Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1891

Search results for: fracture intensity

1891 Model of Elastic Fracture Toughness for Ductile Metal Pipes with External Longitudinal Cracks

Authors: Guoyang Fu, Wei Yang, Chun-Qing Li

Abstract:

The most common type of cracks that appear on metal pipes is longitudinal cracks. For ductile metal pipes, the existence of plasticity eases the stress intensity at the crack front and consequently increases the fracture resistance. It should be noted that linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) has been widely accepted by engineers. In order to make the LEFM applicable to ductile metal materials, the increase of fracture toughness due to plasticity should be excluded from the total fracture toughness of the ductile metal. This paper aims to develop a model of elastic fracture toughness for ductile metal pipes with external longitudinal cracks. The derived elastic fracture toughness is a function of crack geometry and material properties of the cracked pipe. The significance of the derived model is that the well-established LEFM can be used for ductile metal material in predicting the fracture failure.

Keywords: Ductile metal pipes, elastic fracture toughness, longitudinal crack, plasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
1890 Estimation of Reservoirs Fracture Network Properties Using an Artificial Intelligence Technique

Authors: Reda Abdel Azim, Tariq Shehab

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to develop a subsurface fracture map of naturally fractured reservoirs by overcoming the limitations associated with different data sources in characterising fracture properties. Some of these limitations are overcome by employing a nested neuro-stochastic technique to establish inter-relationship between different data, as conventional well logs, borehole images (FMI), core description, seismic attributes, and etc. and then characterise fracture properties in terms of fracture density and fractal dimension for each data source. Fracture density is an important property of a system of fracture network as it is a measure of the cumulative area of all the fractures in a unit volume of a fracture network system and Fractal dimension is also used to characterize self-similar objects such as fractures. At the wellbore locations, fracture density and fractal dimension can only be estimated for limited sections where FMI data are available. Therefore, artificial intelligence technique is applied to approximate the quantities at locations along the wellbore, where the hard data is not available. It should be noted that Artificial intelligence techniques have proven their effectiveness in this domain of applications.

Keywords: naturally fractured reservoirs, artificial intelligence, fracture intensity, fractal dimension

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
1889 Simplified Linearized Layering Method for Stress Intensity Factor Determination

Authors: Jeries J. Abou-Hanna, Bradley Storm

Abstract:

This paper looks to reduce the complexity of determining stress intensity factors while maintaining high levels of accuracy by the use of a linearized layering approach. Many techniques for stress intensity factor determination exist, but they can be limited by conservative results, requiring too many user parameters, or by being too computationally intensive. Multiple notch geometries with various crack lengths were investigated in this study to better understand the effectiveness of the proposed method. By linearizing the average stresses in radial layers around the crack tip, stress intensity factors were found to have error ranging from -10.03% to 8.94% when compared to analytically exact solutions. This approach proved to be a robust and efficient method of accurately determining stress intensity factors.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, finite element method, stress intensity factor, stress linearization

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
1888 Extended Strain Energy Density Criterion for Fracture Investigation of Orthotropic Materials

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Hannaneh Manafi Farid

Abstract:

In order to predict the fracture behavior of cracked orthotropic materials under mixed-mode loading, well-known minimum strain energy density (SED) criterion is extended. The crack is subjected along the fibers at plane strain conditions. Despite the complicities to solve the nonlinear equations which are requirements of SED criterion, SED criterion for anisotropic materials is derived. In the present research, fracture limit curve of SED criterion is depicted by a numerical solution, hence the direction of crack growth is figured out by derived criterion, MSED. The validated MSED demonstrates the improvement in prediction of fracture behavior of the materials. Also, damaged factor that plays a crucial role in the fracture behavior of quasi-brittle materials is derived from this criterion and proved its dependency on mechanical properties and direction of crack growth.

Keywords: mixed-mode fracture, minimum strain energy density criterion, orthotropic materials, fracture limit curve, mode II critical stress intensity factor

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1887 Simplified Stress Gradient Method for Stress-Intensity Factor Determination

Authors: Jeries J. Abou-Hanna

Abstract:

Several techniques exist for determining stress-intensity factors in linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis. These techniques are based on analytical, numerical, and empirical approaches that have been well documented in literature and engineering handbooks. However, not all techniques share the same merit. In addition to overly-conservative results, the numerical methods that require extensive computational effort, and those requiring copious user parameters hinder practicing engineers from efficiently evaluating stress-intensity factors. This paper investigates the prospects of reducing the complexity and required variables to determine stress-intensity factors through the utilization of the stress gradient and a weighting function. The heart of this work resides in the understanding that fracture emanating from stress concentration locations cannot be explained by a single maximum stress value approach, but requires use of a critical volume in which the crack exists. In order to understand the effectiveness of this technique, this study investigated components of different notch geometry and varying levels of stress gradients. Two forms of weighting functions were employed to determine stress-intensity factors and results were compared to analytical exact methods. The results indicated that the “exponential” weighting function was superior to the “absolute” weighting function. An error band +/- 10% was met for cases ranging from a steep stress gradient in a sharp v-notch to the less severe stress transitions of a large circular notch. The incorporation of the proposed method has shown to be a worthwhile consideration.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, finite element method, stress intensity factor, stress gradient

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1886 An Unusual Fracture Pattern: Fracture of the Distal Radius (Colles') along with Fracture of the Ipsilateral Scaphoid & Capitate Bones

Authors: Srikanta Tagore Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar Mandal, Dibakar Roy

Abstract:

The association of a capitate fracture with a scaphoid fracture has been termed as the naviculocapitate syndrome. The existence of some nondisplaced fractures of scaphoid and capitate with or without the fracture of lunate or radius suggests that there is a spectrum of these injuries, and this confuses the terminology. With our case; we report an unusual variety of this naviculocapitate syndrome with distal radial Colles fracture in addition to the nondisplaced fractures of the scaphoid, capitate and the dorsal lip of radial fracture. When we looked at the literature there is no another Colles fracture reported together with undisplaced scapho-capitate syndrome. The coronal and sagittal images that obtained from the MDCT (Multidetector computed tomography) is useful and effective imaging modality to diagnose complex wrist fractures with more details that are not detected in X-rays.

Keywords: scaphoid, capitate, Colles’ fracture, syndrome, MDCT, unusual

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1885 Material Fracture Dynamic of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade

Authors: Samir Lecheb, Ahmed Chellil, Hamza Mechakra, Brahim Safi, Houcine Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper we studied fracture and dynamic behavior of vertical axis wind turbine blade, the VAWT is a historical machine, it has many properties, structure, advantage, component to be able to produce the electricity. We modeled the blade design then imported to Abaqus software for analysis the modes shapes, frequencies, stress, strain, displacement and stress intensity factor SIF, after comparison we chose the idol material. Finally, the CTS test of glass epoxy reinforced polymer plates to obtain the material fracture toughness Kc.

Keywords: blade, crack, frequency, material, SIF

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
1884 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing in Androgen-Deficient Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad N. Shuid, Azri Jalil, Sabarul A. Mokhtar, Mohd F. Khamis, Norliza Muhammad

Abstract:

Micro-CT provides a 3-D image of fracture callus, which can be used to calculate quantitative parameters. In this study, micro-CT was used to assess the fracture healing of orchidectomised rats, an androgen-deficient osteoporosis model. The effect of testosterone (hormone replacement) on fracture healing was also assessed with micro-CT. The rats were grouped into orchidectomised-control (ORX), sham-operated (SHAM), and orchidectomised; and injected with testosterone intramuscularly once weekly (TEN). Treatment duration was six weeks. The fracture was induced and fixed with plates and screws in the right tibia of all the rats. An in vitro micro-CT was used to scan the fracture callus area which consisted of 100 axial slices above and below fracture line. The analysis has shown that micro-CT was able to detect a significant difference in the fracture healing rate of ORX and TEN groups. In conclusion, micro-CT can be used to assess fracture healing in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. This imaging tool can be used to test agents that influence fracture healing in the androgen-deficient model.

Keywords: androgen, fracture, orchidectomy, osteoporosis

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1883 Seismic Data Analysis of Intensity, Orientation and Distribution of Fractures in Basement Rocks for Reservoir Characterization

Authors: Mohit Kumar

Abstract:

Natural fractures are classified in two broad categories of joints and faults on the basis of shear movement in the deposited strata. Natural fracture always has high structural relationship with extensional or non-extensional tectonics and sometimes the result is seen in the form of micro cracks. Geological evidences suggest that both large and small-scale fractures help in to analyze the seismic anisotropy which essentially contribute into characterization of petro physical properties behavior associated with directional migration of fluid. We generally question why basement study is much needed as historically it is being treated as non-productive and geoscientist had no interest in exploration of these basement rocks. Basement rock goes under high pressure and temperature, and seems to be highly fractured because of the tectonic stresses that are applied to the formation along with the other geological factors such as depositional trend, internal stress of the rock body, rock rheology, pore fluid and capillary pressure. Sometimes carbonate rocks also plays the role of basement and igneous body e.g basalt deposited over the carbonate rocks and fluid migrate from carbonate to igneous rock due to buoyancy force and adequate permeability generated by fracturing. So in order to analyze the complete petroleum system, FMC (Fluid Migration Characterization) is necessary through fractured media including fracture intensity, orientation and distribution both in basement rock and county rock. Thus good understanding of fractures can lead to project the correct wellbore trajectory or path which passes through potential permeable zone generated through intensified P-T and tectonic stress condition. This paper deals with the analysis of these fracture property such as intensity, orientation and distribution in basement rock as large scale fracture can be interpreted on seismic section, however, small scale fractures show ambiguity in interpretation because fracture in basement rock lies below the seismic wavelength and hence shows erroneous result in identification. Seismic attribute technique also helps us to delineate the seismic fracture and subtle changes in fracture zone and these can be inferred from azimuthal anisotropy in velocity and amplitude and spectral decomposition. Seismic azimuthal anisotropy derives fracture intensity and orientation from compressional wave and converted wave data and based on variation of amplitude or velocity with azimuth. Still detailed analysis of fractured basement required full isotropic and anisotropic analysis of fracture matrix and surrounding rock matrix in order to characterize the spatial variability of basement fracture which support the migration of fluid from basement to overlying rock.

Keywords: basement rock, natural fracture, reservoir characterization, seismic attribute

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1882 Obtain the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) in a Medium Containing a Penny-Shaped Crack by the Ritz Method

Authors: A. Tavangari, N. Salehzadeh

Abstract:

In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) of three-dimensional penny-Shaped crack is obtained in an isotropic elastic cylindrical medium with arbitrary dimensions under arbitrary loading at the top of the cylinder, by the semi-analytical method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method. This method that is based on minimizing the potential energy amount of the whole of the system, gives a very close results to the previous studies. Defining the displacements (elastic fields) by hypothetical functions in a defined coordinate system is the base of this research. So for creating the singularity conditions at the tip of the crack the appropriate terms should be found.

Keywords: penny-shaped crack, stress intensity factor, fracture mechanics, Ritz method

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
1881 Fracture Dislocation of Upper Sacrum in an Adolescent: Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Narges Rahimi Gabaran

Abstract:

Although sacral fractures in children are rare due to the fact that the occurrence of pelvic fracture is not common in childhood. Sacral fractures present a high risk of neurological damage. This kind of fracture is often missed because the routine pelvic X-rays imaging scarcely show this fracture. Also, the treatment is controversial, and it ranges from fine reduction to conservative treatments without any try to reduce the dislocation. In this article, a case of fracture dislocation of S1 and S2 along with a suggested diagnostic test and treatment based on similar cases are presented. The case investigates a 14-year-old boy who entered the hospital one week after a car accident that knocked him to the ground in crawling position and a rack fell down on his body. Pain and tenderness in the sacral region and a fracture in the left leg were notable--we detected incomplete bilateral palsy of L5, S1 and S2 roots. In radiographs of the spine fracture dislocation of S1, the sacral fracture was seen. The treatment included a skeletal traction with a halo over the patient’s head and two femoral pins. After one week, another surgery was performed in order to stabilize and reduce the fracture, and we employed a posterior approach with CD and a pedicular screw. After two years of follow-up, the fracture is completely cured without any loss of reduction.

Keywords: adolescent, fracture in adolescent, fracture dislocation, sacrum

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1880 Stress Intensity Factor for Dynamic Cracking of Composite Material by X-FEM Method

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Hamad, H. Kebir

Abstract:

The work involves develops attended by a numerical execution of the eXtend Finite Element Method premises a measurement by the fracture process cracked so many cracked plates an application will be processed for the calculation of the stress intensity factor SIF. In the first we give in statically part the distribution of stress, displacement field and strain of composite plate in two cases uncrack/edge crack, also in dynamical part the first six modes shape. Secondly, we calculate Stress Intensity Factor SIF for different orientation angle θ of central crack with length (2a=0.4mm) in plan strain condition, KI and KII are obtained for mode I and mode II respectively using X-FEM method. Finally from crack inclined involving mixed modes results, the comparison we chose dangerous inclination and the best crack angle when K is minimal.

Keywords: stress intensity factor (SIF), crack orientation, glass/epoxy, natural frequencies, X-FEM

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1879 Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors in Rotating Disks Containing 3D Semi-Elliptical Cracks

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Seyed Mohammad Navid Ghoreishi

Abstract:

Initiation and propagation of cracks may cause catastrophic failures in rotating disks, and hence determination of fracture parameter in rotating disks under the different working condition is very important issue. In this paper, a comprehensive study of stress intensity factors in rotating disks containing 3D semi-elliptical cracks under the different working condition is investigated. In this regard, after verification of modeling and analytical procedure, the effects of mechanical properties, rotational velocity, and orientation of cracks on Stress Intensity Factors (SIF) in rotating disks under centrifugal loading are investigated. Also, the effects of using composite patch in reduction of SIF in rotating disks are studied. By that way, the effects of patching design variables like mechanical properties, thickness, and ply angle are investigated individually.

Keywords: stress intensity factor, semi-elliptical crack, rotating disk, finite element analysis (FEA)

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1878 Socio-Economic Problems in Treatment of Non-Union Both Bones Fracture of the Leg: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Kanojia

Abstract:

Treatment of fracture both bones of leg following trauma is done intially at nearby primary health care center.primary management for shock,pain,control of bleeding,plaster application. These are treated for primay fixation of fracture, debridment of wound. Then, they were refered to tertiary care where they were again and planned for further treatment. This leads to loss of lot of time, money, job, etc.

Keywords: fracture both bones leg, non-union, ilizarov, cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
1877 Keying Effect During Fracture of Stainless Steel

Authors: Farej Ahmed Emhmmed

Abstract:

Fracture of duplex stainless steels (DSS) was investigated in air and in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Tow sets of fatigued specimens were heat treated at 475ºC for different times and pulled to failure either in air or after kept in 3.5% NaCl with polarization of -900 mV/ SCE. Fracture took place in general by ferrite cleavage and austenite ductile fracture in transgranular mode. Specimens measured stiffness (Ms) was affected by the aging time, with higher values measured for specimens aged for longer times. Microstructural features played a role in "blocking" the crack propagation process leading to lower the CTOD values specially for specimens aged for short times. Unbroken ligaments/ austenite were observed at the crack wake. These features may exerted a bridging stress, blocking effect, at the crack tip giving resistance to the crack propagation process i.e the crack mouth opening was reduced. Higher stress intensity factor Kıc values were observed with increased amounts of crack growth suggesting longer zone of unbroken ligaments in the crack wake. The bridging zone was typically several mm in length. Attempt to model the bridge stress was suggested to understand the role of ligaments/unbroken austenite in increasing the fracture toughness factor.

Keywords: stainless steels, fracture toughness, crack keying effect, ligaments

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1876 Development of an Image-Based Biomechanical Model for Assessment of Hip Fracture Risk

Authors: Masoud Nasiri Sarvi, Yunhua Luo

Abstract:

Low-trauma hip fracture, usually caused by fall from standing height, has become a main source of morbidity and mortality for the elderly. Factors affecting hip fracture include sex, race, age, body weight, height, body mass distribution, etc., and thus, hip fracture risk in fall differs widely from subject to subject. It is therefore necessary to develop a subject-specific biomechanical model to predict hip fracture risk. The objective of this study is to develop a two-level, image-based, subject-specific biomechanical model consisting of a whole-body dynamics model and a proximal-femur finite element (FE) model for more accurately assessing the risk of hip fracture in lateral falls. Required information for constructing the model is extracted from a whole-body and a hip DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) image of the subject. The proposed model considers all parameters subject-specifically, which will provide a fast, accurate, and non-expensive method for predicting hip fracture risk.

Keywords: bone mineral density, hip fracture risk, impact force, sideways falls

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1875 Fracture Energy Corresponding to the Puncture/Cutting of Nitrile Rubber by Pointed Blades

Authors: Ennouri Triki, Toan Vu-Khanh

Abstract:

Resistance to combined puncture/cutting by pointed blades is an important property of gloves materials. The purpose of this study is to propose an approach derived from the fracture mechanics theory to calculate the fracture energy associated to the puncture/cutting of nitrile rubber. The proposed approach is also based on the application of a sample pre-strained during the puncture/cutting test in order to remove the contribution of friction. It was validated with two different pointed blade angles of 22.5° and 35°. Results show that the applied total fracture energy corresponding to puncture/cutting is controlled by three energies, one is the fracture energy or the intrinsic strength of the material, the other reflects the friction energy between a pointed blade and the material. For an applied pre-strain energy (or tearing energy) of high value, the friction energy is completely removed. Without friction, the total fracture energy is constant. In that case, the fracture contribution of the tearing energy is marginal. Growth of the crack is thus completely caused by the puncture/cutting by a pointed blade. Finally, results suggest that the value of the fracture energy corresponding to puncture/cutting by pointed blades is obtained at a frictional contribution of zero.

Keywords: elastomer, energy, fracture, friction, pointed blades

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1874 Actual Fracture Length Determination Using a Technique for Shale Fracturing Data Analysis in Real Time

Authors: M. Wigwe, M. Y Soloman, E. Pirayesh, R. Eghorieta, N. Stegent

Abstract:

The moving reference point (MRP) technique has been used in the analyses of the first three stages of two fracturing jobs. The results obtained verify the proposition that a hydraulic fracture in shale grows in spurts rather than in a continuous pattern as originally interpreted by Nolte-Smith technique. Rather than a continuous Mode I fracture that is followed by Mode II, III or IV fractures, these fracture modes could alternate throughout the pumping period. It is also shown that the Nolte-Smith time parameter plot can be very helpful in identifying the presence of natural fractures that have been intersected by the hydraulic fracture. In addition, with the aid of a fracture length-time plot generated from any fracture simulation that matches the data, the distance from the wellbore to the natural fractures, which also translates to the actual fracture length for the stage, can be determined. An algorithm for this technique is developed. This procedure was used for the first 9 minutes of the simulated frac job data. It was observed that after 7mins, the actual fracture length is about 150ft, instead of 250ft predicted by the simulator output. This difference gets larger as the analysis proceeds.

Keywords: shale, fracturing, reservoir, simulation, frac-length, moving-reference-point

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1873 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing with Targeted Delivery of Tocotrienol in Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Isa Naina Mohamed, Nurul Izzah Ibrahim, Norazlina Mohamed

Abstract:

Studies have shown that oral tocotrienol, a potent vitamin E, promoted fracture healing of osteoporotic bone. In this study, tocotrienol was combined with a polymer carrier (PLGA), and injected to the fracture site. The slow and constant release of tocotrienol particles would promote fracture healing of post-menopausal osteoporosis rat model. Fracture healing was assessed using micro-CT. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomised or sham-operated and the left tibiae were fractured and fixed with plate and screws. The fractures were created at the upper third of the left tibiae. The rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated (SO), ovariectomised-control (OVxC) and PLGA-incorporated tocotrienol treatment (OVx + TT) groups. After 4 weeks, the OVx + TT group showed significantly better callus fracture healing than the OVxC group. In conclusion, tocotrienol-incorporated PLGA was able to promote fracture healing of osteoporotic bone.

Keywords: osteoporosis, micro-CT, tocotrienol, PLGA, fracture

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1872 Failure Criterion for Mixed Mode Fracture of Cracked Wood Specimens

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Seyed Mohammad Navid Ghoreishi

Abstract:

Investigation of fracture of wood components can prevent from catastrophic failures. Created fracture process zone (FPZ) in crack tip vicinity has important effect on failure of cracked composite materials. In this paper, a failure criterion for fracture investigation of cracked wood specimens under mixed mode I/II loading is presented. This criterion is based on maximum strain energy release rate and material nonlinearity in the vicinity of crack tip due to presence of microcracks. Verification of results with available experimental data proves the coincidence of the proposed criterion with the nature of fracture of wood. To simplify the estimation of nonlinear properties of FPZ, a damage factor is also introduced for engineering and application purposes.

Keywords: fracture criterion, mixed mode loading, damage zone, micro cracks

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1871 Mixed Mode Fracture Analyses Using Finite Element Method of Edge Cracked Heavy Spinning Annulus Pulley

Authors: Bijit Kalita, K. V. N. Surendra

Abstract:

Rotating disk is one of the most indispensable parts of a rotating machine. Rotating disk has found many applications in the diverging field of science and technology. In this paper, we have taken into consideration the problem of a heavy spinning disk mounted on a rotor system acted upon by boundary traction. Finite element modelling is used at various loading condition to determine the mixed mode stress intensity factors. The effect of combined shear and normal traction on the boundary is incorporated in the analysis under the action of gravity. The variation near the crack tip is characterized in terms of the stress intensity factor (SIF) with an aim to find the SIF for a wide range of parameters. The results of the finite element analyses carried out on the compressed disk of a belt pulley arrangement using fracture mechanics concepts are shown. A total of hundred cases of the problem are solved for each of the variations in loading arc parameter and crack orientation using finite element models of the disc under compression. All models were prepared and analyzed for the uncracked disk, disk with a single crack at different orientation emanating from shaft hole as well as for a disc with pair of cracks emerging from the same center hole. Curves are plotted for various loading conditions. Finally, crack propagation paths are determined using kink angle concepts.

Keywords: crack-tip deformations, static loading, stress concentration, stress intensity factor

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1870 Influence of Specimen Geometry (10*10*40), (12*12*60) and (5*20*120), on Determination of Toughness of Concrete Measurement of Critical Stress Intensity Factor: A Comparative Study

Authors: M. Benzerara, B. Redjel, B. Kebaili

Abstract:

The cracking of the concrete is a more crucial problem with the development of the complex structures related to technological progress. The projections in the knowledge of the breaking process make it possible today for better prevention of the risk of the fracture. The breaking strength brutal of a quasi-fragile material like the concrete called Toughness is measured by a breaking value of the factor of the intensity of the constraints K1C for which the crack is propagated, it is an intrinsic property of the material. Many studies reported in the literature treating of the concrete were carried out on specimens which are in fact inadequate compared to the intrinsic characteristic to identify. We started from this established fact, in order to compare the evolution of the parameter of toughness K1C measured by calling upon ordinary concrete specimens of three prismatic geometries different (10*10*40) Cm3, (12*12*60) Cm3 & (5*20*120) Cm3 containing from the side notches various depths simulating of the cracks was set up.The notches are carried out using triangular pyramidal plates into manufactured out of sheet coated placed at the center of the specimens at the time of the casting, then withdrawn to leave the trace of a crack. The tests are carried out in 3 points bending test in mode 1 of fracture, by using the techniques of mechanical fracture. The evolution of the parameter of toughness K1C measured with the three geometries specimens gives almost the same results. They are acceptable and return in the beach of the results determined by various researchers (toughness of the ordinary concrete turns to the turn of the 1 MPa √m). These results inform us about the presence of an economy on the level of the geometry specimen (5*20*120) Cm3, therefore, to use plates specimens later if one wants to master the toughness of this material complexes, astonishing but always essential that is the concrete.

Keywords: concrete, fissure, specimen, toughness

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1869 Computation of Thermal Stress Intensity Factor for Bonded Composite Repairs in Aircraft Structures

Authors: Fayçal Benyahia, Abdelmohsen Albedah, Bel Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra

Abstract:

In this study the Finite element method is used to analyse the effect of the thermal residual stresses resulting from adhesive curing on the performances of the bonded composite repair in aircraft structures. The stress intensity factor at the crack tip is chosen as fracture criterion in order to estimate the repair performances. The obtained results show that the presence of the thermal residual stresses reduces considerably the repair performances and consequently decreases the fatigue life of cracked structures. The effects of the curing temperature, the adhesive properties and the adhesive thickness on the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) variation with thermal stresses are also analysed.

Keywords: bonded composite repair, residual stress, adhesion, stress transfer, finite element analysis

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1868 Research on the Feasibility of Evaluating Low-Temperature Cracking Performance of Asphalt Mixture Using Fracture Energy

Authors: Tao Yang, Yongli Zhao

Abstract:

Low-temperature cracking is one of the major challenges for asphalt pavement in the cold region. Fracture energy could determine from various test methods, which is a commonly used parameter to evaluate the low-temperature cracking resistance of asphalt mixture. However, the feasibility of evaluating the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixture using fracture energy is not investigated comprehensively. This paper aims to verify whether fracture energy is an appropriate parameter to evaluate the low-temperature cracking performance. To achieve this goal, this paper compared the test results of thermal stress restrained specimen test (TSRST) and semi-circular bending test (SCB) of asphalt mixture with different types of aggregate, TSRST and indirect tensile test (IDT) of asphalt mixture with different additives, and single-edge notched beam test (SENB) and TSRST of asphalt mixture with different asphalt. Finally, the correlation between in-suit cracking performance and fracture energy was surveyed. The experimental results showed the evaluation result of critical cracking temperature and fracture energy are not always consistent; the in-suit cracking performance is also not correlated well with fracture energy. These results indicated that it is not feasible to evaluate low-temperature performance by fracture energy. Then, the composition of fracture energy of TSRST, SCB, disk-shaped compact tension test (DCT), three-point bending test (3PB) and IDT was analyzed. The result showed: the area of thermal stress versus temperature curve is the multiple of fracture energy and could be used to represent fracture energy of TSRST, as the multiple is nearly equal among different asphalt mixtures for a specific specimen; the fracture energy, determined from TSRST, SCB, DCT, 3PB, SENB and IDT, is mainly the surface energy that forms the fracture face; fracture energy is inappropriate to evaluate the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixture, as the relaxation/viscous performance is not considered; if the fracture energy was used, it is recommended to combine this parameter with an index characterizing the relaxation or creep performance of asphalt mixture.

Keywords: asphalt pavement, cold region, critical cracking temperature, fracture energy, low-temperature cracking

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1867 Prediction and Reduction of Cracking Issue in Precision Forging of Engine Valves Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Xi Yang, Bulent Chavdar, Alan Vonseggern, Taylan Altan

Abstract:

Fracture in hot precision forging of engine valves was investigated in this paper. The entire valve forging procedure was described and the possible cause of the fracture was proposed. Finite Element simulation was conducted for the forging process, with commercial Finite Element code DEFORMTM. The effects of material properties, the effect of strain rate and temperature were considered in the FE simulation. Two fracture criteria were discussed and compared, based on the accuracy and reliability of the FE simulation results. The selected criterion predicted the fracture location and shows the trend of damage increasing with good accuracy, which matches the experimental observation. Additional modification of the punch shapes was proposed to further reduce the tendency of fracture in forging. Finite Element comparison shows a great potential of such application in the mass production.

Keywords: hotforging, engine valve, fracture, tooling

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1866 Numerical Investigation for Ductile Fracture of an Aluminium Alloy 6061 T-6: Assessment of Critical J-Integral

Authors: R. Bensaada, M. Almansba, M. Ould Ouali, R. Ferhoum, N. E. Hannachi

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to simulate the ductile fracture of SEN specimens in aluminium alloy. The assessment of fracture toughness is performed with the calculation of Jc (the critical value of J-Integral) through the resistance curves. The study is done using finite element code calculation ABAQUSTM including an elastic plastic with damage model of material’s behaviour. The procedure involves specimens of four different thicknesses and four ligament sizes for every thickness. The material of study is an aluminium alloy 6061-T6 for which the necessary parameters to complete the study are given. We found the same results for the same specimen’s thickness and for different ligament sizes when the fracture criterion is evaluated.

Keywords: j-integral, critical-j, damage, fracture toughness

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1865 Study on Effect of Reverse Cyclic Loading on Fracture Resistance Curve of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Jaegu Choi, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Byungwoo Moon

Abstract:

Since massive earthquakes in the world have been reported recently, the safety of nuclear power plants for seismic loading has become a significant issue. Seismic loading is the reverse cyclic loading, consisting of repeated tensile and compression by longitudinal and transverse wave. Up to this time, the study on characteristics of fracture toughness under reverse cyclic loading has been unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the fracture toughness under reverse cyclic load for the integrity estimation of nuclear power plants under seismic load. Fracture resistance (J-R) curves, which are used for determination of fracture toughness or integrity estimation in terms of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, can be derived by the fracture resistance test using single specimen technique. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of reverse cyclic loading on a fracture resistance curve of ESG specimen, having a similar stress gradient compared to the crack surface of the real pipe. For this, we carried out the fracture toughness test under the reverse cyclic loading, while changing incremental plastic displacement. Test results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with a decrease of the incremental plastic displacement.

Keywords: reverse cyclic loading, j-r curve, ESG specimen, incremental plastic displacement

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1864 The Study on Mechanical Properties of Graphene Using Molecular Mechanics

Authors: I-Ling Chang, Jer-An Chen

Abstract:

The elastic properties and fracture of two-dimensional graphene were calculated purely from the atomic bonding (stretching and bending) based on molecular mechanics method. Considering the representative unit cell of graphene under various loading conditions, the deformations of carbon bonds and the variations of the interlayer distance could be realized numerically under the geometry constraints and minimum energy assumption. In elastic region, it was found that graphene was in-plane isotropic. Meanwhile, the in-plane deformation of the representative unit cell is not uniform along armchair direction due to the discrete and non-uniform distributions of the atoms. The fracture of graphene could be predicted using fracture criteria based on the critical bond length, over which the bond would break. It was noticed that the fracture behavior were directional dependent, which was consistent with molecular dynamics simulation results.

Keywords: energy minimization, fracture, graphene, molecular mechanics

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1863 Fracture Strength of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Plasma Sprayed Aluminum Oxide Coating

Authors: Anup Kumar Keshri, Arvind Agarwal

Abstract:

Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum oxide (Al2O3) composite coating was synthesized on the steel substrate using plasma spraying technique. Three different compositions of coating such as Al2O3, Al2O¬3-4 wt. % CNT and Al2O3-8 wt. % CNT were synthesized and the fracture strength was determined using the four point bend test. Uniform dispersion of CNTs over Al2O3 powder particle was successfully achieved. With increasing CNT content, porosity in the coating showed decreasing trend and hence contributed towards enhanced mechanical properties such as hardness (~12% increased) and elastic modulus (~34 % increased). Fracture strength of the coating was found to be increasing with the CNT additions. By reinforcement of 8 wt. % of CNT, fracture strength increased by ~2.5 times. The improvement in fracture strength of Al2O3-CNT coating was attributed to three competitive phenomena viz. (i) lower porosity (ii) higher hardness and elastic modulus (iii) CNT bridging between splats.

Keywords: aluminum oxide, carbon nanotube, fracture strength, plasma spraying

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1862 Phenomenological Ductile Fracture Criteria Applied to the Cutting Process

Authors: František Šebek, Petr Kubík, Jindřich Petruška, Jiří Hůlka

Abstract:

Present study is aimed on the cutting process of circular cross-section rods where the fracture is used to separate one rod into two pieces. Incorporating the phenomenological ductile fracture model into the explicit formulation of finite element method, the process can be analyzed without the necessity of realizing too many real experiments which could be expensive in case of repetitive testing in different conditions. In the present paper, the steel AISI 1045 was examined and the tensile tests of smooth and notched cylindrical bars were conducted together with biaxial testing of the notched tube specimens to calibrate material constants of selected phenomenological ductile fracture models. These were implemented into the Abaqus/Explicit through user subroutine VUMAT and used for cutting process simulation. As the calibration process is based on variables which cannot be obtained directly from experiments, numerical simulations of fracture tests are inevitable part of the calibration. Finally, experiments regarding the cutting process were carried out and predictive capability of selected fracture models is discussed. Concluding remarks then make the summary of gained experience both with the calibration and application of particular ductile fracture criteria.

Keywords: ductile fracture, phenomenological criteria, cutting process, explicit formulation, AISI 1045 steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 369