Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: N. Allam

23 Influence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior

Authors: Y. El Kaissi, M. Allam, A. Koulou, M. Galai, M. Ebn Touhami


The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, EIS, electroless Ni–P coating, heat treatment, potentiodynamic polarization

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22 Relation between Demodex folliculorum and Rosacea

Authors: Maha M. Eissa, Safia M. Ali, Sonia R. Allam, Ezzat A. Badawy, Nahed M. Baddour


The obligate follicle mite Demodex folliculorum (Df) has been demonstrated in increased numbers in patients with rosacea. The significance of this finding is still not completely understood because many people free of skin disease may also have mites. So, the aim of this work was to study the possible role of Df in patients with rosacea. Facial punch biopsy specimens were taken from patients with rosacea (either telangiectatic, papulopustular, squamous, granulomatous form or with rhinophyma) and age and sex-matched healthy subjects. Results of this study showed that 63.3% of the rosacea patients were harbouring the mite, with a higher incidence in patients with papulopustular form.

Keywords: Demodex folliculorum, histopathology, punch biopsy, rosacea

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21 Relation Between Demodex Folliculorum and Rosacea

Authors: Maha M. Eissa, Safia M. Ali, Sonia R. Allam, Ezzat A. Badawy, Nahid M. Baddour


The obligate follicle mite Demodex folliculorum (Df) has been demonstrated in increased numbers in patients with rosacea. The significance of this finding is still not completely understood, because many people free of skin disease may also have mites. So, the aim of this work was to study the possible role of Df in patients with rosacea. Facial punch biopsy specimens were taken from patients with rosacea (either telangiectatic, papulopustular, squamous, granulomatous form or with rhinophyma) and age and sex matched healthy subjects. Results of this study showed that 63.3% of the rosacea patients were harbouring the mite with higher incidence in patients with papulopustular form.

Keywords: Demodex folliculorum, rosacea, papulopustular, punch biopsy

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20 A Horn Antenna Loaded with FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam


In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524 mm and loss tangent 0.004. Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.25 GHz (10.75–11 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: antenna, filtenna, frequency selective surface (FSS), horn

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19 Design of a Rectifier with Enhanced Efficiency and a High-gain Antenna for Integrated and Compact-size Rectenna Circuit

Authors: Rawaa Maher, Ahmed Allam, Haruichi Kanaya, Adel B. Abdelrahman


In this paper, a compact, high-efficiency integrated rectenna is presented to operate in the 2.45 GHz band. A comparison between two rectifier topologies is performed to verify the benefits of removing the matching network from the rectifier. A rectifier high conversion efficiency of 74.1% is achieved. To complete the rectenna system, a novel omnidirectional antenna with high gain (3.72 dB) and compact size (25 mm * 29 mm) is designed and fabricated. The same antenna is used with a reflector for raising the gain to nearly 8.3 dB. The simulation and measurement results of the antenna are in good agreement.

Keywords: internet of things, integrated rectenna, rectenna, RF energy harvesting, wireless sensor networks(WSN)

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18 A Horn Antenna Loaded with SIW FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam


In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with substrate integrated waveguide frequency selective surface (SIW FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524mm and loss tangent 0.004. This structure is called a filtering antenna (filtenna). Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite SIW FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.3 GHz (0.955–0.985 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: antenna, filtenna, frequency-selective surface (FSS), horn antennas

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
17 Recovery of Proteins from EDAM Whey Using Membrane Ultrafiltration

Authors: F. Yelles-Allam, A. A. Nouani


In Algeria, whey is discarded without any treatment and this causes not only pollution problem, but also a loss in nutritive components of milk. In this paper, characterization of EDAM whey, which is resulted from pasteurised mixture of cow’s milk and skim milk, and recovery of whey protein by ultrafiltration / diafiltration, was studied. The physical-chemical analysis of whey has emphasized on its pollutant and nutritive characteristics. In fact, its DBO5 and DCO are 49.33, and 127.71 gr of O2/l of whey respectively. It contains: fat (1,90±0,1 gr/l), lactose (47.32±1,57 gr/l), proteins (8.04±0,2 gr/l) and ashes (5,20±0,15 gr/l), calcium (0,48±0,04 gr/l), Na (1.104gr/l), K (1.014 gr/l), Mg (0.118 gr/l) and P (0.482 gr/l). Ultrafiltration was carried out in a polyetersulfone membrane with a cut-off of 10K. Its hydraulic intrinsic resistance and permeability are respectively: 2.041.1012 m-1 and 176,32 l/h.m2 at PTM of 1 bar. The retentate obtained at FC6, contains 16,33g/l of proteins and 70,25 g/l of dry matter. The retention rate of protein is 97, 7% and the decrease in DBO5 and DCO are at 18.875 g /l and 42.818 g/l respectively. Diafiltration performed on protein concentrates allowed the complete removal of lactose and minerals. The ultrafiltration of the whey before the disposal is an alternative for Algéria dairy industry.

Keywords: diafiltration, DBO, DCO, protein, ultrafiltration, whey

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16 Spectroscopic Study of Eu³⁺ Ions Doped Potassium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for Photonic Device Application

Authors: Nisha Deopa, Allam Srinivasa Rao


Quaternary potassium lead alumino borate (KPbAlB) glasses doped with different concentration of Eu³⁺ ions have been synthesized by melt quench technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Photoluminescence (PL), Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and CIE-chromaticity co-ordinates to study their luminescence behavior. A broad hump was observed in XRD spectrum confirms glassy nature of as-prepared glasses. By using Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory, various radiative parameters for the prominent fluorescent levels of Eu³⁺ have been investigated. The intense emission peak was observed at 613 nm (⁵D₀→⁷F₂) under 393 nm excitation, matches well with the excitation of n-UV LED chips. The decay profiles observed for ⁵D₀ level were exponential for lower Eu³⁺ ion concentration while non-exponential for higher concentration, which may be due to efficient energy transfer between Eu³⁺-Eu³⁺ through cross relaxation and subsequent quenching observed. From the emission cross-sections, branching ratios, quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates, it was concluded that 7 mol % of Eu³⁺ ion concentration (glass B) is optimum in KPbAlB glasses for photonic device application.

Keywords: energy transfer, glasses, J-O parameters, photoluminescence

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15 Impact of Sericin Treatment on Perfection Dyeing of Polyester Viscose Blend

Authors: Omaima G. Allam, O. A. Hakeim, K. Haggag, N. S. Elshemy


In the midst of the two decades the use of microwave dielectric warming in the field of science has transformed into a powerful methodology to redesign compound procedures. The potential benefit of the application of these modern methods of treatment emphasize so as to reach to optimum treatment conditions and the best results, especially hydrophobicity, moisture content and increase dyeing processing while maintaining the physical and chemical properties of each textile. Moreover, polyester fibres are sometimes spun together with natural fibres to produce a cloth with blended properties. So that at the present task, the polyester/viscose mix fabrics (60 /40) were pretreated with 4 g/l of KOH for 2 min in microwave irradiation with a liquor ratio 1:25. Subsequently fabrics were inundated with different concentrations of sericin (10, 30, 50 g/l). Treated fabrics were coloured with the commercial dyes samples: Reactive Red 84(Dye 1). C. I. Acid Blue 203(Dye 2) and C.I. Reactive violet 5 (Dye 3). Colour value was specified as well as fastness properties. Likewise, the physical properties of untreated and treated fabrics such as moisture content %, tensile strength, elongation % and were evaluated. The untreated and treated fabrics are described by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: polyester viscose blends fabric, sericin, dyes, colour value

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14 Cellulose Acetate/Polyacrylic Acid Filled with Nano-Hydroxapatite Composites: Spectroscopic Studies and Search for Biomedical Applications

Authors: E. M. AbdelRazek, G. S. ElBahy, M. A. Allam, A. M. Abdelghany, A. M. Hezma


Polymeric biocomposite of hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic acid were prepared and their thermal and mechanical properties were improved by addition of cellulose acetate. FTIR spectroscopy technique and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to examine the physical and chemical characteristics of the biocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy shows a uniform distribution of HAp nano-particles through the polymeric matrix of two organic/inorganic composites weight ratios (60/40 and 70/30), at which the material crystallinity reaches a considerable value appropriate for the needed applications were studied and revealed that the HAp nano-particles are uniformly distributed in the polymeric matrix. Kinetic parameters were determined from the weight loss data using non isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Also, the main degradation steps were described and discussed. The mechanical properties of composites were evaluated by measuring tensile strength and elastic modulus. The data indicate that the addition of cellulose acetate can make homogeneous composites scaffold significantly resistant to higher stress. Elastic modulus of the composites was also improved by the addition of cellulose acetate, making them more appropriate for bioapplications.

Keywords: biocomposite, chemical synthesis, infrared spectroscopy, mechanical properties

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13 Advanced Nanostructured Materials and Their Application for Solar Fuel

Authors: A. Hegazy, Ahmed Elsayed, Essam El Shenawy, N. Allam, Hala Handal, K. R. Mahmoud


Highly crystalline, TiO₂ pristine sub-10 nm anatase nanocrystals were fabricated at low temperatures by post hydrothermal treatment of the as-prepared TiO₂ nanoparticles. This treatment resulted in bandgap narrowing and increased photocurrent density value (3.8 mA/cm²) when this material was employed in water splitting systems. The achieved photocurrent values are among the highest reported ones so far for the fabricated nanoparticles at this low temperature. This might be explained by the increased surface defects of the prepared nanoparticles. It resulted in bandgap narrowing that was further investigated using positron annihilation experiments by measuring positron lifetime and Doppler broadening. Besides, homogeneous spherical TiO₂ nanoparticles were synthesized in large diameter and high surface area and the high percentage of (001) facet by sol-gel method using potassium persulfate (K₂S₂O₈) as an oxidizing agent. The fabricated particles exhibited high exposed surface area, high photoactivity and reduced band gap. Enhanced performance for water splitting applications was displayed by formed TiO₂ nanoparticles. Their morphological and structural properties were studied to optimize their synthesis parameters in an attempt to construct more applicable fuel cells in the industry for hydrogen fuel production.

Keywords: positron annihilation, solar energy, TiO2 nanoparticles, water splitting

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12 Banking Risk Management between the Prudential and the Operational Approaches

Authors: Mustapha Achibane, Imane Allam


Since the nineties, all Moroccan banking institutions have to respect an arsenal of prudential ratios. The respect of these prudential measures aims to ensure the financial system stability. In order to do so, regulatory authorities tried to reduce the financial and operational risks incurred by the banking entities. Meanwhile, regulatory authorities demanded a balance sheet management work from banks. They also asked them to establish a management control system to manage operational risk, as well as an effort in terms of incurred risk-based commitments. Therefore, the prudential approach has a macroeconomic nature and it is presented as a determinant of the operational, microeconomic approach. This operational approach takes the form of a strategy that each banking entity must develop to manage the different banking risks. This study seeks to analyze the problem of risk management between the prudential and the operational approaches. It was processed through a literature review followed by an analysis of the Moroccan banking sector’s performance. At first, we will reconcile the inductive logic and then, the analytical one. The first approach consists of analyzing the phenomenon from a normative and conceptual perspective, while the second one will consist of considering the Moroccan banking system and analyzing the behavior of Moroccan banking entities in terms of risk management and performance. The results identified a favorable growth in terms of performance, despite the huge provisioning effort made to meet the international standards and the harmonization of the regulations.

Keywords: banking performance, financial intermediation, operational approach, prudential standards, risk management

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11 Electrodeposition and Selenization of Cuin Alloys for the Synthesis of Photoactive Cu2in1-X Gax Se2 (Cigs) Thin Films

Authors: Mohamed Benaicha, Mahdi Allam


A new two stage electrochemical process as a safe, large area and low processing cost technique for the production of semi-conducting CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films is studied. CuIn precursors were first potentiostatically electrodeposited onto molybdenum substrates from an acidic thiocyanate electrolyte. In a second stage, the prepared metallic CuIn layers were used as substrate in the selenium electrochemical deposition system and subjected to a thermal treatment in vacuum atmosphere, to eliminate binary phase formation by reaction of the Cu2-x Se and InxSey selenides, leading to the formation of CuInSe2 thin film. Electrochemical selenization from aqueous electrolyte is introduced as an alternative to toxic and hazardous H2Se or Se vapor phase selenization used in physical techniques. In this study, the influence of film deposition parameters such as bath composition, temperature and potential on film properties was studied. The electrochemical, morphological, structural and compositional properties of electrodeposited thin films were characterized using various techniques. Results of Cyclic and Stripping-Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, SCV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray microanalysis (EDX) investigations revealed good reproducibility and homogeneity of the film composition. Thereby optimal technological parameters for the electrochemical production of CuIn, Se as precursors for CuInSe2 thin layers are determined.

Keywords: photovoltaic, CIGS, copper alloys, electrodeposition, thin films

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10 Spectroscopic and 1.08mm Laser Properties of Nd3+ Doped Oxy-Fluoro Borate Glasses

Authors: Swapna Koneru, Srinivasa Rao Allam, Vijaya Prakash Gaddem


The different concentrations of neodymium-doped (Nd-doped) oxy fluoroborate (OFB) glasses were prepared by melt quenching method and characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay curve measurements to understand the lasing potentialities of these glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded and have been analyzed using Judd–Ofelt theory. The dipole strengths are parameterized in terms of three phenomenological Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) to elucidate the glassy matrix around Nd3+ ion as well as to determine the 4F3/2 metastable state radiative properties such as the transition probability (AR), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratios (βR) and integrated absorption cross-section (σa) have been measured for most of the fluorescent levels of Nd3+. The emission spectra recorded for these glasses exhibit two peaks at 1085 and 1328 nm corresponding to 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 transitions have been obtained for all the glasses upon 808 nm diode laser excitation in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 transition increases with increase of Nd3+ concentration up to 1 mol% and then concentration quenching is observed for 2.0 mol% of Nd3+ concentration. The lifetimes for the 4F3/2 level are found to decrease with increase in Nd2O3 concentration in the glasses due to the concentration quenching. The decay curves of all these glasses show single exponential behavior. The spectroscopy of Nd3+ in these glasses is well understood and laser properties can be accurately determined from measured spectroscopic properties. The results obtained are compared with reports on similar glasses. The results indicate that the present glasses could be useful for 1.08 µm laser applications.

Keywords: glasses, luminescence, optical properties, photoluminescence spectroscopy

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9 Photoluminescence and Spectroscopic Studies of Tm3+ Ions Doped Lead Tungsten Tellurite Glasses for Visible Red and Near-Ir Laser Applications

Authors: M. Venkateswarlu, Srinivasa Rao Allam, S. K. Mahamuda, K. Swapna, G. Vijaya Prakash


Lead Tungsten Tellurite (LTT) glasses doped with different concentrations of Tm3+ ions were prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized through optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay spectral studies to know the feasibility of using these glasses as luminescent devices in visible Red and NIR regions. By using optical absorption spectral data, the energy band gaps for all the glasses were evaluated and were found to be in the range of 2.34-2.59 eV; which is very useful for the construction of optical devices. Judd-Ofelt (J-O)theory has been applied to the optical absorption spectral profiles to calculate the J-O intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) and consecutively used to evaluate various radiative properties such as radiative transition probability (AR), radiative lifetimes (τ_R) and branching ratios (β_R) for the prominent luminescent levels. The luminescence spectra for all the LTT glass samples have shown two intense peaks in bright red and Near Infrared regions at 650 nm (1G4→3F4) and 800 nm (3H4→3H6) respectively for which effective bandwidths (〖Δλ〗_P), experimental branching ratios (β_exp) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ_se) are evaluated. The decay profiles for all the glasses were also recorded to measure the quantum efficiency of the prepared LTT glasses by coupling the radiative and experimental lifetimes. From the measured emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency and CIE chromaticity coordinates, it was found that 0.5 mol% of Tm3+ ions doped LTT glass is most suitable for generating bright visible red and NIR lasers to operate at 650 and 800 nm respectively.

Keywords: glasses, JO parameters, optical materials, thullium

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8 Spectroscopic Study of Tb³⁺ Doped Calcium Aluminozincate Phosphor for Display and Solid-State Lighting Applications

Authors: Sumandeep Kaur, Allam Srinivasa Rao, Mula Jayasimhadri


In recent years, rare earth (RE) ions doped inorganic luminescent materials are seeking great attention due to their excellent physical and chemical properties. These materials offer high thermal and chemical stability and exhibit good luminescence properties due to the presence of RE ions. The luminescent properties of these materials are attributed to their intra-configurational f-f transitions in RE ions. A series of Tb³⁺ doped calcium aluminozincate has been synthesized via sol-gel method. The structural and morphological studies have been carried out by recording X-ray diffraction patterns and SEM image. The luminescent spectra have been recorded for a comprehensive study of their luminescence properties. The XRD profile reveals the single-phase orthorhombic crystal structure with an average crystallite size of 65 nm as calculated by using DebyeScherrer equation. The SEM image exhibits completely random, irregular morphology of micron size particles of the prepared samples. The optimization of luminescence has been carried out by varying the dopant Tb³⁺ concentration within the range from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%. The as-synthesized phosphors exhibit intense emission at 544 nm pumped at 478 nm excitation wavelength. The optimized Tb³⁺ concentration has been found to be 1.0 mol% in the present host lattice. The decay curves show bi-exponential fitting for the as-synthesized phosphor. The colorimetric studies show green emission with CIE coordinates (0.334, 0.647) lying in green region for the optimized Tb³⁺ concentration. This report reveals the potential utility of Tb³⁺ doped calcium aluminozincate phosphors for display and solid-state lighting devices.

Keywords: concentration quenching, phosphor, photoluminescence, XRD

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7 Place of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Intracranial Meningiomas: Experience of the Cancer Center Emir Abdelkader of Oran Algeria

Authors: Taleb L., Benarbia M., Boutira F. M., Allam H., Boukerche A.


Introduction and purpose of the study: Meningiomas are the most common non-glial intracranial tumors in adults, accounting for approximately 30% of all central nervous system tumors. The aim of our study is to determine the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, and evolutionary characteristics of a cohort of patients with intracranial meningioma treated with radiotherapy at the Emir Abdelkader Cancer Center in Oran. Material and methods: This is a retrospective study of 44 patients during the period from 2014 to 2020. The overall survival and relapse-free survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results and statistical analysis: The median age of the patients was 49 years [21-76 years] with a clear female predominance (sex ratio=2.4). The average diagnostic delay was seven months [2 to 24 months], the circumstances of the discovery of which were dominated by headaches in 54.5% of cases (n=24), visual disturbances in 40.9% (n=18), and motor disorders in 15.9% (n=7). The seat of the tumor was essentially at the level of the base of the skull in 52.3% of patients (n=23), including 29.5% (n=13) at the level of the cavernous sinus, 27.3% (n=12) at the parasagittal level and 20.5% (n=9) at the convexity. The diagnosis was confirmed surgically in 36 patients (81.8%) whose anatomopathological study returned in favor of grades I, II, and III in respectively 40.9%, 29.5%, and 11.4% of the cases. Radiotherapy was indicated postoperatively in 45.5% of patients (n=20), exclusive in 27.3% (n=12) and after tumor recurrence in 27.3% of cases (n=18). The irradiation doses delivered were as follows: 50 Gy (20.5%), 54 Gy (65.9%), and 60 Gy (13.6%). With a median follow-up of 69 months, the probabilities of relapse-free survival and overall survival at three years are 93.2% and 95.4%, respectively, whereas they are 71.2% and 80.7% at five years. Conclusion: Meningiomas are common primary brain tumors. Most often benign but can also progress aggressively. Their treatment is essentially surgical, but radiotherapy retains its place in specific situations, allowing good tumor control and overall survival.

Keywords: diagnosis, meningioma, surgery, radiotherapy, survival

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6 Design and Implementation of Smart Watch Textile Antenna for Wi-Fi Bio-Medical Applications in Millimetric Wave Band

Authors: M. G. Ghanem, A. M. M. A. Allam, Diaa E. Fawzy, Mehmet Faruk Cengiz


This paper is devoted to the design and implementation of a smartwatch textile antenna for Wi-Fi bio-medical applications in millimetric wave bands. The antenna is implemented on a leather textile-based substrate to be embedded in a smartwatch. It enables the watch to pick Wi-Fi signals without the need to be connected to a mobile through Bluetooth. It operates at 60 GHz or WiGig (Wireless Gigabit Alliance) band with a wide band for higher rate applications. It also could be implemented over many stratified layers of the body organisms to be used in the diagnosis of many diseases like diabetes and cancer. The structure is designed and simulated using CST (Studio Suite) program. The wearable patch antenna has an octagon shape, and it is implemented on leather material that acts as a flexible substrate with a size of 5.632 x 6.4 x 2 mm3, a relative permittivity of 2.95, and a loss tangent of 0.006. The feeding is carried out using differential feed (discrete port in CST). The work provides five antenna implementations; antenna without ground, a ground is added at the back of the antenna in order to increase the antenna gain, the substrate dimensions are increased to 15 x 30 mm2 to resemble the real hand watch size, layers of skin and fat are added under the ground of the antenna to study the effect of human body tissues human on the antenna performance. Finally, the whole structure is bent. It is found that the antenna can achieve a simulated peak realized gain in dB of 5.68, 7.28, 6.15, 3.03, and 4.37 for antenna without ground, antenna with the ground, antenna with larger substrate dimensions, antenna with skin and fat, and bent structure, respectively. The antenna with ground exhibits high gain; while adding the human organisms absorption, the gain is degraded because of human absorption. The bent structure contributes to higher gain.

Keywords: bio medical engineering, millimetric wave, smart watch, textile antennas, Wi-Fi

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5 Ophthalmic Self-Medication Practices and Associated Factors among Adult Ophthalmic Patients

Authors: Sarah Saad Alamer, Shujon Mohammed Alazzam, Amjad Khater Alanazi, Mohamed Ahmed Sankari, Jana Sameer Sendy, Saleh Al-Khaldi, Khaled Allam, Amani Badawi


Background: Self-medication is defined as the selection of medicines by individuals to treat self-diagnosed. There are a lot of concerns about the safety of long-term use of nonprescription ophthalmic drugs, which may lead to a variety of serious ocular complications. Topical steroids can produce severe eye-threatening complications, including the elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) with possible development of glaucoma and infrequent optic nerve damage. In recent times, many OTC ophthalmic preparations have been possible without a prescription. Objective: In our study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of self-medication ocular topical steroid practice and associated factors among adult ophthalmic patients attending King Saud medical city. Methods: This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study, targeting participants aged 18 years old or above who had used topical steroids eye drops to determine the prevalence of self-medication ocular topical steroid practice and associated factors among adult patients attending ophthalmology clinic in King Saud Medical City (KSMC) in the central region. Results: A total of 308 responses, 92(29.8%) were using ocular topical, 58(18.8%) with prescription, 5(1.6%) without prescription, 29(9.4%) with and without prescription while 216(70.1%) did not use it. The frequency of using ocular topical steroids without a prescription among participants was 11(12%) once and 33 (35%) many times. 26(28.3%) were having complication, mostly 11(12.4%) eye infection, 8(9%) Glaucoma, 6 (6.7%) Cataracts. Reasons for self-medication ocular topical steroid practice among participants were 14 (15.2%) repeated symptoms, 11(15.2%) had heard an advice from a friend, 11 (15.2%) thought they had enough knowledge. Conclusion: Our study reveals that, even though detecting a high level of knowledge and acceptable practices and attitudes among participants, the incidence of self-medication with steroid eye drops was observed. This practice is mainly due to participants having repeated symptoms and thinking they have enough knowledge. Increasing the education level of patients on self-medication steroid eye drops practice and it is associated complications would help reduce the incidence of self-medication steroid eye drops practice.

Keywords: self-medication, ophthalmic medicine, steroid eye drop, over the counter

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4 Dy3+ Ions Doped Single and Mixed Alkali Fluoro Tungstunate Tellurite Glasses for Laser and White LED Applications

Authors: Allam Srinivasa Rao, Ch. Annapurna Devi, G. Vijaya Prakash


A new-fangled series of white light emitting 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped Single-Alklai and Mixed-Alkai fluoro tungstunate tellurite glasses have been prepared using melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behaviour was investigated by studying XRD, optical absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. The bonding parameter studies reveal the ionic nature of the Dy-O bond in the present glasses. From the absorption spectra, the Judd–Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters have been determined which are used to explore the nature of bonding and symmetry orientation of the Dy–ligand field environment. The evaluated J-O parameters (Ω_4>Ω_2>Ω_6) for all the glasses are following the same trend. The photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses exhibit two intensified peaks in blue and Yellow regions corresponding to the transitions 4F9/2→6H15/2 (483 nm) and 4F9/2→6H13/2 (575 nm) respectively. From the photoluminescence spectra, it is observed that the luminescence intensity is maximum for Dy3+ ion doped potassium combination of fluoro tungstunate tellurite glass (TeWK: 1Dy). The J-O intensity parameters have been used to determine the various radiative properties for the different emission transitions from the 4F9/2 fluorescent level. The highest emission cross-section and branching ratio values observed for the 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4F9/2→6H13/2 transitions suggest the possible laser action in the visible region from these glasses. By using the experimental lifetimes (τ_exp) measured from the decay spectral features and radiative lifetimes (τ_R), the quantum efficiencies (η) for all the glasses have been evaluated. Among all the glasses, the potassium combined fluoro tungstunate tellurite (TeWK:1Dy) glass has the highest quantum efficiency (94.6%). The CIE colour chromaticity coordinates (x, y), (u, v), colour correlated temperature (CCT) and Y/B ratio were also estimated from the photoluminescence spectra for different compositions of glasses. The (x, y) and (u, v) chromaticity colour coordinates fall within the white light region and the white light can be tuned by varying the composition of the glass. From all these studies, we are suggesting that the 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped TeWK glass is more suitable for lasing and White-LED applications.

Keywords: dysprosium, Judd-Ofelt parameters, photo luminescence, tellurite glasses

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3 Spectroscopic Studies and Reddish Luminescence Enhancement with the Increase in Concentration of Europium Ions in Oxy-Fluoroborate Glasses

Authors: Mahamuda Sk, Srinivasa Rao Allam, Vijaya Prakash G.


The different concentrations of Eu3+ ions doped in Oxy-fluoroborate glasses of composition 60 B2O3-10 BaF2-10 CaF2-15 CaF2- (5-x) Al2O3 -x Eu2O3 where x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%, have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and are characterized through absorption and photoluminescence (PL), decay, color chromaticity and Confocal measurements. The absorption spectra of all the glasses consists of six peaks corresponding to the transitions 7F0→5D2, 7F0→5D1, 7F1→5D1, 7F1→5D0, 7F0→7F6 and 7F1→7F6 respectively. The experimental oscillator strengths with and without thermal corrections have been evaluated using absorption spectra. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4) have been evaluated from the photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses. PL spectra of all the glasses have been recorded at excitation wavelengths 395 nm (conventional excitation source) and 410 nm (diode laser) to observe the intensity variation in the PL spectra. All the spectra consists of five emission peaks corresponding to the transitions 5D0→7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4). Surprisingly no concentration quenching is observed on PL spectra. Among all the glasses the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration possesses maximum intensity for the transition 5D0→7F2 (612 nm) in bright red region. The JO parameters derived from the photoluminescence spectra have been used to evaluate the essential radiative properties such as transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratio (βR) and peak stimulated emission cross-section (σse) for the 5D0→7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions of the Eu3+ ions. The decay rates of the 5D0 fluorescent level of Eu3+ ions in the title glasses are found to be single exponential for all the studied Eu3+ ion concentrations. A marginal increase in lifetime of the 5D0 level has been noticed with increase in Eu3+ ion concentration from 0.1 mol% to 2.0 mol%. Among all the glasses, the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration possesses maximum values of branching ratio, stimulated emission cross-section and quantum efficiency for the transition 5D0→7F2 (612 nm) in bright red region. The color chromaticity coordinates are also evaluated to confirm the reddish luminescence from these glasses. These color coordinates exactly fall in the bright red region. Confocal images also recorded to confirm reddish luminescence from these glasses. From all the obtained results in the present study, it is suggested that the glass with 2.0 mol% of Eu3+ ion concentration is suitable to emit bright red color laser.

Keywords: Europium, Judd-Ofelt parameters, laser, luminescence

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2 Environmental Analysis of Urban Communities: A Case Study of Air Pollutant Distribution in Smouha Arteries, Alexandria Egypt

Authors: Sammar Zain Allam


Smart Growth, intelligent cities, and healthy cities cited by WHO world health organization; they all call for clean air and minimizing air pollutants considering human health. Air quality is a thriving matter to achieve ecological cities; towards sustainable environmental development of urban fabric design. Selection criteria depends on the strategic location of our area as it is located at the entry of the city of Alexandria from its agricultural road. Besides, it represents the city center for retail, business, and educational amenities. Our study is analyzing readings of definite factors affecting air quality in a centric area in Alexandria. Our readings will be compared to standard measures of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, suspended particles, and air velocity or air flow. Carbon emissions are pondered in our study, in addition to suspended particles and the air velocity or air flow. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide crystalize the main elements to necessitate environmental and sustainable studies with the appearance of global warming and the glass house effect. Nevertheless, particulate matters are increasing causing breath issues especially to children and elder people; still threatening future generations to meet their own needs; sustainable development definition. Analysis of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, suspended particles together with air velocity or air flow has taken place in our area of study to manifest the relationship between these elements and the urban fabric design and land use distribution. For conclusion, dense urban fabric affecting air flow, and thus result in the concentration of air pollutants in certain zones. The appearance of open space with green areas allow the fading of air pollutants and help in their absorption. Along with dense urban fabric, high rise buildings trap air carriers which contribute to high readings of our elements. Also, street design may facilitate the circulation of air which helps carrying these pollutant away and distribute it to a wider space which decreases its harms and effects.

Keywords: carbon emissions, air quality measurements, arteries air quality, airflow or air velocity, particulate matter, clean air, urban density

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1 Postoperative Radiotherapy in Cancers of the Larynx: Experience of the Emir Abdelkader Cancer Center of Oran, about 89 Cases

Authors: Taleb Lotfi, Benarbia Maheidine, Allam Hamza, Boutira Fatima, Boukerche Abdelbaki


Introduction and purpose of the study: This is a retrospective single-center study with an analytical aim to determine the prognostic factors for relapse in patients treated with radiotherapy after total laryngectomy with lymph node dissection for laryngeal cancer at the Emir Abdelkader cancer center in Oran (Algeria). Material and methods: During the study period from January 2014 to December 2018, eighty-nine patients (n=89) with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. Relapse-free survival was studied in the univariate analysis according to pre-treatment criteria using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. We performed a univariate analysis to identify relapse factors. Statistically significant factors have been studied in the multifactorial analysis according to the Cox model. Results and statistical analysis: The average age was 62.7 years (40-86 years). It was a squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. Postoperatively, the tumor was classified as pT3 and pT4 in 93.3% of patients. Histological lymph node involvement was found in 36 cases (40.4%), with capsule rupture in 39% of cases, while the limits of surgical excision were microscopically infiltrated in 11 patients (12.3%). Chemotherapy concomitant with radiotherapy was used in 67.4% of patients. With a median follow-up of 57 months (23 to 104 months), the probabilities of relapse-free survival and five-year overall survival are 71.2% and 72.4%, respectively. The factors correlated with a high risk of relapse were locally advanced tumor stage pT4 (p=0.001), tumor site in case of subglottic extension (p=0.0003), infiltrated surgical limits R1 (p=0.001), l lymph node involvement (p=0.002), particularly in the event of lymph node capsular rupture (p=0.0003) as well as the time between surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (p=0.001). However, in the subgroup analysis, the major prognostic factors for disease-free survival were subglottic tumor extension (p=0.001) and time from surgery to adjuvant radiotherapy (p=0.005). Conclusion: Combined surgery and postoperative radiation therapy are effective treatment modalities in the management of laryngeal cancer. Close cooperation of the entire cervicofacial oncology team is essential, expressed during a multidisciplinary consultation meeting, with the need to respect the time between surgery and radiotherapy.

Keywords: laryngeal cancer, laryngectomy, postoperative radiotherapy, survival

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