Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: toothpaste

13 The Differences on the Surface Roughness of Glass Ionomer Cement as the Results of Brushing with Whitening and Conventional Toothpaste

Authors: Aulina R. Rahmi, Farid Yuristiawan, Annisa Ibifadillah, Ummu H. Amri, Hidayati Gunawan


Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used on the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration`s surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. In the oral cavity, GIC was exposed to various substances, such as toothpaste, an oral care product used during toothbrushing. One of the popular toothpaste is whitening toothpaste. Abrasive and chemical agents such as hydrogen peroxide in whitening toothpaste could increase the surface roughness of restorative materials. Objective: To determine the differences on the surface roughness of glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste. Method: This study was done using experimental laboratory method with pre and post test design. There were 36 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with conventional toothpaste, each for 2 minutes. Surface roughness value of the specimens was measured by using Roughness Tester test. Result: The data was analyzed by using independent t-test and the result of this study showed there was a significant difference between the surface of glass ionomer cement which was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste (p=0,000). Conclusion: Glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening toothpaste produced more roughness than conventional toothpaste.

Keywords: glass ionomer cement, surface roughness, toothpaste, roughness tester

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12 Impact of Ethnomedicinal Plants on Toothpaste Improvement

Authors: Muna Jalal Ali, Essam A. Makky, Mashitah M. Yusoff


Objectives: The aim of this study to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of combined toothpaste with medicinal plants and the relations between the commercial toothpaste to its price and the patient age as well. Materials and Methods: Oral isolates of different patients aged 3 to 60 years were obtained, purified, and tested against four different ethnomedicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial activity. A total of 10 different commercial toothpastes (different brands and prices) were collected from the market, and the combined action of the medicinal plants and toothpaste was studied. Results: We found a higher bacterial population in the age group of 3–40 years than the group of 40–60 years, with approximately 44% and 32%, respectively. The combined action of ethanolic extract (alone) against oral isolates showed a synergistic effect, with 32.20, 30.50, and 25.42% for combinations A (Ci/Ca), B (Ci/Ca/P), and C (Ci/Ca/P/N), respectively. By contrast, the combined action of ethnomedicinal plants with 10 different toothpastes improved the antimicrobial sensitivity by 60, 100, and 0% for combinations A, B, and C respectively. Clinical relevance: The ethanolic extract of only combinations A and B with commercial toothpaste showed high antibacterial activity against oral isolates and the effectiveness of toothpaste is not related to the price.

Keywords: microbial evolution, oral isolates, ethnomedicinal plants, antimicrobial activity, toothpaste

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11 The Effect of Tooth Brushing with Whitening and Non-Whitening Tooth Paste on Surface Roughness of Coated and Uncoated Glass Ionomer Cement

Authors: Hidayati, Eni Rahmi, Deli Mona, Cytha Nilam Chairani, Aulina Refri Rahmi


Background: Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration's surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. It can be prevented by mechanically clean the tooth surface by brushing the teeth using toothpaste. Toothpaste may contain abrasives materials that usually found in whitening toothpaste. Those abrasive materials could increase the roughness of the restoration`s surface. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is one of the restorative material widely used to this day. GC America has made an innovation called EQUIA to improve their wear resistance by coating the surface of GIC using G-Coat Plus. Objective: To determine the effect of teeth was brushing with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste to the surface roughness of coated and uncoated restoration (GIC). Methods: This research was a laboratory experimental with pretest-posttest group design. There were 28 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with non-whitening toothpaste. Each group was divided into group which coated by G-Coat Plus and group which left uncoated. The value of surface roughness was measured by using Roughness Tester. The data was analyzed by using independent t-test to determine differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste. Result: It was found that average roughness differences before and after being brushed by whitening toothpaste were smaller in coated samples than in uncoated samples (0.07 ± 0.09 < 0.12 ± 0.02). Similar results were also found in samples brushed by non-whitening toothpaste (0.02 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.01). The differences of average roughness in samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste were smaller than samples brushed with whitening toothpaste. Conclusion: The data showed there were statistically significant differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste (p < 0.05) but the was no statistically significant to samples brushed with whitening toothpaste (p > 0.05).

Keywords: surface roughness, toothpaste, EQUIA, coating

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10 Antimicrobial Effect of Toothpastes Containing Fluoride, Xylitol or Xylitol-Probiotic on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in Children

Authors: Eda Arat Maden, Ceyhan Altun, Bilal Ozmen, Feridun Basak


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing fluoride, xylitol or xylitol-probiotic in vivo, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in 13-15 years old children. Method: The study consisted of 60 pediatric patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group 1 received fluoride toothpaste (Colgate Max Fresh), group 2 used xylitol toothpaste (Xyliwhite) and group 3 used xylitol-probiotic toothpaste (PerioBiotic). Subjects were asked to use the allocated dentifrice two times a day, for 6 weeks. We performed tests on the samples of saliva in the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks’ duration following the use of toothpaste. Result and Conclusion: All of the participants of the study stated that they brushed their teeth well twice a day by using the toothpastes given to them for 6 weeks. Majority of the subjects had high counts of salivary mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus at baseline. When the number of cariogenic bacteria (S. mutans and Lactobacillus) at the start of the PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste usage are compared with the results measured after 6 weeks, an important decrease is observed in the S. mutans and Lactobacillus bacteria according to the CRT Tests. After the 6-week use of Probiotic toothpaste, the S. mutans (≥105) decreased to 20% from 75% in the group with S. mutans and Lactobacillus (≥105) decreased to 30% from 60% in the group with Lactobacillus. In addition, an important decrease was recorded in the participants with the S. mutans percentage (80% - 45%) and Lactobacillus (70% - 55%) after using the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste for six weeks. On the other hand, it was determined with the Chi-square that there were not important changes between the Xyliwhite toothpaste group and the other groups with S. mutans (80% - 75%) and Lactobacillus (75% -65%). It was also determined after the comparison of the groups that the decrease in the S. mutans was higher than the group using PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste at a significant level, when compared with the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste and Xyliwhite toothpaste. S. mutans were more sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of the PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste and to the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste when compared with the Lactobacillus. In the light of the data obtained in this in vivo study, the use of probiotics ensure the balance between the bacterial flora in the oral cavity.

Keywords: lactobacillus, probiotic, Streptococcus mutans, toothpaste

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9 The Comparison of pH Saliva before and after Brushing Teeth Using Tooth Paste Containing Betel Leaf Extracts

Authors: Ika Anisyah, Nety Trisnawaty


Mechanical brushing can help control plaque and is the first step to control dental caries. The type of toothpaste used is one of the contributing factors in it since the benefits of toothpaste are to reduce plaque formation and strengthen the teeth against dental caries, clean and polish tooth surfaces, eliminate or reduce bad breath, give a fresh taste to the mouth and maintain gingival health. Betel leaf toothpaste has the ability to inhibit the Streptococcus mutans bacteria that can cause the increase of pH saliva. Betel leaf extracts can increase the pH saliva because betel leaf has an anti bacterial characteristic against Streptococcus mutans so that pH saliva increases. This study aims to see the difference between pH saliva before and after brushing teeth with toothpaste containing betel leaf extracts. This type of research is pre-experimental using One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. This study was conducted on 32 subjects taken randomly from the representatives of students aged 11-12 years old in SD Pesanggrahan 03. The result of statistic test using non parametric test showed a value of 0.000. The resulted value being smaller than 0.05 (p < 0.05) means there is a significant salivary pH difference before and after teeth brushing using toothpaste containing betel leaf. The conclusion of this study showed an increase in salivary pH after teeth brushing with toothpaste containing betel leaves extracts in children aged 11-12 years old.

Keywords: pH saliva, brushing teeth, tooth paste, betel leaves extracts

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8 Modification of Toothpaste Formula Using Pineapple Cobs and Eggshell Waste as a Way to Decrease Dental Caries

Authors: Achmad Buhori, Reza Imam Pratama, Tissa Wiraatmaja, Wanti Megawati


Data from many countries indicates that there is a marked increase of dental caries. The increases in caries appear to occur in lower socioeconomic groups. It is possible that the benefits of prevention of dental caries are not reaching these groups. However, there is a way to decrease dental caries by adding 5% of bromelain and calcium as an active agent in toothpaste. Bromelain can break glutamine-alanine bond and arginine-alanine bond which is a constituent of amino acid that causes dental plague which is one of the factors of dental caries. Calcium help rebuilds the teeth by strengthening and repairing enamel. Bromelain can be found from the extraction of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cobs (88.86-94.22 % of bromelain recovery during extraction based on the enzyme unit) and calcium can be taken from eggshell (95% of dry eggshell consist of calcium). The aim of this experiment is to make a toothpaste which contains bromelain and calcium as an effective, cheap, and healthy way to decrease dental caries around the world.

Keywords: bromelain, calcium, dental caries, dental plague, toothpaste

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7 Evaluating the Factors That Influence Caries Reduction During Pregnancy

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Irene Malagnino, Vergjini Mulo, Alketa Qafmolla, Vito Antonio Malagnino


Background: Dental caries is the most common dental disease and pregnancy represents a special process of physical, hormonal and metabolic changes in pregnant women, which is accompanied by an imbalance in the oral cavity. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate caries reduction after dental visits, the scaling of teeth, fluoridated water, brushing of the teeth and using fluoride toothpaste before and during pregnancy. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in the time period March 2018- September 2021, the age range of the participants was: 18-41 years old. The sample taken under observation was composed of 84 pregnant women. The questionnaire included the demographic characteristics of the sample, such as age, women's education level was primary, secondary, and higher education. Based on women's education level, our analysis found that 25.9% of pregnant women had completed primary education, 35.2% of them had secondary education and 38.9% of pregnant women had higher education. The descriptive and analytical research analysis is formulated as a longitudinal study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0. The significance level (α) was set at 0.05, whereas P-value and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. Results: In the present study, it was observed that there is a strong relationship between dental visits and the scaling of the teeth with the value of P˂ .0001. While the number of teeth with caries before pregnancy and fluoridated water have a P-value=0.002. If we compare the same factor with the number of teeth with dental caries during pregnancy, the correlation is P-value = 0.0001. The number of teeth with caries before pregnancy and carbohydrates consumption has a strong relation with P-value=0.05. According to the present research, the number of teeth with dental caries before pregnancy in relation to brushing the teeth has a P-value ˂ 0.05. Furthermore, in the actual research, it was established that using fluoride toothpaste doesn’t affect the number of teeth with caries before pregnancy with a P-value= .314. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study performed in Albania, it was found out that the periodical dental visits, scaling of the teeth, fluoridated water, brushing of the teeth influenced caries reduction before and during pregnancy. In comparison, the usage of fluoride toothpaste did not have any effect on dental caries reduction in the same time period. The recommendations are as follows: maintaining oral hygiene, using fluoridated water and brushing the teeth regularly. Healthcare providers should inform pregnant women about the importance of oral health and the implementation of measures to manage dental caries.

Keywords: brushing of the teeth, dental visits, dental scaling, fluoridated water, pregnancy

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6 Evaluation of Three Commercially Available Materials in Reducing the White Spot Lesions During Fixed Orthodontic Treatment: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Sayeeda Laeque Bangi


Objectives: Treating white spot lesions (WSL) to create a sound and esthetically pleasing enamel surface is a question yet to be fully answered. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to measure and compare the degree of regression of WSL during orthodontic treatment achieved by using three commercially available materials. Methods: A single-blinded randomized prospective clinical trial, comprising 80 patients categorized into four groups (one control group and three experimental groups, with 20 subjects per group) using block randomization, was conducted. Group A (control group): Colgate strong toothpaste; and experiments groups were Group B: GC tooth mousse, Group C: Phos-Flur mouthwash and Group D: SHY-NM. Subjects were instructed to use the designated dentifrice/mouthwash and photographs were taken at baseline, third and sixth months, and white spot lesions were reassessed in the maxillomandibular anterior teeth. Results: All the three groups had shown an improvement in WSL. But Group B has shown the greatest difference in mean values of decalcification index (DI) scores. Conclusion: All three commercially available products showed a regression of WSL over a 6-month duration. GC tooth mousse proved to be the most effective means of treating WSL over other regimens.

Keywords: white spot lesions, dentifrices, orthodontic therapy, remineralization

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5 Extraction and Quantification of Triclosan in Wastewater Samples Using Molecularly Imprinted Membrane Adsorbent

Authors: Siyabonga Aubrey Mhlongo, Linda Lunga Sibali, Phumlane Selby Mdluli, Peter Papoh Ndibewu, Kholofelo Clifford Malematja


This paper reports on the successful extraction and quantification of an antibacterial and antifungal agent present in some consumer products (Triclosan: C₁₂H₇Cl₃O₂)generally found in wastewater or effluents using molecularly imprinted membrane adsorbent (MIMs) followed by quantification and removal on a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Triclosan is an antibacterial and antifungal agent present in some consumer products like toothpaste, soaps, detergents, toys, and surgical cleaning treatments. The MIMs was fabricated usingpolyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer with selective micro composite particles known as molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs)via a phase inversion by immersion precipitation technique. This resulted in an improved hydrophilicity and mechanical behaviour of the membranes. Wastewater samples were collected from the Umbogintwini Industrial Complex (UIC) (south coast of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa). central UIC effluent treatment plant and pre-treated before analysis. Experimental parameters such as sample size, contact time, stirring speed were optimised. The resultant MIMs had an adsorption efficiency of 97% of TCS with reference to NIMs and bare membrane, which had 92%, 88%, respectively. The analytical method utilized in this review had limits of detection (LoD) and limits of quantification (LoQ) of 0.22, 0.71µgL-1 in wastewater effluent, respectively. The percentage recovery for the effluent samples was 68%. The detection of TCS was monitored for 10 consecutive days, where optimum TCS traces detected in the treated wastewater was 55.0μg/L inday 9 of the monitored days, while the lowest detected was 6.0μg/L. As the concentrations of analytefound in effluent water samples were not so diverse, this study suggested that MIMs could be the best potential adsorbent for the development and continuous progress in membrane technologyand environmental sciences, lending its capability to desalination.

Keywords: molecularly imprinted membrane, triclosan, phase inversion, wastewater

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4 Investigation of the Bioactivity and Efficacy of Personal Care Products Formulated Using Extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss

Authors: Ade O. Oyewole, Sunday O. Okoh, Ruth O. Ishola, Adenike D. Odusote, Chima C. Igwe, Gloria N. Elemo, Anthony I. Okoh


Azadirachta indica (Neem tree) also referred to as an all-purpose tree is used in a wide range of medical preparations in tropical and subtropical countries for prevention and management of various livestock, crops products and human diseases. In Nigeria however, the potentials of this plant have not been fully exploited thus it causes an environmental nuisance during the fruiting season. With a rise in the demand for herbal personal care products globally extracts from different parts of the neem plant were used as the bio-active ingredients in the formulation of personal care products. In this study, formulated neem soap, body cream, lotion, toothpaste and shampoo are analyzed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, and toxicity properties. The efficacies of these products for management of infectious diseases, both oral and dermal, were also investigated in vitro. Oil from the neem seeds obtained using a mechanical press and acetone extracts of both the neem bark and leaves obtained by the maceration method were used in the formulation and production of the neem personal care products. The antimicrobial and toxicity properties of these products were investigated by agar diffusion, and haemolytic methods respectively. The five neem products (NPs) exhibited strong antibacterial activities against four multi–drug resistant pathogenic and three none pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli (180), Listeria ivanovii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae, Vibro spp., Streptococcus uberis, Mycobacterium smegmatis), except the neem lotion with insignificant activity against E. coli and S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range was between 0.20-0.40 mg/ mL. The 5 NPs demonstrated moderate activity against three clinical dermatophytes isolates (Tinea corporis, Tinea capitis, and Tinea cruiz) as well as one fungal strain (Candida albican) with the MIC ranging between 0.30 - 0.50 mg/ mL and 0.550 mg/mL respectively. The soap and shampoo were the most active against test bacteria and fungi. The haemolytic analysis results on the 5 NPs indicated none toxicity at 0.50 mg/ mL in sheep red blood cells (SRBC).

Keywords: antimicrobial, Azadirachta indica, multi–drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, personal care products

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3 TiO₂ Nanoparticles Induce DNA Damage and Expression of Biomarker of Oxidative Stress on Human Spermatozoa

Authors: Elena Maria Scalisi


The increasing production and the use of TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) have inevitably led to their release into the environment, thereby posing a threat to organisms and also for human. Human exposure to TiO₂-NPs may occur during both manufacturing and use. TiO₂-NPs are common in consumer products for dermal application, toothpaste, food colorants, and nutritional supplements, then oral exposure may occur during use of such products. Into the body, TiO₂-NPs thanks to their small size (<100 nm), can, through testicular blood barrier inducing effect on testis and then on male reproductive health. The nanoscale size of TiO₂ increase the surface-to-volume ratio making them more reactive in a cell, then TiO₂ NPs increase their ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In male germ cells, ROS may have important implications in maintaining the normal functions of mature spermatozoa at physiological levels, moreover, in spermatozoa they are important signaling molecules for their hyperactivation and acrosome reaction. Nevertheless, an excess of ROS by external inputs such as NPs can increased the oxidative stress (OS), which results in damage DNA and apoptosis. The aim of our study has been investigate the impact of TiO₂ NPs on human spermatozoa, evaluating DNA damage and the expression of proteins involved in cell stress. According WHO guidelines 2021, we have exposed human spermatozoa in vitro to TiO₂ NP at concentrations 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm for 1 hour (at 37°C and CO₂ at 5%). DNA damage was evaluated by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion Test (SCD) and TUNEL assay; moreover, we have evaluated the expression of biomarkers of oxidative stress like Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) and Metallothioneins (MTs). Also, sperm parameters as motility viability have been evaluated. Our results not report a significant reduction in motility of spermatozoa at the end of the exposure. On the contrary, the progressive motility was increased at the highest concentration (500 ppm) and was statistically significant compared to control (p <0.05). Also, viability was not changed by exposure to TiO₂-NPs (p <0.05). However, increased DNA damage was observed at all concentrations, and the TUNEL assay highlighted the presence of single strand breaks in the DNA. The spermatozoa responded to the presence of TiO₂-NPs with the expression of Hsp70, which have a protective function because they allow the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in stressful/ lethal conditions. A positivity for MTs was observed mainly for the concentration of 4 mg/L. Although the biological and physiological function of the metallothionein (MTs) in the male genital organs is unclear, our results highlighted that the MTs expressed by spermatozoa maintain their biological role of detoxification from metals. Our results can give additional information to the data in the literature on the toxicity of TiO₂-NPs and reproduction.

Keywords: human spermatozoa, DNA damage, TiO₂-NPs, biomarkers

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2 Antimicrobial Value of Olax subscorpioidea and Bridelia ferruginea on Micro-Organism Isolates of Dental Infection

Authors: I. C. Orabueze, A. A. Amudalat, S. A. Adesegun, A. A. Usman


Dental and associated oral diseases are increasingly affecting a considerable portion of the population and are considered some of the major causes of tooth loss, discomfort, mouth odor and loss of confidence. This study focused on the ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in oral therapy and evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of two selected plants from the survey for their efficacy against dental microorganisms. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out in six herbal markets in Lagos State, Nigeria by oral interviewing and information obtained from an old family manually complied herbal medication book. Methanolic extracts of Olax subscorpioidea (stem bark) and Bridelia ferruginea (stem bark) were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against clinical oral isolates (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). In vitro microbial technique (agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay) were employed for the assay. Chlorhexidine gluconate was used as the reference drug for comparison with the extract results. And the preliminary phytochemical screening of the constituents of the plants were done. The ethnobotanical survey produced plants (28) of diverse family. Different parts of plants (seed, fruit, leaf, root, bark) were mentioned but 60% mentioned were either the stem or the bark. O. subscorpioidea showed considerable antifungal activity with zone of inhibition ranging from 2.650 – 2.000 cm against Aspergillus fumigatus but no such encouraging inhibitory activity was observed in the other assayed organisms. B. ferruginea showed antibacterial sensitivity against Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone of inhibitions ranging from 3.400 - 2.500, 2.250 - 1.600, 2.700 - 1.950, 2.225 – 1.525 cm respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of O. subscorpioidea against Aspergillus fumigatus was 51.2 mg ml-1 while that of B. ferruginea against Streptococcus spp was 0.1mg ml-1 and for Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 25.6 mg ml-1. A phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycoside, tannins, phenols and terpenoids in both plants, with steroids only in B. ferruginea. No toxicity was observed among mice given the two methanolic extracts (1000 mg Kg-1) after 21 days. The barks of both plants exhibited antimicrobial properties against periodontal diseases causing organisms assayed, thus up-holding their folkloric use in oral disorder management. Further research could be done viewing these extracts as combination therapy, checking for possible synergistic value in toothpaste and oral rinse formulations for reducing oral bacterial flora and fungi load.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, Bridelia ferruginea, dental disinfection, methanolic extract, Olax subscorpioidea, ethnobotanical survey

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1 Influence of Protein Malnutrition and Different Stressful Conditions on Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: Focus on the Possible Protection Using Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Asmaa Abdelaty, Mona G. Khalil, Mona M. Kamal, Karema Abu-Elfotuh


Background: Aluminium (Al) is known as a neurotoxin environmental pollutant that can cause certain diseases as Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinsonism. It is widely used in antacid drugs as well as in food additives and toothpaste. Stresses have been linked to cognitive impairment; Social isolation (SI) may exacerbate memory deficits while protein malnutrition (PM) increases oxidative damage in cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. The risk of cognitive decline may be lower by maintaining social connections. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects as well as health-promoting effects in CNS. Objective: To study the influence of different stressful conditions as social isolation, electric shock (EC) and inadequate Nutritional condition as PM on neurotoxicity induced by Al in rats as well as to investigate the possible protective effect of EGCG in these stressful and PM conditions. Methods: Rats were divided into two major groups; protected group which was daily treated during three weeks of the experiment by EGCG (10 mg/kg, IP) or non-treated. Protected and non-protected groups included five subgroups as following: One normal control received saline and four Al toxicity groups injected daily for three weeks by ALCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP). One of them served as Al toxicity model, two groups subjected to different stresses either by isolation as mild stressful condition (SI-associated Al toxicity model) or by electric shock as high stressful condition (EC- associated Al toxicity model). The last was maintained on 10% casein diet (PM -associated Al toxicity model). Isolated rats were housed individually in cages covered with black plastic. Biochemical changes in the brain as acetyl cholinesterase (ACHE), Aβ, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β), oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC) were estimated for all groups. Histopathological changes in different brain regions were also evaluated. Results: Rats exposed to Al for three weeks showed brain neurotoxicity and neuronal degenerations. Both mild (SI) and high (EC) stressful conditions as well as inadequate nutrition (PM) enhanced Al-induced neurotoxicity and brain neuronal degenerations; the enhancement induced by stresses especially in its higher conditions (ES) was more pronounced than that of inadequate nutritional conditions (PM) as indicated by the significant increase in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β together with the significant decrease in SOD, TAC, BDNF. On the other hand, EGCG showed more pronounced protection against hazards of Al in both stressful conditions (SI and EC) rather than in PM .The protective effects of EGCG were indicated by the significant decrease in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β together with the increase in SOD, TAC, BDNF and confirmed by brain histopathological examinations. Conclusion: Neurotoxicity and brain neuronal degenerations induced by Al were more severe with stresses than with PM. EGCG can protect against Al-induced brain neuronal degenerations in all conditions. Consequently, administration of EGCG together with socialization as well as adequate protein nutrition is advised especially on excessive Al-exposure to avoid the severity of its neuronal toxicity.

Keywords: environmental pollution, aluminum, social isolation, protein malnutrition, neuronal degeneration, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, rats

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