Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1247

Search results for: key agreement

1247 Management and Agreement Protocol in Computer Security

Authors: Abdulameer K. Hussain

Abstract:

When dealing with a cryptographic system we note that there are many activities performed by parties of this cryptographic system and the most prominent of these activities is the process of agreement between the parties involved in the cryptographic system on how to deal and perform the cryptographic system tasks to be more secure, more confident and reliable. The most common agreement among parties is a key agreement and other types of agreements. Despite the fact that there is an attempt from some quarters to find other effective agreement methods but these methods are limited to the traditional agreements. This paper presents different parameters to perform more effectively the task of the agreement, including the key alternative, the agreement on the encryption method used and the agreement to prevent the denial of the services. To manage and achieve these goals, this method proposes the existence of an control and monitoring entity to manage these agreements by collecting different statistical information of the opinions of the authorized parties in the cryptographic system. These statistics help this entity to take the proper decision about the agreement factors. This entity is called Agreement Manager (AM).

Keywords: agreement parameters, key agreement, key exchange, security management

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
1246 In Its 20th Anniversary, Will Dayton Peace Agreement Continue or Complete Its Mission?

Authors: Halit Turan, Mehmet Ozturk, Serdal Akyuz

Abstract:

General Framework Agreement for Peace (Dayton Peace Agreement) in Bosnia and Herzegovina (GFAP), is one of the most challenging issues in the contemporary peace studies scholarship. It is clear that this agreement has created an exceptional state structure which Bosnia and Herzegovina has still executed for 20 years. The agreement, signed reluctantly by warring sides to end war, has carried out reaching the present day. Demonstrations held by unemployed people in the early of 2014 can be seen as a symptom of discontent about low economic wealth level which is a clear consequence of agreement. This paper lays out the influences of problems stemmed from the agreement to the future of country especially in terms of economic issues.

Keywords: Bosnia and Herzegovina, dayton peace agreement, economic problems, social discontent

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1245 A Study of Factors Affecting the Elapsed Time of Housing Renewal Project Implementation in Seoul

Authors: In Su Na, Gunwon Lee, Seiyong Kim

Abstract:

This study analyzed the effect of area variables and economic variables on the length of each period of the project in order to analyze the effect of agreement rate on project implementation in housing renewal projects. In conclusion, as can be seen from these results, a low agreement rate may not translate into project promotion, and a higher agreement rate may not translate into project delay. The expectation of the policy is that the lower the agreement rate, the more projects would be promoted, but that is not the actual effect. From a policy consistency viewpoint, changing the agreement rate frequently, depending on the decision of the public, is not reasonable. The policy of using agreement rate as a necessary condition for project implementation should be reconsidered.

Keywords: Area and Economic Variables, Elapsed time, Housing Renewal Project

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1244 Access to Climate Change Information Through the Implementation of the Paris Agreement

Authors: Ana Cristina A. P. Carvalho, Solange Teles Da Silva

Abstract:

In April, 174 countries signed the Paris Agreement, a multilateral agreement on climate change which deals with greenhouse gas emissions, mitigation, adaptation, finance, access to information, transparency, among other subjects related to the environment. Since then, Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement. This paper aims to analyze the consequences of this new rule in terms of the implementation of the Agreement, collecting data from Brazilian and Canadian legislations in order to identify if these countries have rules complying with the Treaty, the steps that have been already taken and if they could be used as examples for other countries. The analysis will take into consideration the different kinds of climate change information, means of transparency, reliability of the data and how to spread the information. The methodology comprehends a comparative legal research based on both the Paris Agreement and domestic laws of Brazil and Canada, as well as on doctrine and Court decisions. The findings can contribute to the implementation of the Paris Agreement through compliance with this Treaty at countries’ domestic and policy level.

Keywords: climate change information, domestic legislation, Paris Agreement, public policy

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1243 The Trend and Implementation of Bargaining Agreements at University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape, South Africa 2012 to 2016

Authors: Olusola Olasupo, E. O. C. Ijeoma

Abstract:

The University of Fort Hare and the National Education Health and Allied Workers Union (NEHAWU), the registered labor union at the University recognizes the significance of collective bargaining. This prompted both parties to enter into agreement with the notion to strengthening the relationship between them. The agreement was therefore entered into between NEHAWU representing the employees and the University. The agreement was signed on August 31st, 2005. The study adopting historical research method reveals the trend and implementation of bargaining agreements at University of Fort Hare from 2012 to 2016. This study examines how the implementation of bargaining agreement is utilized to solve labor related challenges and also improve on employee’s wages and conditions of service thereby strengthening the relationship between the management and employees at University of Fort Hare. The study contributes to knowledge on the effects of the implementation of bargaining agreement on wages and other conditions of service leading to harmonious relationship between the Staff and the management towards the effective administration of the University of Fort Hare. Findings reveal that ever since 2005 when the agreement was reached, University of Fort Hare and NEHAWU have been committed to improving the employees’ wages through substantive agreement. The study concludes by recommending a more effective implementation of bargaining agreement at University of Fort Hare.

Keywords: agreement, bargaining, implementation, trend

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
1242 Influence Analysis of Profit Sharing Agreement and Financing Risk to Profitability in Islamic Bank of Indonesia

Authors: Irena Paramita Pramono

Abstract:

Islamic bank is a financial industry with huge potential to grow in Indonesia. Profit-sharing agreement in the operations of Islamic banks distinguishes Islamic banks with conventional banks. Profit-sharing agreement allows sharing of benefits and risks between shahibul maal and mudharib in islamic bank. This study aimed to observe the patterns of influence between the risk-sharing agreement, financing risk and Profitability in Islamic banks. This research used several Islamic banks as sample and path analysis method. The empirical results of this research shows that the profit-sharing agreement in deposits structure has no direct significant effect to ROA, but it has indirect effect to ROA through profit-sharing financing. On the other hand, profit-sharing financing has direct and indirect influence to ROA through financing risk. This research shows that profit-sharing financing has a positive significant effect to the financing risk and also to the ROA. The research recommends Islamic banks to continue using and developing profit-sharing agreement in its operational activities, hence to create value.

Keywords: Islamic bank, profit-loss sharing agreement, financing risk, profitability

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1241 Phrases, Agreement and Reference in Students' Writing

Authors: Maya Lisa Aryanti, S. S. M. Hum

Abstract:

Students usually make a lot of mistakes when they write their composition. The common mistake occurs when they write their own sentences. They perhaps can use certain verb and verb phrases properly, but on another occasion, they may choose wrong verb phrases. This paper illustrates ill-formed phrases, improper agreement between subject and verb and referent and reference in the students’ writings. The objectives of this research are to show possible variety of ill-formed phrases, to show frequent mistakes in S-V Agreement, and to show wrong reference in students’ writing. The methodology of this research is descriptive qualitative research. Some general linguistic theories and semantics are used in this paper. The results of this research concern to the number and the forms of possible ill-formed phrases, the types of Subject-Verb Agreement which are often applied incorrectly in a sentence and types of reference which are often used incorrectly.

Keywords: agreement, meaning, phrases, reference

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1240 Combating Supplier-Copycatting With Intellectual Property Agreements

Authors: Hubert Pun

Abstract:

When a manufacturer outsources the production of a product, it distributes its intellectual property (IP) into a supply chain that it may not be able to fully control. An IP agreement between a manufacturer and its suppliers is a popular solution to address the challenge of supplier-copycatting. The goal of this paper is to examine the impact of copycatting, from both the supplier and third-party firms, and the effectiveness of an IP agreement. Specifically, we use a game-theoretic approach to examine a system where a manufacturer outsources to a supplier. The supplier and a third-party firm decide whether or not to enter the market with copycat products while the manufacturer selects the level of marketing investment. The manufacturer can reduce the threat of supplier-copycatting by signing an IP agreement. We find that the manufacturer can be worse off from signing an IP agreement with its supplier, even if the IP agreement is costless and perfectly enforceable. We show that a manufacturer can deter copycat products through vertical integration and IP agreements and we outline the instances where each method is preferred. Furthermore, we find that the manufacturer may choose not to invest in quality improvements as a copycat deterrence strategy. We show that the supplier can benefit from the manufacturer’s decision to sign an IP agreement and that the supplier and the consumers can benefit from government regulations against copycat products. Our paper demonstrates the strengths and limitations of various copycat deterrence strategies when a supplier and third-party may produce copycat products.

Keywords: coopetitive supply chain, copycat, government regulation, intellectual property

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1239 Development and Validation of Research Process for Enhancing Humanities Competence of Medical Students

Authors: S. J. Yune, K. H. Park

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the research process for enhancing the humanities competence of the medical students. The research process was developed to be operated as a core subject course of 3 semesters. Among them, the research process for enhancing humanities capacity consisted of humanities and societies (6 teams) and education-psychology (2teams). The subjects of this study were 88-second grade students and 22 professors who participated in the research process. Among them, 13 professors participated in the study of humanities and 37 students. In the validity test, the professors were more likely to have more validity in the research process than the students in all areas of logic (p = .001), influence (p = .037), process (p = .001). The validity of the professor was higher than that of the students. The professors highly evaluated the students' learning outcomes and showed the most frequency to the prize group. As a result of analyzing the agreement between the students and the professors through the Kappa coefficient, the agreement degree of communication and cooperation competence was moderate to .430. Problem-solving ability was .340, which showed a fair degree of agreement. However, other factors showed only a slight degree of agreement of less than .20.

Keywords: research process, medical school, humanities competence, validity verification

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1238 Implementing Fault Tolerance with Proxy Signature on the Improvement of RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

Fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in modern communication systems. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on the improved RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: fault tolerance, improved RSA, key agreement, proxy signature

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
1237 An Efficient Proxy Signature Scheme Over a Secure Communications Network

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

Proxy signature scheme permits an original signer to delegate his/her signing capability to a proxy signer, and then the proxy signer generates a signing message on behalf of the original signer. The two parties must be able to authenticate one another and agree on a secret encryption key, in order to communicate securely over an unreliable public network. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building secure communications network between the two parties. In this paper, we present a secure proxy signature scheme over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on the discrete logarithm problem.

Keywords: proxy signature, warrant partial delegation, key agreement, discrete logarithm

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1236 A Secure Proxy Signature Scheme with Fault Tolerance Based on RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

Due to the rapid growth in modern communication systems, fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in a secure transaction. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a secure proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: proxy signature, fault tolerance, rsa, key agreement protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
1235 Secure Proxy Signature Based on Factoring and Discrete Logarithm

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

A digital signature is an electronic signature form used by an original signer to sign a specific document. When the original signer is not in his office or when he/she travels outside, he/she delegates his signing capability to a proxy signer and then the proxy signer generates a signing message on behalf of the original signer. The two parties must be able to authenticate one another and agree on a secret encryption key, in order to communicate securely over an unreliable public network. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties. In this paper, we present a secure proxy signature scheme over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on factoring and discrete logarithm problem.

Keywords: discrete logarithm, factoring, proxy signature, key agreement

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1234 Criterion-Referenced Test Reliability through Threshold Loss Agreement: Fuzzy Logic Analysis Approach

Authors: Mohammad Ali Alavidoost, Hossein Bozorgian

Abstract:

Criterion-referenced tests (CRTs) are designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards. The reliability of such tests cannot be based on internal reliability. Threshold loss agreement is one way to calculate the reliability of CRTs. However, the selection of master and non-master in such agreement is determined by the threshold point. The problem is if the threshold point witnesses a minute change, the selection of master and non-master may have a drastic change, leading to the change in reliability results. Therefore, in this study, the Fuzzy logic approach is employed as a remedial procedure for data analysis to obviate the threshold point problem. Forty-one Iranian students were selected; the participants were all between 20 and 30 years old. A quantitative approach was used to address the research questions. In doing so, a quasi-experimental design was utilized since the selection of the participants was not randomized. Based on the Fuzzy logic approach, the threshold point would be more stable during the analysis, resulting in rather constant reliability results and more precise assessment.

Keywords: criterion-referenced tests, threshold loss agreement, threshold point, fuzzy logic approach

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1233 An Appraisal of Mitigation and Adaptation Measures under Paris Agreement 2015: Developing Nations' Pie

Authors: Olubisi Friday Oluduro

Abstract:

The Paris Agreement 2015, the result of negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), after Kyoto Protocol expiration, sets a long-term goal of limiting the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, and of pursuing efforts to limiting this temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. An advancement on the erstwhile Kyoto Protocol which sets commitments to only a limited number of Parties to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions, it includes the goal to increase the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and to make finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low GHGs emissions. For it achieve these goals, the Agreement requires all Parties to undertake efforts towards reaching global peaking of GHG emissions as soon as possible and towards achieving a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks in the second half of the twenty-first century. In addition to climate change mitigation, the Agreement aims at enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and reducing the vulnerability to climate change in different parts of the world. It acknowledges the importance of addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse of climate change. The Agreement also contains comprehensive provisions on support to be provided to developing countries, which includes finance, technology transfer and capacity building. To ensure that such supports and actions are transparent, the Agreement contains a number reporting provisions, requiring parties to choose the efforts and measures that mostly suit them (Nationally Determined Contributions), providing for a mechanism of assessing progress and increasing global ambition over time by a regular global stocktake. Despite the somewhat global look of the Agreement, it has been fraught with manifold limitations threatening its very existential capability to produce any meaningful result. Considering these obvious limitations some of which were the very cause of the failure of its predecessor—the Kyoto Protocol—such as the non-participation of the United States, non-payment of funds into the various coffers for appropriate strategic purposes, among others. These have left the developing countries largely threatened eve the more, being more vulnerable than the developed countries, which are really responsible for the climate change scourge. The paper seeks to examine the mitigation and adaptation measures under the Paris Agreement 2015, appraise the present situation since the Agreement was concluded and ascertain whether the developing countries have been better or worse off since the Agreement was concluded, and examine why and how, while projecting a way forward in the present circumstance. It would conclude with recommendations towards ameliorating the situation.

Keywords: mitigation, adaptation, climate change, Paris agreement 2015, framework

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1232 Increasing the System Availability of Data Centers by Using Virtualization Technologies

Authors: Chris Ewe, Naoum Jamous, Holger Schrödl

Abstract:

Like most entrepreneurs, data center operators pursue goals such as profit-maximization, improvement of the company’s reputation or basically to exist on the market. Part of those aims is to guarantee a given quality of service. Quality characteristics are specified in a contract called the service level agreement. Central part of this agreement is non-functional properties of an IT service. The system availability is one of the most important properties as it will be shown in this paper. To comply with availability requirements, data center operators can use virtualization technologies. A clear model to assess the effect of virtualization functions on the parts of a data center in relation to the system availability is still missing. This paper aims to introduce a basic model that shows these connections, and consider if the identified effects are positive or negative. Thus, this work also points out possible disadvantages of the technology. In consequence, the paper shows opportunities as well as risks of data center virtualization in relation to system availability.

Keywords: availability, cloud computing IT service, quality of service, service level agreement, virtualization

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1231 Industrial Relations as Communication: The Strange Case of the FCA-UAW Agreement

Authors: Francesco Nespoli

Abstract:

After having posed a theoretical framework combining framing theory and new rhetoric, the paper analyze the shift in communication both adopted by UAW and FCA during the negotiations in fall 2015. The paper argues that mistakes and adjustments played a determinant role respectively in the rejection of the first tentative agreement and in the ratification of the contract. The purpose of the paper is to set a new theoretical framework for the analysis of communication in industrial relations, by describing a narrative construction of reality from the perspective of the new rhetoric. The paper thus analyze all public text, speeches, tweets and Facebook posts by the union reading them as part of the narrative set by the organization condensed by the slogan 'it’s our time'. That narrative tried to gain consensus from the members matching the expectations due to the industry recovery after more than five years of workers' sacrifices. In doing so, the analysis points out a shift in the communication strategy of the union after the first rejection of a tentative agreement in 15 years. The findings suggest that, from the communication point of view, consultation in industrial relations can be conceived as a particular kind of political communication where identification with the audience through deliberate narrative may not be effective if it is not preceded by a listening campaign.

Keywords: communication, consultation, automotive, FCA

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1230 An Exemption for Vertical Restraint Regarding Intellectual Property Licensing: Case Study of Thailand

Authors: Sanpetchuda Krutkrua, Suphawatchara Malanond

Abstract:

Throughout the history of Antitrust regimes in Thailand, Thailand has been trying to prevent collusive practices in the market through the amendments of the Trade Competition Act, and Thailand just passed the current Trade Competition Act of B.E. 2560 in 2017 of which several aspects of the law were amended in order to enhance the prevention of collusive outcome through both vertical trade restraints and horizontal trade restraints. An agreement is vertical when it involves arrangements that are in a complementary relationship. In Section 55 of the Act, any agreements to reduce the price, quantity, or quality of the goods, agreements to assign a sole retailer for the goods, and the agreement to impose conditions on the retailers are not allowed. However, Section 56 provides exemptions for the vertical relationship between the business operators, the franchise agreement, and the licensing agreement as long as such agreements do not surpass the necessity to do so, create monopolization, or affect the consumers in terms of price, quality, quantity, or options. The paper aims to explore the extent of the exemption under Section 56 and sequential regulations in terms of the vertical trade restraints regarding intellectual property licensing, and, at the same time, compare with the exemptions under the European Union competition law, and Singapore competition law. Comparative legal analysis with leading jurisdiction will illustrate the application of the newly enacted Thai Competition Act in terms of its enforcement in the global impact of IP rights, which, by nature are de jure or de facto international protection.

Keywords: antitrust, competition law, vertical restraint, intellectual property, IP licensing

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1229 Test-Retest Agreement, Random Measurement Error and Practice Effect of the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs for Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Kuan-Wei Chen, Chien-Wei Chen, Tai-Ling Chang, Nan-Cheng Chen, Ching-Lin Hsieh, Gong-Hong Lin

Abstract:

Background and Purposes: Deficits in sustained attention are common in patients with schizophrenia. Such impairment can limit patients to effectively execute daily activities and affect the efficacy of rehabilitation. The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest agreement, random measurement error, and practice effect of the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP) (a commonly used sustained attention test) in patients with schizophrenia. The results can provide empirical evidence for clinicians and researchers to apply a sustained attention test with sound psychometric properties in schizophrenia patients. Methods: We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia to be assessed twice with 1 week interval using CPT-IP. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to examine the test-retest agreement. The percentage of minimal detectable change (MDC%) was used to examine the random measurement error. Moreover, the standardized response mean (SRM) was used to examine the practice effect. Results: A total of 56 patients participated in this study. Our results showed that the ICC was 0.82, MDC% was 47.4%, and SRMs were 0.36 for the CPT-IP. Conclusion: Our results indicate that CPT-IP has acceptable test-retests agreement, substantial random measurement error, and small practice effect in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, to avoid overestimating patients’ changes in sustained attention, we suggest that clinicians interpret the change scores of CPT-IP conservatively in their routine repeated assessments.

Keywords: schizophrenia, sustained attention, CPT-IP, reliability

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1228 The Impact of Bilateral Investment Treaties on Health-Related Intellectual Property Rights in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Australia

Authors: Abdulrahman Fahim M. Alsulami

Abstract:

This paper is dedicated to a detailed investigation of the interaction between the agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) in the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in Australia and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The chosen research object is complex and requires a thorough examination of a set of factors influencing the problem under investigation. At the moment, to the author’s best knowledge’ there is no academic research that would conceptualize and critically compare the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in these two countries. While there is a substantial amount of information in the literature on certain aspects of the problem, the existing knowledge about certain aspects of the health-related regulatory frameworks in Australia and Saudi Arabia barely explains in detail the specifics of the ways in which the TRIPS agreement interacts with (BITs) in the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights. Therefore, this paper will address an evident research gap by studying an intriguing yet under-researched problem. The paper comprises five subsections. The first subsection provides an overview of the investment climate in Saudi Arabia and Australia with an emphasis on the health care industry. It will cover political, economic, and social factors influencing the investment climate in these countries, the systems of intellectual property rights protection, recent patterns relevant to the investment climate’s development, and key characteristics of the investment climate in the health care industry. The second subsection analyses BITs in Saudi Arabia and Australia in light of the countries’ responsibilities under the TRIPS Agreement. The third subsection provides a critical examination of the interaction between the TRIPS Agreement and BITs in Saudi Arabia on the basis of data collected and analyzed in previous subsections. It will investigate key discrepancies concerning the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in Saudi Arabia and Australia from the position of BITs’ interaction with the TRIPS Agreement and explore the existing procedures for clarifying priorities between them in regulating health-related intellectual property rights. The fourth subsection of the paper provides recommendations concerning the transformation of BITS into a TRIPS+ dimension in regulating health-related intellectual property rights in Saudi Arabia and Australia. The final subsection provides a summary of differences between the Australian and Saudi BITs from the perspective of the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights under the TRIPS agreement and bilateral investment treaties.

Keywords: Australia, bilateral investment treaties, IP law, public health sector, Saudi Arabia

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1227 Comparison of the Classification of Cystic Renal Lesions Using the Bosniak Classification System with Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Computed Tomography: A Prospective Study

Authors: Dechen Tshering Vogel, Johannes T. Heverhagen, Bernard Kiss, Spyridon Arampatzis

Abstract:

In addition to computed tomography (CT), contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are being increasingly used for imaging of renal lesions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the classification of complex cystic renal lesions using the Bosniak classification with CEUS and MRI to CT. Forty-eight patients with 65 cystic renal lesions were included in this study. All participants signed written informed consent. The agreement between the Bosniak classifications of complex renal lesions ( ≥ BII-F) on CEUS and MRI were compared to that of CT and were tested using Cohen’s Kappa. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) and the accuracy of CEUS and MRI compared to CT in the detection of complex renal lesions were calculated. Twenty-nine (45%) out of 65 cystic renal lesions were classified as complex using CT. The agreement between CEUS and CT in the classification of complex cysts was fair (agreement 50.8%, Kappa 0.31), and was excellent between MRI and CT (agreement 93.9%, Kappa 0.88). Compared to CT, MRI had a sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 91.7%, a PPV of 54.7%, and an NPV of 54.7% with an accuracy of 63.1%. The corresponding values for CEUS were sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 33.3%, PPV 90.3%, and NPV 97.1% with an accuracy 93.8%. The classification of complex renal cysts based on MRI and CT scans correlated well, and MRI can be used instead of CT for this purpose. CEUS can exclude complex lesions, but due to higher sensitivity, cystic lesions tend to be upgraded. However, it is useful for initial imaging, for follow up of lesions and in those patients with contraindications to CT and MRI.

Keywords: Bosniak classification, computed tomography, contrast enhanced ultrasound, cystic renal lesions, magnetic resonance imaging

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1226 Collective Bargaining Agreement with Its Related Factors and Employees’ Perceived Productivity: The Case of an Academic Institution in Davao City, Philippines

Authors: Amylyn F. Labasano, M. S. Econ

Abstract:

The study predicts the impact of collective bargaining agreement and its related factors on employees’ perceived productivity in terms of union-management relation’s climate, income, fringe benefits, and job satisfaction of the employees. It also determines whether there are significant differences in the employees’ perceived productivity based on the demographic characteristics of the respondents. The results revealed that the relationship climate which exists between the union and the management is found to have significant adverse effect on the average unpaid hours spent by employees working within the college. On the other hand, the total monthly wage earnings of employees have negative effect on the average hours an employee spent in bringing his work home while job satisfaction positively influences the overall productivity level of employees. The result further shows significant differences in the productivity level of employees across civil status and current designation.

Keywords: perceived productivity, collective bargaining agreement, union, union-management relations climate, income, fringe benefits, job satisfaction

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1225 Theoretical Study of the Structural and Elastic Properties of Semiconducting Rare Earth Chalcogenide Sm1-XEuXS under Pressure

Authors: R. Dubey, M. Sarwan, S. Singh

Abstract:

We have investigated the phase transition pressure and associated volume collapse in Sm1– X EuX S alloy (0≤x≤1) which shows transition from discontinuous to continuous as x is reduced. The calculated results from present approach are in good agreement with experimental data available for the end point members (x=0 and x=1). The results for the alloy counter parts are also in fair agreement with experimental data generated from the vegard’s law. An improved interaction potential model has been developed which includes coulomb, three body interaction, polarizability effect and overlap repulsive interaction operative up to second neighbor ions. It is found that the inclusion of polarizability effect has improved our results.

Keywords: elastic constants, high pressure, phase transition, rare earth compound

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1224 The 1st Personal Pronouns as Evasive Devices in the 2016 Taiwanese Presidential Debate

Authors: Yan-Chi Chen

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the 1st personal pronouns as evasive devices used by presidential candidates in the 2016 Taiwanese Presidential Debate within the framework of critical discourse analysis (CDA). This study finds that the personal pronoun ‘I’ is the highest frequent personal pronoun in the 2016 Taiwanese Presidential Debate. Generally speaking, the first personal pronouns were used most in the presidential debate, compared with the second and the third personal pronouns. Hence, a further quantitative analysis is conducted to explore the correlation between the frequencies of the two 1st personal pronouns and the other pronouns. Results show that the number of the personal pronoun ‘I’ increases from 26 to 49, with the personal pronoun ‘we’ decreases from 43 to 15 during the debate. Though it seems the personal pronoun ‘I’ has a higher tendency in pronominal choice, statistical evidence demonstrated that the personal pronoun ‘we’ has the greater statistical significance (p<0.0002), compared with that of ‘I’ (p<0.0116). The comparatively small p-value of the personal pronoun ‘we’ means it ‘has a stronger correlation with the overall pronominal choice, and the personal pronoun ‘we’ is more likely to be used than the personal pronoun ‘I’. Therefore, this study concludes that the pronominal choice varies with different evasive strategies. The ingrained functions of these personal pronouns are mainly categorized as ‘agreement’ and ‘justification’. The personal pronoun ’we’ is preferred in the agreement evasive strategies, and ‘I’ is used for justifying oneself. In addition, the personal pronoun ‘we’ can be defined as both ‘inclusive’ and ‘exclusive’ personal pronoun, which rendered ‘we’ more functions not limited to agreement evasive strategies. In conclusion, although the personal pronoun ‘I’ has the highest occurrences, the personal pronoun ‘we’ is more related to the first pronoun choices.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis (CDA), evasive devices, the 1st personal pronouns, the 2016 Taiwanese Presidential Debate

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1223 The Regulation of Vaccine-Related Intellectual Property Rights in Light of the Areas of Divergence between the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Investment Treaties in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Australia

Authors: Abdulrahman Fahim M. Alsulami

Abstract:

The current research seeks to explore the regulation of vaccine-related IP rights in light of the areas of divergence between the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement and investment treaties. The study is conducted in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic; therefore, it seems natural that a specific chapter is devoted to the examination of vaccine arrangements related to vaccine supplies. The chapter starts with the examination of a typical vaccine from the perspective of IP rights. It presents the distinctive features of vaccines as pharmaceutical products and investments, reviews the basics of their patent protection, reviews vaccines’ components, and discusses IPR protection of different components of vaccines. The subsection that focuses on vaccine development and licensing reviews vaccine development stages investigates differences between vaccine licensing in different countries and presents barriers to vaccine licensing. The third subsection, at the same time, introduces the existing arrangements related to COVID-19 vaccine supplies, including COVAX arrangements, international organizations’ assistance, and direct negotiations between governments and vaccine manufacturers.

Keywords: bilateral investment treaties, COVID-19 vaccine, IP rights, TRIPs agreement

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1222 Between Order and Chaos: Politics and the Challenge of Peace in Mozambique

Authors: Edmilson Nhambe, Belisario Machaieie

Abstract:

Since the signing of the General Peace Agreement-GPA in 1992, Mozambique has seen successive setbacks in the search for effective peace, civil war, social conflicts, terrorism, and armed conflicts mix the reality of Mozambican democracy. The article seeks to understand the dynamics of conflict and peace in Mozambique. Specifically, it seeks to analyze the structural factors that lead to (violent) conflict situations and the factors that favor or promote peace. For this purpose, desk research was chosen to analyze studies of peace and conflict. This article develops the argument that the non-violation of the peace agreement, in particular the GPA in Rome, as it had a structuring effect on the Mozambican political system, no longer guarantees in itself the irreversibility of the pacification process. In fact, the country is currently stagnating in the category of a fragile peace process with the risk of slipping into a situation of war or open armed conflict.

Keywords: peace, conflict, GPA, instability

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1221 Challenge of Net-Zero Carbon Construction and Measurement of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission Reduction to Climate Change, Economy and Job Growths in Hong Kong and Australia

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit

Abstract:

The Paris Agreement 2015 addressed climate change and its negative impacts. The agreement aims to substantially reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to limit the global temperature increase in this century to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) was held in Glasgow in 2021. In the Submit, all countries agreed to the Glasgow Climate Pact to keep 1.5 degrees and finalized the outstanding elements of the Paris Agreement. The basic approach of waste strategy, recycling policy, circular economy strategy, net-zero strategy and sustainability strategy will be discussed. Different researchers defined the waste strategy as to provide the capacity to handle the waste as a primary approach, and recycling policy is to manage the waste resources in a more efficient way, circular economy strategy is to minimize waste and maximize their value, net-zero strategy is the action to take for carbon neutrality and finally, sustainability is to achieve longevity without impact to the environment and our planet. In this paper, a more holistic study of the importance of the basic factors in terms of carbon emission, waste generation and conservation of energy will be critically and systematically reviewed and analyzed. Recommendations based on the finding can provide further research and future discussion for different stakeholders in the industry.

Keywords: net-zero carbon, climate change, carbon emission, energy consumption

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1220 Management Opposition, Strikes, and Union Threats

Authors: Patrick Nüß

Abstract:

I estimate management opposition against unions in terms of hiring discrimination by a large scale field experiment in the German labor market. The results show that callback rates for union members decrease significantly in the presence of high sectoral union density and large firm size. I further explore how this effect varies with regional and sectoral labor dispute intensity and find that management opposition is stronger when a sector is exposed to an intense labor dispute. There is evidence that the observed management opposition can be explained by sectoral union threat effects. Sectors with lower hiring discrimination have lower coverage of collective agreements, and in the absence of a collective agreement, they are less likely to follow the collective agreement wage setting.

Keywords: trade unions, Industrial relations, management opposition, union threat, labor disputes, field experiments

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1219 The Economic Impact of the Elimination of Preferential Trade Arrangements in the Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States

Authors: Natasha Lalla

Abstract:

The impact of free trade on growth has been highly debated and studies have generated varying results. Since the 1970s the Caribbean has engaged in asymmetrical trade with some European states characterized by the Lomé Conventions (1975-1999). These agreements allowed for Caribbean products such as sugar and banana to enter some European countries duty-free and above market prices. With the onset of the World Trade Organization by the mid-1990s, the EU’s banana trade regime was considered illegitimate. Lomé was replaced by the Cotonou agreement (2000-2007), in order to phase out preferences and ensure that the Caribbean trade arrangements were consistent with the international economic environment of trade liberalization. This agreement facilitated signing of the Economic Partnership Agreement in 2008 by both trade blocs whereby Caribbean states must implement freer trade by 2033. The current study is an exploration of how the Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States, the smallest, economically and ecologically vulnerable states of the Caribbean have restructured their trade policies towards the end of preferences and what has been the economic developmental impact of this. This is done by analyzing key reports to understand how these states restructured policies towards freer trade. Secondly, to determine the impact of this, data collected for specific economic indicators were analyzed in a fixed effects panel data framework for the period 1979-2016 on six states of the Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States. The study, therefore, found that freer trade has resulted in negative growth in these states.

Keywords: free trade, growth, OECS, small island developing states

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1218 Information Technology: Assessing Indian Realities Vis-à-Vis World Trade Organisation Disciplines

Authors: Saloni Khanderia

Abstract:

The World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) Information Technology Agreement (ITA), was concluded at the Singapore Ministerial Conference in 1996. The ITA is considered to be one of the biggest tariff-cutting deals because it eliminates all customs-related duties on the exportation of specific categories of information technology products to the territory of any other signatory to the Agreement. Over time, innovations in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector mandated the consideration of expanding the list of products covered by the ITA, which took place in the form of ITA-II negotiations during the WTO’s Nairobi Ministerial Conference. India, which was an original Member of the ITA-I, however, decided to opt-out of the negotiations to expand the list of products covered by the agreement. Instead, it preferred to give priority to its national policy initiative, namely the ‘Make-in-India’ programme [the MiI programme], which embarks upon fostering the domestic production of, inter alia, the ICT sector. India claims to have abstained from the ITA-II negotiations by stating that the zero-tariff regime created by the ITA-I debilitated its electronics-manufacturing sectors and on the contrary resulted in an over-reliance on imported electronic inputs. The author undertakes doctrinal research to examine India’s decision to opt-out of ITA-II negotiations, against the backdrop of the MiI Programme, which endeavours to improve productivity across-the-board. This paper accordingly scrutinises the tariff-cutting strategies of India to weigh the better alternative for India. Apropos, it examines whether initiatives like the MiI programme could plausibly resuscitate the ailing domestic electronics-manufacturing sector. The author opines that the country’s present decision to opt-out of ITA-II negotiations should be perceived as a welcome step. Thus, market-oriented reforms such as the MiI Programme, which focuses on indigenous innovation to improve domestic manufacturing in the ICT sector, should instead, in the present circumstances gain priority. Consequently, the MiI Programme would aid in moulding the country’s current tariff policy in a manner that will concurrently assist the promotion and sustenance of domestic manufacturing in the IT sector.

Keywords: electronics-manufacturing sector, information technology agreement, make in india programme, world trade organisation

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