Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Parkinsonism

7 Botulinum A Toxin Injection in Two Filipino Brothers with X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism (XDP) in Cebu City, Philippines: A Case Report

Authors: Ana Katrina C. Longos, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul

Abstract:

Objectives: To present a case of two Filipino male siblings initially seen with parkinsonism and eventually with dystonia and to present botulinum A toxin as part of the treatment for X-linked dystonia parkinsonism in Cebu City. Discussion: A 54 year old man presented initially with parkinsonian symptoms and later developed oromandibular and truncal dystonia. Further history revealed that he had an older brother who also presented with the same symptoms. Neuroimaging done on both patients revealed CVD infarcts in the pons and corona radiata respectively which where were not compatible with their symptoms. Family history revealed that their mother was originally from Panay and a diagnosis of X-linked dystonia parkinsonism (XDP) was made. Both patients were able to receive botulinum A toxin injections which provided temporary relief of symptoms. Conclusion: XDP was considered in 2 Filipino male siblings who presented with oromandibular dystonia, truncal dystonia, shuffling gait, resting tremors with ancestry from Panay on the maternal side. There is no cure for XDP, only symptomatic treatment. Until recently, only oral chemotherapy was available in Cebu. Botulinum A toxin injection done in both patients afforded temporary resolution of symptoms.

Keywords: XDP, dystonia of Panay, lubag, dystonia parkinsonism, botulinum a toxin

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6 A Rare Form of Rapidly Progressive Parkinsonism Associated with Dementia

Authors: Murat Emre, Zeynep Tufekcioglu

Abstract:

Objective: We describe a patient with late onset phenylketonuria which presented with rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism that were reversible after management. Background: Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxlase gene. It normally presents in childhood, in rare cases, however, it may have its onset in adulthood and may mimic other neurological disorders. Case description: A previously normal functioning, 59 year old man was admitted for blurred vision, cognitive impairment and gait difficulty which emerged over the past eight months. In neurological examination he had brisk reflexes, slow gait and left-dominant parkinsonism. Mini-mental state examination score was 25/30, neuropsychological testing revealed a dysexecutive syndrome with constructional apraxia and simultanagnosia. In cranial MRI there were bilateral diffuse hyper-intense lesions in parietal and occipital white matter with no significant atrophy. Electroencephalography showed diffuse slowing with predominance of teta waves. In cerebrospinal fluid examination protein level was slightly elevated (61mg/dL), oligoclonal bands were negative. Electromyography was normal. Routine laboratory examinations for rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism were also normal. Serum amino acid levels were determined to explore metabolic leukodystrophies and phenylalanine level was found to be highly elevated (1075 µmol/L) with normal tyrosine (61,20 µmol/L). His cognitive impairment and parkinsonian symptoms improved following three months of phenylalanine restricted diet. Conclusions: Late onset phenylketonuria is a rare, potentially reversible cause of rapidly progressive parkinsonism with dementia. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspicious features.

Keywords: dementia, neurology, Phenylketonuria, rapidly progressive parkinsonism

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5 Role of DatScan in the Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Shraddha Gopal, Jayam Lazarus

Abstract:

Aims: To study the referral practice and impact of DAT-scan in the diagnosis or exclusion of Parkinson’s disease. Settings and Designs: A retrospective study Materials and methods: A retrospective study of the results of 60 patients who were referred for a DAT scan over a period of 2 years from the Department of Neurology at Northern Lincolnshire and Goole NHS trust. The reason for DAT scan referral was noted under 5 categories against Parkinson’s disease; drug-induced Parkinson’s, essential tremors, diagnostic dilemma, not responding to Parkinson’s treatment, and others. We assessed the number of patients who were diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease against the number of patients in whom Parkinson’s disease was excluded or an alternative diagnosis was made. Statistical methods: Microsoft Excel was used for data collection and statistical analysis, Results: 30 of the 60 scans were performed to confirm the diagnosis of early Parkinson’s disease, 13 were done to differentiate essential tremors from Parkinsonism, 6 were performed to exclude drug-induced Parkinsonism, 5 were done to look for alternative diagnosis as the patients were not responding to anti-Parkinson medication and 6 indications were outside the recommended guidelines. 55% of cases were confirmed with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. 43.33% had Parkinson’s disease excluded. 33 of the 60 scans showed bilateral abnormalities and confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Conclusion: DAT scan provides valuable information in confirming Parkinson’s disease in 55% of patients along with excluding the diagnosis in 43.33% of patients aiding an alternative diagnosis.

Keywords: DATSCAN, Parkinson's disease, diagnosis, essential tremors

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4 Effect of Papaverine on Neurospheres

Authors: Noura Shehab-Eldeen, Mohamed Elsherbeeny, Hossam Elmetwally, Mohamed Salama, Ahmed Lotfy, Mohamed Elgamal, Hussein Sheashaa, Mohamed Sobh

Abstract:

Mitochondrial toxins including papaverine may be implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The aim was to detect the effect of papaverine on the proliferation and viability of neural stem cells. Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryos (E14) brains. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle, then, The supernatant was centrifuged at 1,000 g for 5 min. The pellet was placed in Hank’s solution cultured as free-floating neurospheres Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) and Hams F12 (3:1) supplemented with B27 (Invitrogen GmBH, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF; Biosource, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL recombinant human fibroblast growth factor (rhFGF; R&D Systems, Wiesbaden-Nordenstadt, Germany), and penicillin and streptomycin (1:100; Invitrogen) at 37°C with 7.5% CO2 . Differentiation was initiated by growth factor withdrawal and plating onto a poly-d-lysine/ laminin matrix. The neurospheres were fed every 2-3 days by replacing 50% of the culture media with fresh media. The culture suspension was transferred to a dish containing 16 wells. The wells were divided as follows: 4 wells received no papaverine (control), 4 wells 1 u, 4 wells 5 u and 4 wells 10 u of papaverine solution. In the next 2 weeks, photography (0,4,5,11days) and viability test were done. The photographs were analysed. Results : papaverine didn't affect proliferation of neurospheres, while it affected viability compared to control , this was dose related. Conclusion: This indicates the harmful effect of papaverine suggesting it to be a candidate neurotoxin causing Parkinsonism.

Keywords: neurospheres, neural stem cells, papaverine, Parkinsonism

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3 Determinants of Quality of Life in Patients with Atypical Prarkinsonian Syndromes: 1-Year Follow-Up Study

Authors: Tatjana Pekmezovic, Milica Jecmenica-Lukic, Igor Petrovic, Vladimir Kostic

Abstract:

Background: A group of atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) includes a variety of rare neurodegenerative disorders characterized by reduced life expectancy, increasing disability, and considerable impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aim: In this study we wanted to answer two questions: a) which demographic and clinical factors are main contributors of HRQoL in our cohort of patients with APS, and b) how does quality of life of these patients change over 1-year follow-up period. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in hospital settings. The initial study comprised all consecutive patients who were referred to the Department of Movement Disorders, Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade (Serbia), from January 31, 2000 to July 31, 2013, with the initial diagnoses of ‘Parkinson’s disease’, ‘parkinsonism’, ‘atypical parkinsonism’ and ‘parkinsonism plus’ during the first 8 months from the appearance of first symptom(s). The patients were afterwards regularly followed in 4-6 month intervals and eventually the diagnoses were established for 46 patients fulfilling the criteria for clinically probable progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 36 patients for probable multiple system atrophy (MSA). The health-related quality of life was assessed by using the SF-36 questionnaire (Serbian translation). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of composite scores of SF-36. The importance of changes in quality of life scores of patients with APS between baseline and follow-up time-point were quantified using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. The magnitude of any differences for the quality of life changes was calculated as an effect size (ES). Results: The final models of hierarchical regression analysis showed that apathy measured by the Apathy evaluation scale (AES) score accounted for 59% of the variance in the Physical Health Composite Score of SF-36 and 14% of the variance in the Mental Health Composite Score of SF-36 (p<0.01). The changes in HRQoL were assessed in 52 patients with APS who completed 1-year follow-up period. The analysis of magnitude for changes in HRQoL during one-year follow-up period have shown sustained medium ES (0.50-0.79) for both Physical and Mental health composite scores, total quality of life as well as for the Physical Health, Vitality, Role Emotional and Social Functioning. Conclusion: This study provides insight into new potential predictors of HRQoL and its changes over time in patients with APS. Additionally, identification of both prognostic markers of a poor HRQoL and magnitude of its changes should be considered when developing comprehensive treatment-related strategies and health care programs aimed at improving HRQoL and well-being in patients with APS.

Keywords: atypical parkinsonian syndromes, follow-up study, quality of life, APS

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2 Effect of 16 Weeks Walking with Different Dosages on Psychosocial Function Related Quality of Life among 60 to 75 Years Old Men

Authors: Mohammad Ehsani, Elham Karimi, Hashem Koozechian

Abstract:

Aim: The purpose of current semi-experimental study was a survey on effect of 16 week walking on psychosocial function related quality of life among 60 to 75 years old men. Methodology: For this reason, short from of health – related quality of life questionnaire (SF – 36) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) had been distributed to the subjects at 2 times of pre – test and posttest. Statistical sample of current study was 60 to 75 years old men who placed at Kahrizak house and assessed by considering physically and medical background. Also factors of entrance to the intervention like age range, have satisfaction and have intent to participating in walking program, lack of having diabetic, cardiovascular, Parkinsonism diseases and postural, neurological, musculoskeletal disorders, lack of having clinical background like visual disorders or disordering on equilibrium system, lack of motor limitation, foot print disorders, having surgery and mental health had been determined and assessed. Finally after primary studies, 80 persons selected and categorized accidentally to the 3 experimental group (1, 2, 3 sessions per week, 30 min walking with moderate intension at every sessions) and one control group (without physical activity in period of 16 weeks). Data analysed by employing ANOVA, Pearson coefficient and Scheffe Post – Hoc tests at the significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Results showed that psychosocial function of men with 60 to 75 years old increase by influence of 16 week walking and increase of exercise sessions lead to more effectiveness of walking. Also there was no significant difference between psychosocial function of subjects within 1 session and 3 sessions experimental groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: On the basis of results, we can say that doing regular walking with efficient and standard dosage for elderly people, can increase their quality of life. Furthermore, designing and action operation regular walking program for elderly men on the basis of special, logical and systematic pattern under the supervision of aware coaches have been recommended on the basis of results.

Keywords: walking, quality of life, psychosocial function, elders

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1 Influence of Protein Malnutrition and Different Stressful Conditions on Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: Focus on the Possible Protection Using Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Asmaa Abdelaty, Mona G. Khalil, Mona M. Kamal, Karema Abu-Elfotuh

Abstract:

Background: Aluminium (Al) is known as a neurotoxin environmental pollutant that can cause certain diseases as Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinsonism. It is widely used in antacid drugs as well as in food additives and toothpaste. Stresses have been linked to cognitive impairment; Social isolation (SI) may exacerbate memory deficits while protein malnutrition (PM) increases oxidative damage in cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. The risk of cognitive decline may be lower by maintaining social connections. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects as well as health-promoting effects in CNS. Objective: To study the influence of different stressful conditions as social isolation, electric shock (EC) and inadequate Nutritional condition as PM on neurotoxicity induced by Al in rats as well as to investigate the possible protective effect of EGCG in these stressful and PM conditions. Methods: Rats were divided into two major groups; protected group which was daily treated during three weeks of the experiment by EGCG (10 mg/kg, IP) or non-treated. Protected and non-protected groups included five subgroups as following: One normal control received saline and four Al toxicity groups injected daily for three weeks by ALCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP). One of them served as Al toxicity model, two groups subjected to different stresses either by isolation as mild stressful condition (SI-associated Al toxicity model) or by electric shock as high stressful condition (EC- associated Al toxicity model). The last was maintained on 10% casein diet (PM -associated Al toxicity model). Isolated rats were housed individually in cages covered with black plastic. Biochemical changes in the brain as acetyl cholinesterase (ACHE), Aβ, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β), oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC) were estimated for all groups. Histopathological changes in different brain regions were also evaluated. Results: Rats exposed to Al for three weeks showed brain neurotoxicity and neuronal degenerations. Both mild (SI) and high (EC) stressful conditions as well as inadequate nutrition (PM) enhanced Al-induced neurotoxicity and brain neuronal degenerations; the enhancement induced by stresses especially in its higher conditions (ES) was more pronounced than that of inadequate nutritional conditions (PM) as indicated by the significant increase in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β together with the significant decrease in SOD, TAC, BDNF. On the other hand, EGCG showed more pronounced protection against hazards of Al in both stressful conditions (SI and EC) rather than in PM .The protective effects of EGCG were indicated by the significant decrease in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β together with the increase in SOD, TAC, BDNF and confirmed by brain histopathological examinations. Conclusion: Neurotoxicity and brain neuronal degenerations induced by Al were more severe with stresses than with PM. EGCG can protect against Al-induced brain neuronal degenerations in all conditions. Consequently, administration of EGCG together with socialization as well as adequate protein nutrition is advised especially on excessive Al-exposure to avoid the severity of its neuronal toxicity.

Keywords: environmental pollution, aluminum, social isolation, protein malnutrition, neuronal degeneration, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, rats

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