But the mixed-race experience is not always a negative thing in Japan. There is clearly a double standard involved in that mixed-race children of a Caucasian parent are more readily accepted by society than those of a non-Caucasian parent. The perceived social status of mixed-race individuals is usually understood in relation to the hierarchical positionings of monoracial groups. Mixed-race children could be guaranteed the right to enjoy the benefit of maintaining and developing an identity as a Japanese, in addition to one more identity. We need to encourage a new awareness of the children as agents for a transition from a monocultural system to a multicultural system in Japanese society.

Keywords: identity formation, intermarriage, mixed race, multicultural children

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1913 Comparison of Live Weight of Pure and Mixed Races Tizpar 30-Day Squabs

Authors: Sepehr Moradi, Mehdi Asadi Rad

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare live weight of pure and mixed races Tizpar 30-day pigeons to investigate about their sex, race, and some auxiliary variables. In this paper, 70 pieces of pigeons as 35 male and female pairs with equal age are studied randomly. A natural incubation was done from each pair. All produced chickens were weighted at 30 days age before and after hunger by a scale with one gram precision. A covariance analysis was used since there were many auxiliary variables and unequal observations. SAS software was used for statistical analysis. Mean weight of live in pure race (Tizpar-Tizpar) with 12 records, 182.3±60.9 gr and mixed races of Tizpar-Kabood, Tizpar-Parvazy, Tizpar-Namebar, Kabood-Tizpar, Namebar-Tizpar, and Parvazy-Tizpar with 10, 10, 8, 6, 12, and 12 records were 114.3±71.6, 210.6±71.7, 353.2±86, 520.8±81.5, 288.3±65.6, and 382.6±70.4 gr, respectively. Effects of sex, race and some auxiliary variables were also significant in 1% level (P < 0.01). Difference live weight of 30-day of Tizpar-Tizpar race with Tizpar-Namebar and Parvazi-Tizpar mixed races was significant in 5% level (P < 0.05) and with Kabood-Tizpar mixed races was significant in 1% level (P < 0.01) but with Tizpar-Kabood, Nmaebar-Tizpar and Tizpar-Parvazy mixed races was not significant. The results showed that most and least weights of live belonged to Kabood-Tizpar and Tizpar-Kabood.

Keywords: squabs, Tizpar race, 30-day live weight, pigeons

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1912 Characterization and Geochemical Modeling of Cu and Zn Sorption Using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Iron Sulfide under Sulfidic-Anoxic Conditions I: Case Study of Cwmheidol Mine Waste Water, Wales, United Kingdom

Authors: D. E. Egirani, J. E. Andrews, A. R. Baker

Abstract:

This study investigates sorption of Cu and Zn contained in natural mine wastewater, using mixed mineral systems in sulfidic-anoxic condition. The mine wastewater was obtained from disused mine workings at Cwmheidol in Wales, United Kingdom. These contaminants flow into water courses. These water courses include River Rheidol. In this River fishing activities exist. In an attempt to reduce Cu-Zn levels of fish intake in the watercourses, single mineral systems and 1:1 mixed mineral systems of clay and goethite were tested with the mine waste water for copper and zinc removal at variable pH. Modelling of hydroxyl complexes was carried out using phreeqc method. Reactions using batch mode technique was conducted at room temperature. There was significant differences in the behaviour of copper and zinc removal using mixed mineral systems when compared  to single mineral systems. All mixed mineral systems sorb more Cu than Zn when tested with mine wastewater.

Keywords: Cu- Zn, hydroxyl complexes, kinetics, mixed mineral systems, reactivity

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1911 Classifications of Sleep Apnea (Obstructive, Central, Mixed) and Hypopnea Events Using Wavelet Packet Transform and Support Vector Machines (VSM)

Authors: Benghenia Hadj Abd El Kader

Abstract:

Sleep apnea events as obstructive, central, mixed or hypopnea are characterized by frequent breathing cessations or reduction in upper airflow during sleep. An advanced method for analyzing the patterning of biomedical signals to recognize obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea is presented. In the aim to extract characteristic parameters, which will be used for classifying the above stated (obstructive, central, mixed) sleep apnea and hypopnea, the proposed method is based first on the analysis of polysomnography signals such as electrocardiogram signal (ECG) and electromyogram (EMG), then classification of the (obstructive, central, mixed) sleep apnea and hypopnea. The analysis is carried out using the wavelet transform technique in order to extract characteristic parameters whereas classification is carried out by applying the SVM (support vector machine) technique. The obtained results show good recognition rates using characteristic parameters.

Keywords: obstructive, central, mixed, sleep apnea, hypopnea, ECG, EMG, wavelet transform, SVM classifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
1910 Design Exploration on Mixed-Use Development of Island House: Take the Southeast Coastal Area of Chinese as an Example

Authors: Fu Jiayan, Wang Zhu, Sun Jiaojiao

Abstract:

Mixed-use development is one of the most important trends in new island house transformation along southeast coastal area in China. Unique island geographical environment and profound fishing village culture coexist for a long time in this. With artistic creation for the purpose of the "live-work" houses are in a large number of emergence, however, still lack of systematic strategy. Based on space effect from marine resources to regional human settlements, this article teases out the evolution regularity of island settlement context and architectural form, then, puts forward the formation mechanism and construction model of art island houses. Thereby, to further explore space design method and site creation strategy of mixed-use development.

Keywords: mixed-use, island house, art creation, Southeast Coastal Area of Chinese

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1909 An Interactive Platform Displaying Mixed Reality Media

Authors: Alfred Chen, Cheng Chieh Hsu, Yu-Pin Ma, Meng-Jie Lin, Fu Pai Chiu, Yi-Yan Sie

Abstract:

This study is attempted to construct a human-computer interactive platform system that has mainly consisted of an augmented hardware system, a software system, a display table, and mixed media. This system has provided with human-computer interaction services through an interactive platform for the tourism industry. A well designed interactive platform, integrating of augmented reality and mixed media, has potential to enhance museum display quality and diversity. Besides, it will create a comprehensive and creative display mode for most museums and historical heritages. Therefore, it is essential to let public understand what the platform is, how it functions, and most importantly how one builds an interactive augmented platform. Hence the authors try to elaborate the construction process of the platform in detail. Thus, there are three issues to be considered, i.e.1) the theory and application of augmented reality, 2) the hardware and software applied, and 3) the mixed media presented. In order to describe how the platform works, Courtesy Door of Tainan Confucius Temple has been selected as case study in this study. As a result, a developed interactive platform has been presented by showing the physical entity object, along with virtual mixing media such as text, images, animation, and video. This platform will result in providing diversified and effective information that will be delivered to the users.

Keywords: human-computer interaction, mixed reality, mixed media, tourism

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1908 Mixed Micellization Study of Adiphenine Hydrochloride with 1-Decyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

Authors: Abbul B. Khan, Neeraj Dohare, Rajan Patel

Abstract:

The mixed micellization of adiphenine hydrochloride (ADP) with 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C10mim.Cl), was investigated at different mole fractions and temperatures by surface tension measurements. The synergistic behavior (i.e., non-ideal behavior) for binary mixtures was explained by the deviation of critical micelle concentration (cmc) from ideal critical micelle concentration (cmc*), micellar mole fraction (Xim) from ideal micellar mole fraction (Xiideal), the values of interaction parameter (β) and activity coefficients (fi) (for both mixed micelles and mixed monolayer). The excess free energy (∆Gex) for the ADP- C10mim.Cl binary mixtures explain the stability of mixed micelles in comparison to micelles of pure ADP and C10mim.Cl. Interfacial parameters, i.e., Gibbs surface excess (Гmax), minimum head group area at air/ water interface (Amin), and free energy of micellization (ΔG0m) were also evaluated for the systems.

Keywords: adiphenine hydrochloride, critical micelle concentration, interaction parameter, activity coefficient

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1907 Research Methodology and Mixed Methods (Qualitative and Quantitative) for Ph.D. Construction Management – Post-Disaster Reconstruction

Authors: Samuel Quashie

Abstract:

Ph.D. Construction Management methodology and mixed methods are organized to guide the researcher to assemble and assess data in the research activities. Construction management research is close to business management and social science research. It also contributes to researching the phenomenon and answering the research question, generating an integrated management system for post-disaster reconstruction in construction and related industries. Research methodology and methods drive the research to achieve the goal or goals, contribute to knowledge, or increase knowledge. This statement means the research methodology, mixed methods, aim, objectives, and processes address the research question, facilitate its achievement and foundation to conduct the study. Mixed methods use project-based case studies, interviews, observations, literature and archival document reviews, research questionnaires, and surveys, and evaluation of integrated systems used in the construction industry and related industries to address the research work. The research mixed methods (qualitative, quantitative) define the research topic and establish a more in-depth study. The research methodology is action research, which involves the collaboration of participants and service users to collect and evaluate data, studying the phenomenon, research question(s) to improve the situation in post-disaster reconstruction phase management.

Keywords: methodology, Ph.D. research, post-disaster reconstruction, mixed-methods qualitative and quantitative

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1906 MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel

Authors: Brahim Fersadou, Henda Kahalerras

Abstract:

This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined. The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule heating is neglected.

Keywords: heat sources, magnetic field, mixed convection, porous channel

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1905 Saudi Women Facing Challenges in a Mixed-Gender Work Environment

Authors: A. Aldawsari

Abstract:

The complex issue of women working in a mixed-gender work environment has its roots in social and cultural factors. This research was done to identify and explore the social and cultural challenges Saudi women face in a mixed-gender work environment in Saudi Arabia. Over the years, Saudi women in mixed-gender work environments in Saudi Arabia have been of interest in various research areas, especially within the context of a hospital work environment. This research, which involves a female researcher interacting one-on-one with Saudi women, will address this issue as well as the effect of the 2030 Vision in Saudi Arabia, and it will aim to include several new fields of work environments for women in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this research is to examine the perceptions of Saudi women who work in a mixed gender environment regarding the general empowerment of women in these settings. The objective of this research is to explore the cultural and social challenges that influence Saudi women's rights to work in a mixed-gender environment in Saudi Arabia. The significance of this research lies in the fact that there is an urgency to resolve issue of female employment in Saudi Arabia, where Saudi women still suffer from inequality in employment opportunity. Although the Saudi government is seeking to empower women by integrating them into a mixed-gender work environment, which is a key goal and prominent social change advocated for in the 2030 Vision, this same goal is one of the main challenges in the face of achieving female empowerment. The methodology section focuses on appropriate methods that can be used to study the effect of social and cultural challenges on the employment of women. It then determines the conditions and limitations of the research by applying a qualitative research approach to the investigation and analysing the data collected from the interviews. A statistical analysis tool, such as NVivo, will be used for the qualitative analysis of the interviews. The study found that the factor most responsible for creating social and cultural challenges is family—whether close family or distant family—more so than tribe or community.

Keywords: women, work, mixed-gender, environment

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1904 Entropy Production in Mixed Convection in a Horizontal Porous Channel Using Darcy-Brinkman Formulation

Authors: Amel Tayari, Atef Eljerry, Mourad Magherbi

Abstract:

The paper reports a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to mixed convection in laminar flow through a channel filled with porous media. The second law of thermodynamics is applied to investigate the entropy generation rate. The Darcy-Brinkman Model is employed. The entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction dissipations has been determined in mixed convection by solving numerically the continuity, momentum and energy equations, using a control volume finite element method. The effects of Darcy number, modified Brinkman number and the Rayleigh number on averaged entropy generation and averaged Nusselt number are investigated. The Rayleigh number varied between 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105 and the modified Brinkman number ranges between 10-5 ≤ Br≤ 10-1 with fixed values of porosity and Reynolds number at 0.5 and 10 respectively. The Darcy number varied between 10-6 ≤ Da ≤10.

Keywords: entropy generation, porous media, heat transfer, mixed convection, numerical methods, darcy, brinkman

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1903 Pure and Mixed Nash Equilibria Domain of a Discrete Game Model with Dichotomous Strategy Space

Authors: A. S. Mousa, F. Shoman

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We present a discrete game theoretical model with homogeneous individuals who make simultaneous decisions. In this model the strategy space of all individuals is a discrete and dichotomous set which consists of two strategies. We fully characterize the coherent, split and mixed strategies that form Nash equilibria and we determine the corresponding Nash domains for all individuals. We find all strategic thresholds in which individuals can change their mind if small perturbations in the parameters of the model occurs.

Keywords: coherent strategy, split strategy, pure strategy, mixed strategy, Nash equilibrium, game theory

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1902 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluid in Horizontal Rectangular Duct

Authors: Nur Irmawati, H. A. Mohammed

Abstract:

In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on flow and heat transfer characteristics were studied in detail. This study covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2×106≤Ra≤2×107 and Reynolds number in the range of 100≤Re≤1100. Results reveal that the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers increase. It was also found that the dimensionless temperature distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.

Keywords: numerical simulation, mixed convection, horizontal rectangular duct, nanofluids

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1901 Optical Characterization of Erbium-Mixed Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Ben R. Horrocks

Abstract:

The structural characterization of silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) have been carried out using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm. Erbium trichloride was added to silicon nano crystals using a simple chemical procedure. Erbium is useful in this context because it has a narrow emission band at ⋍1536 nm which corresponds to a standard optical telecommunication wavelength. The optical properties of SiNCs and erbium-mixed SiNCs samples have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). SiNCs and erbium-mixed SiNCs samples exhibit an orange PL emission peak at around 595 nm that arise from radiative recombination of Si. Erbium-mixed SiNCs also shows a weak PL emission peak at ⋍1536 nm that attributed to the intra-4f transition in erbium ions. The intensity of the PL peak of Si in erbium-mixed SiNCs is increased in the intensity up to ×3 as compared to pure SiNCs. It was observed that intensity of 1536 nm peak decreased dramatically in the presence of silicon nano crystals and the PL emission peak of silicon nano crystals is increased. Therefore, the resulted data present that the energy transfer from erbium ions to SiNCs due to the chemical mixing method which used in this work.

Keywords: Silicon Nanocrystals (SiNCs), Erbium Ion, photoluminescence, energy transfer

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1900 Mixed Effects Models for Short-Term Load Forecasting for the Spanish Regions: Castilla-Leon, Castilla-La Mancha and Andalucia

Authors: C. Senabre, S. Valero, M. Lopez, E. Velasco, M. Sanchez

Abstract:

This paper focuses on an application of linear mixed models to short-term load forecasting. The challenge of this research is to improve a currently working model at the Spanish Transport System Operator, programmed by us, and based on linear autoregressive techniques and neural networks. The forecasting system currently forecasts each of the regions within the Spanish grid separately, even though the behavior of the load in each region is affected by the same factors in a similar way. A load forecasting system has been verified in this work by using the real data from a utility. In this research it has been used an integration of several regions into a linear mixed model as starting point to obtain the information from other regions. Firstly, the systems to learn general behaviors present in all regions, and secondly, it is identified individual deviation in each regions. The technique can be especially useful when modeling the effect of special days with scarce information from the past. The three most relevant regions of the system have been used to test the model, focusing on special day and improving the performance of both currently working models used as benchmark. A range of comparisons with different forecasting models has been conducted. The forecasting results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, mixed effects models, neural networks, mixed effects models

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1899 High-Temperature Corrosion of Weldment of Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si Steel in N2/H2O/H2S-Mixed Gas

Authors: Sang Hwan Bak, Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si-0.2C steel was welded and corroded at 600, 700 and 800oC for 20 h in 1 atm of N2/H2S/H2O-mixed gas in order to characterize the high-temperature corrosion behavior of the welded joint. Corrosion proceeded fast and almost linearly. It increased with an increase in the corrosion temperature. H2S formed FeS owing to sulfur released from H2S. The scales were fragile and nonadherent.

Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si steel, corrosion, welding, sulfidation, H2S gas

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1898 On the convergence of the Mixed Integer Randomized Pattern Search Algorithm

Authors: Ebert Brea

Abstract:

We propose a novel direct search algorithm for identifying at least a local minimum of mixed integer nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems. The Mixed Integer Randomized Pattern Search Algorithm (MIRPSA), so-called by the author, is based on a randomized pattern search, which is modified by the MIRPSA for finding at least a local minimum of our problem. The MIRPSA has two main operations over the randomized pattern search: moving operation and shrinking operation. Each operation is carried out by the algorithm when a set of conditions is held. The convergence properties of the MIRPSA is analyzed using a Markov chain approach, which is represented by an infinite countable set of state space λ, where each state d(q) is defined by a measure of the qth randomized pattern search Hq, for all q in N. According to the algorithm, when a moving operation is carried out on the qth randomized pattern search Hq, the MIRPSA holds its state. Meanwhile, if the MIRPSA carries out a shrinking operation over the qth randomized pattern search Hq, the algorithm will visit the next state, this is, a shrinking operation at the qth state causes a changing of the qth state into (q+1)th state. It is worthwhile pointing out that the MIRPSA never goes back to any visited states because the MIRPSA only visits any qth by shrinking operations. In this article, we describe the MIRPSA for mixed integer nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems for doing a deep study of its convergence properties using Markov chain viewpoint. We herein include a low dimension case for showing more details of the MIRPSA, when the algorithm is used for identifying the minimum of a mixed integer quadratic function. Besides, numerical examples are also shown in order to measure the performance of the MIRPSA.

Keywords: direct search, mixed integer optimization, random search, convergence, Markov chain

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