Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Fouzia Younas

27 Mobile Based Long Range Weather Prediction System for the Farmers of Rural Areas of Pakistan

Authors: Zeeshan Muzammal, Usama Latif, Fouzia Younas, Syed Muhammad Hassan, Samia Razaq

Abstract:

Unexpected rainfall has always been an issue in the lifetime of crops and brings destruction for the farmers who harvest them. Unfortunately, Pakistan is one of the countries in which untimely rain impacts badly on crops like wash out of seeds and pesticides etc. Pakistan’s GDP is related to agriculture, especially in rural areas farmers sometimes quit farming because leverage of huge loss to their crops. Through our surveys and research, we came to know that farmers in the rural areas of Pakistan need rain information to avoid damages to their crops from rain. We developed a prototype using ICTs to inform the farmers about rain one week in advance. Our proposed solution has two ways of informing the farmers. In first we send daily messages about weekly prediction and also designed a helpline where they can call us to ask about possibility of rain.

Keywords: ICTD, farmers, mobile based, Pakistan, rural areas, weather prediction

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26 Creating Positive Learning Environment

Authors: Samia Hassan, Fouzia Latif

Abstract:

In many countries, education is still far from being a knowledge industry in the sense of own practices that are not yet being transformed by knowledge about the efficacy of those practices. The core question of this paper is why students get bored in class? Have we balanced between the creation and advancement of an engaging learning community and effective learning environment? And between, giving kids confidence to achieve their maximum and potential goals, we sand managing student’s behavior. We conclude that creating a positive learning environment enhances opportunities for young children to feel safe, secure, and to supported in order to do their best learning. Many factors can use in classrooms aid to the positive environment like course content, class preparation, and behavior.

Keywords: effective, environment, learning, positive

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25 Bi-Functional Natural Carboxylic Acid Catalysts for the Synthesis of Diethyl α-Aminophosphonates in Aqueous Media

Authors: Hellal Abdelkader, Chafaa Salah, Boudjemaa Fouzia

Abstract:

A new, convenient, and high yielding procedure for the preparation of diethyl α-aminophosphonates in water via Kabachnik-Fields reaction by one-pot reaction of aromatic aldehydes, ortho-aminophenols, and dialkylphosphites in the presence of a low catalytic amount of citric, malic, tartaric, and oxalic acids as a natural, bi-functional, and highly stable catalyst is described, the obtained products were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, FTIR, Uv-Vis spectral data, NMR-C, NMR-H, and NMR-P analyses.

Keywords: α-aminophosphonates, aminophenols, natural acids, aqueous media, Kabachnik-Fields reaction

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24 Effect on Haemolymph Cellular Parameters of Periplaneta Americana Following Challenge with Agrobacterium Tumefaciens: A Possible Microbial Control Agent

Authors: Fouzia Qamar, Shahida Hasnain

Abstract:

The present study is primarily concerned with the alteration in haemocyte profile of adult male Periplaneta americana with emphasis on the effect of bacterial inoculations on the haemogram i.e., total haemocyte count (THC) and differential haemocyte count (DHC) of different haemocyte types of the target insect. Haemolymph cellular profile showed considerable alterations under the effect of nine strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens after 8, 16 and 24 hrs of treatment thereby signifying the potential role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a possible biocontrol agent against the house hold pests.

Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Periplaneta americana, Haemolymph, cellular parametes

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23 Efficacy of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens as a Possible Entomopathogenic Agent

Authors: Fouzia Qamar, Shahida Hasnain

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a possible insect biocontrol agent. Pests selected for the present challenge were adult males of Periplaneta americana and last instar larvae of Pieris brassicae and Spodoptera litura. Different ranges of bacterial doses were selected and tested to score the mortalities of the insects after 24 hours, for the lethal dose estimation studies. Mode of application for the inoculation of the bacteria, was the microinjection technique. The evaluation of the possible entomopathogenic carrying attribute of bacterial Ti plasmid, led to the conclusion that the loss of plasmid was associated with the loss of virulence against target insects.

Keywords: agrobacterium tumefaciens, toxicity assessment, biopesticidal attribute, entomopathogenic agent

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22 Thermodynamic Behaviour of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Cyclic Ethers: Experimental Results and Modelling

Authors: Fouzia Amireche-Ziar, Ilham Mokbel, Jacques Jose

Abstract:

The vapour pressures of the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + 1,3-dioxolane, + 1,4-dioxane or + tetrahydropyrane, are carried out at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. An accurate static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P and the excess molar Gibbs energies GE.

Keywords: disquac model, dortmund UNIFAC model, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, VLE

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21 Isothermal Vapour-Liquid Equilibria of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Cyclic Ethers: Experimental Results and Modelling

Authors: Fouzia Amireche-Ziar, Ilham Mokbel, Jacques Jose

Abstract:

The vapour pressures of the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + 1,3-dioxolane, + 1,4-dioxane or + tetrahydropyrane, are carried out at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. An accurate static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P and the excess molar Gibbs energies GE.

Keywords: disquac model, dortmund UNIFAC model, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, VLE

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20 Different Biological and Chemical Parameters that Influence the Polyphenols from Some Medicinal Plants in Western Algeria

Authors: Mustapha Mahmoud, Fouzia Toumi Benali, Mohamed Benyahia, Sofiane Bouazza

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This work focuses on the influences of biological and chemical parameters on the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins in different medicinal plants in western Algeria (Papaver rhoeas, Daphnegnidium, Lavandula multifida, Lavandula dentata, Lavandula stoicha, ...). Thus we look the difference between species of the same genus, difference between the different organs of the same species, the influence of environment all temperature influences, time, percentage of solvent on the extraction. Quantification of the phenolic compounds was performed by spectrophotometric method then treated with statistics tools such as variance analysis, multivariant analyzes, response surface methodology). The results show that the polyphenols are influenced by the parameters mentioned.

Keywords: polyphenols, influences, medicinal plants, west Algeria

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19 Impact of Moderating Role of e-Administration on Training, Perfromance Appraisal and Organizational Performance

Authors: Ejaz Ali, Muhammad Younas, Tahir Saeed

Abstract:

In this age of information technology, organizations are revisiting their approach in great deal. E-administration is the most popular area to proceed with. Organizations in order to excel over their competitors are spending a substantial chunk of its resources on E-Administration as it is the most effective, transparent and efficient way to achieve their short term as well as long term organizational goals. E-administration being a tool of ICT plays a significant role towards effective management of HR practices resulting into optimal performance of an organization. The present research was carried out to analyze the impact of moderating role of e-administration in the relationships training and performance appraisal aligned with perceived organizational performance. The study is based on RBV and AMO theories, advocating that use of latest technology in execution of human resource (HR) functions enables an organization to achieve and sustain competitive advantage which leads to optimal firm performance.

Keywords: e-administration, human resource management, ict, performance appraisal, training

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18 The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and Relationship Marketing on Relationship Maintainer and Customer Loyalty by Mediating Role of Customer Satisfaction

Authors: Anam Bhatti, Sumbal Arif, Mariam Mehar, Sohail Younas

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CSR has become one of the imperative implements in satisfying customers. The impartial of this research is to calculate CSR, relationship marketing, and customer satisfaction. In Pakistan, there is not enough research work on the effect of CSR and relationship marketing on relationship maintainer and customer loyalty. To find out deductive approach and survey method is used as research approach and research strategy respectively. This research design is descriptive and quantitative study. For data, collection questionnaire method with semantic differential scale and seven point scales are adopted. Data has been collected by adopting the non-probability convenience technique as sampling technique and the sample size is 400. For factor confirmatory factor analysis, structure equation modeling and medication analysis, regression analysis Amos software were used. Strong empirical evidence supports that the customer’s perception of CSR performance is highly influenced by the values.

Keywords: CSR, Relationship marketing, Relationship maintainer, Customer loyalty, Customer satisfaction

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17 Geoclimatic Influences on the Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from the Fruit of Arbutus unedo L.

Authors: Khadidja Bouzid, Fouzia Benali Toumi, Mohamed Bouzouina

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We made a comparison between the total phenolic content, concentrations of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of four different extracts (butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, water) of Arbutus unedo L. fruit (Ericacea) of El Marsa and Terni area. The total phenolic content in the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 26.57 and 48.23 gallic acid equivalents mg/g of dry weight of extract. The concentrations of flavonoids in plant extracts varied from 17.98 to 56.84 catechin equivalents mg/g. The antioxidant activity was analyzed in vitro using the DPPH reagent; among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction from El Marsa area showed the highest antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Arbutus unedo L., fruit flavonoids, phenols, Western Algeria

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16 Optimisation of Extraction of Phenolic Compounds in Algerian Lavandula multifida, Algeria, NW

Authors: Mustapha Mahmoud Dif, Fouzia Benali-Toumi, Mohamed Benyahia, Sofiane Bouazza, Abbes Dellal, Slimane Baha

Abstract:

L. multifida is applied to treat rheumatism and cold and has hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study is to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds in Algerian Lavandula multifida. The influences of parameters including temperature (decoction and maceration) and extraction time (15min to 45 min) on the flavonoids concentration are studied. The optimal conditions are determined and the quadratic response surfaces draw from the mathematical models. Total phenols were evaluated using Folin sicaltieu methods, total flavonoids were estimated using the Tri chloral aluminum method. The maximum concentration extracted, for total flavonoids, equal to 0.043 mg/g was achieved with decoction and extraction time of 41.55 min. However, for total phenol compounds highest concentration of 0.218 mg/g, is obtained with 45 min at 49.99°C.

Keywords: L multifidi, phenolic content, optimization, time, temperature

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15 Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis

Authors: Bourfaa Fouzia, Meryem Lamri Zeggar, Adjimi Amel, Mohammed Salah Aida, Nadir Attaf

Abstract:

Semiconductor photocatalysts such as ZnO has attracted much attention in recent years due to their various applications for the degradation of organic pollutants in water, air and in dye sensitized photovoltaic solar cell. In the present work, ZnO thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis by using different precursors namely: Acetate, chloride and zinc nitrate in order to investigate their influence on ZnO photocatalytic activity. The films crystalline structure was studied by mean of X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and the films surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The films optical properties were studied by mean of UV–visible spectroscopy. The prepared films were tested for the degradation of the red reactive dye largely used in textile industry. As a result, we found that the zinc nitrate is the best precursor to prepare ZnO thin films suitable for a good photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: precursor, thins films, spray pyrolysis, zinc oxide

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14 Bound By Patriarchy: Women’s Experience of Internal Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Fouzia Mannan, Deepa Joshi

Abstract:

Millions of Bangladeshis move from low-income agrarian villages to the country’s urban landscape with the hope to gain from the rapidly-growing middle-income urban, industrial future. However, the economic gains are mostly offset by new forms of extreme depravity, indignity, and inequality. Nonetheless, many scholars report unique gendered gains through migration - the rupture of traditional, entrenched inequalities by gender, providing women not only reliable incomes but also the opportunity to re-negotiate gendered roles, responsibilities and identities. In this study, we present the reflections of ten long-term urban migrant women in Dhaka city: of their gains, their losses as well as their aspirations for the future. Our findings show the incredibly high costs of a migration that is induced by desperate rural poverty. Further, we find that patriarchy persists - within the often 'kutcha' walls of urban low-income homes to the nature of so-called economic opportunities - in the constant intertwining of capitalism, globalization, and patriarchy. Caught in between, women have little choice but to cope with these new vulnerabilities by relying on the very norms and boundaries established by patriarchy and by recreating patriarchy to celebrate the (if) gains from displacement and migration.

Keywords: gender, internal migration, patriarchy, urbanization

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13 Adopting Quality Assurance Cycles in Accreditation and Strategic Planning in Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Fouzia Shersad, Sabeena Salam

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Introduction: Quality assurance cycles like RADAR, PDCA, ADRI are cycles of planning, implementation, assessment and improvement. These cycles are required when institutions apply for reaccreditation to accreditation bodies and for adoption of holistic models of institutional quality. Method of Study: The adoption of these cycles at the higher education institutions under the Dubai Medical University is studied to explore the feasibility and the benefits in institutions outcomes. After adequate faculty training, these steps were incorporated in all new activities and embedded in every new initiative and approach undertaken at unit and institutional levels. Conclusions: Improvement in student satisfaction rates and performance levels has been achieved. Wherever weaknesses or deficits have been identified, improvement strategies are implemented in a timely manner. The feedback has become an incentive for faculty members to implement new ideas. Implementation of these cycles for core processes at micro and macro levels have ensured that a systematic mechanism for corrective actions existed. This has led to increasing adoption of innovative initiatives. Another outcome was the recognition through national level awards for the overall institutions which have been certified by external reviewers.

Keywords: higher education, quality, accreditation, institutional improvement

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12 Epidemiological Profile of Healthcare Associated Infections in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Abdessamad Dali-Ali, Houaria Beldjillali, Fouzia Agag, Asmaa Oukebdane, Ramzi Tidjani, Arslane Bettayeb, Khadidja Meddeber, Radia Dali-Yahia, Nori Midoun

Abstract:

Healthcare-associated infections are a real public health problem, especially in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile and to estimate the incidence of these infections at the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. A prospective study was conducted, from June 2012 to December 2013. During this period, 305 patients having a duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. In terms of the incidence of healthcare associated infections, nosocomial pneumonia occupied the first position with a cumulative incidence rate of 20.0%, followed by bacteremia (5.6%), central venous catheter infections (4%), and urinary tract infections (3%). In the case of isolated microorganisms, Gram-negative bacilli not enterobacteriaceae occupied the first place with 48.5%, followed by enterobacteria (32.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common germ (27.6%). Our study showed that the rate of health-care-associated infections was relatively high in the intensive care unit. A control program to reduce all infections is a priority for the Infection Control Associated Committee.

Keywords: epidemiological profile, healthcare associated infections, intensive care units, teaching hospital of Oran, Algeria

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11 Progress of Legislation in Post-Colonial, Post-Communist and Socialist Countries for the Intellectual Property Protection of the Autonomous Output of Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Ammar Younas

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to explore the legal progression in procedural laws related to “intellectual property protection for the autonomous output of artificial intelligence” in Post-Colonial, Post-Communist and Socialist Countries. An in-depth study of legal progression in Pakistan (Common Law), Uzbekistan (Post-Soviet Civil Law) and China (Socialist Law) has been conducted. A holistic attempt has been made to explore that how the ideological context of the legal systems can impact, not only on substantive components but on the procedural components of the formal laws related to IP Protection of autonomous output of Artificial Intelligence. Moreover, we have tried to shed a light on the prospective IP laws and AI Policy in the countries, which are planning to incorporate the concept of “Digital Personality” in their legal systems. This paper will also address the question: “How far IP of autonomous output of AI can be protected with the introduction of “Non-Human Legal Personality” in legislation?” By using the examples of China, Pakistan and Uzbekistan, a case has been built to highlight the legal progression in General Provisions of Civil Law, Artificial Intelligence Policy of the country and Intellectual Property laws. We have used a range of multi-disciplinary concepts and examined them on the bases of three criteria: accuracy of legal/philosophical presumption, applying to the real time situations and testing on rational falsification tests. It has been observed that the procedural laws are designed in a way that they can be seen correlating with the ideological contexts of these countries.

Keywords: intellectual property, artificial intelligence, digital personality, legal progression

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10 Binding Studies of Complexes of Anticancer Drugs with DNA and Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication Using Molecular Docking and Cell Culture Techniques

Authors: Fouzia Perveen, Rumana Qureshi

Abstract:

The presently studied twelve anticancer drugs are the cytotoxic agents which inhibit the replication of DNA and activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication namely topoisomerase-II, polymerase and helicase and have shown remarkable anticancer activity in clinical trials. In this study, we performed molecular docking studies of twelve antitumor drugs against DNA and DNA enzymes in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA) and developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for anticancer activity screening. A number of electronic and steric descriptors were calculated using MOE software package. QSAR was established showing a correlation of binding strength with various physicochemical descriptors. Out of these twelve, eight cytotoxic drugs were tested on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (H-157 and H-1299) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid and experimental IC50 values were calculated. From the docking studies, binding constants were calculated indicating the strength of drug-DNA and drug-enzyme complex formation and it was correlated to the IC50 values (both experimental and theoretical). These results can offer useful references for directing the molecular design of DNA enzyme inhibitor with improved anticancer activity.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, binding constant, cytotoxic agents, cell culture, DNA, DNA enzymes, molecular docking

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9 Review on the Role of Sustainability Techniques in Development of Green Building

Authors: Ubaid Ur Rahman, Waqar Younas, Sooraj Kumar Chhabira

Abstract:

Environmentally sustainable building construction has experienced significant growth during the past 10 years at international level. This paper shows that the conceptual framework adopts sustainability techniques in construction to develop environment friendly building called green building. Waste occurs during the different construction phases which causes the environmental problems like, deposition of waste on ground surface creates major problems such as bad smell. It also gives birth to different health diseases and produces toxic waste agent which is specifically responsible for making soil infertile. Old recycled building material is used in the construction of new building. Sustainable construction is economical and saves energy sources. Sustainable construction is the major responsibility of designer and project manager. The designer has to fulfil the client demands while keeping the design environment friendly. Project manager has to deliver and execute sustainable construction according to sustainable design. Steel is the most appropriate sustainable construction material. It is more durable and easily recyclable. Steel occupies less area and has more tensile and compressive strength than concrete, making it a better option for sustainable construction as compared to other building materials. New technology like green roof has made the environment pleasant, and has reduced the construction cost. It minimizes economic, social and environmental issues. This paper presents an overview of research related to the material use of green building and by using this research recommendation are made which can be followed in the construction industry. In this paper, we go through detailed analysis on construction material. By making suitable adjustments to project management practices it is shown that a green building improves the cost efficiency of the project, makes it environmental friendly and also meets future generation demands.

Keywords: sustainable construction, green building, recycled waste material, environment

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8 Building Resilience through Inclusion of Global Citizenship Education in Pre-Service Teacher Education in Pakistan

Authors: Fouzia Ajmal

Abstract:

Global Citizenship Education (GCED) could prove to be the best solution to prevent violent extremism as it will sustain a respect for all and build up a feeling of having a place with humankind. To meet the target 4.7 of sustainable development goals, it is important to focus on global citizenship education at all levels of education in general and in pre-service teacher education in particular so that the message and practices reach the young masses. The pre-service education is imperative to develop knowledge, skills and disposition of prospective teachers. The current study was conducted to investigate the integration of GCED in pre-service teacher education curriculum of Pakistan. The study was delimited to B.Ed (hons) Elementary Education programme. The curriculum of B.Ed Elementary developed by Higher Education Commission was analyzed through Curriculum Alignment Matrix. 31 course outlines were analyzed, and percentage was used to analyze the level of integration of GCED in courses. The analyses depicted that the concepts of civic sense, tolerance, duties and rights of citizens and fundamental rights of humans are partially aligned in a few of the courses. The tolerance, active citizenship, and respect for cultural diversity and religious harmony are evident in Pakistan Studies and teaching of social studies courses. The relevant books are also mentioned as resources in these courses. The intercultural understanding is not very evident while globalization is mentioned in a few courses. It is recommended that a deliberate effort may be made to integrate concepts of Global Citizenship Education so as to enable the prospective teachers in developing necessary skills to play their active role in promoting peace and building resilience to extremism in elementary school students.

Keywords: curriculum analysis, global citizenship education, preservice teacher education, resilience building

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7 Impure Water, a Future Disaster: A Case Study of Lahore Ground Water Quality with GIS Techniques

Authors: Rana Waqar Aslam, Urooj Saeed, Hammad Mehmood, Hameed Ullah, Imtiaz Younas

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This research has been conducted to assess the water quality in and around Lahore Metropolitan area on the basis of three different land uses, i.e. residential, commercial, and industrial land uses. For this, 29 sample sites have been selected on the basis of simple random sampling technique. Samples were collected at the source (WASA tube wells). The criteria for selecting sample sites are to have a maximum concentration of population in the selected land uses. The results showed that in the residential land use the proportion of nitrate and turbidity is at their highest level in the areas of Allama Iqbal Town and Samanabad Town. Commercial land use of Gulberg and Data Gunj Bakhsh Town have highest level of proportion of chlorides, calcium, TDS, pH, Mg, total hardness, arsenic and alkalinity. Whereas in industrial type of land use in Ravi and Wahga Town have the proportion of arsenic, Mg, nitrate, pH, and turbidity are at their highest level. The high rate of concentration of these parameters in these areas is basically due to the old and fractured pipelines that allow bacterial as well as physiochemical contaminants to contaminate the portable water at the sources. Furthermore, it is seen in most areas that waste water from domestic, industrial, as well as municipal sources may get easy discharge into open spaces and water bodies, like, cannels, rivers, lakes that seeps and become a part of ground water. In addition, huge dumps located in Lahore are becoming the cause of ground water contamination as when the rain falls, the water gets seep into the ground and impures the ground water quality. On the basis of the derived results with the help of Geo-spatial technology ACRGIS 9.3 Interpolation (IDW), it is recommended that water filtration plants must be installed with specific parameter control. A separate team for proper inspection has to be made for water quality check at the source. Old water pipelines must be replaced with the new pipelines, and safe water depth must be ensured at the source end.

Keywords: GIS, remote sensing, pH, nitrate, disaster, IDW

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6 Improving the Growth Performance of Beetal Goat Kids Weaned at Various Stages with Various Levels of Dietary Protein in Starter Ration under High Input Feeding System

Authors: Ishaq Kashif, Muhammad Younas, Muhammad Riaz, Mubarak Ali

Abstract:

Poor feeding management during pre-weaning period is one of the factors resulting in compromised growth of Beetal kids fattened for meat purpose. The main reason for this anomaly may be less milk offered to kids and non-serious efforts for its management. This study was planned to find the most appropriate protein level suiting the age of the weaning while shifting animals to high input feeding system. Total of 42 Beetal male kids having 30 (±10), 60 (±10) and 90 (±10) days of age were selected with 16 in each age group. They were designated as G30, G60 and G90, respectively. The weights of animals were; 8±2 kg (G30), 12±2 kg (G60) and 16±2 kg (G90), respectively. All animals were weaned by introducing the total mix feed gradually and withdrawing the milk during the adjustment period of two weeks. The pelleted starter ration (total mix feed) with three various dietary protein levels designated as R1 (16% CP), R2 (20% CP) and R3 (26% CP) were introduced. The control group was reared on the fodder (Maize). The starter rations were iso-caloric and were offered for six-week duration. All animals were exposed to treatment using two-factor factorial (3×3) plus control treatment arrangement under completely randomized design. The data were collected on average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), gain to intake ratio, Klieber ratio (KR), body measurements and blood metabolites of kids. The data was analyzed using aov function of R-software. The statistical analysis showed that starter feed protein levels and age of weaning had significant interaction for ADG (P < 0.001), KR (P < 0.001), ADFI (P < 0.05) and blood urea nitrogen (P < 0.05) while serum creatinine and feed conversion had non-significant interaction. The trend analysis revealed that ADG had significant quadratic interaction (P < 0.05) within protein levels and age of weaning. It was found that animals weaned at 30 or 60 days, on R2 diet had better ADG (46.8 gm/day and 87.06 gm/day, respectively) weaned at 60 days of age. The animals weaned at 90 days had best ADG (127 gm/day) with R1. It is concluded that animal weaned at 30 or 40 days required 20% CP for better growth performance while animal at 90 days showed better performance with 16% CP.

Keywords: average daily gain, starter protein levels, weaning age, gain to intake ratio

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5 Rapid Flood Damage Assessment of Population and Crops Using Remotely Sensed Data

Authors: Urooj Saeed, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Iqra Khalid, Sahar Mirza, Imtiaz Younas

Abstract:

Pakistan, a flood-prone country, has experienced worst floods in the recent past which have caused extensive damage to the urban and rural areas by loss of lives, damage to infrastructure and agricultural fields. Poor flood management system in the country has projected the risks of damages as the increasing frequency and magnitude of floods are felt as a consequence of climate change; affecting national economy directly or indirectly. To combat the needs of flood emergency, this paper focuses on remotely sensed data based approach for rapid mapping and monitoring of flood extent and its damages so that fast dissemination of information can be done, from local to national level. In this research study, spatial extent of the flooding caused by heavy rains of 2014 has been mapped by using space borne data to assess the crop damages and affected population in sixteen districts of Punjab. For this purpose, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to daily mark the flood extent by using Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI). The highest flood value data was integrated with the LandScan 2014, 1km x 1km grid based population, to calculate the affected population in flood hazard zone. It was estimated that the floods covered an area of 16,870 square kilometers, with 3.0 million population affected. Moreover, to assess the flood damages, Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) aided with spectral signatures was applied on Landsat image to attain the thematic layers of healthy (0.54 million acre) and damaged crops (0.43 million acre). The study yields that the population of Jhang district (28% of 2.5 million population) was affected the most. Whereas, in terms of crops, Jhang and Muzzafargarh are the ‘highest damaged’ ranked district of floods 2014 in Punjab. This study was completed within 24 hours of the peak flood time, and proves to be an effective methodology for rapid assessment of damages due to flood hazard

Keywords: flood hazard, space borne data, object based image analysis, rapid damage assessment

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4 Challenging Role of Talent Management, Career Development and Compensation Management toward Employee Retention and Organizational Performance with Mediating Effect of Employee Motivation in Service Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Younas, Sidra Sawati, M. Razzaq Athar

Abstract:

Organizational development history reveals that it has ever been a challenge to identify and fathom the role of talent management, career development and compensation management towards employees’ retention and organizational performance. Organizations strive hard to measure the impact of all those factors which affect employee retention and organizational performance. Researchers have worked in great deal in order to know the relationship of independent variables i.e. Talent Management, Career Development and Compensation Management on dependent variables i.e. Employee Retention and Organizational Performance. Employees adorned with latest skills with long lasting loyalty play a significant role towards successful achievement of short term as well as long term goals of the organizations. Retention of valuable and resourceful employees for a longer time is equally essential for meeting the set goals. The organizations which spend reasonable chunk of their resources for taking such measures that help to retain their employees through talent management and satisfactory career development always enjoy a competitive edge over their competitors. Human resource is regarded as one of the most precious and difficult resource to management. It has its own needs and requirement. It becomes an easy prey to monotony when lacks career development. Wants and aspirations of this resource are seldom met completely but can be managed through career development and compensation management. In this era of competition, organizations have to take viable steps to management their resources especially human resource. Top management and Managers keep on working for an amenable solution in order to address the challenges relating career development and compensation management as their ultimate goal is to ensure the organizational performance on optimum level. The current study was conducted to examine the impact of Talent Management, Career Development and Compensation Management towards Employees Retention and Organizational Performance with mediating effect of Employees Motivation in Service Sector of Pakistan. The current study is based on Resource Based View (RBV) and Ability Motivation Opportunity (AMO) theories. It explains that by increasing internal resources we can manage employee talent, career development through compensation management and employee motivation more effectively. It will result in effective execution of HRM practices for employee retention enabling an organization to achieve and sustain competitive advantage through optimal performance. Data collection was made through a structured questionnaire which was based upon adopted instruments after testing reliability and validity. A total 300 employees of 30 firms in service sector of Pakistan were sampled through non-probability sampling technique. Regression analysis revealed that talent management, career development and compensation management have significant positive impact on employee retention and perceived organizational performance. The results further showed that employee motivation have a significant mediating effect on employee retention and organizational performance. The interpretation of the findings and limitations, theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.

Keywords: career development, compensation management, employee retention, organizational performance, talent management

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3 Exploring the Gap between Coverage, Access, Utilization of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) among the People of Malaria Endemic Districts in Bangladesh

Authors: Fouzia Khanam, Tridib Chowdhury, Belal Hossain, Sajedur Rahman, Mahfuzar Rahman

Abstract:

Introduction: Over the last decades, the world has achieved a noticeable success in preventing malaria. Nevertheless, malaria, a vector-borne infectious disease, remains a major public health burden globally as well as in Bangladesh. To achieve the goal of eliminating malaria, BRAC, a leading organization of Bangladesh in collaboration with government, is distributing free LLIN to the 13 endemic districts of the country. The study was conducted with the aim of assessing the gap between coverage, access, and utilization of LLIN among the people of the 13 malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. Methods: This baseline study employed a community cross-sectional design triangulated with qualitative methods to measure households’ ownership, access and use of 13 endemic districts. A multistage cluster random sampling was employed for the quantitative part and for qualitative part a purposive sampling strategy was done. Thus present analysis included 2640 households encompassing a total of 14475 populations. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through one on one face-to-face interview with respondents. All analyses were performed using STATA (Version 13.0). For the qualitative part participant observation, in-depth interview, focus group discussion, key informant interview and informal interview was done to gather the contextual data. Findings: According to our study, 99.8% of households possessed at least one-bed net in both study areas. 77.4% households possessed at least two LLIN and 43.2% households had access to LLIN for all the members. So the gap between coverage and access is 34%. 91.8% people in the 13 districts and 95.1% in Chittagong Hill Tracts areas reported having had slept under a bed net the night before interviewed. And despite the relatively low access, in 77.8% of households, all the members were used the LLIN the previous night. This higher utilization compared to access might be due to the increased awareness among the community people regarding LLIN uses. However, among those people with sufficient access to LLIN, 6% of them still did not use the LLIN which reflects the behavioral failure that needs to be addressed. The major reasons for not using LLIN, identified by both qualitative and quantitative findings, were insufficient access, sleeping or living outside the home, migration, perceived low efficacy of LLIN, fear of physical side effects or feeling uncomfortable. Conclusion: Given that LLIN access and use was a bit short of the targets, it conveys important messages to the malaria control program. Targeting specific population segments and groups for achieving expected LLIN coverage is very crucial. And also, addressing behavior failure by well-designed behavioral change interventions is mandatory.

Keywords: long lasting insecticide net, malaria, malaria control programme, World Health Organisation

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2 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases among Bangladeshi Adults: Findings from a Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Fouzia Khanam, Belal Hossain, Kaosar Afsana, Mahfuzar Rahman

Abstract:

Aim: Although cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has already been recognized as a major cause of death in developed countries, its prevalence is rising in developing countries as well, and engendering a challenge for the health sector. Bangladesh has experienced an epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases over the last few decades. So, the rising prevalence of CVD and its risk factors are imposing a major problem for the country. We aimed to examine the prevalence of CVDs and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors related to it from a population-based survey. Methods: The data used for this study were collected as a part of a large-scale cross-sectional study conducted to explore the overall health status of children, mothers and senior citizens of Bangladesh. Multistage cluster random sampling procedure was applied by considering unions as clusters and households as the primary sampling unit to select a total of 11,428 households for the base survey. Present analysis encompassed 12338 respondents of ≥ 35 years, selected from both rural areas and urban slums of the country. Socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle information were obtained through individual by a face-to-face interview which was noted in ODK platform. And height, weight, blood pressure and glycosuria were measured using standardized methods. Chi-square test, Univariate modified Poisson regression model, and multivariate modified Poisson regression model were done using STATA software (version 13.0) for analysis. Results: Overall, the prevalence of CVD was 4.51%, of which 1.78% had stroke and 3.17% suffered from heart diseases. Male had higher prevalence of stroke (2.20%) than their counterparts (1.37%). Notably, thirty percent of respondents had high blood pressure and 5% population had diabetes and more than half of the population was pre-hypertensive. Additionally, 20% were overweight, 77% were smoker or consumed smokeless tobacco and 28% of respondents were physically inactive. Eighty-two percent of respondents took extra salt while eating and 29% of respondents had deprived sleep. Furthermore, the prevalence of risk factor of CVD varied according to gender. Women had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes. Women were also less physically active compared to men and took more extra salt. Smoking was lower in women compared to men. Moreover, women slept less compared to their counterpart. After adjusting confounders in modified Poisson regression model, age, gender, occupation, wealth quintile, BMI, extra salt intake, daily sleep, tiredness, diabetes, and hypertension remained as risk factors for CVD. Conclusion: The prevalence of CVD is significant in Bangladesh, and there is an evidence of rising trend for its risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes especially in older population, women and high-income groups. Therefore, in this current epidemiological transition, immediate public health intervention is warranted to address the overwhelming CVD risk.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, stroke

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1 A Case Study of a Rehabilitated Child by Joint Efforts of Parents and Community

Authors: Fouzia Arif, Arif S. Mohammad, Hifsa Altaf, Lubna Raees

Abstract:

Introduction: The term "disability", refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. In developing countries like Pakistan, disable population is usually excluded from the mainstream. In squatter settlements the situation is more critical. Sultanabad is one of the squatter settlements of Karachi. Purpose of case study is to improve the health of disabled children’s, and create awareness among the parents and community. Through a household visit, Shiraz, a young disabled boy of 15.5 years old was identified. Her mother articulated that her son was living normally and happily with his parents two years back. When he was 13 years old and student of class 8th, both his legs were traumatized in a Railway Train Accident while playing cricket. He got both femoral shaft fractured severely. He was taken to Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre (JPMC) where his left leg was amputated at above knee level and right leg was opened & fixed by reduction internally, luckily bone healed moderately with the passage of time. Methods: In Squatter settlements of Karachi Sultanabad, a survey was conducted in two sectors. Disability screening questionnaire was developed, collaboration with community through household visits, outreach sessions 23cases of disabled were identified who were socialized through sports, Musical program and get-together was organized with stockholder for creating awareness among community and parent’s. Collaboration was established with different NGOs, Government, stakeholders and community support for establishment of Physiotherapy Center. During home visit it was identified that Shiraz was on bed since last 1 year, his family could not afforded cost of physiotherapist and medical consultation due to poverty. Parents counseling was done mentioning that Shiraz needed to take treatment. After motivation his parents agreed for treatment. He was consulted by an orthopedic surgeon in AKUH, Who referred to DMC University of Health Science for rehabilitation service. There he was assessed and referred for Community Based Physiotherapy Centre Sultanabad. Physiotherapist visited home along with Coordinator for Special children and assessed him regularly, planned Physiotherapy treatment for abdominal, high muscles strutting exercise foot muscles strengthening exercise, knee mobilization weight bearing from partial to full weight gradually, also strengthen exercise were given for residual limb as the boy was dependent on it. He was also provided by an artificial leg and training was done. Result: Shiraz is now fully mobile, he can walk independently even out of home, functional ability progress improved and dependency factors reduced. It was difficult but not impossible. We all have sympathy but if we have empathy then we can rehabilitate the community in a better way. His parents are very happy and also the community is surprised to see him in such better condition. Conclusion: Combined efforts of physiotherapist, Coordinator of special children, community and parents made a drastic change in Shiraz’s case by continuously motivating him for better outcome. He is going to school regularly without support. Since he belongs to a poor family he faces financial constraints for education and clinical follow ups regularly.

Keywords: femoral shaft fracture, trauma, orthopedic surgeon, physiotherapy treatment

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