Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 236

Search results for: moving-body trajectories

236 Assessing Land Cover Change Trajectories in Olomouc, Czech Republic

Authors: Mukesh Singh Boori, Vít Voženílek


Olomouc is a unique and complex landmark with widespread forestation and land use. This research work was conducted to assess important and complex land use change trajectories in Olomouc region. Multi-temporal satellite data from 1991, 2001 and 2013 were used to extract land use/cover types by object oriented classification method. To achieve the objectives, three different aspects were used: (1) Calculate the quantity of each transition; (2) Allocate location based landscape pattern (3) Compare land use/cover evaluation procedure. Land cover change trajectories shows that 16.69% agriculture, 54.33% forest and 21.98% other areas (settlement, pasture and water-body) were stable in all three decade. Approximately 30% of the study area maintained as a same land cove type from 1991 to 2013. Here broad scale of political and socio-economic factors was also affect the rate and direction of landscape changes. Distance from the settlements was the most important predictor of land cover change trajectories. This showed that most of landscape trajectories were caused by socio-economic activities and mainly led to virtuous change on the ecological environment.

Keywords: remote sensing, land use/cover, change trajectories, image classification

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235 Calculation of Orbital Elements for Sending Interplanetary Probes

Authors: Jorge Lus Nisperuza Toledo, Juan Pablo Rubio Ospina, Daniel Santiago Umana, Hector Alejandro Alvarez


This work develops and implements computational codes to calculate the optimal launch trajectories for sending a probe from the earth to different planets of the Solar system, making use of trajectories of the Hohmann and No-Hohmann type and gravitational assistance in intermediate steps. Specifically, the orbital elements, the graphs and the dynamic simulations of the trajectories for sending a probe from the Earth towards the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are obtained. A detailed study was made of the state vectors of the position and orbital velocity of the considered planets in order to determine the optimal trajectories of the probe. For this purpose, computer codes were developed and implemented to obtain the orbital elements of the Mariner 10 (Mercury), Magellan (Venus), Mars Global Surveyor (Mars) and Voyager 1 (Jupiter and Saturn) missions, as an exercise in corroborating the algorithms. This exercise gives validity to computational codes, allowing to find the orbital elements and the simulations of trajectories of three future interplanetary missions with specific launch windows.

Keywords: gravitational assistance, Hohmann’s trajectories, interplanetary mission, orbital elements

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234 Design of a Chaotic Trajectory Generator Algorithm for Mobile Robots

Authors: J. J. Cetina-Denis, R. M. López-Gutiérrez, R. Ramírez-Ramírez, C. Cruz-Hernández


This work addresses the problem of designing an algorithm capable of generating chaotic trajectories for mobile robots. Particularly, the chaotic behavior is induced in the linear and angular velocities of a Khepera III differential mobile robot by infusing them with the states of the H´enon chaotic map. A possible application, using the properties of chaotic systems, is patrolling a work area. In this work, numerical and experimental results are reported and analyzed. In addition, two quantitative numerical tests are applied in order to measure how chaotic the generated trajectories really are.

Keywords: chaos, chaotic trajectories, differential mobile robot, Henon map, Khepera III robot, patrolling applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
233 Optimal Trajectories for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Christian Rathgeber, Franz Winkler, Xiaoyu Kang, Steffen Müller


In this contribution two approaches for calculating optimal trajectories for highly automated vehicles are presented and compared. The first one is based on a non-linear vehicle model, used for evaluation. The second one is based on a simplified model and can be implemented on a current ECU. In usual driving situations both approaches show very similar results.

Keywords: trajectory planning, direct method, indirect method, highly automated driving

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232 Calculating Non-Unique Sliding Modes for Switched Dynamical Systems

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arkadi Ponossov


Ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities constitute a very useful tool in many applications. The solutions of such equations can usually be calculated analytically if they cross the discontinuities transversally. Otherwise, one has trajectories that slides along the discontinuity, and the calculations become less straightforward in this case. For instance, one of the problems one faces is non-uniqueness of the sliding modes. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid dynamical systems to calculate the solutions that are ‘hidden’ in the discontinuities. Roughly, one equips the underlying switched system with an explicitly designed discrete dynamical system (‘automaton’), which governs the dynamics of the switched system. This construction ‘splits’ the dynamics, which, as it is shown in the presentation, gives uniqueness of the resulting hybrid trajectories and at the same time provides explicit formulae for them. Projecting the hybrid trajectories back onto the original continuous system explains non-uniqueness of its trajectories. The automaton is designed with the help of the attractors of the specially constructed adjoint dynamical system. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which supports the efficiency of the suggested scheme. The method can be of interest in control theory, gene regulatory networks, neural field models and other fields, where switched dynamics is a part of the analysis.

Keywords: hybrid dynamical systems, singular perturbation analysis, sliding modes, switched dynamics

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231 Particle and Photon Trajectories near the Black Hole Immersed in the Nonstatic Cosmological Background

Authors: Elena M. Kopteva, Pavlina Jaluvkova, Zdenek Stuchlik


The question of constructing a consistent model of the cosmological black hole remains to be unsolved and still attracts the interest of cosmologists as far as it is important in a wide set of research problems including the problem of the black hole horizon dynamics, the problem of interplay between cosmological expansion and local gravity, the problem of structure formation in the early universe etc. In this work, the model of the cosmological black hole is built on the basis of the exact solution of the Einstein equations for the spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust distribution in the approach of the mass function use. Possible trajectories for massive particles and photons near the black hole immersed in the nonstatic dust cosmological background are investigated in frame of the obtained model. The reference system of distant galaxy comoving to cosmological expansion combined with curvature coordinates is used, so that the resulting metric becomes nondiagonal and involves both proper ‘cosmological’ time and curvature spatial coordinates. For this metric the geodesic equations are analyzed for the test particles and photons, and the respective trajectories are built.

Keywords: exact solutions for Einstein equations, Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution, cosmological black holes, particle and photon trajectories

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230 Predicting Shot Making in Basketball Learnt Fromadversarial Multiagent Trajectories

Authors: Mark Harmon, Abdolghani Ebrahimi, Patrick Lucey, Diego Klabjan


In this paper, we predict the likelihood of a player making a shot in basketball from multiagent trajectories. Previous approaches to similar problems center on hand-crafting features to capture domain-specific knowledge. Although intuitive, recent work in deep learning has shown, this approach is prone to missing important predictive features. To circumvent this issue, we present a convolutional neural network (CNN) approach where we initially represent the multiagent behavior as an image. To encode the adversarial nature of basketball, we use a multichannel image which we then feed into a CNN. Additionally, to capture the temporal aspect of the trajectories, we use “fading.” We find that this approach is superior to a traditional FFN model. By using gradient ascent, we were able to discover what the CNN filters look for during training. Last, we find that a combined FFN+CNN is the best performing network with an error rate of 39%.

Keywords: basketball, computer vision, image processing, convolutional neural network

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229 The Use of the Limit Cycles of Dynamic Systems for Formation of Program Trajectories of Points Feet of the Anthropomorphous Robot

Authors: A. S. Gorobtsov, A. S. Polyanina, A. E. Andreev


The movement of points feet of the anthropomorphous robot in space occurs along some stable trajectory of a known form. A large number of modifications to the methods of control of biped robots indicate the fundamental complexity of the problem of stability of the program trajectory and, consequently, the stability of the control for the deviation for this trajectory. Existing gait generators use piecewise interpolation of program trajectories. This leads to jumps in the acceleration at the boundaries of sites. Another interpolation can be realized using differential equations with fractional derivatives. In work, the approach to synthesis of generators of program trajectories is considered. The resulting system of nonlinear differential equations describes a smooth trajectory of movement having rectilinear sites. The method is based on the theory of an asymptotic stability of invariant sets. The stability of such systems in the area of localization of oscillatory processes is investigated. The boundary of the area is a bounded closed surface. In the corresponding subspaces of the oscillatory circuits, the resulting stable limit cycles are curves having rectilinear sites. The solution of the problem is carried out by means of synthesis of a set of the continuous smooth controls with feedback. The necessary geometry of closed trajectories of movement is obtained due to the introduction of high-order nonlinearities in the control of stabilization systems. The offered method was used for the generation of trajectories of movement of point’s feet of the anthropomorphous robot. The synthesis of the robot's program movement was carried out by means of the inverse method.

Keywords: control, limits cycle, robot, stability

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228 A Method to Compute Efficient 3D Helicopters Flight Trajectories Based On a Motion Polymorph-Primitives Algorithm

Authors: Konstanca Nikolajevic, Nicolas Belanger, David Duvivier, Rabie Ben Atitallah, Abdelhakim Artiba


Finding the optimal 3D path of an aerial vehicle under flight mechanics constraints is a major challenge, especially when the algorithm has to produce real-time results in flight. Kinematics models and Pythagorian Hodograph curves have been widely used in mobile robotics to solve this problematic. The level of difficulty is mainly driven by the number of constraints to be saturated at the same time while minimizing the total length of the path. In this paper, we suggest a pragmatic algorithm capable of saturating at the same time most of dimensioning helicopter 3D trajectories’ constraints like: curvature, curvature derivative, torsion, torsion derivative, climb angle, climb angle derivative, positions. The trajectories generation algorithm is able to generate versatile complex 3D motion primitives feasible by a helicopter with parameterization of the curvature and the climb angle. An upper ”motion primitives’ concatenation” algorithm is presented based. In this article we introduce a new way of designing three-dimensional trajectories based on what we call the ”Dubins gliding symmetry conjecture”. This extremely performing algorithm will be soon integrated to a real-time decisional system dealing with inflight safety issues.

Keywords: robotics, aerial robots, motion primitives, helicopter

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227 Analysis of the Inverse Kinematics for 5 DOF Robot Arm Using D-H Parameters

Authors: Apurva Patil, Maithilee Kulkarni, Ashay Aswale


This paper proposes an algorithm to develop the kinematic model of a 5 DOF robot arm. The formulation of the problem is based on finding the D-H parameters of the arm. Brute Force iterative method is employed to solve the system of non linear equations. The focus of the paper is to obtain the accurate solutions by reducing the root mean square error. The result obtained will be implemented to grip the objects. The trajectories followed by the end effector for the required workspace coordinates are plotted. The methodology used here can be used in solving the problem for any other kinematic chain of up to six DOF.

Keywords: 5 DOF robot arm, D-H parameters, inverse kinematics, iterative method, trajectories

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226 Energy Benefits of Urban Platooning with Self-Driving Vehicles

Authors: Eduardo F. Mello, Peter H. Bauer


The primary focus of this paper is the generation of energy-optimal speed trajectories for heterogeneous electric vehicle platoons in urban driving conditions. Optimal speed trajectories are generated for individual vehicles and for an entire platoon under the assumption that they can be executed without errors, as would be the case for self-driving vehicles. It is then shown that the optimization for the “average vehicle in the platoon” generates similar transportation energy savings to optimizing speed trajectories for each vehicle individually. The introduced approach only requires the lead vehicle to run the optimization software while the remaining vehicles are only required to have adaptive cruise control capability. The achieved energy savings are typically between 30% and 50% for stop-to-stop segments in cities. The prime motivation of urban platooning comes from the fact that urban platoons efficiently utilize the available space and the minimization of transportation energy in cities is important for many reasons, i.e., for environmental, power, and range considerations.

Keywords: electric vehicles, energy efficiency, optimization, platooning, self-driving vehicles, urban traffic

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225 Health Trajectory Clustering Using Deep Belief Networks

Authors: Farshid Hajati, Federico Girosi, Shima Ghassempour


We present a Deep Belief Network (DBN) method for clustering health trajectories. Deep Belief Network (DBN) is a deep architecture that consists of a stack of Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM). In a deep architecture, each layer learns more complex features than the past layers. The proposed method depends on DBN in clustering without using back propagation learning algorithm. The proposed DBN has a better a performance compared to the deep neural network due the initialization of the connecting weights. We use Contrastive Divergence (CD) method for training the RBMs which increases the performance of the network. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated extensively on the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) database. The University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal study that has surveyed more than 27,000 elderly and near-elderly Americans since its inception in 1992. Participants are interviewed every two years and they collect data on physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning. The dataset is publicly available and we use the RAND HRS version L, which is easy to use and cleaned up version of the data. The size of sample data set is 268 and the length of the trajectories is equal to 10. The trajectories do not stop when the patient dies and represent 10 different interviews of live patients. Compared to the state-of-the-art benchmarks, the experimental results show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method in clustering health trajectories.

Keywords: health trajectory, clustering, deep learning, DBN

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224 Parental Drinking and Risky Alcohol Related Behaviors: Predicting Binge Drinking Trajectories and Their Influence on Impaired Driving among College Students

Authors: Shiran Bord, Assaf Oshri, Matthew W. Carlson, Sihong Liu


Background: Alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and binge drinking are major health concerns among college students. Although the link between binge drinking and AID is well established, knowledge regarding binge drinking patterns, the factors influencing binge drinking, and the associations between consumption patterns and alcohol-related risk behaviors is lacking. Aims: To examine heterogeneous trajectories of binge drinking during college and tests factors that might predict class membership as well as class membership outcomes. Methods: Data were obtained from a sample of 1,265 college students (Mage = 18.5, SD = .66) as part of the Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women (N = 1,265; 59.3% female; 69.2% white). Analyses were completed in three stages. First, a growth curve analysis was conducted to identify trajectories of binge drinking over time. Second, growth curve mixture modeling analyses were pursued to assess unobserved growth trajectories of binge drinking without predictors. Lastly, parental drinking variables were added to the model as predictors of class membership, and AID and being a passenger of a drunk driver were added to the model as outcomes. Results: Three binge drinking trajectories were identified: high-convex, medium concave and low-increasing. Parental drinking was associated with being in high-convex and medium-concave classes. Compared to the low-increasing class, the high convex and medium concave classes reported more AID and being a passenger of a drunk driver more frequently. Conclusions: Parental drinking may affect children’s later engagement in AID. Efforts should focus on parents' education regarding the consequences of parental modeling of alcohol consumption.

Keywords: alcohol impaired driving, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, college students, parental modeling

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223 HBTOnto: An Ontology Model for Analyzing Human Behavior Trajectories

Authors: Heba M. Wagih, Hoda M. O. Mokhtar


Social Network has recently played a significant role in both scientific and social communities. The growing adoption of social network applications has been a relevant source of information nowadays. Due to its popularity, several research trends are emerged to service the huge volume of users including, Location-Based Social Networks (LBSN), Recommendation Systems, Sentiment Analysis Applications, and many others. LBSNs applications are among the highly demanded applications that do not focus only on analyzing the spatiotemporal positions in a given raw trajectory but also on understanding the semantics behind the dynamics of the moving object. LBSNs are possible means of predicting human mobility based on users social ties as well as their spatial preferences. LBSNs rely on the efficient representation of users’ trajectories. Hence, traditional raw trajectory information is no longer convenient. In our research, we focus on studying human behavior trajectory which is the major pillar in location recommendation systems. In this paper, we propose an ontology design patterns with their underlying description logics to efficiently annotate human behavior trajectories.

Keywords: human behavior trajectory, location-based social network, ontology, social network

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222 Cross-sectional Developmental Trajectories of Executive Function and Relations to Theory of Mind in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Evdokia Tagkouli, Vassiliki Ntre, Artemios Pehlivanidis, Stella Tsermentseli, Gerasimos Kolaitis, Katerina Papanikolaou


Executive Function (EF) is a set of goal-directed cognitive skills essentially needed in problem-solving and social behavior. Developmental EF research has indicated that EF emerges early in life and marks dramatic changes before the age of 5. Research evidence has suggested that it may continue to develop up to adolescence as well, following the development of the prefrontal cortex. Over the last decade, research evidence has suggested distinguished domains of cool and hot EF, but traditionally the development of EF in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been examined mainly with tasks that address the “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Thus, very little is known about the development of “hot” affective EF processes and whether the cross-sectional developmental pathways of cool and hot EF present similarities in ASD. Cool EF has also been proven to have a strong correlation with Theory of Mind (ToM) in young and middle childhood in typical development and in ASD, but information about the relationship of hot EF to ToM skills is minimal. The present study’s objective was to explore the age-related changes of cool and hot EF in ASD participants from middle childhood to adolescence, as well as their relationship to ToM. This study employed an approach of cross-sectional developmental trajectories to investigate patterns of cool and hot EF relative to chronological age within ASD. Eighty-two participants between 7 and 16 years of age were recruited to undertake measures that assessed cool EF (working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning & inhibition), hot EF (affective decision making & delay discounting) and ToM (false belief and mental state/emotion recognition). Results demonstrated that trajectories of all cool EF presented age-related changes in ASD (improvements with age). With regards to hot EF, affective decision-making presented age-related changes, but for delay discounting, there were no statistically significant changes found across younger and older ASD participants. ToM was correlated only to cool EF. Theoretical implications are discussed as the investigation of the cross-sectional developmental trajectories of the broader EF (cool and hot domains) may contribute to better defining cognitive phenotypes in ASD. These findings highlight the need to examine developmental trajectories of both hot and cool EF in research and clinical practice as they may aid in enhancing diagnosis or better-informed intervention programs.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, developmental trajectories, executive function, theory of mind

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221 Using Wavelet Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics: From Trajectories Foam to Newtonian Determinism

Authors: Paulo Castro, J. R. Croca, M. Gatta, R. Moreira


Owing to the development of quantum mechanics, we will contextualize the foundations of the theory on the Fourier analysis framework, thus stating the unavoidable philosophical conclusions drawn by Niels Bohr. We will then introduce an alternative way of describing the undulatory aspects of quantum entities by using gaussian Morlet wavelets. The description has its roots in de Broglie's realistic program for quantum physics. It so happens that using wavelets it is possible to formulate a more general set of uncertainty relations. A set from which it is possible to theoretically describe both ends of the behavioral spectrum in reality: the indeterministic quantum trajectorial foam and the perfectly drawn Newtonian trajectories.

Keywords: philosophy of quantum mechanics, quantum realism, morlet wavelets, uncertainty relations, determinism

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220 Data Presentation of Lane-Changing Events Trajectories Using HighD Dataset

Authors: Basma Khelfa, Antoine Tordeux, Ibrahima Ba


We present a descriptive analysis data of lane-changing events in multi-lane roads. The data are provided from The Highway Drone Dataset (HighD), which are microscopic trajectories in highway. This paper describes and analyses the role of the different parameters and their significance. Thanks to HighD data, we aim to find the most frequent reasons that motivate drivers to change lanes. We used the programming language R for the processing of these data. We analyze the involvement and relationship of different variables of each parameter of the ego vehicle and the four vehicles surrounding it, i.e., distance, speed difference, time gap, and acceleration. This was studied according to the class of the vehicle (car or truck), and according to the maneuver it undertook (overtaking or falling back).

Keywords: autonomous driving, physical traffic model, prediction model, statistical learning process

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219 Motion of an Infinitesimal Particle in Binary Stellar Systems: Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-16, Kepler-413

Authors: Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah


The present research was motivated by the recent discovery of the binary star systems. In this paper, we use the restricted three-body problem in the binary stellar systems, considering photogravitational effects of both the stars. The aim of this study is to investigate the motion of the infinitesimal mass in the vicinity of the Lagrangian points. The stability and periodic orbits of collinear points and the stability and trajectories of the triangular points are studied in stellar binary systems Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413 and Kepler-16 systems. A detailed comparison is made among periodic orbits and trajectories.

Keywords: exoplanetary systems, lagrangian points, periodic orbit, restricted three body problem, stability

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218 Application of Fourier Series Based Learning Control on Mechatronic Systems

Authors: Sandra Baßler, Peter Dünow, Mathias Marquardt


A Fourier series based learning control (FSBLC) algorithm for tracking trajectories of mechanical systems with unknown nonlinearities is presented. Two processes are introduced to which the FSBLC with PD controller is applied. One is a simplified service robot capable of climbing stairs due to special wheels and the other is a propeller driven pendulum with nearly the same requirements on control. Additionally to the investigation of learning the feed forward for the desired trajectories some considerations on the implementation of such an algorithm on low cost microcontroller hardware are made. Simulations of the service robot as well as practical experiments on the pendulum show the capability of the used FSBLC algorithm to perform the task of improving control behavior for repetitive task of such mechanical systems.

Keywords: climbing stairs, FSBLC, ILC, service robot

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217 Using Divergent Nozzle with Aerodynamic Lens to Focus Nanoparticles

Authors: Hasan Jumaah Mrayeh, Fue-Sang Lien


ANSYS Fluent will be used to simulate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for an efficient lens and nozzle design which will be explained in this paper. We have designed and characterized an aerodynamic lens and a divergent nozzle for focusing flow that transmits sub 25 nm particles through the aerodynamic lens. The design of the lens and nozzle has been improved using CFD for particle trajectories. We obtained a case for calculating nanoparticles (25 nm) flowing through the aerodynamic lens and divergent nozzle. Nanoparticles are transported by air, which is pumped into the aerodynamic lens through the nozzle at 1 atmospheric pressure. We have also developed a computational methodology that can determine the exact focus characteristics of aerodynamic lens systems. Particle trajectories were traced using the Lagrange approach. The simulation shows the ability of the aerodynamic lens to focus on 25 nm particles after using a divergent nozzle.

Keywords: aerodynamic lens, divergent nozzle, ANSYS Fluent, Lagrange approach

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216 Comparison of Developed Statokinesigram and Marker Data Signals by Model Approach

Authors: Boris Barbolyas, Kristina Buckova, Tomas Volensky, Cyril Belavy, Ladislav Dedik


Background: Based on statokinezigram, the human balance control is often studied. Approach to human postural reaction analysis is based on a combination of stabilometry output signal with retroreflective marker data signal processing, analysis, and understanding, in this study. The study shows another original application of Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST), too. Methods: In this study, the participants maintained quiet bipedal standing for 10 s on stabilometry platform. Consequently, bilateral vibration stimuli to Achilles tendons in 20 s interval was applied. Vibration stimuli caused that human postural system took the new pseudo-steady state. Vibration frequencies were 20, 60 and 80 Hz. Participant's body segments - head, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles and little fingers were marked by 12 retroreflective markers. Markers positions were scanned by six cameras system BTS SMART DX. Registration of their postural reaction lasted 60 s. Sampling frequency was 100 Hz. For measured data processing were used Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory. Regression analysis of developed statokinesigram trajectory (DST) data and retroreflective marker developed trajectory (DMT) data were used to find out which marker trajectories most correlate with stabilometry platform output signals. Scaling coefficients (λ) between DST and DMT by linear regression analysis were evaluated, too. Results: Scaling coefficients for marker trajectories were identified for all body segments. Head markers trajectories reached maximal value and ankle markers trajectories had a minimal value of scaling coefficient. Hips, knees and ankles markers were approximately symmetrical in the meaning of scaling coefficient. Notable differences of scaling coefficient were detected in head and shoulders markers trajectories which were not symmetrical. The model of postural system behavior was identified by MDST. Conclusion: Value of scaling factor identifies which body segment is predisposed to postural instability. Hypothetically, if statokinesigram represents overall human postural system response to vibration stimuli, then markers data represented particular postural responses. It can be assumed that cumulative sum of particular marker postural responses is equal to statokinesigram.

Keywords: center of pressure (CoP), method of developed statokinesigram trajectory (MDST), model of postural system behavior, retroreflective marker data

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215 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy Aly, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil


In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Navier-stokes equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD modelling, transonic store separation, quasi-steady flow, moving-body trajectories

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214 Trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress among Breast Cancer Patients: Assessment at First Year of Diagnosis

Authors: Jyoti Srivastava, Sandhya S. Kaushik, Mallika Tewari, Hari S. Shukla


Little information is available about the development of psychological well being over time among women who have been undergoing treatment for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the trajectories of depression anxiety and stress among women with early-stage breast cancer. Of the 48 Indian women with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer recruited from surgical oncology unit, 39 completed an interview and were assessed for depression anxiety and stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-DASS 21) before their first course of chemotherapy (baseline) and follow up interviews at 3, 6 and 9 months thereafter. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress symptoms. Logistic Regression analysis was used to evaluate the characteristics of women in distinct groups. Most women showed mild to moderate level of depression and anxiety (68%) while normal to mild level of stress (71%). But one in 11 women was chronically anxious (9%) and depressed (9%). Young age, having a partner, shorter education and receiving chemotherapy but not radiotherapy might characterize women whose psychological symptoms remain strong nine months after diagnosis. By looking beyond the mean, it was found that several socio-demographic and treatment factors characterized the women whose depression, anxiety and stress level remained severe even nine months after diagnosis. The results suggest that support provided to cancer patients should have a special focus on a relatively small group of patient most in need.

Keywords: psychological well being, growth mixture modeling, logistic regression analysis, socio-demographic factors

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213 Assessing the Impacts of Long-Range Forest Fire Emission Transport on Air Quality in Toronto, Ontario, Using MODIS Fire Data and HYSPLIT Trajectories

Authors: Bartosz Osiecki, Jane Liu


Pollutants emitted from forest fires such as PM₂.₅ and carbon monoxide (CO) have been found to impact the air quality of distant regions through long-range transport. PM₂.₅ is of particular concern due to its transport capacity and implications for human respiratory and cardiovascular health. As such, significant increases in PM₂.₅ concentrations have been exhibited in urban areas downwind of fire sources. This study seeks to expand on this literature by evaluating the impacts of long-range forest fire emission transport on air quality in Toronto, Ontario, as a means of evaluating the vulnerability of this major urban center to distant fire events. In order to draw correlations between the fire event and air pollution episode in Toronto, MODIS fire count data and HYPLSIT trajectories are used to assess the date, location, and severity of the fire and track the trajectory of emissions (respectively). Forward and back-trajectories are run, terminating at the West Toronto air monitoring station. PM₂.₅ and CO concentrations in Toronto during September 2017 are found to be significantly elevated, which is likely attributable to the fire activity. Other sites in Ontario including Toronto (East, North, Downtown), Mississauga, Brampton, and Hamilton (Downtown) exhibit similar peaks in PM₂.₅ concentrations. This work sheds light on the non-local, natural factors influencing air quality in urban areas. This is especially important in the context of climate change which is expected to exacerbate intense forest fire events in the future.

Keywords: air quality, forest fires, PM₂.₅, Toronto

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212 Static vs. Stream Mining Trajectories Similarity Measures

Authors: Musaab Riyadh, Norwati Mustapha, Dina Riyadh


Trajectory similarity can be defined as the cost of transforming one trajectory into another based on certain similarity method. It is the core of numerous mining tasks such as clustering, classification, and indexing. Various approaches have been suggested to measure similarity based on the geometric and dynamic properties of trajectory, the overlapping between trajectory segments, and the confined area between entire trajectories. In this article, an evaluation of these approaches has been done based on computational cost, usage memory, accuracy, and the amount of data which is needed in advance to determine its suitability to stream mining applications. The evaluation results show that the stream mining applications support similarity methods which have low computational cost and memory, single scan on data, and free of mathematical complexity due to the high-speed generation of data.

Keywords: global distance measure, local distance measure, semantic trajectory, spatial dimension, stream data mining

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211 Perturbative Analysis on a Lunar Free Return Trajectory

Authors: Emre Ünal, Hasan Başaran


In this study, starting with a predetermined Lunar free-return trajectory, an analysis of major near-Earth perturbations is carried out. Referencing to historical Apollo-13 flight, changes in the mission’s resultant perimoon and perigee altitudes with each perturbative effect are evaluated. The perturbations that were considered are Earth oblateness effects, up to the 6th order, atmospheric drag, third body perturbations consisting of solar and planetary effects and solar radiation pressure effects. It is found that for a Moon mission, most of the main perturbative effects spoil the trajectory significantly while some came out to be negligible. It is seen that for apparent future request of constructing low cost, reliable and safe trajectories to the Moon, most of the orbital perturbations are crucial.

Keywords: Apollo-13 trajectory, atmospheric drag, lunar trajectories, oblateness effect, perturbative effects, solar radiation pressure, third body perturbations

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210 Motion of a Dust Grain Type Particle in Binary Stellar Systems

Authors: Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah


In this present paper, we use the photogravitational version of the restricted three body problem (RTBP) in binary systems. In the photogravitational RTBP, an infinitesimal particle (dust grain) is moving under the gravitational attraction and radiation pressure from the two bigger primaries. The third particle does not affect the motion of two bigger primaries. The zero-velocity curves, zero-velocity surfaces and their projections on the plane are studied. We have used existing analytical method to solve the equations of motion. We have obtained the Lagrangian points in some binary stellar systems. It is found that mass reduction factor affects the Lagrangian points. The linear stability of Lagrangian points is studied and found that these points are unstable. Moreover, trajectories of the infinitesimal particle at the triangular points are studied.

Keywords: binary systems, Lagrangian points, linear stability, photogravitational RTBP, trajectories

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209 An Inverse Optimal Control Approach for the Nonlinear System Design Using ANN

Authors: M. P. Nanda Kumar, K. Dheeraj


The design of a feedback controller, so as to minimize a given performance criterion, for a general non-linear dynamical system is difficult; if not impossible. But for a large class of non-linear dynamical systems, the open loop control that minimizes a performance criterion can be obtained using calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In this paper, the open loop optimal trajectories, that minimizes a given performance measure, is used to train the neural network whose inputs are state variables of non-linear dynamical systems and the open loop optimal control as the desired output. This trained neural network is used as the feedback controller. In other words, attempts are made here to solve the “inverse optimal control problem” by using the state and control trajectories that are optimal in an open loop sense.

Keywords: inverse optimal control, radial basis function, neural network, controller design

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208 Solving Ill-Posed Initial Value Problems for Switched Differential Equations

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arcady Ponosov


To model gene regulatory networks one uses ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities, where the initial value problem is known to be well-posed if the trajectories cross the discontinuities transversally. Otherwise, the initial value problem is usually ill-posed, which lead to theoretical and numerical complications. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid dynamical systems, rather than switched ones, to regularize the problem. 'Hybridization' of the switched system means that one attaches a dynamic discrete component ('automaton'), which follows the trajectories of the original system and governs its dynamics at the points of ill-posedness of the initial value problem making it well-posed. The construction of the automaton is based on the classification of the attractors of the specially designed adjoint dynamical system. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which support the suggested analysis. The method can also be of interest in other applied fields, where differential equations contain switchings, e.g. in neural field models.

Keywords: hybrid dynamical systems, ill-posed problems, singular perturbation analysis, switching nonlinearities

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207 Trajectories of Conduct Problems and Cumulative Risk from Early Childhood to Adolescence

Authors: Leslie M. Gutman


Conduct problems (CP) represent a major dilemma, with wide-ranging and long-lasting individual and societal impacts. Children experience heterogeneous patterns of conduct problems; based on the age of onset, developmental course and related risk factors from around age 3. Early childhood represents a potential window for intervention efforts aimed at changing the trajectory of early starting conduct problems. Using the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 17,206 children), this study (a) identifies trajectories of conduct problems from ages 3 to 14 years and (b) assesses the cumulative and interactive effects of individual, family and socioeconomic risk factors from ages 9 months to 14 years. The same factors according to three domains were assessed, including child (i.e., low verbal ability, hyperactivity/inattention, peer problems, emotional problems), family (i.e., single families, parental poor physical and mental health, large family size) and socioeconomic (i.e., low family income, low parental education, unemployment, social housing). A cumulative risk score for the child, family, and socioeconomic domains at each age was calculated. It was then examined how the cumulative risk scores explain variation in the trajectories of conduct problems. Lastly, interactive effects among the different domains of cumulative risk were tested. Using group-based trajectory modeling, four distinct trajectories were found including a ‘low’ problem group and three groups showing childhood-onset conduct problems: ‘school-age onset’; ‘early-onset, desisting’; and ‘early-onset, persisting’. The ‘low’ group (57% of the sample) showed a low probability of conducts problems, close to zero, from 3 to 14 years. The ‘early-onset, desisting’ group (23% of the sample) demonstrated a moderate probability of CP in early childhood, with a decline from 3 to 5 years and a low probability thereafter. The ‘early-onset, persistent’ group (8%) followed a high probability of conduct problems, which declined from 11 years but was close to 70% at 14 years. In the ‘school-age onset’ group, 12% of the sample showed a moderate probability of conduct problems from 3 and 5 years, with a sharp increase by 7 years, increasing to 50% at 14 years. In terms of individual risk, all factors increased the likelihood of being in the childhood-onset groups compared to the ‘low’ group. For cumulative risk, the socioeconomic domain at 9 months and 3 years, the family domain at all ages except 14 years and child domain at all ages were found to differentiate childhood-onset groups from the ‘low’ group. Cumulative risk at 9 months and 3 years did not differentiate between the ‘school-onset’ group and ‘low’ group. Significant interactions were found between the domains for the ‘early-onset, desisting group’ suggesting that low levels of risk in one domain may buffer the effects of high risk in another domain. The implications of these findings for preventive interventions will be highlighted.

Keywords: conduct problems, cumulative risk, developmental trajectories, early childhood, adolescence

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