Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Essam Shehab

43 Software Obsolescence Drivers in Aerospace: An Industry Analysis

Authors: Raúl González Muñoz, Essam Shehab, Martin Weinitzke, Chris Fowler, Paul Baguley


Software applications have become crucial for the aerospace industry, providing a wide range of functionalities and capabilities. However, due to the considerable time difference between aircraft and software life cycles, obsolescence has turned into a major challenge for industry in last decades. This paper aims to provide a view on the different causes of software obsolescence within aerospace industry, as well as a perception on the importance of each of them. The key research question addressed is what drives software obsolescence in the aerospace industry, managing large software application portfolios. This question has been addressed by conducting firstly an in depth review of current literature and secondly by arranging an industry workshop with professionals from aerospace and consulting companies. The result is a set of drivers of software obsolescence, distributed among three different environments and several domains. By incorporating monitoring methodologies to assess those software obsolescence drivers, benefits in maintenance efforts and operations disruption avoidance are expected.

Keywords: aerospace industry, obsolescence drivers, software lifecycle, software obsolescence

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42 Operational Software Maturity: An Aerospace Industry Analysis

Authors: Raúl González Muñoz, Essam Shehab, Martin Weinitzke, Chris Fowler, Paul Baguley


Software applications have become crucial to the aerospace industry, providing a wide range of functionalities and capabilities used during the design, manufacturing and support of aircraft. However, as this criticality increases, so too does the risk for business operations when facing a software failure. Hence, there is a need for new methodologies to be developed to support aerospace companies in effectively managing their software portfolios, avoiding the hazards of business disruption and additional costs. This paper aims to provide a definition of operational software maturity, and how this can be used to assess software operational behaviour, as well as a view on the different aspects that drive software maturity within the aerospace industry. The key research question addressed is, how can operational software maturity monitoring assist the aerospace industry in effectively managing large software portfolios? This question has been addressed by conducting an in depth review of current literature, by working closely with aerospace professionals and by running an industry case study within a major aircraft manufacturer. The results are a software maturity model composed of a set of drivers and a prototype tool used for the testing and validation of the research findings. By utilising these methodologies to assess the operational maturity of software applications in aerospace, benefits in maintenance activities and operations disruption avoidance have been observed, supporting business cases for system improvement.

Keywords: aerospace, software lifecycle, software maintenance, software maturity

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
41 Reducing Inventory Costs by Reducing Inventory Levels: Kuwait Flour Mills and Bakeries Company

Authors: Dana Al-Qattan, Faiza Goodarzi, Heba Al-Resheedan, Kawther Shehab, Shoug Al-Ansari


This project involves working with different types of forecasting methods and facility planning tools to help the company we have chosen to improve and reduce its inventory, increase its sales, and decrease its wastes and losses. The methods that have been used by the company have shown no improvement in decreasing the annual losses. The research made in the company has shown that no interest has been made in exploring different techniques to help the company. In this report, we introduce several methods and techniques that will help the company make more accurate forecasts and use of the available space efficiently. We expect our approach to reduce costs without affecting the quality of the product, and hence making production more viable.

Keywords: production planning, inventory management, inventory control, simulation, facility planning and design, engineering economy and costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 484
40 Comparison between XGBoost, LightGBM and CatBoost Using a Home Credit Dataset

Authors: Essam Al Daoud


Gradient boosting methods have been proven to be a very important strategy. Many successful machine learning solutions were developed using the XGBoost and its derivatives. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the efficiency of three gradient methods. Home credit dataset is used in this work which contains 219 features and 356251 records. However, new features are generated and several techniques are used to rank and select the best features. The implementation indicates that the LightGBM is faster and more accurate than CatBoost and XGBoost using variant number of features and records.

Keywords: gradient boosting, XGBoost, LightGBM, CatBoost, home credit

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39 An Accurate Method for Phylogeny Tree Reconstruction Based on a Modified Wild Dog Algorithm

Authors: Essam Al Daoud


This study solves a phylogeny problem by using modified wild dog pack optimization. The least squares error is considered as a cost function that needs to be minimized. Therefore, in each iteration, new distance matrices based on the constructed trees are calculated and used to select the alpha dog. To test the suggested algorithm, ten homologous genes are selected and collected from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databanks (i.e., 16S, 18S, 28S, Cox 1, ITS1, ITS2, ETS, ATPB, Hsp90, and STN). The data are divided into three categories: 50 taxa, 100 taxa and 500 taxa. The empirical results show that the proposed algorithm is more reliable and accurate than other implemented methods.

Keywords: least square, neighbor joining, phylogenetic tree, wild dog pack

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38 Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by Regenerated Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: Ahmed I. Shehab, Sabah M. Abdel Basir, M. A. Abdel Khalek, M. H. Soliman, G. Elgemeie


Spent bleaching earth (SBE) recycling and utilization as an adsorbent to eliminate dyes from aqueous solution was studied. Organic solvents and subsequent thermal treatment were carried out to recover and reactivate the SBE. The effect of pH, temperature, dye’s initial concentration, and contact time on the dye removal using recycled spent bleaching earth (RSBE) was investigated. Recycled SBE showed better removal affinity of cationic than anionic dyes. The maximum removal was achieved at pH 2 and 8 for anionic and cationic dyes, respectively. Kinetic data matched with the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption phenomenon governing this process was identified by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for anionic dye while Freundlich model represented the sorption process for cationic dye. The changes of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were computed and compared through thermodynamic study for both dyes.

Keywords: Spent bleaching earth, reactivation, regeneration, thermal treatment, dye removal, thermodynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
37 Estimation of Reservoirs Fracture Network Properties Using an Artificial Intelligence Technique

Authors: Reda Abdel Azim, Tariq Shehab


The main objective of this study is to develop a subsurface fracture map of naturally fractured reservoirs by overcoming the limitations associated with different data sources in characterising fracture properties. Some of these limitations are overcome by employing a nested neuro-stochastic technique to establish inter-relationship between different data, as conventional well logs, borehole images (FMI), core description, seismic attributes, and etc. and then characterise fracture properties in terms of fracture density and fractal dimension for each data source. Fracture density is an important property of a system of fracture network as it is a measure of the cumulative area of all the fractures in a unit volume of a fracture network system and Fractal dimension is also used to characterize self-similar objects such as fractures. At the wellbore locations, fracture density and fractal dimension can only be estimated for limited sections where FMI data are available. Therefore, artificial intelligence technique is applied to approximate the quantities at locations along the wellbore, where the hard data is not available. It should be noted that Artificial intelligence techniques have proven their effectiveness in this domain of applications.

Keywords: naturally fractured reservoirs, artificial intelligence, fracture intensity, fractal dimension

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36 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy Aly, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil


In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Navier-stokes equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD modelling, transonic store separation, quasi-steady flow, moving-body trajectories

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35 An Improved Ant Colony Algorithm for Genome Rearrangements

Authors: Essam Al Daoud


Genome rearrangement is an important area in computational biology and bioinformatics. The basic problem in genome rearrangements is to compute the edit distance, i.e., the minimum number of operations needed to transform one genome into another. Unfortunately, unsigned genome rearrangement problem is NP-hard. In this study an improved ant colony optimization algorithm to approximate the edit distance is proposed. The main idea is to convert the unsigned permutation to signed permutation and evaluate the ants by using Kaplan algorithm. Two new operations are added to the standard ant colony algorithm: Replacing the worst ants by re-sampling the ants from a new probability distribution and applying the crossover operations on the best ants. The proposed algorithm is tested and compared with the improved breakpoint reversal sort algorithm by using three datasets. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm achieves better accuracy ratio than the previous methods.

Keywords: ant colony algorithm, edit distance, genome breakpoint, genome rearrangement, reversal sort

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
34 The Effect of Street Dust on Urban Environment

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Abdel Hameed A. A. Awad, Said Munir, Atif M. F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy, Abdulaziz R. Seroji


Street dust has been knoweldged as an important source of air pollution. It does not remain deposited in a place for long, as it is easily resuspended back into the atmosphere. Street dust is a complex mixture derived from different sources: Deposited dust, traffic, tire, and brake wear, construction and demolition processes. The present study aims to evaluate the elementals ”iron, calcium, lead, cadmium, nickel, silicon, and selenium” and microbial “bacteria and fungi” contents associated street dust at the holy mosque areas. The street dust was collected by sweeping an arera~1m2 along the both sides of the road. The particles with diameter ≤ 1.7 µm constitued the highest percentages of the total particulate ≤45 µm. Moreover, The crustal species: iron and calcium were found in the highest concentrations, and proof that demolition and constricution were the main source of street dust. Also, the low biodiversity of microorganisms is attributed to severe weather conditions and characteristics of the arid environment.

Keywords: dust, microbial, environment, street

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33 Age and Sex Identification among Egyptian Population Using Fingerprint Ridge Density

Authors: Nazih Ramadan, Manal Mohy-Eldine, Amani Hanoon, Alaa Shehab


Background and Aims: The study of fingerprints is widely used in providing a clue regarding identity. Age and gender identification from fingerprints is an important step in forensic anthropology in order to minimize the list of suspects search. The aim of this study was to determine finger ridge density and patterns among Egyptians, and to estimate age and gender using ridge densities. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 177 randomly-selected healthy Egyptian subjects (90 males and 87 females). They were divided into three age groups; Group (a): from 6-< 12 years, group (b) from 12-< 18 years and group (c) ≥ 18 years. Bilateral digital prints, from every subject, were obtained by the inking procedure. Ridge count per 25 mm² was determined together with assessment of ridge pattern type. Statistical analysis was done with references to different age and sex groups. Results: There was a statistical significant difference in ridge density between the different age groups; where younger ages had significantly higher ridge density than older ages. Females proved to have significantly higher ridge density than males. Also, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between age and ridge density. Ulnar loops were the most frequent pattern among Egyptians then whorls then arches then radial loops. Finally, different regression models were constructed to estimate age and gender from fingerprints ridge density. Conclusion: fingerprint ridge density can be used to identify both age and sex of subjects. Further studies are recommended on different populations, larger samples or using different methods of fingerprint recording and finger ridge counting.

Keywords: age, sex identification, Egyptian population, fingerprints, ridge density

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32 Performance Study of Classification Algorithms for Consumer Online Shopping Attitudes and Behavior Using Data Mining

Authors: Rana Alaa El-Deen Ahmed, M. Elemam Shehab, Shereen Morsy, Nermeen Mekawie


With the growing popularity and acceptance of e-commerce platforms, users face an ever increasing burden in actually choosing the right product from the large number of online offers. Thus, techniques for personalization and shopping guides are needed by users. For a pleasant and successful shopping experience, users need to know easily which products to buy with high confidence. Since selling a wide variety of products has become easier due to the popularity of online stores, online retailers are able to sell more products than a physical store. The disadvantage is that the customers might not find products they need. In this research the customer will be able to find the products he is searching for, because recommender systems are used in some ecommerce web sites. Recommender system learns from the information about customers and products and provides appropriate personalized recommendations to customers to find the needed product. In this paper eleven classification algorithms are comparatively tested to find the best classifier fit for consumer online shopping attitudes and behavior in the experimented dataset. The WEKA knowledge analysis tool, which is an open source data mining workbench software used in comparing conventional classifiers to get the best classifier was used in this research. In this research by using the data mining tool (WEKA) with the experimented classifiers the results show that decision table and filtered classifier gives the highest accuracy and the lowest accuracy classification via clustering and simple cart.

Keywords: classification, data mining, machine learning, online shopping, WEKA

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31 Effect of Papaverine on Neurospheres

Authors: Noura Shehab-Eldeen, Mohamed Elsherbeeny, Hossam Elmetwally, Mohamed Salama, Ahmed Lotfy, Mohamed Elgamal, Hussein Sheashaa, Mohamed Sobh


Mitochondrial toxins including papaverine may be implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The aim was to detect the effect of papaverine on the proliferation and viability of neural stem cells. Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryos (E14) brains. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle, then, The supernatant was centrifuged at 1,000 g for 5 min. The pellet was placed in Hank’s solution cultured as free-floating neurospheres Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) and Hams F12 (3:1) supplemented with B27 (Invitrogen GmBH, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF; Biosource, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL recombinant human fibroblast growth factor (rhFGF; R&D Systems, Wiesbaden-Nordenstadt, Germany), and penicillin and streptomycin (1:100; Invitrogen) at 37°C with 7.5% CO2 . Differentiation was initiated by growth factor withdrawal and plating onto a poly-d-lysine/ laminin matrix. The neurospheres were fed every 2-3 days by replacing 50% of the culture media with fresh media. The culture suspension was transferred to a dish containing 16 wells. The wells were divided as follows: 4 wells received no papaverine (control), 4 wells 1 u, 4 wells 5 u and 4 wells 10 u of papaverine solution. In the next 2 weeks, photography (0,4,5,11days) and viability test were done. The photographs were analysed. Results : papaverine didn't affect proliferation of neurospheres, while it affected viability compared to control , this was dose related. Conclusion: This indicates the harmful effect of papaverine suggesting it to be a candidate neurotoxin causing Parkinsonism.

Keywords: neurospheres, neural stem cells, papaverine, Parkinsonism

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30 A Comparative Study of Microstructure, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of A359 Composites Reinforced with SiC, Si3N4 and AlN Particles

Authors: Essam Shalaby, Alexander Churyumov, Malak Abou El-Khair, Atef Daoud


A comparative study of the thermal and mechanical behavior of squeezed A359 composites containing 5, 10 and 15 wt.% SiC, (SiC+ Si3N4) and AlN particulates was investigated. Stir followed by squeeze casting techniques are used to produce A359 composites. It was noticed that, A359/AlN composites have high thermal conductivity as compared to A359 alloy and even to A359/SiC or A359/(SiC+Si3N4) composites. Microstructures of the composites have shown homogeneous and even distribution of reinforcements within the matrix. Interfacial reactions between particles and matrix were investigated using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The presence of particles led not only to increase peak hardness of the composites but also to accelerate the aging kinetics. As compared with A359 matrix alloy, compression test of the composites has exhibited a significant increase in the yield and the ultimate compressive strengths with a relative reduction in the failure strain. Those light weight composites have a high potential to be used for automotive and aerospace applications.

Keywords: metal-matrix composite, squeeze, microstructure, thermal conductivity, compressive properties

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29 Risk Assessment of Particulate Matter (PM10) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Atef M. F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy


In recent decades, particulate matter (PM10) have received much attention due to its potential adverse health impact and the subsequent need to better control or regulate these pollutants. The aim of this paper is focused on study risk assessment of PM10 in four different districts (Shebikah, Masfalah, Aziziyah, Awali) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the period from 1 Ramadan 1434 AH - 27 Safar 1435 AH. samples was collected by using Low Volume Sampler (LVS Low Volume Sampler) device and filtration method for estimating the total concentration of PM10. The study indicated that the mean PM10 concentrations were 254.6 (186.1 - 343.2) µg/m3 in Shebikah, 184.9 (145.6 - 271.4) µg/m3 in Masfalah, 162.4 (92.4 - 253.8) µg/m3 in Aziziyah, and 56.0 (44.5 - 119.8) µg/m3 in Awali. These values did not exceed the permissible limits in PME (340 µg/m3 as daily average). Furthermore, health assessment is carried out using AirQ2.2.3 model to estimate the number of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases. The cumulative number of cases per 100,000 were 1534 (18-3050 case), which lower than that recorded in the United States, Malaysia. The concentration response coefficient was 0.49 (95% CI 0.05 - 0.70) per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10.

Keywords: air pollution, respiratory diseases, airQ2.2.3, Makkah

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28 Impact of Ethnomedicinal Plants on Toothpaste Improvement

Authors: Muna Jalal Ali, Essam A. Makky, Mashitah M. Yusoff


Objectives: The aim of this study to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of combined toothpaste with medicinal plants and the relations between the commercial toothpaste to its price and the patient age as well. Materials and Methods: Oral isolates of different patients aged 3 to 60 years were obtained, purified, and tested against four different ethnomedicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial activity. A total of 10 different commercial toothpastes (different brands and prices) were collected from the market, and the combined action of the medicinal plants and toothpaste was studied. Results: We found a higher bacterial population in the age group of 3–40 years than the group of 40–60 years, with approximately 44% and 32%, respectively. The combined action of ethanolic extract (alone) against oral isolates showed a synergistic effect, with 32.20, 30.50, and 25.42% for combinations A (Ci/Ca), B (Ci/Ca/P), and C (Ci/Ca/P/N), respectively. By contrast, the combined action of ethnomedicinal plants with 10 different toothpastes improved the antimicrobial sensitivity by 60, 100, and 0% for combinations A, B, and C respectively. Clinical relevance: The ethanolic extract of only combinations A and B with commercial toothpaste showed high antibacterial activity against oral isolates and the effectiveness of toothpaste is not related to the price.

Keywords: microbial evolution, oral isolates, ethnomedicinal plants, antimicrobial activity, toothpaste

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27 Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACS) Adherence and Bleeding Events in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Akshaya Srikanth Bahagavathula, Abdulla Shehab Sheab, Asim Hassen


Objectives: Non-adherence and discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy lead to increased ischemic stroke risk and contributes to suboptimal outcomes of the anticoagulant treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to investigate the adherence to NOACs and adverse events in patients with AF. Methods: Original research articles conducted on patients with AF and using any NOACs (dabigatran, rivoraxaban and apixaban) reporting adherence for at least 35 days were included. Scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH keywords to obtaining literature researched between 2008 to till June, 2016. Study characteristics, patient’s sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence levels and bleeding events reported were recorded. Results: The overall sample size of the six studies is 1,640,157, with CHADS2 scores < 2 in 551 patients, CHADS2-VASc ≥ 2 in 62,232 AF patients. Three-forth [75.6% (95%CI= 66.5-84.8), p < 0.001] are adherent to NOACs. However, a higher rate [72.7% (62.5-82.9), p < 0.001] of adherence was observed with Dabigatran than Apixaban [59.9% (3.2-123.1), p=0.063] and Rivaroxaban [59.3% (38.7-80.0), p<0.001]. Sub-group analysis revealed that nearly 57% of the AF patients on NOACs have CHADS2 scores < 2 and 20% of these patients were non-adherent to NOACs. Overall bleeding events rate associated with NOACs non-adherent AF patients was found to be 7.5% (0.2-14.8), p=0.045. However, nearly 11.2% of AF patients experienced bleeding events were non-adherent to NOAC medications. A higher proportion of bleeding events were noticed with Dabigatran (14.7%). Conclusions: Adherence rates, while uniformly suboptimal, nevertheless varied considerably, lowest at 59.3% for rivaroxaban and 59.9% for apixaban, followed by dabigatran (75.6%). Overall bleeding events associated with NOACs rates were 7.5%. However, lower adherence to NOACs was associated with worse outcomes among patients with greater stroke risk.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, bleeding events, meta-analysis, novel oral anticoagulants

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26 Investigation of Stabilized Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Synthesis Fuel with Different Burner Configurations

Authors: Moataz Medhat, Essam Khalil, Hatem Haridy


The present study investigates the flame structure of turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel in a 300 KW swirl-stabilized burner. The three-dimensional model adopts a realizable k-ε turbulent scheme interacting with two-dimensional PDF combustion scheme by applying flamelet concept. The study reveals more characteristics on turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel when changing the inlet air swirl number and the burner quarl angle. Moreover, it concerns with studying the effect of flue gas recirculation and staging with taking radiation effect into consideration. The comparison with natural gas was investigated. The study showed two zones of recirculation, the primary one is at the center of the furnace, and the location of the secondary one varies by changing the quarl angle of the burner. The results revealed an increase in temperature in the external recirculation zone as a result of increasing the swirl number of the inlet air stream. Also, it was found that recirculating part of the combustion products decreases pollutants formation especially nitrogen monoxide. The predicted results showed a great agreement when compared with the experiments.

Keywords: gas turbine, syngas, analysis, recirculation

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25 A Modified Periodic 2D Cellular Re-Entrant Honeycomb Model to Enhance the Auxetic Elastic Properties

Authors: Sohaib Z. Khan, Farrukh Mustahsan, Essam R. I. Mahmoud, S. H. Masood


Materials or structures that contract laterally on the application of a compressive load and vice versa are said to be Auxetic materials which exhibit Negative Poisson’s Ratio (NPR). Numerous auxetic structures are proposed in the literature. One of the most studied periodic auxetic structure is the re-entrant honeycomb model. In this paper, a modified re-entrant model is proposed to enhance the auxetic behavior. The paper aimed to investigate the elastic behaviour of the proposed model to improve Young’s modulus and NPR by evaluating the analytical model. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is also conducted to support the analytical results. A significant increment in Young’s modulus and NPR can be achieved in one of the two orthogonal directions of the loading at the cost of compromising these values in other direction. The proposed modification resulted in lower relative densities when compared to the existing re-entrant honeycomb structure. A trade-off in the elastic properties in one direction at low relative density makes the proposed model suitable for uni-direction applications where higher stiffness and NPR is required, and strength to weight ratio is important.

Keywords: 2D model, auxetic materials, re-entrant honeycomb, negative Poisson's ratio

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24 A Validated UPLC-MS/MS Assay Using Negative Ionization Mode for High-Throughput Determination of Pomalidomide in Rat Plasma

Authors: Muzaffar Iqbal, Essam Ezzeldin, Khalid A. Al-Rashood


Pomalidomide is a second generation oral immunomodulatory agent, being used for the treatment of multiple myeloma in patients with disease refractory to lenalidomide and bortezomib. In this study, a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for high-throughput determination of pomalidomide in rat plasma using celecoxib as an internal standard (IS). Liquid liquid extraction using dichloromethane as extracting agent was employed to extract pomalidomide and IS from 200 µL of plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried on Acquity BEHTM C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile:10 mM ammonium acetate (80:20, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.250 mL/min. Both pomalidomide and IS were eluted at 0.66 ± 0.03 and 0.80 ± 0.03 min, respectively with a total run time of 1.5 min only. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization in negative mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 272.01 → 160.89 for pomalidomide and m/z 380.08 → 316.01 for IS were used to quantify them respectively, using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The developed method was validated according to regulatory guideline for bioanalytical method validation. The linearity in plasma sample was achieved in the concentration range of 0.47–400 ng/mL (r2 ≥ 0.997). The intra and inter-day precision values were ≤ 11.1% (RSD, %) whereas accuracy values ranged from - 6.8 – 8.5% (RE, %). In addition, other validation results were within the acceptance criteria and the method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of pomalidomide in rats.

Keywords: pomalidomide, pharmacokinetics, LC-MS/MS, celecoxib

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23 Biosynthesis of Selenium Oxide Nanoparticles by Streptomyces bikiniensis and Its Cytotoxicity as Antitumor Agents against Hepatocellular and Breast Cells Carcinoma

Authors: Maged Syed Ahamd, Manal Mohamed Yasser, Essam Sholkamy


In this paper, we reported that selenium (Se) nanoparticles were firstly biosynthesized with a simple and eco-friendly biological method. Their shape, size, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), UV–vis spectra, TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) images and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) pattern have been analyzed. TEM analyses of the samples obtained at different stages indicated that the formation of these Se nanostructures was governed by an incubation time (12- 24- 48 hours). The Se nanoparticles were initially generated and then would transform into crystal seeds for the subsequent growth of nanowires; however obtaining stable Se nanowire with a diameter of about 15-100 nm. EDS shows that Se nanoparticles are entirely pure. The IR spectra showed the peaks at 550 cm-1, 1635 cm-1, 1994 cm-1 and 3430 cm-1 correspond to the presence of Se-O bending and stretching vibrations. The concentrations of Se-NPs (0, 1, 2, 5 µg/ml) did not give significantly effect on both two cell lines while the highest concentrations (10- 100 µg/ml gave significantly effects on them. The lethal dose (ID50%) of Se-NPs on Hep2 G and MCF-7 cells was obtained at 75.96 and 61.86 µg/ml, respectively. Results showed that Se nanoparticles as anticancer agent against MCF-7 cells were more effective than Hep2 G cells. Our results suggest that Se-NPs may be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent for breast and liver cancers.

Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, Streptomyces bikiniensis, nanowires, chemotherapeutic agent

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22 Advanced Nanostructured Materials and Their Application for Solar Fuel

Authors: A. Hegazy, Ahmed Elsayed, Essam El Shenawy, N. Allam, Hala Handal, K. R. Mahmoud


Highly crystalline, TiO₂ pristine sub-10 nm anatase nanocrystals were fabricated at low temperatures by post hydrothermal treatment of the as-prepared TiO₂ nanoparticles. This treatment resulted in bandgap narrowing and increased photocurrent density value (3.8 mA/cm²) when this material was employed in water splitting systems. The achieved photocurrent values are among the highest reported ones so far for the fabricated nanoparticles at this low temperature. This might be explained by the increased surface defects of the prepared nanoparticles. It resulted in bandgap narrowing that was further investigated using positron annihilation experiments by measuring positron lifetime and Doppler broadening. Besides, homogeneous spherical TiO₂ nanoparticles were synthesized in large diameter and high surface area and the high percentage of (001) facet by sol-gel method using potassium persulfate (K₂S₂O₈) as an oxidizing agent. The fabricated particles exhibited high exposed surface area, high photoactivity and reduced band gap. Enhanced performance for water splitting applications was displayed by formed TiO₂ nanoparticles. Their morphological and structural properties were studied to optimize their synthesis parameters in an attempt to construct more applicable fuel cells in the industry for hydrogen fuel production.

Keywords: positron annihilation, solar energy, TiO2 nanoparticles, water splitting

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21 Bioremediation of Disposed X-Ray Film for Nanoparticles Production

Authors: Essam A. Makky, Siti H. Mohd Rasdi, J. B. Al-Dabbagh, G. F. Najmuldeen


The synthesis of silver nano particles (SNPs) extensively studied by using chemical and physical methods. Here, the biological methods were used and give benefits in research field in the aspect of very low cost (from waste to wealth) and safe time as well. The study aims to isolate and exploit the microbial power in the production of industrially important by-products in nano-size with high economic value, to extract highly valuable materials from hazardous waste, to quantify nano particle size, and characterization of SNPs by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Disposal X-ray films were used as substrate because it consumes about 1000 tons of total silver chemically produced worldwide annually. This silver is being wasted when these films are used and disposed. Different bacterial isolates were obtained from various sources. Silver was extracted as nano particles by microbial power degradation from disposal X-ray film as the sole carbon source for ten days incubation period in darkness. The protein content was done and all the samples were analyzed using XRD, to characterize of silver (Ag) nano particles size in the form of silver nitrite. Bacterial isolates CL4C showed the average size of SNPs about 19.53 nm, GL7 showed average size about 52.35 nm and JF Outer 2A (PDA) showed 13.52 nm. All bacterial isolates partially identified using Gram’s reaction and the results obtained exhibited that belonging to Bacillus sp.

Keywords: nanotechnology, bioremediation, disposal X-ray film, nanoparticle, waste, XRD

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20 A Comparison of Air Quality in Arid and Temperate Climatic Conditions – a Case Study of Leeds and Makkah

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Said Munir, Karl Ropkins, Essam A. Morsy, Atef M. F. Mohammed, Abdulaziz R. Seroji


In this paper air quality conditions in Makkah and Leeds are compared. These two cities have totally different climatic conditions. Makkah climate is characterised as hot and dry (arid) whereas that of Leeds is characterised as cold and wet (temperate). This study uses air quality data from year 2012 collected in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and Leeds, UK. The concentrations of all pollutants, except NO are higher in Makkah. Most notable, the concentrations of PM10 are much higher in Makkah than in Leeds. This is probably due to the arid nature of climatic conditions in Makkah and not solely due to anthropogenic emission sources, otherwise like PM10 some of the other pollutants, such as CO, NO, and SO2 would have shown much greater difference between Leeds and Makkah. Correlation analysis is performed between different pollutants at the same site and the same pollutants at different sites. In Leeds the correlation between PM10 and other pollutants is significantly stronger than in Makkah. Weaker correlation in Makkah is probably due to the fact that in Makkah most of the gaseous pollutants are emitted by combustion processes, whereas most of the PM10 is generated by other sources, such as windblown dust, re-suspension, and construction activities. This is in contrast to Leeds where all pollutants including PM10 are predominantly emitted by combustions, such as road traffic. Furthermore, in Leeds frequent rains wash out most of the atmospheric particulate matter and supress re-suspension of dust. Temporal trends of various pollutants are compared and discussed. This study emphasises the role of climatic conditions in managing air quality, and hence the need for region-specific controlling strategies according to the local climatic and meteorological conditions.

Keywords: air pollution, climatic conditions, particulate matter, Makkah, Leeds

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19 An Explanatory Study into the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Egyptian Beggars

Authors: Essam Mansour


The key purpose of this study is to provide first-hand information about beggars in Egypt, especially from the perspective of their information seeking behaviour including their information needs. The researcher tries to investigate the information-seeking behaviour of Egyptian beggars with regard to their thoughts, perceptions, motivations, attitudes, habits, preferences as well as challenges that may impede their use of information. The research methods used were an adapted form of snowball sampling of a heterogeneous demographic group of participants in the beggary activity in Egypt. This sampling was used to select focus groups to explore a range of relevant issues. Data on the demographic characteristics of the Egyptian beggars showed that they tend to be men, mostly with no formal education, with an average age around 30s, labeled as low-income persons, mostly single and mostly Muslims. A large number of Egyptian beggars were seeking for information to meet their basic needs as well as their daily needs, although some of them were not able to identify their information needs clearly. The information-seeking behaviour profile of a very large number of Egyptian beggars indicated a preference for informal sources of information over formal ones to solve different problems and meet the challenges they face during their beggary activity depending on assistive devices, such as mobile phones. The high degree of illiteracy and the lack of awareness about the basic rights of information as well as information needs were the most important problems Egyptian beggars face during accessing information. The study recommended further research to be conducted about the role of the library in the education of beggars. It also recommended that beggars’ awareness about their information rights should be promoted through educational programs that help them value the role of information in their life.

Keywords: user studies, information-seeking behaviour, information needs, information sources, beggars, Egypt

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18 The Information-Seeking Behaviour of Kuwaiti Judges (KJs)

Authors: Essam Mansour


The key purpose of this study is to show information-seeking behaviour of Kuwaiti Judges (KJs). Being one of the few studies about the information needs and information-seeking behaviour conducted in Arab and developing countries, this study is a pioneer one among many studies conducted in information seeking, especially with this significant group of information users. The authors tried to investigate this seeking behavior in terms of KJs' thoughts, perceptions, motivations, techniques, preferences, tools and barriers met when seeking information. The authors employed a questionnaire, with a response rate 77.2 percent. This study showed that most of KJs were likely to be older, educated and with a work experience ranged from new to old experience. There is a statistically reliable significant difference between KJs' demographic characteristics and some sources of information, such as books, encyclopedias, references and mass media. KJs were using information moderately to make a decision, to be in line with current events, to collect statistics and to make a specific/general research. The office and home were the most frequent location KJs were accessing information from. KJs' efficiency level of the English language is described to be moderately good, and a little number of them confirmed that their efficiency level of French was not bad. The assistance provided by colleagues, followed by consultants, translators, sectaries and librarians were found to be most strong types of assistance needed when seeking information. Mobile apps, followed by PCs, information networks (the Internet) and information databases were the highest technology tool used by KJs. Printed materials, followed by non-printed and audiovisual materials were the most preferred information formats KJs use. The use of languages, the recency of information and the place of information, the deficit role of the library to deliver information were at least significant barriers to KJs when seeking information.

Keywords: information users, information-seeking behaviour, information needs, judges, Kuwait

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17 Spatial Integration at the Room-Level of 'Sequina' Slum Area in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Ali Essam El Shazly


The slum survey of 'Sequina' area in Alexandria details the building rooms of twenty-building samples according to the integral measure of space syntax. The essence of room organization sets the most integrative 'visitor' domain between the 'inhabitant' wings of less integrated 'parent' than the 'children' structure with visual ring of 'balcony' space. Despite the collective real relative asymmetry of 'pheno-type' aggregation, the relative asymmetry of individual layouts reveals 'geno-type' structure of spatial diversity. The multifunction of rooms optimizes the integral structure of graph and visibility merge, which contrasts with the deep tailing structure of distinctive social domains. The most integrative layout inverts the geno-type into freed rooms of shallow 'inhabitant' domain against the off-centered 'visitor' space, while the most segregated layout further restricts the pheno-type through isolated 'visitor' from 'inhabitant' domains across the 'staircase' public domain. The catalyst 'kitchen & living' spaces demonstrate multi-structural dimensions among the various social domains. The former ranges from most exposed central integrity to the most hidden 'motherhood' territories. The latter, however, mostly integrates at centrality or at the further ringy 'childern' domain. The study concludes social structure of spatial integrity for redevelopment, which is determined through the micro-level survey of rooms with integral dimensions.

Keywords: Alexandria, Sequina slum, spatial integration, space syntax

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16 Design and Simulation of a Radiation Spectrometer Using Scintillation Detectors

Authors: Waleed K. Saib, Abdulsalam M. Alhawsawi, Essam Banoqitah


The idea of this research is to design a radiation spectrometer using LSO scintillation detector coupled to a C series of SiPM (silicon photomultiplier). The device can be used to detects gamma and X-ray radiation. This device is also designed to estimates the activity of the source contamination. The SiPM will detect light in the visible range above the threshold and read them as counts. Three gamma sources were used for these experiments Cs-137, Am-241 and Co-60 with various activities. These sources are applied for four experiments operating the SiPM as a spectrometer, energy resolution, pile-up set and efficiency. The SiPM is connected to a MCA to perform as a spectrometer. Cerium doped Lutetium Silicate (Lu₂SiO₅) with light yield 26000 photons/Mev coupled with the SiPM. As a result, all the main features of the Cs-137, Am-241 and Co-60 are identified in MCA. The experiment shows how photon energy and probability of interaction are inversely related. Total attenuation reduces as photon energy increases. An analytical calculation was made to obtain the FWHM resolution for each gamma source. The FWHM resolution for Am-241 (59 keV) is 28.75 %, for Cs-137 (662 keV) is 7.85 %, for Co-60 (1173 keV) is 4.46 % and for Co-60 (1332 keV) is 3.70%. Moreover, the experiment shows that the dead time and counts number decreased when the pile-up rejection was disabled and the FWHM decreased when the pile-up was enabled. The efficiencies were calculated at four different distances from the detector 2, 4, 8 and 16 cm. The detection efficiency was observed to declined exponentially with increasing distance from the detector face. Conclusively, the SiPM board operated with an LSO scintillator crystal as a spectrometer. The SiPM energy resolution for the three gamma sources used was a decent comparison to other PMTs.

Keywords: PMT, radiation, radiation detection, scintillation detectors, silicon photomultiplier, spectrometer

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15 The Potential Role of University Libraries in the Fight against Terrorism in Upper Egypt

Authors: Essam Mansour


The purpose of this study is to explore the potential role of South Valley University (SVU) libraries’ manpower, collections and services in the fight against terrorism in the Upper Egypt. A quantitative research methodology was used in the form of a survey sent to 127 library staff at the SVU. The survey was undertaken from June to July 2015 with a response rate 73.2%. Printed materials were the most adequate collections in the SVU libraries. Other materials, such as CDs/DVDs, audiovisual materials, microfilm and microfiche, online resources and electronic materials respectively were inadequate at SVU libraries. Few of the services provided by SVU libraries were characterized as adequate services, some are inadequate and other services do not exist. The average of the facilities provided by SVU libraries was somewhat adequate. Activities, such as holding social field trips, holding training workshops and holding academic field trip were, at least, somewhat adequate to SVU libraries. SVU libraries had no a significant role in fighting terrorism in the Upper Egypt. There is no a relationship between the SVU library staff’s professional characteristics and the potential role that their libraries may play in the fight against this phenomenon. As a result of the lack of SVU libraries’ collections, services, facilities and activities, this study concluded that that such role could not be achieved. Almost all the library staff admitted that this severe lack has affected the provision of library patrons and members of the library community to these collections and services, which help in countering the threat of terrorism. Despite the significance of all these problems faced by SVU libraries in the fight against terrorism, it was found that the inadequacy of the library opening hours is significantly correlated with the professional characteristics of the library staff, particularly their job title and work experience.

Keywords: terrorism, national security, university libraries, south valley university, Egypt, survey

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14 The Adoption and Use of Social Media as a Source of Information by Egyptian Government Journalists

Authors: Essam Mansour


This study purposes to explore the adoption and use of social media as a source of information by Egyptian government journalists. It applied a survey with a total of 386 journalists representing the three official newspapers of Egypt. Findings showed that 27.2% of journalists were found to not use social media, mainly males (69.7%), older than 40 years (77.7%) and mostly with a BA degree (80.4%). On the other hand, 72.8% of them were found to use these platforms who were also males (59.1%), younger than 40 years (65.9%) and mostly with a BA degree (93.2%). More than two-thirds (69.9%) were somewhat old users whose experience ranged from seven to ten years, and more than two-thirds (73.5%) have been heavily using these platforms (four to more than six hours a day. Such results confirm that a large number (95.7%) of users were found to be at least advanced users. Social media users’ home and work were the most significant places to access these platforms, which were found to be easy and useful to use. Most types of social media used were social news, media sharing and micro blogging, blogs comments and forums, social networking sites and bookmarking sites to perform tasks, such as finding information, making communication, keeping up to date, checking materials, sharing information and making discussions. A large number of users tend to accept these media platforms to be a source of information since they are accessible, linked references updated sources, accurate, promote current work, convenient, secured, credible, reliable, stabled, easily identified, copyrighted, build confident and contain filtered information. However, lack of know-how to cite sources, followed by lack of credibility of the source of news, lack of quality of information sources and lack of time were at least significant to journalists when using social media platforms.

Keywords: social media, social networking sites, newspapers, journalists, Egypt

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