Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Sohail Younas

45 The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and Relationship Marketing on Relationship Maintainer and Customer Loyalty by Mediating Role of Customer Satisfaction

Authors: Anam Bhatti, Sumbal Arif, Mariam Mehar, Sohail Younas

Abstract:

CSR has become one of the imperative implements in satisfying customers. The impartial of this research is to calculate CSR, relationship marketing, and customer satisfaction. In Pakistan, there is not enough research work on the effect of CSR and relationship marketing on relationship maintainer and customer loyalty. To find out deductive approach and survey method is used as research approach and research strategy respectively. This research design is descriptive and quantitative study. For data, collection questionnaire method with semantic differential scale and seven point scales are adopted. Data has been collected by adopting the non-probability convenience technique as sampling technique and the sample size is 400. For factor confirmatory factor analysis, structure equation modeling and medication analysis, regression analysis Amos software were used. Strong empirical evidence supports that the customer’s perception of CSR performance is highly influenced by the values.

Keywords: CSR, Relationship marketing, Relationship maintainer, Customer loyalty, Customer satisfaction

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44 Mobile Based Long Range Weather Prediction System for the Farmers of Rural Areas of Pakistan

Authors: Zeeshan Muzammal, Usama Latif, Fouzia Younas, Syed Muhammad Hassan, Samia Razaq

Abstract:

Unexpected rainfall has always been an issue in the lifetime of crops and brings destruction for the farmers who harvest them. Unfortunately, Pakistan is one of the countries in which untimely rain impacts badly on crops like wash out of seeds and pesticides etc. Pakistan’s GDP is related to agriculture, especially in rural areas farmers sometimes quit farming because leverage of huge loss to their crops. Through our surveys and research, we came to know that farmers in the rural areas of Pakistan need rain information to avoid damages to their crops from rain. We developed a prototype using ICTs to inform the farmers about rain one week in advance. Our proposed solution has two ways of informing the farmers. In first we send daily messages about weekly prediction and also designed a helpline where they can call us to ask about possibility of rain.

Keywords: ICTD, farmers, mobile based, Pakistan, rural areas, weather prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
43 Mining Diagnostic Investigation Process

Authors: Sohail Imran, Tariq Mahmood

Abstract:

In complex healthcare diagnostic investigation process, medical practitioners have to focus on ways to standardize their processes to perform high quality care and optimize the time and costs. Process mining techniques can be applied to extract process related knowledge from data without considering causal and dynamic dependencies in business domain and processes. The application of process mining is effective in diagnostic investigation. It is very helpful where a treatment gives no dispositive evidence favoring it. In this paper, we applied process mining to discover important process flow of diagnostic investigation for hepatitis patients. This approach has some benefits which can enhance the quality and efficiency of diagnostic investigation processes.

Keywords: process mining, healthcare, diagnostic investigation process, process flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
42 Impact of Moderating Role of e-Administration on Training, Perfromance Appraisal and Organizational Performance

Authors: Ejaz Ali, Muhammad Younas, Tahir Saeed

Abstract:

In this age of information technology, organizations are revisiting their approach in great deal. E-administration is the most popular area to proceed with. Organizations in order to excel over their competitors are spending a substantial chunk of its resources on E-Administration as it is the most effective, transparent and efficient way to achieve their short term as well as long term organizational goals. E-administration being a tool of ICT plays a significant role towards effective management of HR practices resulting into optimal performance of an organization. The present research was carried out to analyze the impact of moderating role of e-administration in the relationships training and performance appraisal aligned with perceived organizational performance. The study is based on RBV and AMO theories, advocating that use of latest technology in execution of human resource (HR) functions enables an organization to achieve and sustain competitive advantage which leads to optimal firm performance.

Keywords: e-administration, human resource management, ict, performance appraisal, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
41 Transverse Testicular Ectopia: A Case Report with Review of Literature

Authors: Rida Ahmad, Areej S. Habib, Sohail A. Dogar, Saqib H. Qazi

Abstract:

Transverse testicular ectopia is a rare congenital disorder involving mal descent and mal-positioning of the testes, reported in the medical literature about 300 times. Many theories attempt to explain the failure of the testes to migrate to their correct location. While the age at presentation can vary; most cases present in early adolescents or late adulthood. It is often an incidental discovery made during an operative intervention, most commonly during hernia exploration. It can be isolated or present with a plethora of anomalies. We present the case of a 2-year-old male with transverse testicular ectopia who presented with vague abdominal pain. He was managed successfully with the Modified Ombredanne procedure and good outcome 6 months after the procedure.

Keywords: cryptorchidism, persistent Mullerian duct syndrome, transverse testicular ectopia, testicular mal-descent

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
40 Numerical Solutions of Fractional Order Epidemic Model

Authors: Sadia Arshad, Ayesha Sohail, Sana Javed, Khadija Maqbool, Salma Kanwal

Abstract:

The dynamical study of the carriers play an essential role in the evolution and global transmission of infectious diseases and will be discussed in this study. To make this approach novel, we will consider the fractional order model which is generalization of integer order derivative to an arbitrary number. Since the integration involved is non local therefore this property of fractional operator is very useful to study epidemic model for infectious diseases. An extended numerical method (ODE solver) is implemented on the model equations and we will present the simulations of the model for different values of fractional order to study the effect of carriers on transmission dynamics. Global dynamics of fractional model are established by using the reproduction number.

Keywords: Fractional differential equation, Numerical simulations, epidemic model, transmission dynamics

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39 Algorithmic Fault Location in Complex Gas Networks

Authors: Soban Najam, S. M. Jahanzeb, Ahmed Sohail, Faraz Idris Khan

Abstract:

With the recent increase in reliance on Gas as the primary source of energy across the world, there has been a lot of research conducted on gas distribution networks. As the complexity and size of these networks grow, so does the leakage of gas in the distribution network. One of the most crucial factors in the production and distribution of gas is UFG or Unaccounted for Gas. The presence of UFG signifies that there is a difference between the amount of gas distributed, and the amount of gas billed. Our approach is to use information that we acquire from several specified points in the network. This information will be used to calculate the loss occurring in the network using the developed algorithm. The Algorithm can also identify the leakages at any point of the pipeline so we can easily detect faults and rectify them within minimal time, minimal efforts and minimal resources.

Keywords: FLA, fault location analysis, GDN, gas distribution network, GIS, geographic information system, NMS, network Management system, OMS, outage management system, SSGC, Sui Southern gas company, UFG, unaccounted for gas

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38 Analytical Solutions for Corotational Maxwell Model Fluid Arising in Wire Coating inside a Canonical Die

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Khan, Rehan Ali Shah

Abstract:

The present paper applies the optimal homotopy perturbation method (OHPM) and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) introduced recently to obtain analytic approximations of the non-linear equations modeling the flow of polymer in case of wire coating of a corotational Maxwell fluid. Expression for the velocity field is obtained in non-dimensional form. Comparison of the results obtained by the two methods at different values of non-dimensional parameter l10, reveal that the OHPM is more effective and easy to use. The OHPM solution can be improved even working in the same order of approximation depends on the choices of the auxiliary functions.

Keywords: corotational Maxwell model, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, optimal homotopy perturbation method, wire coating die

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
37 Electricity Services and COVID-19: Understanding the Role of Infrastructure Improvements and Institutional Innovations

Authors: Javed Younas

Abstract:

Fiscal challenges pervade the electricity sector in many developing countries. Low bill payment and high theft mean utility customers have little incentive to conserve. It also means electricity distribution companies have less to invest in infrastructure maintenance, modernization, and technical upgrades. The low-quality electricity services can result impair the economic benefits from connections to the electrical grid. We study the impacts of two interventions implemented in Karachi, Pakistan, with the goal of reducing distribution losses and increasing revenue recovery: infrastructure improvements that made illegal connections physically more difficult and institutional innovations designed to increase communities’ trust in and cooperation with the utility. Using differences in implementation timing across space, we estimate the interventions’ impacts before the COVID-19 pandemic and their role in mitigating the pandemic’s effects on electricity services. Results indicate that the infrastructure improvements reduced losses, as well as the electricity delivered to the distribution system, a proxy for a generation. The institutional innovations significantly impacted revenue recovery, but not losses in their initial months; however, the efforts mitigated the pandemic’s negative effect on the utility finances.

Keywords: electricity, infrastructure, losses, revenue recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
36 Evidence on Scale Economies in National Bank of Pakistan

Authors: Sohail Zafar, Sardar Javaid Iqbal Khan

Abstract:

We use a parametric approach within a translog cost function framework to estimate the economies of scale in National Bank of Pakistan from 1997 to 2013. The results indicate significant economies of scale throughout the sample at aggregates and disaggregates taking in account size subject to stipulation ownership. The factor markets often produce scale inefficiencies in the banking of developing countries like Pakistan such inefficiencies are common due to distortion in factor markets leading to the use of inappropriate factor proportions. The findings suggest that National Bank of Pakistan diversify their asset portfolios that it has cost advantage, therefore, expansion in size should be encouraged under current technology because it appears to be cost effective. In addition, our findings support the implementation of universal banking model in Pakistan.

Keywords: scale economies, cost function, disaggregates, aggregates

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
35 Music Note Detection and Dictionary Generation from Music Sheet Using Image Processing Techniques

Authors: Muhammad Ammar, Talha Ali, Abdul Basit, Bakhtawar Rajput, Zobia Sohail

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Music note detection is an area of study for the past few years and has its own influence in music file generation from sheet music. We proposed a method to detect music notes on sheet music using basic thresholding and blob detection. Subsequently, we created a notes dictionary using a semi-supervised learning approach. After notes detection, for each test image, the new symbols are added to the dictionary. This makes the notes detection semi-automatic. The experiments are done on images from a dataset and also on the captured images. The developed approach showed almost 100% accuracy on the dataset images, whereas varying results have been seen on captured images.

Keywords: music note, sheet music, optical music recognition, blob detection, thresholding, dictionary generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
34 Numerical Modelling of Effective Diffusivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Anila Asif, Haroon Ahmad

Abstract:

The field of tissue engineering is an active area of research. Bone tissue engineering helps to resolve the clinical problems of critical size and non-healing defects by the creation of man-made bone tissue. We will design and validate an efficient numerical model, which will simulate the effective diffusivity in bone tissue engineering. Our numerical model will be based on the finite element analysis of the diffusion-reaction equations. It will have the ability to optimize the diffusivity, even at multi-scale, with the variation of time. It will also have a special feature, with which we will not only be able to predict the oxygen, glucose and cell density dynamics, more accurately, but will also sort the issues arising due to anisotropy. We will fix these problems with the help of modifying the governing equations, by selecting appropriate spatio-temporal finite element schemes, by adaptive grid refinement strategy and by transient analysis.

Keywords: scaffolds, porosity, diffusion, transient analysis

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33 Eco-Ways to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Flame Retardant Textiles at the End of Life

Authors: Sohail Yasin, Massimo Curti, Nemeshwaree Behary, Giorgio Rovero

Abstract:

It is well-known that the presence of discarded textile products in municipal landfills poses environmental problems due to leaching of chemical products from the textile to the environment. Incineration of such textiles is considered to be an efficient way to produce energy and reduce environmental impacts of textile materials at their end-of life stage. However, the presence of flame retardant products on textiles would decrease the energy yield and emit toxic gases during incineration stage. While some non-durable flame retardants can be removed by wet treatments (e.g. washing), these substances pollute water and pose concerns towards environmental health. Our study shows that infrared radiation can be used efficiently to degrade flame retardant products on the textiles. This method is finalized to minimize the decrease in energy yield during the incineration or gasification processes of flame retardant cotton fabrics.

Keywords: degradation, flame retardant, infrared radiation, cotton, incineration

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32 Personality Traits of Students Effecting Entrepreneurial Intention

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Aamir Sohail, Umair Malik

Abstract:

Research in entrepreneurship has gained much attention in current academic environment. Youngsters are taking interest to start their own business in spite of risk matter. The objective of the study is to explain how various personality traits (personal attitude, locus of control, instrumental readiness and perceived behavioral control) are affecting entrepreneurial intention of students. The theory of planned behavior supports out study which explains that personal attractiveness, social norms and feasibility are the main factors that affect intentions of an individual. The sample data of 120 is collected from graduating batch of three reputed universities of Islamabad through questionnaires. Our results support the hypothesis that personality traits positively influence the entrepreneurial intention. We conclude from the study that many graduating students are willing to start a new venture, but most of them are likely to do a job in their respective fields. Risk factor also exists in their minds because in our country most people are risk-averse and they do not want to lose their money in case of loss.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, instrumental readiness, locus of control, personal attitude

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31 Growth of Non-Polar a-Plane AlGaN Epilayer with High Crystalline Quality and Smooth Surface Morphology

Authors: Abbas Nasir, Xiong Zhang, Sohail Ahmad, Yiping Cui

Abstract:

Non-polar a-plane AlGaN epilayers of high structural quality have been grown on r-sapphire substrate by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A graded non-polar AlGaN buffer layer with variable aluminium concentration was used to improve the structural quality of the non-polar a-plane AlGaN epilayer. The characterisations were carried out by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall effect measurement. The XRD and AFM results demonstrate that the Al-composition-graded non-polar AlGaN buffer layer significantly improved the crystalline quality and the surface morphology of the top layer. A low root mean square roughness 1.52 nm is obtained from AFM, and relatively low background carrier concentration down to 3.9×  cm-3 is obtained from Hall effect measurement.

Keywords: non-polar AlGaN epilayer, Al composition-graded AlGaN layer, root mean square, background carrier concentration

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30 Impacts of Land Cover Changes over the Last Three Decades in Capital City of Pakistan Islamabad with the Perspective of Urbanization

Authors: Muhammad Tayyab Sohail, Li Jiangfeng

Abstract:

This study aimed at characterizing land cover dynamics for about three decades in capital city of Pakistan Islamabad. The specific objectives were identifying and map the major land cover types in 1993, 2002 and 2014 and check the reduction of greenery and urbanization rate and its some environments aspects. The study showed that overall grasslands decreased in the prescribed period. The key hotspots of these changes were distributed in all directions of the study area, but at different times. Urbanization is increasing every year in this city but the policies for this number of people are not sufficient to meet their living standard requirements. Apart from it, there is also an impact of urbanization on environmental related problems. Underground water is going down and down, traffic related issue and other associated problems are part of this research. Therefore, policies that integrate restoration and conservation of natural ecosystems with enhancement of agricultural productivity are strongly recommended. This will ensure environmental sustainability and socio-economic well-being in the area. Future research needs to address the problems related to urbanization and need to clarify the problems and solve it on high priority.

Keywords: land, Islamabad, water, urban

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29 Molecular Screening of Piroplasm from Ticks Collected from Sialkot, Gujranwala and Gujarat Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Mahvish Maqbool, Muhmmad Sohail Sajid

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Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae); bloodsucking parasites of domestic animals, have significant importance in the transmission of diseases and causing huge economic losses. This study aimed to screen endophilic ticks for the Piroplasms using polymerase chain reaction in three districts Sialkot, Gujranwala and Gujarat of Punjab, Pakistan. Ticks were dissected under a stereomicroscope, and internal organs (midguts& salivary glands) were procured to generate pools of optimum weights. DNA extraction was done through standard protocol followed by primer specific PCR for Piroplasma spp. A total of 22.95% tick pools were found positive for piroplasma spp. In districts, Sialkot and Gujranwala Piroplasma prevalence are higher in riverine animals while in Gujarat Prevalence is higher in non-riverine animals. Female animals were found more prone to piroplasma as compared to males. This study will provide useful data on the distribution of Piroplasma in the vector population of the study area and devise future recommendations for better management of ruminants to avoid subclinical and clinical infections and vector transmitted diseases.

Keywords: babesia, hyalomma, piroplasmposis, tick infectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
28 Progress of Legislation in Post-Colonial, Post-Communist and Socialist Countries for the Intellectual Property Protection of the Autonomous Output of Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Ammar Younas

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt to explore the legal progression in procedural laws related to “intellectual property protection for the autonomous output of artificial intelligence” in Post-Colonial, Post-Communist and Socialist Countries. An in-depth study of legal progression in Pakistan (Common Law), Uzbekistan (Post-Soviet Civil Law) and China (Socialist Law) has been conducted. A holistic attempt has been made to explore that how the ideological context of the legal systems can impact, not only on substantive components but on the procedural components of the formal laws related to IP Protection of autonomous output of Artificial Intelligence. Moreover, we have tried to shed a light on the prospective IP laws and AI Policy in the countries, which are planning to incorporate the concept of “Digital Personality” in their legal systems. This paper will also address the question: “How far IP of autonomous output of AI can be protected with the introduction of “Non-Human Legal Personality” in legislation?” By using the examples of China, Pakistan and Uzbekistan, a case has been built to highlight the legal progression in General Provisions of Civil Law, Artificial Intelligence Policy of the country and Intellectual Property laws. We have used a range of multi-disciplinary concepts and examined them on the bases of three criteria: accuracy of legal/philosophical presumption, applying to the real time situations and testing on rational falsification tests. It has been observed that the procedural laws are designed in a way that they can be seen correlating with the ideological contexts of these countries.

Keywords: intellectual property, artificial intelligence, digital personality, legal progression

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27 Displacement Situation in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Sohail Ahmad, Inayat Kaleem

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Federally Administered Tribal Area(FATA) of Pakistan is one of the most neglected regions in the world as far as development is concerned. It has been the hub of all sorts of illegal activities including militancy and export of terrorism. Therefore, it became inevitable for the government of Pakistan to take action against militants through military operations. Small and large scale military operations are being taken against the non-state actors in FATA with continuity. Over the years, hundreds of thousands have been displaced from the tribal areas of the country. Moreover, military operation Zarb-e-Azb has been launched in North Waziristan Agency in June 2014 to counter militancy across the Af-Pak border region. Though successful in curbing militancy, the operation has displaced around 0.5 million people from the area. Most of them opt to take shelter in the government installed shelter camps, some of them take refuge outside tent villages in the country while some of them prefer to cross into Afghanistan rather their own country Pakistan. This paper will evaluate how the influx of these internally displaced persons in the country is influencing the socio-economic situation of not only the displaced but of the hosting areas as well. Secondly, attention would be given to gauge the impact of such a huge number of displaced population on the law and order and security situation in the host areas.

Keywords: Af-Pak, federally administered tribal area, IDPs, internal displacement, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
26 Review on the Role of Sustainability Techniques in Development of Green Building

Authors: Ubaid Ur Rahman, Waqar Younas, Sooraj Kumar Chhabira

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Environmentally sustainable building construction has experienced significant growth during the past 10 years at international level. This paper shows that the conceptual framework adopts sustainability techniques in construction to develop environment friendly building called green building. Waste occurs during the different construction phases which causes the environmental problems like, deposition of waste on ground surface creates major problems such as bad smell. It also gives birth to different health diseases and produces toxic waste agent which is specifically responsible for making soil infertile. Old recycled building material is used in the construction of new building. Sustainable construction is economical and saves energy sources. Sustainable construction is the major responsibility of designer and project manager. The designer has to fulfil the client demands while keeping the design environment friendly. Project manager has to deliver and execute sustainable construction according to sustainable design. Steel is the most appropriate sustainable construction material. It is more durable and easily recyclable. Steel occupies less area and has more tensile and compressive strength than concrete, making it a better option for sustainable construction as compared to other building materials. New technology like green roof has made the environment pleasant, and has reduced the construction cost. It minimizes economic, social and environmental issues. This paper presents an overview of research related to the material use of green building and by using this research recommendation are made which can be followed in the construction industry. In this paper, we go through detailed analysis on construction material. By making suitable adjustments to project management practices it is shown that a green building improves the cost efficiency of the project, makes it environmental friendly and also meets future generation demands.

Keywords: sustainable construction, green building, recycled waste material, environment

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25 Conceptual Design of Panel Based Reinforced Concrete Floating Substructure for 10 MW Offshore Wind Turbine

Authors: M. Sohail Hasan, Wichuda Munbua, Chikako Fujiyama, Koichi Maekawa

Abstract:

During the past few years, offshore wind energy has become the key parameter to reduce carbon emissions. In most of the previous studies, floaters in floating offshore wind turbines (FOWT) are made up of steel. However, fatigue and corrosion are always major concerns of steel marine structures. Recently, researchers are working on concrete floating substructures. In this paper, the conceptual design of pre-cast panel-based economical and durable reinforced concrete floating substructure for a 10 MW offshore wind turbine is proposed. The new geometrical shape, i.e., hexagon with inside hollow boxes, is proposed under static conditions. To design the outer panel/side walls to resist hydrostatic forces, special consideration for durability is given to limit the crack width within permissible range under service limit state. A comprehensive system is proposed for transferring the ultimate moment and shear due to strong wind at the connection between steel tower and concrete floating substructure. Moreover, a stable connection is also designed considering the fatigue of concrete and steel due to the fluctuation of stress from the mooring line. This conceptual design will be verified by subsequent dynamic analysis soon.

Keywords: cracks width control, mooring line, reinforced concrete floater, steel tower

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24 The Complementary Explanations of Institutional and Feminist Perspectives for Female Social Enterprise in Pakistan

Authors: Mohammad Sohail Yunis, Hina Hashim, Alistair R. Anderson

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Entrepreneurship is gendered with masculine qualities, yet social enterprise epitomizes caring a feminine quality. However enterprising practices may have little to do with gender. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine practices using two very different explanatory theories, feminist and institutional theory, to establish the role played by gender. This study is situated in KP, the poor but traditional north of Pakistan. Utilising on an interpretive qualitative research approach, this research collected data through in-depth interviews with ten women social entrepreneurs of KP, Pakistan and analyzed using thematic analysis. Empirically, this paper identifies and describes on a number of interesting themes that relate to the women entrepreneurship such as 'women empowerment, patriarchal culture, role of culture and societal norms, religious extremism and terrorism, forced entrepreneurs, change creators, institutional corruption, and security issues'. In addition, female social enterprise in KP is set in a patriarchal, masculine culture, but the practices negotiate institutional obstacles to bring benefits to the disenfranchised. Finally, this research claims to present an original insight into female social entrepreneurship in a developing country context and provide fresh theoretical and empirical perspectives to advance knowledge and scholarship.

Keywords: female social entrepreneurship, institutional theory, feminist theory, developing countries

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23 A Comparative Analysis of Social Stratification in the Participation of Women in Agricultural Activity: A Case Study of District Khushab (Punjab) and D. I. Khan (KPK), Pakistan

Authors: Sohail Ahmad Umer

Abstract:

Since last few decades a question is raising on the subject of the importance of women in different societies of the world particularly in the developing societies of Asia and Africa. Female population constitutes almost 50% of the total population of the world and is playing a significant role in the economy with male population. In Pakistan, a developing country of Asia with majority of Muslim population, working women role is more focused. Women of rural background who are working as voluntary workers and their working hours are neither recorded nor recognized. Agricultural statistics shows that the female participation rate is below 40% while other sources claim them below 20%. Here in present study, another effort has been made to compare the women role in two different provinces of Pakistan to analyze the participation of women in agricultural activities like sowing, picking, irrigating the fields, harvesting and threshing of crops, caring and feeding of the animals, collecting the firewood and etc,as without these activities the farming would be incomplete. One hundred villages in the district Khushab (Punjab) and one hundred villages in district D.I.Khan (KPK) were selected and 33% of the families of each village have been interviewed to study their input in agriculture work. Another important feature is the social stratification therefore the contribution by different variables like the ownership, tenancy, education and caste has also been studied.

Keywords: caste, social stratification, tenancy, voluntary workers

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22 Role of Physical Properties of Maize Grains Towards Resistance to Sitotroga Cerealella (OLIV.) (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) in No Choice

Authors: Sohail Ahmed, Ahmad Raza

Abstract:

Physical properties of maize grains were correlated with levels of the life history of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) in no choice test to find out relative resistance in different varieties. Eight maize varieties /lines (EV-6089, Sahiwal-2002, Golden, 34N43, EV-1098, Sultan, China-1, EV-20) including seven yellow and one white were obtained from Maize and Millet Research Institute, Yousaf Wala, Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan. Freshly laid eggs (one day old) of S. cerealella were obtained and cultured on a susceptible maize variety for two generations for later on shifting to test varieties. Results showed that maximum moth emergence (10.33), fecundity (35.66), hatching (87.66%), moth weight (5.05 mg), development time (36.0 days) damage (93.35%) and grain weight loss (38.84%) was found in varieties, 34N43 and Golden, Sultan, Sahiwal 2002, 34N43, EV-6089, 34N43 and EV-1089, respectively. Varieties had significant difference with other varieties in these parameters (P<0.05). The varieties had positive as well as negative correlation between hardness index, grain weight and bulk density with the biological parameters of S. cerealella, percent grain damage and weight loss. Possible involvement of these grain properties in the resistance of maize grains towards S. cerealella is discussed.

Keywords: sitotroga cerealella, hardness index, grain damage, maize, varieties

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21 Comparative Study of Bread Prepared with and without Germinated Soyabean (Glycine Max) Flour

Authors: Muhammad Arsalan Mahmoo, Allah Rakha, Muhammad Sohail

Abstract:

The supplementation of wheat flour with high lysine legume flours has positive effects on the nutritional value of bread. In present study, germinated and terminated soya flour blends were prepared and supplemented in bread in variable proportions (10 % and 20 % of each) to check its impact on quality and sensory attributes of bread. The results showed that there was a significant increase in protein, ash and crude fat contents due to increase in the level of germinated and ungerminated soya flour. However, the moisture and crude fiber contents of composite flours containing germinated and ungerminated soya flour decreased with increased level of supplementation. Mean values for physical analysis (loaf volume, specific volume, weight loss and force for texture) were significantly higher in breads prepared with germinated soya bean flour.The scores assigned to sensory parameters of breads like volume, color of crust, symmetry, color of crumb, texture, taste and aroma decreased significantly by increasing the level of germinated and ungerminated soya flour in wheat flour while color of crust and taste slightly improved. The scores given to overall acceptability of bread prepared from composite flour supplemented with 10 % germinated soya flour.

Keywords: composite bread, protein energy malnutrition, supplementation, amino acid profile, grain legumes

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20 Mixed Matrix Membranes Based on [M₂(DOBDC)] (M = Mg, Co, Ni) and Polydimethylsiloxane for CO₂/N₂ Separation

Authors: Hyunuk Kim, Yang No Yun, Muhammad Sohail, Jong-Ho Moon, Young Cheol Park

Abstract:

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are emerging absorbents assembled from metal ions and organic ligands, have attracted attention for their permanent porosity and design of tunable pore size. These microporous materials showed interesting properties for CO₂ storage and separation. In particular, MOFs with high surface area and open metal sites showed the remarkable adsorption capacity and selectivity for CO₂. [Mg₂ (DOBDC)] (DOBDC = 2,5-dioxidobenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate) (MOF-74 or CPO-27) is a well-known absorbent showing an exceptionally high CO₂ sorption capacity at low partial pressure and room temperature. In this work, we synthesized [M₂(DOBDC)(DMF)₂] (M = Mg, Co, Ni) and determined their single-crystal structures by X-ray crystallography. The removal of coordinated guest molecules generates Lewis acidic sites and showed high CO₂ adsorption affinity. Both CO₂ adsorption capacity and surface area are much higher than reported values in literature. To fabricate MMMs, microcrystalline [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF)₂] was synthesized by microwave reaction and dispersed in PDMS solution. The MMMs with a various amount of [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF) ₂] in PDMS were fabricated by a solution casting method. [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF)₂]@PDMS membrane showed higher CO2 permeability and CO₂/N₂ selectivity than those of PDMS. Therefore, we believe that MMMs combining polymer and MOFs provide new materials for CO₂ separation technology.

Keywords: metal-organic frameworks, mixed matrix membrane, CO2/N2 separation, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

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19 Distribution of Spotted Fever Group in Ixodid Ticks, Domestic Cattle and Buffalos of Faisalabad District, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Qurat-ul-Ain, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Asma Kausar, Adil Ejaz

Abstract:

Rickettsiosis, caused by a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (SFGR), is considered as an emerging infectious disease from public and veterinary perspective. The present study reports distribution of SFGR in the host (buffalo and cattle) and vector (ticks) population determined through gene specific amplification through PCR targeting outer membrane protein (ompA). Tick and blood samples were collected using standard protocols through convenient sampling from district Faisalabad. Ticks were dissected to extract salivary glands (SG). Blood and tick SG pools were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification of ompA using PCR. Overall prevalence of SFGR was reported as 21.5% and 33.6 % from blood and ticks, respectively. Hyalomma anatolicum was more prevalent tick associated with SFGR as compared to Rhipicephalus sp. Higher prevalence of SFGR was reported in cattle (25%) population as compared to that of buffalo (17.07%). On seasonal basis, high SFGR prevalence was recorded during spring season (48.1%, 26.32%, 17.76%) as compared to winter (27.9%, 21.43%, 15.38%) in vector and host (cattle and buffalo respectively) population. Sequencing analysis indicated that rickettsial endo-symbionts were associated with ticks of the study area. These results provided baseline information about the prevalence of SFGR in vector and host population.

Keywords: Rickettsia, livestock, polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, ticks, vectors

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18 Impure Water, a Future Disaster: A Case Study of Lahore Ground Water Quality with GIS Techniques

Authors: Rana Waqar Aslam, Urooj Saeed, Hammad Mehmood, Hameed Ullah, Imtiaz Younas

Abstract:

This research has been conducted to assess the water quality in and around Lahore Metropolitan area on the basis of three different land uses, i.e. residential, commercial, and industrial land uses. For this, 29 sample sites have been selected on the basis of simple random sampling technique. Samples were collected at the source (WASA tube wells). The criteria for selecting sample sites are to have a maximum concentration of population in the selected land uses. The results showed that in the residential land use the proportion of nitrate and turbidity is at their highest level in the areas of Allama Iqbal Town and Samanabad Town. Commercial land use of Gulberg and Data Gunj Bakhsh Town have highest level of proportion of chlorides, calcium, TDS, pH, Mg, total hardness, arsenic and alkalinity. Whereas in industrial type of land use in Ravi and Wahga Town have the proportion of arsenic, Mg, nitrate, pH, and turbidity are at their highest level. The high rate of concentration of these parameters in these areas is basically due to the old and fractured pipelines that allow bacterial as well as physiochemical contaminants to contaminate the portable water at the sources. Furthermore, it is seen in most areas that waste water from domestic, industrial, as well as municipal sources may get easy discharge into open spaces and water bodies, like, cannels, rivers, lakes that seeps and become a part of ground water. In addition, huge dumps located in Lahore are becoming the cause of ground water contamination as when the rain falls, the water gets seep into the ground and impures the ground water quality. On the basis of the derived results with the help of Geo-spatial technology ACRGIS 9.3 Interpolation (IDW), it is recommended that water filtration plants must be installed with specific parameter control. A separate team for proper inspection has to be made for water quality check at the source. Old water pipelines must be replaced with the new pipelines, and safe water depth must be ensured at the source end.

Keywords: GIS, remote sensing, pH, nitrate, disaster, IDW

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
17 Influence of Pseudomonas japonica on Growth and Metal Tolerance of Celosia cristata L.

Authors: Muhammad Umair Mushtaq, Ameena Iqbal, Muhammad Aqib Hassan Ali Khan, Ismat Nawaz, Sohail Yousaf, Mazhar Iqbal

Abstract:

Heavy metals are one of the priority pollutants as they pose serious health and environmental threats. They can be removed by various physiochemical methods but are costly and responsible for additional environmental problems. Bioremediation that exploits plants and their associated microbes have been referred as cost effective and environmental friendly technique. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential of Celosia cristata and effects of bacteria, Pseudomonas japonica, and organic amendment moss/compost on tolerating/accumulating heavy metals. Two weeks old seedlings were transferred to soil in pots, and after four weeks they were inoculated with bacterial strain, while after growth of six weeks they were watered with a metal containing synthetic wastewater and were harvested after a growth period of nine weeks. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters and metal content of plants were measured. The results showed highest plant growth and biomass production in case of organic amendments while highest metal uptake has been found in non-amended pots. Positive controls have shown highest Pb uptake of 2900 mg/kg DW, while P. japonica amended pots have shown highest Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu uptake of 963.53, 1481.17, 1022.01 and 602.17 mg/kg DW, respectively. In conclusion organic amendments have strong impacts on growth enhancement while P. japonica enhances metal translocation and accumulation to aerial parts with little significant involvement in plant growth.

Keywords: ornamental plants, plant microbe interaction, amendments, bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
16 Effect of Varying Diets on Growth, Development and Survival of Queen Bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Captivity

Authors: Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Zaighum Abbas, Mubasshir Sohail, Muhammad Abubakar, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Afzal, Sami Ullah

Abstract:

Keeping in view the increasing demand, queen of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was reared artificially in this experiment at varying diets including royal jelly. Larval duration, pupal duration, weight, and size of pupae were evaluated at different diets including royal jelly. Queen larvae were raised by Doo Little grafting method. Four different diets were mixed with royal jelly and applied to larvae. Fructose, sugar, yeast, and honey were provided to rearing queen larvae along with same amount of royal jelly. Larval and pupal duration were longest (6.15 and 7.5 days, respectively) at yeast and shortest on honey (5.05 and 7.02 days, respectively). Heavier and bigger pupae were recorded on yeast (168.14 mg and 1.76 cm, respectively) followed by diets having sugar and honey. Due to production of heavier and bigger pupae, yeast was considered as best artificial diet for the growing queen larvae. So, in the second part of experiment, different amounts of yeast were provided to growing larvae along with fixed amount (0.5 g) of royal jelly. Survival rates of the larvae and queen bee were 70% and 40% in the 4-g food, 86.7% and 53.3% in the 6-g food, and 76.7% and 50% in the 8-g food. Weight of adult queen bee (1.459±0.191 g) and the number of ovarioles (41.7±21.3) were highest at 8 g of food. Results of this study are helpful for bee-keepers in producing fitter queen bees.

Keywords: apis melifera l, dietary effect, survival and development, honey bee queen

Procedia PDF Downloads 280