Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 79

Search results for: Malak Abou El-Khair

79 A Comparative Study of Microstructure, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of A359 Composites Reinforced with SiC, Si3N4 and AlN Particles

Authors: Essam Shalaby, Alexander Churyumov, Malak Abou El-Khair, Atef Daoud

Abstract:

A comparative study of the thermal and mechanical behavior of squeezed A359 composites containing 5, 10 and 15 wt.% SiC, (SiC+ Si3N4) and AlN particulates was investigated. Stir followed by squeeze casting techniques are used to produce A359 composites. It was noticed that, A359/AlN composites have high thermal conductivity as compared to A359 alloy and even to A359/SiC or A359/(SiC+Si3N4) composites. Microstructures of the composites have shown homogeneous and even distribution of reinforcements within the matrix. Interfacial reactions between particles and matrix were investigated using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The presence of particles led not only to increase peak hardness of the composites but also to accelerate the aging kinetics. As compared with A359 matrix alloy, compression test of the composites has exhibited a significant increase in the yield and the ultimate compressive strengths with a relative reduction in the failure strain. Those light weight composites have a high potential to be used for automotive and aerospace applications.

Keywords: metal-matrix composite, squeeze, microstructure, thermal conductivity, compressive properties

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78 Protein-Starch-Potassium Iodide Composite as a Sensor for Chlorine in Water

Authors: S. Mowafi, A. Abou El-Kheir, M. Abou Taleb, H. El-Sayed

Abstract:

Two proteinic biopolymers; namely keratin and sericin, were extracted from their respective natural resources by simple appropriate methods. The said proteins were dissolved in the appropriate solvents followed by regeneration in a form of film polyvinyl alcohol. Protein-starch-potassium iodide (PSPI) composite was prepared by anchoring starch and potassium iodide mixture onto the film surface using appropriate polymeric material. The possibility of using PSPI composite for determination of the concentration of chlorine ions in domestic as well as industrial water was examined. The concentration of chlorine in water was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the intensity of blue colour of formed between starch and the released iodine obtained by interaction of potassium iodide chlorine in the tested water sample.

Keywords: chlorine, protein, potassium iodide, water

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77 Protein-Thiocyanate Composite as a Sensor for Iron III Cations

Authors: Hosam El-Sayed, Amira Abou El-Kheir, Salwa Mowafi, Marwa Abou Taleb

Abstract:

Two proteinic biopolymers; namely keratin and sericin, were extracted from their respective natural resources by simple appropriate methods. The said proteins were dissolved in the appropriate solvents followed by regeneration in a form of film polyvinyl alcohol. Proteinium thiocyanate (PTC) composite was prepared by reaction of a regenerated film with potassium thiocyanate in acid medium. In another experiment, the said acidified proteins were reacted with potassium thiocyante before dissolution and regeneration in a form of PTC composite. The possibility of using PTC composite for determination of the concentration of iron III ions in domestic as well as industrial water was examined. The concentration of iron III cations in water was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the intensity of blood red colour of iron III thiocyanate obtained by interaction of PTC with iron III cation in the tested water sample.

Keywords: iron III cations, protein, sensor, thiocyanate, water

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76 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

Abstract:

A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC which prepared from cellulose of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp. Biofunctionlization of hydrogel was achieved through loading of silver nanoparticles AgNPs in to the prepared hydrogel. The antimicrobial activity of the loaded silver hydrogel against G-ve, and G+ve, and candida was demonstrated.

Keywords: cellulose, carboxymethyle cellulose, olive pulp, hydrogel

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75 Effect of Nitrogen and/or Bio-Fertilizer on the Yield, Total Flavonoids, Carbohydrate Contents, Essential Oil Quantity and Constituents of Dill Plants

Authors: Mohammed S. Aly, Abou-Zeid N. El-Shahat, Nabila Y. Naguib, Huussie A. Said-Al Ahl, Atef M. Zakaria, Mohamed A. Abou Dahab

Abstract:

This study was conducted during two successive seasons of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 to evaluate the response of Anethum graveolens L. plants to nitrogen fertilizer with or without bio-fertilizer on fruits yield, total flavonoids and carbohydrates content, essential oil yield and constituents. Results cleared that the treatment of 60 Kg N/feddan without and with bio-fertilizer gave the highest umbels number per plant through the two seasons and these increments were significant in comparison with control plants. Meanwhile, fruits weight (g/plant) showed significant increase with the treatments of nitrogen fertilizers alone and combined with bio-fertilizers compared with control plants in the first and second season. Maximum increments were resulted with the previous treatment (60 Kg N/fed). Fruits yield (Kg/fed) revealed the same trend of fruits weight (g/plant). Total flavonoids contents were significantly increased with all of used treatments. Maximum increase was noticed with bio-fertilizers combined with 60 Kg N/fed during two seasons. Total carbohydrate contents showed significant increase with applied nitrogen fertilizers treatments as alone, meanwhile total carbohydrate contents were increased non-significantly with the other used treatments during the two seasons in comparison with control plants content. The treatment of bio-fertilizer and in most of nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly increased essential oil percentage, content and yield. The treatment of 60 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizer gave the best values. All identified compounds were observed in the essential oil of all treatments. The major compounds were limonene, carvone and dillapiole. The most effective fertilization on limonene content was 40 Kg N/fed and/or bio-fertilizers. Meanwhile 20 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizers increased carvone, but most of fertilization treatments except those of bio-fertlizers and 40 Kg N/fed increased dillapiole content.

Keywords: carbohydrates, dill, essential oil, fertilizer, flavonoids

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74 Its about Cortana, Microsoft’s Virtual Assistant

Authors: Aya Idriss, Esraa Othman, Lujain Malak

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence is the emulation of human intelligence processes by machines, particularly computer systems that act logically. Some of the specific applications of AI include natural language processing, speech recognition, and machine vision. Cortana is a virtual assistant and she’s an example of an AI Application. Microsoft made it possible for this app to be accessed not only on laptops and PCs but can be downloaded on mobile phones and used as a virtual assistant which was a huge success. Cortana can offer a lot apart from the basic orders such as setting alarms and marking the calendar. Its capabilities spread past that, for example, it provides us with listening to music and podcasts on the go, managing my to-do list and emails, connecting with my contacts hands-free by simply just telling the virtual assistant to call somebody, gives me instant answers and so on. A questionnaire was sent online to numerous friends and family members to perform the study, which is critical in evaluating Cortana's recognition capacity and the majority of the answers were in favor of Cortana’s capabilities. The results of the questionnaire assisted us in determining the level of Cortana's skills.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, Cortana, AI, abstract

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73 Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan / Polyacrylic Acid / Ag-nanoparticles Composite Membranes

Authors: Abdel-Mohdy, A. Abou-Okeil, S. El-Sabagh, S. M. El-Sawy

Abstract:

Chitosan polyacrylic acid composite membranes were prepared by a bulk polymerization method in the presence of N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (crosslinker) and ammonium persulphate as initiator. Membranes prepared from this copolymer in presence and absence of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by measuring mechanical and physical properties, water up-take and antibacterial properties. The results obtained indicated that the prepared membranes have antibacterial properties which increases with adding Ag nanoparticles.

Keywords: Ag nanoparticles , antimicrobial, Membrane, composites, mechanical properties, physical properties

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72 Violence and Unintentional Injuries among Secondary School Students in Jordan

Authors: Malakeh Zuhdi Malak, Mahmoud Taher Kalaldeh

Abstract:

In Jordan, no available data exists regarding violence and unintentional injuries among secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The purpose of this study was to assess the violence and unintentional injuries among those students, and to compare these two behaviors between male and female students. A descriptive cross-sectional design was carried out on randomly selected eight comprehensive secondary schools (four schools for females and four schools for males) from the public school educational directorate located in Amman. A modified Arabic version of the General School Health Survey questionnaire was used to measure violence and unintentional injuries. A sample of 750 secondary school students was studied. The findings showed that 26.8 % of students had been physically attacked. Overall, 43.3 % of students had been involved in a physical fight and 20.1% of them had been bullied. Overall, 45.3% of students were seriously injured. There was a difference between male and female students regarding to physical attack, physical fight, and serious injuries. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop effective training program in life skills for students that functions to reduce risk-taking behaviors that often leading to violence and unintentional injuries.

Keywords: secondary school students, violence, unintentional injuries, bullying

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71 Antimicrobial and Haemostatic Effect of Chitosan/Polyacrylic Acid Hybrid Membranes

Authors: F. A. Abdel-Mohdy, M. K. El-Bisi, A. Abou-Okeil, A. A. Sleem, S. El-Sabbagh, Kawther El-Shafei, Hoda S. El-Sayed, S. M. ElSawy

Abstract:

Chitosan/ polyacrylic acid membranes containing different amounts of Al2(SO4) and/or TiO2 were prepared. The prepared membranes were characterized by measuring mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation at break, swelling properties, antimicrobial properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and blood clotting. The results obtained indicate that the presence of Al2(SO4) and TiO2 in the membrane formulations have an incremental effect on the antimicrobial properties and blood clotting in albino rate.

Keywords: Chitosan, acrylic acid, antibacterial, blood clotting, membrane

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70 Plant Cell Culture to Produce Valuable Natural Products

Authors: Jehad Dumireih, Malak Dmirieh, Michael Wink

Abstract:

The present work is aimed to use plant cell suspension cultures of Crataegus monogyna for biosynthesis of valuable natural products by using quercetin as an inexpensive precursor. Suspension cell cultures of C. monogyna were established by using Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1 mg/L kinetin. Cells were harvested from the cultures and extracted by using methanol and ethyl acetate; then the extracts were used for the identification of isoquercetin by HPLC and by mass spectrometry. The incubation of the cells with 0.24 mM quercetin for one week resulted in an 16 fold increase of isoquercetin biosynthesis; the growth rate of the cells increased by 20%. Moreover, the biosynthesis of isoquercetin was enhanced by 40% when we divided the added quercetin into three portions each one with concentration 0.12 mM supplied at 3 days intervals. In addition, we didn’t find any positive effects of adding different concentrations the precursors phenylalanine (0.2 mM) and galactose to the cell cultures. In conclusion, the efficiency of the biotransformation of quercetin into isoquercetin depended on the concentration quercetin, its incubation time and the way of its administration. The results of the present work suggest that the biotechnological methods such as cell suspension cultures could be successfully used to obtain highly valuable natural product starting from inexpensive compound.

Keywords: biosynthesis, biotransformation, Crataegus, isoquercetin

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69 Digitalized Public Sector Practices: Opportunities for Open Innovation in Rwanda

Authors: Reem Abou Refaie, Christoph Meinel

Abstract:

The paper explores the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the internal as well as external digitalized work practices of public service providers as part of a Public-Private Partnership Model. It focuses on the effect of uncertainty on generating Open Innovation practices. Our inquiry relies on semi-structured interviews (n=14) from a case study of Rwanda’s Public Service Delivery System in the context of research cooperation with IremboGov, the country’s One-Stop-Shop Platform for public services. It presents four propositions on harnessing opportunities for OI in the context of the public sector beyond the pandemic response. Practitioners can find characterizations of OI opportunities and gain insights on fostering OI in Public Sector Organizations.

Keywords: open innovation, digital transformation, public sector, Rwanda

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68 Application of Neural Petri Net to Electric Control System Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Sadiq J. Abou-Loukh

Abstract:

The present work deals with implementation of Petri nets, which own the perfect ability of modeling, are used to establish a fault diagnosis model. Fault diagnosis of a control system received considerable attention in the last decades. The formalism of representing neural networks based on Petri nets has been presented. Neural Petri Net (NPN) reasoning model is investigated and developed for the fault diagnosis process of electric control system. The proposed NPN has the characteristics of easy establishment and high efficiency, and fault status within the system can be described clearly when compared with traditional testing methods. The proposed system is tested and the simulation results are given. The implementation explains the advantages of using NPN method and can be used as a guide for different online applications.

Keywords: petri net, neural petri net, electric control system, fault diagnosis

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67 Radiation Hardness Materials Article Review

Authors: S. Abou El-Azm, U. Kruchonak, M. Gostkin, A. Guskov, A. Zhemchugov

Abstract:

Semiconductor detectors are widely used in nuclear physics and high-energy physics experiments. The application of semiconductor detectors could be limited by their ultimate radiation resistance. The increase of radiation defects concentration leads to significant degradation of the working parameters of semiconductor detectors. The investigation of radiation defects properties in order to enhance the radiation hardness of semiconductor detectors is an important task for the successful implementation of a number of nuclear physics experiments; we presented some information about radiation hardness materials like diamond, sapphire and CdTe. Also, the results of measurements I-V characteristics, charge collection efficiency and its dependence on the bias voltage for different doses of high resistivity (GaAs: Cr) and Si at LINAC-200 accelerator and reactor IBR-2 are presented.

Keywords: semiconductor detectors, radiation hardness, GaAs, Si, CCE, I-V, C-V

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66 Simplified Linearized Layering Method for Stress Intensity Factor Determination

Authors: Jeries J. Abou-Hanna, Bradley Storm

Abstract:

This paper looks to reduce the complexity of determining stress intensity factors while maintaining high levels of accuracy by the use of a linearized layering approach. Many techniques for stress intensity factor determination exist, but they can be limited by conservative results, requiring too many user parameters, or by being too computationally intensive. Multiple notch geometries with various crack lengths were investigated in this study to better understand the effectiveness of the proposed method. By linearizing the average stresses in radial layers around the crack tip, stress intensity factors were found to have error ranging from -10.03% to 8.94% when compared to analytically exact solutions. This approach proved to be a robust and efficient method of accurately determining stress intensity factors.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, finite element method, stress intensity factor, stress linearization

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
65 An Automated Business Process Management for Smart Medical Records

Authors: K. Malak, A. Nourah, S.Liyakathunisa

Abstract:

Nowadays, healthcare services are facing many challenges since they are becoming more complex and more needed. Every detail of a patient’s interactions with health care providers is maintained in Electronic Health Records (ECR) and Healthcare information systems (HIS). However, most of the existing systems are often focused on documenting what happens in manual health care process, rather than providing the highest quality patient care. Healthcare business processes and stakeholders can no longer rely on manual processes, to provide better patient care and efficient utilization of resources, Healthcare processes must be automated wherever it is possible. In this research, a detail survey and analysis is performed on the existing health care systems in Saudi Arabia, and an automated smart medical healthcare business process model is proposed. The business process management methods and rules are followed in discovering, collecting information, analysis, redesign, implementation and performance improvement analysis in terms of time and cost. From the simulation results, it is evident that our proposed smart medical records system can improve the quality of the service by reducing the time and cost and increasing efficiency

Keywords: business process management, electronic health records, efficiency, cost, time

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
64 Multi Agent Based Pre-Hospital Emergency Management Architecture

Authors: Jaleh Shoshtarian Malak, Niloofar Mohamadzadeh

Abstract:

Managing pre-hospital emergency patients requires real-time practices and efficient resource utilization. Since we are facing a distributed Network of healthcare providers, services and applications choosing the right resources and treatment protocol considering patient situation is a critical task. Delivering care to emergency patients at right time and with the suitable treatment settings can save ones live and prevent further complication. In recent years Multi Agent Systems (MAS) introduced great solutions to deal with real-time, distributed and complicated problems. In this paper we propose a multi agent based pre-hospital emergency management architecture in order to manage coordination, collaboration, treatment protocol and healthcare provider selection between different parties in pre-hospital emergency in a self-organizing manner. We used AnyLogic Agent Based Modeling (ABM) tool in order to simulate our proposed architecture. We have analyzed and described the functionality of EMS center, Ambulance, Consultation Center, EHR Repository and Quality of Care Monitoring as main collaborating agents. Future work includes implementation of the proposed architecture and evaluation of its impact on patient quality of care improvement.

Keywords: multi agent systems, pre-hospital emergency, simulation, software architecture

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63 Human Behavior Modeling in Video Surveillance of Conference Halls

Authors: Nour Charara, Hussein Charara, Omar Abou Khaled, Hani Abdallah, Elena Mugellini

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a human behavior modeling approach in videos scenes. This approach is used to model the normal behaviors in the conference halls. We exploited the Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis technique (PLSA), using the 'Bag-of-Terms' paradigm, as a tool for exploring video data to learn the model by grouping similar activities. Our term vocabulary consists of 3D spatio-temporal patch groups assigned by the direction of motion. Our video representation ensures the spatial information, the object trajectory, and the motion. The main importance of this approach is that it can be adapted to detect abnormal behaviors in order to ensure and enhance human security.

Keywords: activity modeling, clustering, PLSA, video representation

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62 Voice over IP Quality of Service Evaluation for Mobile Ad Hoc Network in an Indoor Environment for Different Voice Codecs

Authors: Lina Abou Haibeh, Nadir Hakem, Ousama Abu Safia

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance and quality of Voice over IP (VoIP) calls carried over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) which has a number of SIP nodes registered on a SIP Proxy are analyzed. The testing campaigns are carried out in an indoor corridor structure having a well-defined channel’s characteristics and model for the different voice codecs, G.711, G.727 and G.723.1. These voice codecs are commonly used in VoIP technology. The calls’ quality are evaluated using four Quality of Service (QoS) metrics, namely, mean opinion score (MOS), jitter, delay, and packet loss. The relationship between the wireless channel’s parameters and the optimum codec is well-established. According to the experimental results, the voice codec G.711 has the best performance for the proposed MANET topology

Keywords: wireless channel modelling, Voip, MANET, session initiation protocol (SIP), QoS

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61 Probabilistic Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Infinite Slopes

Authors: Assile Abou Diab, Shadi Najjar

Abstract:

Fiber-reinforcement is an effective soil improvement technique for applications involving the prevention of shallow failures on the slope face and the repair of existing slope failures. A typical application is the stabilization of cohesionless infinite slopes. The objective of this paper is to present a probabilistic, reliability-based methodology (based on Monte Carlo simulations) for the design of a practical fiber-reinforced cohesionless infinite slope, taking into consideration the impact of various sources of uncertainty. Recommendations are made regarding the required factors of safety that need to be used to achieve a given target reliability level. These factors of safety could differ from the traditional deterministic factor of safety.

Keywords: factor of safety, fiber reinforcement, infinite slope, reliability-based design, uncertainty

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60 Antecedents and Consequences of Social Media Adoption in Travel and Tourism: Evidence from Customers and Industry

Authors: Mohamed A. Abou-Shouk, Mahamoud M. Hewedi

Abstract:

This study extends technology acceptance model (TAM) to investigate the antecedents and consequences of social media adoption by tourists and travel agents. It compares their perceptions on social media adoption and its consequences. Online survey was addressed to tourists and travel agents for data collection purposes. Structural equation modelling was employed for analysis purposes. The findings revealed that the majority of tourists and travel agents involved in the study believe in the usefulness of social media adoption for travel planning and marketing purposes. They agree that adopting social media could change the attitude of tourists towards specific destination or attraction and influence their purchasing decisions. This study contributes to knowledge by extending TAM and provides some managerial implication to marketers.

Keywords: TAM, social media, travel and tourism, travel agents

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59 Potential Risk Factors Associated with Sole Hemorrhages Causing Lameness in Egyptian Water Buffaloes and Native Breed Cows

Authors: Waleed El-Said Abou El-Amaiem

Abstract:

Sole hemorrhages are considered as a main cause for sub clinical laminitis. In this study we aimed at discussing the most prominent risk factors associated with sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows. The final multivariate logistic regression model showed, a significant association between sub acute ruminal acidosis (P< 0.05), limb affected (P< 0.05) and weight (P< 0.05) and sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper to discuss the risk factors associated with sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows.

Keywords: lameness, buffalo, sole hemorrhages, breed cows

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58 Coffee Consumption: Predictors, Prevalence, Awareness, and Trend among Saudi University Students

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Hanan A. Alfawaz, Sobhy M. Yakout, Malak N. K. Khattak, Amani A. Alsaikhan, Areej A. Almousa, Taghreed A. Alsuwailem, Taghreed M. Almjlad, Nada A. Alamri, Sahar G. Alshammari, Nasser M. Al-Daghri

Abstract:

The consumption of coffee as a beverage is increasing in every part of the world. However, its excessive intake might exert negative effects. Our objective was to demonstrate the prevalence and awareness of coffee consumption among Saudi students and its determinants among this section of the population. Nine hundred thirty female students participated from various departments of King Saud University in a survey-based study using a face-to-face interview. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of coffee consumption (88.2%) among students in the Riyadh region. Certain situations such as exams were associated with increased frequency of coffee intake combined with unhealthy dietary habits of adding other ingredients such as sugar and spices in amount more than needed. Unmarried and fresh year students with high academic grades were associated with higher coffee consumption. The main determinants of coffee consumption among university students were high BMI and increased family income level. Continued awareness and basic knowledge, along with understanding the importance of reading food labels, should be provided to young generations. The university students must be cautioned to limit excessive coffee consumption and maintain healthy dietary habits.

Keywords: academic performance, BMI, coffee, health awareness

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
57 Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of Calcareous Soils in Arid Region

Authors: I. Goual, M. S. Goual, M. K. Gueddouda, Taïbi Saïd, Abou-Bekr Nabil, A. Ferhat

Abstract:

This paper presents the study of hydro mechanical behavior of this optimal mixture. A first experimental phase was carried out in order to find the optimal mixture. This showed that the material composed of 80% tuff and 20% calcareous sand provides the maximum mechanical strength. The second experimental phase concerns the study of the drying- wetting behavior of the optimal mixture was carried out on slurry samples and compacted samples at the MPO. Experimental results let to deduce the parameters necessary for the prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior of pavement formulated from tuff and calcareous sand mixtures, related to moisture. This optimal mixture satisfies the regulation rules and hence constitutes a good local eco-material, abundantly available, for the conception of pavements.

Keywords: tuff, sandy calcareous, road engineering, hydro mechanical behaviour, suction

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56 Performance of Stiffened Slender Built up Steel I-Columns

Authors: M. E. Abou-Hashem El Dib, M. K. Swailem, M. M. Metwally, A. I. El Awady

Abstract:

The present work illustrates a parametric study for the effect of stiffeners on the performance of slender built up steel I-columns. To achieve the desired analysis, finite element technique is used to develop nonlinear three-dimensional models representing the investigated columns. The finite element program (ANSYS 13.0) is used as a calculation tool for the necessary nonlinear analysis. A validation of the obtained numerical results is achieved. The considered parameters in the study are the column slenderness ratio and the horizontal stiffener's dimensions as well as the number of stiffeners. The dimensions of the stiffeners considered in the analysis are the stiffener width and the stiffener thickness. Numerical results signify a considerable effect of stiffeners on the performance and failure load of slender built up steel I-columns.

Keywords: columns, local buckling, slender, stiffener, thin walled section

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55 Robust Image Design Based Steganographic System

Authors: Sadiq J. Abou-Loukh, Hanan M. Habbi

Abstract:

This paper presents a steganography to hide the transmitted information without excite suspicious and also illustrates the level of secrecy that can be increased by using cryptography techniques. The proposed system has been implemented firstly by encrypted image file one time pad key and secondly encrypted message that hidden to perform encryption followed by image embedding. Then the new image file will be created from the original image by using four triangles operation, the new image is processed by one of two image processing techniques. The proposed two processing techniques are thresholding and differential predictive coding (DPC). Afterwards, encryption or decryption keys are generated by functional key generator. The generator key is used one time only. Encrypted text will be hidden in the places that are not used for image processing and key generation system has high embedding rate (0.1875 character/pixel) for true color image (24 bit depth).

Keywords: encryption, thresholding, differential predictive coding, four triangles operation

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54 Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of a Tuff and Calcareous Sand Mixture for Use in Pavement in Arid Region

Authors: I. Goual, M. S. Goual, M. K. Gueddouda, Taïbi Saïd, Abou-Bekr Nabil, A. Ferhat

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to study the hydro-mechanical behavior of a tuff and calcareous sand mixture. A first experimental phase was carried out in order to find the optimal mixture. This showed that the material composed of 80% tuff and 20% calcareous sand provides the maximum mechanical strength. The second experimental phase concerns the study of the drying-wetting behavior of the optimal mixture was carried out on slurry samples and compacted samples at the MPO. Experimental results let to deduce the parameters necessary for the prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior of pavement formulated from tuff and calcareous sand mixtures, related to moisture. This optimal mixture satisfies the regulation rules and hence constitutes a good local eco-material, abundantly available, for the conception of pavements.

Keywords: tuff, sandy calcareous, road engineering, hydro mechanical behaviour, suction

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
53 Effect of Stiffeners on the Behavior of Slender Built up Steel I-Beams

Authors: M. E. Abou-Hashem El Dib, M. K. Swailem, M. M. Metwally, A. I. El Awady

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of stiffeners on the behavior of slender steel I-beams. Nonlinear three dimensional finite element models are developed to represent the stiffened steel I-beams. The well established finite element (ANSYS 13.0) program is used to simulate the geometric and material nonlinear nature of the problem. Verification is achieved by comparing the obtained numerical results with the results of previous published experimental work. The parameters considered in the analysis are the horizontal stiffener's position and the horizontal stiffener's dimensions as well as the number of vertical stiffeners. The studied dimensions of the horizontal stiffeners include the stiffener width, the stiffener thickness and the stiffener length. The results of the achieved numerical parametric study for slender steel I-beams show the significant effect of stiffeners on the beam behavior and its failure load.

Keywords: beams, local buckling, slender, stiffener, thin walled section

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52 Ultra-High Precision Diamond Turning of Infrared Lenses

Authors: Khaled Abou-El-Hossein

Abstract:

The presentation will address the features of two IR convex lenses that have been manufactured using an ultra-high precision machining centre based on single-point diamond turning. The lenses are made from silicon and germanium with a radius of curvature of 500 mm. Because of the brittle nature of silicon and germanium, machining parameters were selected in such a way that ductile regime was achieved. The cutting speed was 800 rpm while the feed rate and depth cut were 20 mm/min and 20 um, respectively. Although both materials comprise a mono-crystalline microstructure and are quite similar in terms of optical properties, machining of silicon was accompanied with more difficulties in terms of form accuracy compared to germanium machining. The P-V error of the silicon profile was 0.222 um while it was only 0.055 um for the germanium lens. This could be attributed to the accelerated wear that takes place on the tool edge when turning mono-crystalline silicon. Currently, we are using other ranges of the machining parameters in order to determine their optimal range that could yield satisfactory performance in terms of form accuracy when fabricating silicon lenses.

Keywords: diamond turning, optical surfaces, precision machining, surface roughness

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51 Innovative Textile Design Using in-situ Ag NPs incorporation into Natural Fabric Matrix

Authors: M. Rehan, H. Mashaly, H. Emam, A. Abou El-Kheir, S. Mowafi

Abstract:

In this work, we will study a simple highly efficient technique to impart multi functional properties to different fabric substrates by in situ Ag NPs incorporation into fabric matrix. Ag NPs as a coloration and antimicrobial agent were prepared in situ incorporation into fabric matrix (Cotton and Wool) by using trisodium citrate as reducing and stabilizing agent. The Ag NPs treated fabric (Cotton and Wool) showed different color because of localized surface Plasmon resonance (LSPR) property of Ag NPs. The formation of Ag NPs was confirmed by UV/Vis spectra for the supernatant solutions and The Ag NPs treated fabric (Cotton and Wool) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). The dependence of color properties characterized by colorimetric, fastness and antibacterial properties evaluated by Escherichia coli using counting method and the reaction parameters were studied. The results indicate that, the in situ Ag NPs incorporation into fabric matrix approach can simultaneously impart colorant and antimicrobial properties into different fabric substrates.

Keywords: Ag NPs, coloration, antibacterial, wool, cotton fabric

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50 Investigation of Steady State Infiltration Rate for Different Head Condition

Authors: Nour Aljafari, Mariam, S. Maani, Serter Atabay, Tarig Ali, Said Daker, Lara Daher, Hamad Bukhammas, Mohammed Abou Shakra

Abstract:

This paper aims at determining the soil characteristics that influence the irrigation process of green landscapes and deciding on the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the constant head methodology to determine the soil infiltration rates. The steady state infiltration rate was reached after 10 minutes of infiltration at a rate of 200 mm/hr. The effects of different water heads on infiltration rates were also investigated, and the head of 11 cm was found to be the optimum head for the test. The experimental results showed consistent infiltration results for the range between 11 cm and 15 cm. The study also involved finding the initial moisture content, which ranged between 5% and 25%, and finding the organic content, which occupied 1% to 2% of the soil. These results will be later utilized, using the water balance approach, to estimate the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation for changing weather conditions.

Keywords: infiltration rate, moisture content, grass type, organic content

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