Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Anam Bhatti

44 The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and Relationship Marketing on Relationship Maintainer and Customer Loyalty by Mediating Role of Customer Satisfaction

Authors: Anam Bhatti, Sumbal Arif, Mariam Mehar, Sohail Younas

Abstract:

CSR has become one of the imperative implements in satisfying customers. The impartial of this research is to calculate CSR, relationship marketing, and customer satisfaction. In Pakistan, there is not enough research work on the effect of CSR and relationship marketing on relationship maintainer and customer loyalty. To find out deductive approach and survey method is used as research approach and research strategy respectively. This research design is descriptive and quantitative study. For data, collection questionnaire method with semantic differential scale and seven point scales are adopted. Data has been collected by adopting the non-probability convenience technique as sampling technique and the sample size is 400. For factor confirmatory factor analysis, structure equation modeling and medication analysis, regression analysis Amos software were used. Strong empirical evidence supports that the customer’s perception of CSR performance is highly influenced by the values.

Keywords: CSR, Relationship marketing, Relationship maintainer, Customer loyalty, Customer satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
43 Influence of Preparation, Characterisation and Application of Carbon Nano Tube

Authors: Dhaivat S. Soni, Snehal Thakor, Afroz Bhatti

Abstract:

The prepare CNTs in bulk quantity by as easiest as possible method with highly pure and small diameter. Prepared CNTs first charactered its structural parameter for the conformation of CNTs and purity. Surface morphology of CNTs stured by using various instruments finally study application of prepared CNTs in various field. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized in large scale by pyrolyzing activated carbon in sealed autoclaves.

Keywords: nanostructures, nanotubes, carbon, pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
42 Tourism Industry in Pakistan: Challenges Faced and Future Prospects

Authors: Misbah Shaheen, Anam Qureshi

Abstract:

In this work we will discuss the challenges faced by tourism industry in Pakistan. Tourism plays vital role in the socio-economic growth of a country. The countries of world, with less tourism opportunities are lagging behind from other nations of the world. Pakistan is one of those countries which rich in historical places, natural beauty, and uniqueness in handmade items and also of green forests. Present study will discuss the challenges being faced by tourism industry with special focus on hotel industry and law and order situation.

Keywords: Pakistan, tourism, handmade items, hotel industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
41 Stress Analysis of Turbine Blades of Turbocharger Using Structural Steel

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif

Abstract:

Turbocharger is a device that is driven by the turbine and increases efficiency and power output of the engine by forcing external air into the combustion chamber. This study focused on the distribution of stress on the turbine blades and total deformation that may occur during its working along with turbocharger to carry out its static structural analysis of turbine blades. Structural steel was selected as the material for turbocharger. Assembly of turbocharger and turbine blades was designed on PRO ENGINEER. Furthermore, the structural analysis is performed by using ANSYS. This research concluded that by using structural steel, the efficiency of engine is improved and by increasing number of turbine blades, more waste heat from combustion chamber is emitted.

Keywords: turbocharger, turbine blades, structural steel, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
40 Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Employing Teaching Learning Based Optimization

Authors: Anam Gopi

Abstract:

The undesired torque and flux ripple may occur in conventional direct torque control (DTC) induction motor drive. DTC can improve the system performance at low speeds by continuously tuning the regulator by adjusting the Kp, Ki values. In this Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) is proposed to adjust the parameters (Kp, Ki) of the speed controller in order to minimize torque ripple, flux ripple, and stator current distortion. The TLBO based PI controller has resulted is maintaining a constant speed of the motor irrespective of the load torque fluctuations.

Keywords: teaching learning based optimization, direct torque control, PI controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 506
39 Comparison Analysis of Multi-Channel Echo Cancellation Using Adaptive Filters

Authors: Sahar Mobeen, Anam Rafique, Irum Baig

Abstract:

Acoustic echo cancellation in multichannel is a system identification application. In real time environment, signal changes very rapidly which required adaptive algorithms such as Least Mean Square (LMS), Leaky Least Mean Square (LLMS), Normalized Least Mean square (NLMS) and average (AFA) having high convergence rate and stable. LMS and NLMS are widely used adaptive algorithm due to less computational complexity and AFA used of its high convergence rate. This research is based on comparison of acoustic echo (generated in a room) cancellation thorough LMS, LLMS, NLMS, AFA and newly proposed average normalized leaky least mean square (ANLLMS) adaptive filters.

Keywords: LMS, LLMS, NLMS, AFA, ANLLMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
38 Relationship between Quality Education and Organizational Culture at College Level in Punjab

Authors: Anam Noshaba, Mahr Muhammad Saeed Akhtar

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to find out the relationship between quality education and organizational culture. The population of this study was all the teachers of Public Degree Colleges located in Punjab. A sample of 400 teachers was selected by using a simple random sampling technique. Quality Education Assessment Questionnaire (QEAQ) and Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) were used for data collection. Out of all, 90% of teachers responded. Findings showed that quality education and organizational culture are positively correlated. Results indicated that there is no difference in quality education and organizational culture by demographic variables of teachers. Future research is needed to study the viewpoint of other stakeholders of education regarding quality education and organizational culture.

Keywords: quality education, minimum quality standards, organizational culture, college level

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
37 Usability Issues of Smart Phone Applications: For Visually Challenged People

Authors: Anam Ashraf, Arif Raza

Abstract:

In this era of globalization, adoption of technology is quite difficult for people with physical disabilities compared to people with normal abilities. The advancement in mobile based accessible applications has opened up several different avenues for the visually challenged across the globe. Smartphones applications are not very common for blind people, but they access and use these applications in their daily lives to some extent. Several smartphone applications have a number of usability issues for the visually impaired. In this paper, we evaluate the usability of various android and iPhone applications for blind people through analysis and surveys. This paper aspires to provide guidance in order to increase smartphone application accessibility for the visually impaired. An abstract application design is also proposed to overcome usability issues in smartphone applications for visually challenged people.

Keywords: eyes-free shell, human computer interaction, usability engineering, visually challenged

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
36 Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Thermal Studies of Copper(I) Chlorido Complexes of Thioureas

Authors: Muhammad Mufakkar, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti, Maryem Rana

Abstract:

The study of the coordination behavior of thiones is of considerable interest due to the similarity of their binding sites to those in living systems. The complexation of thiones towards Copper(I) has also received considerable attraction in view of their variable bonding modes, structural diversity and promising biological implications. Copper (I) complexes of thioureas of the general formula: CuLCl, CuL2Cl and CuL3Cl [where L= Thiourea and its N- and N, N/- mono and di alkyl and phenyl derivatives] have been prepared using Cu(I)CN in the presence of HCl. The complexes have been characterized by thermal, IR and NMR(1H and 13C) spectroscopy. An upfield shift in 13C NMR and downfield shifts in 1H NMR are consistent with the sulfur coordination to Copper(I). The disappearance of a band around 2200 cm⁻¹ in IR and a resonance around 146 ppm in 13C NMR indicates that during the course of reaction the cyanide group of the Copper(I) salt has been replaced by chloride leading to the formation of chlorido complexes.

Keywords: Thiones, complexation, spectra, TGA, thermogram, chemical shifts, deshielding, resonance

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
35 Comparing the Motion of Solar System with Water Droplet Motion to Predict the Future of Solar System

Authors: Areena Bhatti

Abstract:

The geometric arrangement of planet and moon is the result of a self-organizing system. In our solar system, the planets and moons are constantly orbiting around the sun. The aim of this theory is to compare the motion of a solar system with the motion of water droplet when poured into a water body. The basic methodology is to compare both motions to know how they are related to each other. The difference between both systems will be that one is extremely fast, and the other is extremely slow. The role of this theory is that by looking at the fast system we can conclude how slow the system will get to an end. Just like ripples are formed around water droplet that move away from the droplet and water droplet forming those ripples become small in size will tell us how solar system will behave in the same way. So it is concluded that large and small systems can work under the same process but with different motions of time, and motion of the solar system is the slowest form of water droplet motion.

Keywords: motion, water, sun, time

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
34 Comparative Study of Computer Assisted Instruction and Conventional Method in Attaining and Retaining Mathematical Concepts

Authors: Nirupma Bhatti

Abstract:

This empirical study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and Conventional Method (CM) in attaining and retaining mathematical concepts. Instructional and measuring tools were developed for five units of Matrix Algebra, two of Calculus and five of Numerical Analysis. Reliability and validity of these tools were also examined in pilot study. Ninety undergraduates participated in this study. Pre-test – post-test equivalent – groups research design was used. SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis. Findings supported CAI as better mode of instruction for attainment and retention of basic mathematical concepts. Administrators should motivate faculty members to develop Computer Assisted Instructional Material (CAIM) in mathematics for higher education.

Keywords: attainment, CAI, CAIM, conventional method, retention

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
33 Event Extraction, Analysis, and Event Linking

Authors: Anam Alam, Rahim Jamaluddin Kanji

Abstract:

With the rapid growth of event in everywhere, event extraction has now become an important matter to retrieve the information from the unstructured data. One of the challenging problems is to extract the event from it. An event is an observable occurrence of interaction among entities. The paper investigates the effectiveness of event extraction capabilities of three software tools that are Wandora, Nitro and SPSS. We performed standard text mining techniques of these tools on the data sets of (i) Afghan War Diaries (AWD collection), (ii) MUC4 and (iii) WebKB. Information retrieval measures such as precision and recall which are computed under extensive set of experiments for Event Extraction. The experimental study analyzes the difference between events extracted by the software and human. This approach helps to construct an algorithm that will be applied for different machine learning methods.

Keywords: event extraction, Wandora, nitro, SPSS, event analysis, extraction method, AFG, Afghan War Diaries, MUC4, 4 universities, dataset, algorithm, precision, recall, evaluation

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32 Relationship of Organizational Culture, Teacher Psychological Empowerment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Universities in Bangkalan District

Authors: Iqbal Abd. Muhbir Hadi Anam

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to discuss the relationship between organizational culture, teacher psychological empowerment, and organizational citizenship behavior at the University of Bangkalan District. The data was obtained using a survey of 100 respondents tested for validity and reliability. The analytical technique used is a hierarchical regression test. The results showed that the organizational culture of the university had a strong influence on the psychological empowerment of teachers and the psychological empowerment of teachers and that the organizational culture and psychological empowerment of teachers provided effective predictions of the psychological empowerment of the university. In addition, organizational culture directly or indirectly influences teachers' organizational citizenship behavior through psychological empowerment. Given these results, universities need to build an organizational culture that reflects the nature of the university.

Keywords: organizational behavior, teacher psychological empowerment, organizational citizenship behavior, universities

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31 Energy Analysis of Seasonal Air Conditioning Demand of All Income Classes Using Bottom up Model in Pakistan

Authors: Saba Arif, Anam Nadeem, Roman Kalvin, Tanzeel Rashid, Burhan Ali, Juntakan Taweekun

Abstract:

Currently, the energy crisis is taking serious attention. Globally, industries and building are major share takers of energy. 72% of total global energy is consumed by residential houses, markets, and commercial building. Additionally, in appliances air conditioners are major consumer of electricity; about 60% energy is used for cooling purpose in houses due to HVAC units. Energy demand will aid in determining what changes will be needed whether it is the estimation of the required energy for households or instituting conservation measures. Bottom-up model is one of the most famous methods for forecasting. In current research bottom-up model of air conditioners' energy consumption in all income classes in comparison with seasonal variation and hourly consumption is calculated. By comparison of energy consumption of all income classes by usage of air conditioners, total consumption of actual demand and current availability can be seen.

Keywords: air conditioning, bottom up model, income classes, energy demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
30 Electrochemical Performance of Al-Mn2O3 Based Electrode Materials

Authors: Noor Ul Ain Bhatti, M. Junaid Khan, Javed Ahmad, Murtaza Saleem, Shahid M. Ramay, Saadat A. Siddiqi

Abstract:

Manganese oxide is being recently used as electrode material for rechargeable batteries. In this study, Al incorporated Mn2O3 compositions were synthesized to study the effect of Al doping on electrochemical performance of host material. Structural studies were carried out using X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm the phase stability and explore the lattice parameters, crystallite size, lattice strain, density and cell volume. Morphology and composition were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Dynamic light scattering analysis was performed to observe the average particle size of the compositions. FTIR measurements exhibit the O-Al-O and O-Mn-O and Al-O bonding and with increasing the concentration of Al, the vibrational peaks of Mn-O become sharper. An enhanced electrochemical performance was observed in compositions with higher Al content.

Keywords: Mn2O3, electrode materials, energy storage and conversion, electrochemical performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
29 Assessment of Mechanical Properties of Induction Furnace Slag as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: Muhammad Javed Bhatti, Tariq Ali, Muazz Ali

Abstract:

Due to growing environmental awareness in Pakistan, the researchers are increasingly turning to assess and analyze properties of industrial waste and finding solutions on using industrial waste as secondary material. Due to industrialization, enormous by-products are produced and to utilize these by-products is the main challenge faced in Pakistan. Induction furnace slag is one of the industrial by-products from the iron and steel making industries. This paper highlights the true utilization of induction furnace slag as partial replacement of fine aggregate. For the experimental investigation, mixes were prepared with fine aggregate replacement using 0 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent, 25 percent, 30 percent, 35 percent and 40 percent induction furnace slag to evaluate the workability, compaction factor, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity.

Keywords: compressive strength, deflection, induction furnace slag, workability

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
28 Design and Implementation of Power Generation Mechanism Using Speed Breaker

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif, Juntakan Taweekun

Abstract:

In the current scenario demand of power is increasing day by day with increasing population. It is needed to sort out this problem with a technique which will not only overcome this energy crisis but also should be environment friendly. This project emphasizes on idea which shows that power could be generated by specially designed speed breaker. This project shows clearly how power can be generated by using Cam Mechanism where basically linear motion is converted into rotatory motion that can be used to generate electricity. When vehicle passes over the speed breaker, presses the cam with the help of connecting rod which rotate main shaft attached with large pulley. A flywheel is coupled with the shaft whose purpose is to normalize the oscillation in the energy and to make the energy unvarying. So, the shafts will spin with firm rpm. These shafts are coupled from end to end with a belt drive. The results show that power generated from this mechanism is 12 watts. The generated electricity does not required any fuel consumption it only generates power which can be used for the street light as well as for the traffic signals.

Keywords: revolution per minute, RPM, cam, speed breaker, rotatory motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
27 Hybridization and Dynamic Performance Analysis of Three-Wheeler Electric Auto Rickshaw

Authors: Muhammad Asghar, A. I. Bhatti, T. Izhar

Abstract:

The three-wheeled auto-rickshaw with a two or four-stroke Gasoline, Liquid Petrolium Gas (LPG) or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine is a petite, highly maneuverable vehicle and best suited for the small and heavily-congested roads and is an affordable means of transportation in Pakistan cities. However due to in-efficient engine design, it is a main cause of air-pollution in the shape of white smoke (CO2) (greenhouse gases) at the tail pipe. Due to the environmental pollution, a huge number of battery powered vehicles have been imported from all over the world to fulfill the need of country. Effect of degree of hybridization on fuel economy and acceleration performance has been discussed in this paper. From mild to full hybridization stages have been examined. Optimal level of hybridization ranges depending on the total driving power of vehicle are suggested. The degree of hybridization is varied and fuel economy is seen accordingly by using Advisor (NREL) software. The novel vehicle drive-train is modeled and simulated in the Advisor software.

Keywords: advisor, hybridization, fuel economy, Three-Wheeled Rickshaw

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26 Stress Analysis of Spider Gear Using Structural Steel on ANSYS

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Shahab Khushnood

Abstract:

Differential is an integral part of four wheeled vehicle, and its main function is to transmit power from drive shaft to wheels. Differential assembly allows both rear wheels to turn at different speed along curved paths. It consists of four gears which are assembled together namely pinion, ring, spider and bevel gears. This research focused on the spider gear and its static structural analysis using ANSYS. The main aim was to evaluate the distribution of stresses on the teeth of the spider gear. This study also analyzed total deformation that may occur during its working along with bevel gear that is meshed with spider gear. Structural steel was chosen for spider gear in this research. Modeling and assembling were done on SolidWorks for both spider and bevel gear. They were assembled exactly same as in a differential assembly. This assembly was then imported to ANSYS. After observing results that maximum amount of stress and deformation was produced in the spider gear, it was concluded that structural steel material for spider gear possesses greater amount of strength to bear maximum stress.

Keywords: ANSYS, differential, spider gear, structural steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
25 Enhancing Academic Achievement of University Student through Stress Management Training: A Study from Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Rizwana Amin, Afshan Afroze Bhatti

Abstract:

The study was a quasi-experimental pre-post test design including two groups. Data was collected from 127 students through non-probability random sampling from Bahaudin Zakariya University Multan. The groups were given pre-test using perceived stress scale and information about academic achievement was taken by self-report. After screening, 27 participants didn’t meet the criterion. Remaining 100 participants were divided into two groups (experimental and control). Further, 4 students of experimental group denied taking intervention. Then 46 understudies were separated into three subgroups (16, 15 and 15 in each) for training. The experimental groups were given the stress management training, each of experimental group attended one 3-hour training sessions separately while the control group was only given pre-post assessment. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA method (analysis of covariance) t–test. Results of the study indicate that stress training will lead to increased emotional intelligence and academic achievement of students.

Keywords: stress, stress management, academic achievement, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
24 Design, Modification and Structural Analysis of Bicycle Sprocket Using ANSYS

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Saba Arif, Anam Nadeem, Burhan Ali Ghumman, Juntakan Taweekun

Abstract:

Bicycles are important parts of the transportation industry. In the current world, use of sprocket is very high on bicycles these days. Sprocket and chains are important parts of the transmission of power in the bicycle. However, transmission of power is highly dependent on sprocket design. In conventional bicycles, sprockets are made up of mild steel which undergoes wear and tears with the passage of time due to high pressures applied on it. In the current research, a new sprocket is designed by changing its structure and material to carbon fiber from mild steel. The existing sprocket of a bicycle is compared with the new and modified sprocket design. However, new design has structural and material changes as well. According to the results, in carbon fiber, sprocket deformation is 0.091 mm while sprocket stress value is 371.13N/mm². Also, comparison based analysis is done by physical testing and software analysis. There is 8.1% variation in software and experimental results of steel. Additionally, the difference between both methods comes 8 to 9%. This improved design can be used in future for more durability and long run timings for bicycles.

Keywords: sprocket, mild steel, drafting, stress, deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
23 Experimental Assessment of Polypropylene Plastic Aggregates(PPA) for Pavement Construction: Their Mechanical Properties via Marshall Test

Authors: Samiullah Bhatti, Safdar Abbas Zaidi, Syed Murtaza Ali Jafri

Abstract:

This research paper presents the results of using plastic aggregate in flexible pavement. Plastic aggregates have been prepared with polypropylene (PP) recycled products and have been tested with Marshall apparatus. Grade 60/70 bitumen has been chosen for this research with a total content of 2.5 %, 3 % and 3.5 %. Plastic aggregates are mixed with natural aggregates with different proportions and it ranges from 10 % to 100 % with an increment of 10 %. Therefore, a total of 10 Marshall cakes were prepared with plastic aggregates in addition to a standard pavement sample. In total 33 samples have been tested for Marshall stability, flow and voids in mineral aggregates. The results show an increase in the value when it changes from 2.5 % bitumen to 3 % and after then it goes again toward declination. Thus, 3 % bitumen content has been found as the most optimum value for flexible pavements. Among all the samples, 20 % PP aggregates sample has been found satisfactory with respect to all the standards provided by ASTM. Therefore, it is suggested to use 20 plastic aggregates in flexible pavement construction. A comparison of bearing capacity and skid resistance is also observed.

Keywords: marshall test, polypropylene plastic, plastic aggregates, flexible pavement alternative, recycling of plastic waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
22 Deposition of Diamond Like Carbon Thin Film by Pulse Laser Deposition for Surgical Instruments

Authors: M. Khalid Alamgir, Javed Ahsan Bhatti, M. Zafarullah Khan

Abstract:

Thin film of amorphous carbon (DLC) was deposited on 316 steel using Nd: YAG laser having energy 300mJ. Pure graphite was used as a target. The vacuum in the deposition chamber was generated in the range of 10-6 mbar by turbo molecular pump. Ratio of sp3 to sp2 content shows amorphous nature of the film. This was confirmed by Raman spectra having two peaks around 1300 cm-1 i.e. D-band to 1700 cm-1 i.e. G-band. If sp3 bonding ratio is high, the films behave like diamond-like whereas, with high sp2, films are graphite-like. The ratio of sp3 and sp2 contents in the film depends upon the deposition method, hydrogen contents and system parameters. The structural study of the film was carried out by XRD. The hardness of the films as measured by Vickers hardness tester and was found to be 28 GPa. The EDX result shows the presence of carbon contents on the surface in high rate and optical microscopy result shows the smoothness of the film on substrate. The film possesses good adhesion and can be used to coat surgical instruments.

Keywords: DLC, thin film, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, EDX

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
21 Quality Assurance in Cardiac Disorder Detection Images

Authors: Anam Naveed, Asma Andleeb, Mehreen Sirshar

Abstract:

In the article, Image processing techniques have been applied on cardiac images for enhancing the image quality. Two types of methodologies considers for survey, invasive techniques and non-invasive techniques. Different image processes for improvement of cardiac image quality and reduce the amount of radiation exposure for invasive techniques are explored. Different image processing algorithms for enhancing the noninvasive cardiac image qualities are described. Beside these two methodologies, third methodology has applied on live streaming of heart rate on ECG window for extracting necessary information, removing noise and enhancing quality. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out to investigate the impacts of cardiac images for diagnosis of cardiac arteries disease and how the enhancement on images will help the cardiologist to diagnoses disease. The paper evaluates strengths and weaknesses of different techniques applied for improved the image quality and draw a conclusion. Some specific limitations must be considered for whole survey, like the patient heart beat must be 70-75 beats/minute while doing the angiography, similarly patient weight and exposure radiation amount has some limitation.

Keywords: cardiac images, CT angiography, critical analysis, exposure radiation, invasive techniques, invasive techniques, non-invasive techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
20 Energy Consumption and Energy Conservation Potential for HVAC System in Commercial Buildings Sector in India

Authors: Rishabh Agrawal, S. C. Kaushik, T. S. Bhatti

Abstract:

In order to reduce energy consumption for sustainable development, continuous energy consumption tracking of building energy systems are essential. In this paper an assessment study has been done to identify the energy consumption & energy conservation potential for commercial buildings sector in Karnataka state, India. There are a total of 326 commercial buildings in the state of Karnataka who has qualified as designated consumers (i.e., having a Contract Demand ≥ 600 KVA), was consider for the study. It has estimated that the annual electricity sale to commercial sector is 3.62 Billion Units (BU) in alone Karnataka State, India, which is an account for 9.57 % of the total electricity sold. The commercial sector constitutes Government & private establishments, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, educational institutions, malls etc. Total 326 commercial buildings in the state accounting for annual energy consumption of 1295.72 Million Units (MU) which works out to about 35% of the sectoral consumption. The annual energy savings potential for 326 commercial buildings is assessed to be 0.25 BU.

Keywords: commercial buildings, connected load, energy conservation studies, energy savings, energy efficiency, energy conservation strategy, energy efficiency, thermal energy, HVAC system

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
19 Design of an Energy Efficient Electric Auto Rickshaw

Authors: Muhammad Asghar, Aamer Iqbal Bhatti, Qadeer Ahmed, Tahir Izhar

Abstract:

Three wheeler auto Rickshaw, often termed as ‘auto rickshaw’ is very common in Pakistan and is considered as the most affordable means of transportation to the local people. Problems caused by the gasoline engine on the environment and people, the researchers and the automotive industry have turned to the hybrid electric vehicles and electrical powered vehicle. The research in this paper explains the design of energy efficient Electric auto Rickshaw. An electric auto rickshaw is being developed at Center for Energy Research and Development, (Lahore), which is running on the roads of Lahore city. Energy storage capacity of batteries is at least 25 times heavier than fossil fuel and having volume 10 times in comparison to fuel, resulting an increase of the Rickshaw weight. A set of specifications is derived according to the mobility requirements of the electric auto rickshaw. The design choices considering the power-train and component selection are explained in detail. It was concluded that electric auto rickshaw has many advantages and benefits over the conventional auto rickshaw. It is cleaner and much more energy efficient but limited to the distance it can travel before recharging of battery. In addition, a brief future view of the battery technology is given.

Keywords: conventional auto rickshaw, energy efficiency, electric auto rickshaw, internal combustion engine, environment

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18 SPR Immunosensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Muhammad Ali Syed, Arshad Saleem Bhatti, Chen-zhong Li, Habib Ali Bokhari

Abstract:

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have emerged as a promising technique for bioanalysis as well as microbial detection and identification. Real time, sensitive, cost effective, and label free detection of biomolecules from complex samples is required for early and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. Like many other types of optical techniques, SPR biosensors may also be successfully utilized for microbial detection for accurate, point of care, and rapid results. In the present study, we have utilized a commercially available automated SPR biosensor of BI company to study the microbial detection form water samples spiked with different concentration of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells. The gold thin film sensor surface was functionalized to react with proteins such as protein G, which was used for directed immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. The results of our work reveal that this immunosensor can be used to detect very small number of bacterial cells with higher sensitivity and specificity. In our case 10^3 cells/ml of water have been successfully detected. Therefore, it may be concluded that this technique has a strong potential to be used in microbial detection and identification.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Staphylococcus aureus, biosensors, microbial detection

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17 Impact Analysis of Cultivation of Jatropha Tree on Fuel Prices and Environment

Authors: Saba Arif, Anam Nadeem, Roman Kalvin, Muzaffar Ali, Burhan Ali, Juntakan Taweekun

Abstract:

Globally transportation sector accounts for around 25% of energy demand and nearly 62% of oil consumed. Therefore, new energy sources are required to introduce for this huge demand replenishment of depleting conventional energy sources. Currently, biofuels such as Jatropha trees as an energy carrier for transportation sector are being utilized effectively round the globe. However, climate conditions at low altitudes with an average annual temperature above 20 degrees Celsius and rainfall of 300-1000mm are considered the most suitable environment for the efficient growth of Jatropha trees. The current study is providing a theoretical survey-based analysis to investigate the effect of rate of cultivation of jatropha trees on the reduction of fuel prices and its environmental benefits. The resulted study shows that jatropha tree’s 100 kg seeds give 80kg oil and the conversion process cost is very small as 890 PKR. Moreover, the extraction of oil from Jatropha tree is tax-free compared to other fuels. The analysis proved very essential for potential assessment of Jatropha regarding future energy fuel for transportation sector at global level. Additionally, it can be very beneficial for increment in the total amount of transportation fuel in Pakistan.

Keywords: jatropha tree, environmental impact, energy contents, theoretical survey

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16 Identification of Active Phytocomponents in the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla Retz. DC by Using GC-MS

Authors: M. Sivakumar, D. Chamundeeswari

Abstract:

Glycosmis pentaphylla is one of the medicinally important plants belonging to the family Rutaceae, commonly known as “Anam or Panal” in Tamil. Traditionally, leaves are useful in fever, hepatopathy, eczema, skin disease, helminthiasis, wounds, and erysipelas. The fruits are sweet and are useful in vitiated conditions of vata, kapha, cough, and bronchitis. The roots are good for facial inflammations, rheumatism, jaundice, and anemia. The preliminary phytochemical investigations indicated the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, sugar, glycoside, and phenolic compounds. In the present study, the root part of Glycosmis pentaphylla was used, and the root was collected from Western Ghats of South India. The root was sun/shade dried and pulverized to powder in a mechanical grinder. The powder was successively extracted with various solvents, and the ethyl acetate extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla has been subjected to the GC-MS analysis. Amongst the 46 chemical constituents identified from this plant, three major phytoconstituents were reported for the first time. Marmesin, a furanocumarin compound with the chemical structure 7H-Furo (3,2-G) (1)Benzopyran-7-one,2,3–dihydro–2 - (1-Hydroxy-1methylethyl)-(s) is one of the three compounds identified for the first time at the concentration of 11-60% in ethyl acetate extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla. Others include, Beta.-Fagarine (4.71%) and Paverine (13.08%).

Keywords: ethyl acetate extract, Glycosmis pentaphylla, GC-MS analysis, Phytochemicals

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15 Attribute Based Comparison and Selection of Modular Self-Reconfigurable Robot Using Multiple Attribute Decision Making Approach

Authors: Manpreet Singh, V. P. Agrawal, Gurmanjot Singh Bhatti

Abstract:

From the last decades, there is a significant technological advancement in the field of robotics, and a number of modular self-reconfigurable robots were introduced that can help in space exploration, bucket to stuff, search, and rescue operation during earthquake, etc. As there are numbers of self-reconfigurable robots, choosing the optimum one is always a concern for robot user since there is an increase in available features, facilities, complexity, etc. The objective of this research work is to present a multiple attribute decision making based methodology for coding, evaluation, comparison ranking and selection of modular self-reconfigurable robots using a technique for order preferences by similarity to ideal solution approach. However, 86 attributes that affect the structure and performance are identified. A database for modular self-reconfigurable robot on the basis of different pertinent attribute is generated. This database is very useful for the user, for selecting a robot that suits their operational needs. Two visual methods namely linear graph and spider chart are proposed for ranking of modular self-reconfigurable robots. Using five robots (Atron, Smores, Polybot, M-Tran 3, Superbot), an example is illustrated, and raking of the robots is successfully done, which shows that Smores is the best robot for the operational need illustrated, and this methodology is found to be very effective and simple to use.

Keywords: self-reconfigurable robots, MADM, TOPSIS, morphogenesis, scalability

Procedia PDF Downloads 132