Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: Esra Yuksel

60 Assessing the Eutrophication Risk in the Suat Uğurlu Dam Lake by Evaluation of Trophic Variables

Authors: Bilge Aydın Er, Yuksel Ardalı


In Ayvacık village, 80-90% of the population is engaged in agriculture. The pollution was adversely affecting the properties of agricultural origin of the lake. This study is to determine pollution caused by unwanted changes in the Suat Ugurlu Dam Lake has been launched to monitor. Yesilirmak basin is located in the proximal part of the Black Sea. Therefore it was exposed to impact many pollution. In this study, sediment samples from selected points along the lake was made on the analysis. This work was supported by the results of water analyzes. It is clear that urgent measures should be taken to the area of water management

Keywords: eutrophication, Black sea, lake, pollution

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59 Subcutan Isosulfan Blue Administration May Interfere with Pulse Oximetry

Authors: Esra Yuksel, Dilek Duman, Levent Yeniay, Sezgin Ulukaya


Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a minimal invasive technique with lower morbidity in axillary staging of breast cancer. Isosulfan blue stain is frequently used in SLNB and regarded as safe. The present case report aimed to report severe decrement in SpO2 following isosulfan blue administration, as well as skin and urine signs and inconsistency with clinical picture in a 67-year-old ,77 kg, ASA II female case that underwent SLNB under general anesthesia. Ten minutes after subcutaneous administration of 10 ml 1% isosulfan blue by the surgeons into the patient, who were hemodynamically stable, SpO2 first reduced to 87% from 99%, and then to 75% in minutes despite 100% oxygen support. Meanwhile, blood pressure and EtCO2 monitoring was unremarkable. After specifying that anesthesia device worked normally, airway pressure did not increase and the endotracheal tube has been placed accurately, the blood sample was taken from the patient for arterial gas analysis. A severe increase was thought in MetHb concentration since SpO2 persisted to be 75% although the concentration of inspired oxygen was 100%, and solution of 2500 mg ascorbic acid in 500 ml 5% Dextrose was given to the patient via intravenous route until the results of arterial blood gas were obtained. However, arterial blood gas results were as follows: pH: 7.54, PaCO2: 23.3 mmHg, PaO2: 281 mmHg, SaO2: %99, and MetHb: %2.7. Biochemical analysis revealed a blood MetHb concentration of 2%.However, since arterial blood gas parameters were good, hemodynamics of the patient was stable and methemoglobin concentration was not so high, the patient was extubated after surgery when she was relaxed, cooperated and had adequate respiration. Despite the absence of respiratory or neurological distress, SpO2 value was increased only up to 85% within 2 hours with 5 L/min oxygen support via face mask in the surgery room as the patient was extubated. At that time, the skin of particularly the upper part of her body has turned into blue, more remarkable on the face. The color of plasma of the blood taken from the patient for biochemical analysis was blue. The color of urine coming throughout the urinary catheter placed in intensive care unit was also blue. Twelve hours after 5 L/min. oxygen inhalation via a mask, the SpO2 reached to 90%. During monitoring in intensive care unit on the postoperative 1st day, facial color and urine color of the patient was still blue, SpO2 was 92%, and arterial blood gas levels were as follows: pH: 7.44, PaO2: 76.1 mmHg, PaCO2: 38.2 mmHg, SaO2: 99%, and MetHb 1%. During monitoring in clinic on the postoperative 2nd day, SpO2 was 95% without oxygen support and her facial and urine color turned into normal. The patient was discharged on the 3rd day without any problem.In conclusion, SLNB is a less invasive alternative to axillary dissection. However, false pulse oximeter reading due to pigment interference is a rare complication of this procedure. Arterial blood gas analysis should be used to confirm any fall in SpO2 reading during monitoring.

Keywords: isosulfan blue, pulse oximetry, SLNB, methemoglobinemia

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58 Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay

Authors: Aziz Sezgin, Yuksel Hacioglu, Nurkan Yagiz


Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.

Keywords: sliding mode control, active suspension system, actuator, time delay, vehicle

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57 ESRA: An End-to-End System for Re-identification and Anonymization of Swiss Court Decisions

Authors: Joel Niklaus, Matthias Sturmer


The publication of judicial proceedings is a cornerstone of many democracies. It enables the court system to be made accountable by ensuring that justice is made in accordance with the laws. Equally important is privacy, as a fundamental human right (Article 12 in the Declaration of Human Rights). Therefore, it is important that the parties (especially minors, victims, or witnesses) involved in these court decisions be anonymized securely. Today, the anonymization of court decisions in Switzerland is performed either manually or semi-automatically using primitive software. While much research has been conducted on anonymization for tabular data, the literature on anonymization for unstructured text documents is thin and virtually non-existent for court decisions. In 2019, it has been shown that manual anonymization is not secure enough. In 21 of 25 attempted Swiss federal court decisions related to pharmaceutical companies, pharmaceuticals, and legal parties involved could be manually re-identified. This was achieved by linking the decisions with external databases using regular expressions. An automated re-identification system serves as an automated test for the safety of existing anonymizations and thus promotes the right to privacy. Manual anonymization is very expensive (recurring annual costs of over CHF 20M in Switzerland alone, according to an estimation). Consequently, many Swiss courts only publish a fraction of their decisions. An automated anonymization system reduces these costs substantially, further leading to more capacity for publishing court decisions much more comprehensively. For the re-identification system, topic modeling with latent dirichlet allocation is used to cluster an amount of over 500K Swiss court decisions into meaningful related categories. A comprehensive knowledge base with publicly available data (such as social media, newspapers, government documents, geographical information systems, business registers, online address books, obituary portal, web archive, etc.) is constructed to serve as an information hub for re-identifications. For the actual re-identification, a general-purpose language model is fine-tuned on the respective part of the knowledge base for each category of court decisions separately. The input to the model is the court decision to be re-identified, and the output is a probability distribution over named entities constituting possible re-identifications. For the anonymization system, named entity recognition (NER) is used to recognize the tokens that need to be anonymized. Since the focus lies on Swiss court decisions in German, a corpus for Swiss legal texts will be built for training the NER model. The recognized named entities are replaced by the category determined by the NER model and an identifier to preserve context. This work is part of an ongoing research project conducted by an interdisciplinary research consortium. Both a legal analysis and the implementation of the proposed system design ESRA will be performed within the next three years. This study introduces the system design of ESRA, an end-to-end system for re-identification and anonymization of Swiss court decisions. Firstly, the re-identification system tests the safety of existing anonymizations and thus promotes privacy. Secondly, the anonymization system substantially reduces the costs of manual anonymization of court decisions and thus introduces a more comprehensive publication practice.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, courts, legal tech, named entity recognition, natural language processing, ·privacy, topic modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
56 The Flora of Bozdağ, Sizma–Konya, Turkey and Its Environs

Authors: Esra Ipekci, Murad Aydin Sanda


The flora of Bozdağ (Konya) and its surroundings were investigated between 2003 and 2005 years; 700 herbarium specimens belonging to 482 taxa, 257 genera and 62 families were collected and identified from the area. The families which have the most taxa in research area are Asteraceae 67 (14.0%), Fabaceae 60 (12.6%), Lamiaceae 57 (11.9%), Brassicaceae 34 (7.1%), Poaceae 30 (6.3%), Rosaceae 24 (5.0%), Caryophyllaceae 23 (4.8%), Liliaceae 19 (4.0%), Boraginaceae 17 (3.6%), Apiaceae 13 (2.7%). The research area is in the district of Konya and is in the B4 square according to the Grid System. The phytogeographic elements are represented in the study area as follows; Mediterranean 72 (14.9%), Irano-Turanian 91 (18.9%), Euro-Siberian 21 (4.3%). The phytogeographic regions of 273 (56.6%) taxa are either multi regional or unknown. The number of endemic taxa is 79 (16.3%).

Keywords: Sizma, Bozdağ, Flora, Konya, Turkey

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55 Synthesis and Use of Bio Polyols in Rigid Polyurethane Foam Production

Authors: A. Esra Pişkin, L. Yusuf Yivlik


Polyurethane consumption in the world increases every year. Polyetherpolyol, which is the main raw material of polyurethane, is produced from petroleum, and bioresources are needed in polyol production due to the damage it causes to the environment and the consumption of too much energy during the production phase. In this present work, bio polyol was synthesized with castor oil and soybean oil, and its use in rigid polyurethane systems was investigated. Transesterification and ring opening methods were applied for polyol synthesis, and the obtained bio polyols were compared with polyols derived petroleum. The goal of the present study was to synthesize biopolyols and to investigate the mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of the synthesized polyurethane in terms of bio polyols.

Keywords: polyurethane, polyol, biopolyol, vegetable oil, foam, rigid polyurethane foam, ring opening, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
54 Comparison of Wet and Microwave Digestion Methods for the Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn Determination in Some Honey Samples by ICPOES in Turkey

Authors: Huseyin Altundag, Emel Bina, Esra Altıntıg


The aim of this study is determining amount of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples of honey which are gathered from Sakarya and Istanbul regions. In this study the evaluation of the trace elements in honeys samples are gathered from Sakarya and Istanbul, Turkey. The sample preparation phase is performed via wet decomposition method and microwave digestion system. The accuracy of the method was corrected by the standard reference material, Tea Leaves (INCY-TL-1) and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves. The comparison between gathered data and literature values has made and possible resources of the contamination to the samples of honey have handled. The obtained results will be presented in ICCIS 2015: XIII International Conference on Chemical Industry and Science.

Keywords: Wet decomposition, Microwave digestion, Trace element, Honey, ICP-OES

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53 A Global Perspective on Urban Environmental Problems in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey

Authors: Nükhet Konuk, N. Gamze Turan, Yüksel Ardalı


Cities play a vital role in the social fabric of countries and in national and regional economic growth worldwide; however, the environmental effects of such growth need to be assessed and managed better. The critical and most immediate problems faced by cities of developing countries are the health impacts of urban pollution that derive from inadequate water, sanitation, drainage and solid waste services, poor urban and industrial waste management, and air pollution. As globalization continues, earth's natural processes transform local problems into international issues. The aim of this study is to provide a broad overview of the pollution from urban wastes and emissions in Turkey which is a developing country. It is aimed to underline the significance of reorganizing the institutional tools in a worldwide perspective in order to generate coherent solutions to urban problems, and to enhance urban quality.

Keywords: environmental pollution, developing countries, environmental degradation, urban environmental problems

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52 Co-Pyrolysis Characteristics of Waste Polyolefins

Authors: Si̇nem Uğuz, Yuksel Ardali


Nowadays rapid population growth causes a mandatory increase in consumption. As a result of production activities which meet this consumption, energy sources decrease rapidly on our world. As well as with this production activities various waste occurs. At the end of the production and accumulation of this waste need a mandatory disposal. In this context, copyrolysis of waste polyolefins were investigated. In this study for pyrolysis process, polyethylene and polyprophylene are selected as polyolefins. The pyrolysis behavior (efficiency of solid, liquid and gas production) of selected materials were examined at the different temperatures and different mixtures. Pyrolysis process was carried out at 550 °C and 600 °C without air in a fixed bed pyrolysis oven solid under the nitrogen flow to provide inertness of medium. Elemental analyses (C, H, O, N, S) of this solid and liquid (bitumen) products were made and the calorific value was calculated. The availability of liquid product as a fuel was investigated. In addition different products’ amounts formed like solid, liquid and gas at different temperatures were evaluated.

Keywords: alternative energy, elemental analysis, pyrolysis, waste reduction

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51 Determination of Antimicrobial Effect and Essential Oil Composition Salvia verticillata L. Subsp. amasiaca

Authors: Tanju Teker, Yener Tekeli̇, Esra Karpuz


Salvia species are known as medicinal plant and often used in public. The antimicrobial effects and essential oil composition of Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca were determined. The antimicrobial activity is determined by using disk diffusion method against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one kind of yeast and essential oil composition was determined by GC - MS. As a result of antimicrobial analysis while sample has shown very strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, moderately effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and low effective against Enterococcus faecalis, it has not shown antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and C. albicans. Trans-caryophyllene (% 35.07), germacrene-d (% 10.98) and caryopyllene oxide (% 5.81) are the main components of essential oil composition.

Keywords: salvia, medicinal plant, antimicrobial activity, essential oil

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50 Pre-Service Teachers’ Opinions on Disabled People

Authors: Sinem Toraman, Aysun Öztuna Kaplan, Hatice Mertoğlu, Esra Macaroğlu Akgül


This study aims to examine pre-service teachers’ opinions on disabled people taking into consideration various variables. The participants of the study are composed of 170 pre-service teachers being 1st year students of different branches at Education Department of Yıldız Technical, Yeditepe, Marmara and Sakarya Universities. Data of the research was collected in 2013-2014 fall term. This study was designed as a phenomenological study appropriately qualitative research paradigm. Pre-service teachers’ opinions about disabled people were examined in this study, open ended question form which was prepared by researcher and focus group interview techniques were used as data collection tool. The study presents pre-service teachers’ opinions about disabled people which were mentioned, and suggestions about teacher education.

Keywords: pre-service teachers, disabled people, teacher education, teachers' opinions

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49 Effect of the Alloying Elements on Mechanical Properties of TWIP Steel

Authors: Yuksel Akinay, Fatih Hayat


The influence of the alloying element on mechanical properties and micro structures of the Fe-22Mn-0.6C-0,6Si twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel were investigated at different temperatures. This composition was fabricated by a vacuum induction melting method. This steel was homogenized at 1200◦C for 8h. After heat treatment it was hot-rolled at 1100◦C to 6 mm thickness. The hot rolled plates were cold rolled to 3 mm and annealed at 700 800 and 900 °C for 60 and 150 minute and then air-cooled. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), optic microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), hardness and tensile tests were used to analyse the relationship between mechanical properties and micro structure after annealing process. The results show that, the excellent mechanical properties were obtained after heat treatment process. The tensile strength of material was decreased and the ductility of material was improved with increasing annealing temperature. Ni element were increased the mechanical resistance of specimens and because of carbide precipitation the hardness of specimen annealed at 700 C is higher than others.

Keywords: high manganese, heat treatment, SEM, XRD, cold-rolling

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48 Optimization the Freeze Drying Conditions of Olive Seeds

Authors: Alev Yüksel Aydar, Tuncay Yılmaz, Melisa Özçeli̇k, Tuba Aydın, Elif Karabaş


In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to obtain the optimum conditions for the freeze-drying of Gemlik variety olive seeds of to achieve the desired quality characteristics. The Box Behnken Design (BBD) was applied with three-variable and three replications in the center point. The effects of the different drying parameters including initial temperature of olive seed, pressure and time for freezing on the DPPH activity, total phenolic contents, and oleuropein absorbance value of the samples were investigated. Temperature (50 – 82 °C), pressure (0.2-0.5 mbar), time (6-10 hours) were chosen as independent variables. The analysis revealed that, while the temperature of the product prior to lyophilization and the drying time had no statistically significant effect on DPPH activity (p>0.05), the pressure was more important than the other two variables , and the quadratic effect of pressure had a significant effect on DPPH activity (p<0.05). The R2 and Adj-R2 values of the DPPH activity model were calculated to be 0.8962 and 0.7045, respectively.

Keywords: olive seed, gemlik variety, DPPH, phenolics, optimization

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47 Investigation of Maxi̇mali̇st Approaches on Furni̇ture Desi̇gn

Authors: Emi̇ne Yuksel, Murat Kiliç, Onur Ülker


Although minimalism has been coming into being in the field of interior design for a long time, it also brought a wide range of reaction. The more simple and feeling of emptiness usage of minimalism in space and furniture design has been found extremely boring so far, as a reaction to minimalism, a movement of maximalism was emerged. Thus more extravagant, splendid, magnificent and comfortable design approach was substituted by the greatest, largest and the extreme. Thus, the philosophy of “less is bore” of minimalism was replaced by “less is more” giving rise to a new interpretation in the field of interior design. While maximalism reminded us the Victorian, Rococo, Arts and Crafts and Neoclassic styles in interior design, it drew attention to the furniture designs that covered all areas of space all in one. In this study, we search the effect of maximalist approach which was born as a reaction to minimalism in furniture. Firstly, it is explained how did the maximalism emerge and its philosophy, a literature investigation was scanned and investigated. As a research method, it is concerned with the investigation of studies undertaken by the pioneers of interior space designers and architects. The findings of this study have been evaluated in the conclusion section.

Keywords: furniture design, maximalism, minimalism, texture

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46 Contribution of the SidePlate Beam-Column Connections to the Seismic Responses of Special Moment Frames

Authors: Gökhan Yüksel, Serdar Akça, İlker Kalkan


The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the significant levels of contribution of the moment-resisting beam-column connections with side plates to the earthquake behavior of special steel moment frames. To this end, the moment-curvature relationships of a regular beam-column connection and its SidePlate counterpart were determined with the help of finite element analyses. The connection stiffness and deformability values from these finite element analyses were used in the linear time-history analyses of an example structural steel frame under three different seismic excitations. The top-story lateral drift, base shear, and overturning moment values in two orthogonal directions were obtained from these time-history analyses and compared to each other. The results revealed the improvements in the system response with the use of SidePlate connections. The paper ends with crucial recommendations for the plan and design of further studies on this very topic.

Keywords: seismic detailing, special moment frame, steel structures, beam-column connection, earthquake-resistant design

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45 Distribution of Epiphytic Lichen Biodiversity and Comparision with Their Preferred Tree Species around the Şeker Canyon, Karabük, Turkey

Authors: Hatice Esra Akgül, Celaleddin Öztürk


Lichen biodiversity in forests is controlled by environmental conditions. Epiphytic lichens have some degree of substrate specificity. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens are affected by humidity, light, altitude, temperature, bark pH of the trees.This study describes the epiphytic lichen communities with comparing their preferred tree species. 34 epiphytic lichen taxa are reported on Pinus sp. L., Quercus sp. L., Fagus sp. L., Carpinus sp. L., Abies sp. Mill., Fraxinus sp. Tourn. ex L. from different altitudes around the Şeker Canyon (Karabük, Turkey). 11 of these taxa are growing on Quercus sp., 10 of them are growing on Fagus sp., 7 of them are growing on Pinus sp., 4 of them are on Carpinus sp., 2 of them are on Abies sp. and one of them is on Fraxinus sp. Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. is growing on both of Fagus sp. and Quercus sp. Lecanora pulicaris (Pers.) Ach. is growing on both of Abies sp. and Quercus sp.

Keywords: biodiversity, epiphytic lichen, forest, Turkey

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44 Biomorphic Ornaments in Islamic Architecture and Their Development

Authors: Esra Alhamal


Islamic architecture is known for the ornamental patterns that cover the architectural surfaces: floors, walls, and ceilings. This quality in Islamic buildings has long impressed other civilisation, and it is a visual language that exists across the Islamic lands. Ornamentation is divided into three types: geometry, biomorphs, and Arabic calligraphy. The focus of this study is the biomorphic ornaments. This paper will aim to define and characterise biomorphic patterns and trace their development from the 7th to the 18th centuries. Although the time period is seemingly long, the biomorphic patterns and their motifs have been consistent and supported by a geometric system underlying the free flowing, symmetrical motifs. The methodology of this paper consists of analysing and comparing biomorphic patterns from each Islamic period using rules of geometry and symmetry. The study is concluded with a table showcasing the main motifs and how they developed under each Islamic dynasty. This research is a documentation of the biomorphic language and having this record will help contemporary designers employ biomorphic ornaments thoughtfully.

Keywords: architectural surface, biomorphic patterns, Islamic patterns, Islamic ornamentation

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43 A Nuclear Negotiation Qualitative Case Study with Force Field Analysis

Authors: Onur Yuksel


In today’s complex foreign relations between countries, the nuclear enrichment and nuclear weapon have become a threat for all states in the world. There are couple isolated states which have capacity to produce nuclear weapons such as Iran and North Korea. In this article, Iran nuclear negotiation was analyzed in terms of its relations especially with The United States in order to find the important factors that affect the course of the ongoing nuclear negotiation. In this sense, the Force Field Analysis was used by determining and setting forth Driving and Restraining Forces of the nuclear negotiations in order to see the big picture and to develop strategies that may improve the long-term ongoing Iran nuclear negotiations. It is found that Iran nuclear negotiation heavily depends on breaking down the idea of Iran’s supporting terrorist organizations and being more transparent about nuclear and uranium enrichment. Also, it was found that Iran has to rebuild its relations with Western countries, especially with the United States. In addition, the counties— who contribute to Iran nuclear negotiations— will need to work on the dynamics and drivers of the Israel and Iran relations in order to peacefully transform the conflict between the two states.

Keywords: driving force, Iran nuclear negotiation, restraining force, the force field analysis

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42 The Influence of Ni Elements on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP)

Authors: Yuksel Akinay, Fatih Hayat


The influence of Ni elements on mechanical properties and microstructure of twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steels were investigated in this study. TWIP 1 (0,6C, 24Mn) and TWIP 2 (0,6C, 24Mn, 1Ni) high Mn TWIP (Twinning Induced Plasticity) steels were fabricated, and were annealed at 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for 150 minute and then air-cooled. The microstructures and mechanical properties of specimens were analysed to investigate influence of Ni element on TWIP steel. The carbide precipitations have seen in microstructure of TWIP 1 and TWIP 2 specimen annealed at 700 °C. However, the microstructures of TWIP 1 annealed at 800°C and 900°C are fully austenite and some grains are including annealing twins. However twining did not occur at TWIP 2 specimens annealed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C. TWIP 2 steel contains also Ni element differently from TWIP 1 steel. It can conclude that, Nickel (Ni) was restrained formation of twinning. The reversion of the tensile strength occurred between 700°C and 800°C because of the carbide precipitation hardening. Beside that, hardness value has decreased between 800 °C and 900 °C, which show a good agreement with the equilibrium dissolution temperature of M3C carbides. However, the results show that, carbide precipitations also are as strong barriers for the formation of twining. For this reason, twinning was not obtained at 700 °C.

Keywords: high manganese, heat treatment, SEM, TWIP steel, cold rolling, nickel

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41 Photoluminescence Properties of Lu1.98Er0.02Ti2O7 Pyrochlore (A2B2O7) Phosphor

Authors: Esra Öztürk, Erkul Karacaoglu


Pyrochlores, having compounds of the general formula, A2B2O7 (A and B are metals/rare earths) are important class of materials thanks to having technological applications like in luminescence, ionic conductivity, nuclear waste immobilization etc. The rare earths included pyrochlore compounds have also potential photoluminescence characteristics. In this context, Er3+-activated Lu2Ti2O7 pyrochlore was chosen and synthesized through a high-temperature solid-state reaction route that was sintered under the open atmosphere in this study. The optimal reaction conditions to obtain expected single phase system, the thermal analysis (DTA/TG) were carried out. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to determine phase properties of the sample. The photoluminescence (PL) results were done to obtain excitation, emission and decay time properties by a PL spectrometer under room temperature. According to the PL, there are excitation bands at 352 nm, 388 nm, 423 nm and 453 nm that are due to 4I15/2 → 2G7/2, 4I15/2 → 4G11/2 and 4I15/2 → 4F5/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively. The emission bands are placed at 582 nm, 677 nm and 762 nm that are associated with 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2, 4F9/2 → 4I15/2, 4I9/2 → 4I15/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively.

Keywords: Er3+, Lu2Ti2O7, photoluminescence, pyrochlore, rare-earths

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40 Planning and Implementing Large-Scale Ecological Connectivity: A Review of Past and Ongoing Practices in Turkey

Authors: Tutku Ak, A. Esra Cengiz, Çiğdem Ayhan Kaptan


The conservation community has been increasingly promoting the concept of ecological connectivity towards the prevention and mitigation of landscape fragmentation. Many tools have been proposed for this purpose in not only Europe, but also around the world. Spatial planning for building connectivity, however, has many problems associated with the complexity of ecological processes at spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, on the ground implementation could be very difficult potentially leading to ecologically disastrous results and waste of resources. These problems, on the other hand, can be avoided or rectified as more experience is gained with implementation. Therefore, it is the objective of this study to document the experiences gained with connectivity planning in Turkish landscapes. This paper is a preliminary review of the conservation initiatives and projects aimed at protecting and building ecological connectivity in and around Turkey. The objective is to scope existing conservation plans, tools and implementation approaches in Turkey and the ultimate goal is to understand to what degree they have been implemented and what are the constraints and opportunities that are being faced.

Keywords: ecological connectivity, large-scale landscapes, planning and implementation, Turkey

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39 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender


Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

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38 Spontaneous and Posed Smile Detection: Deep Learning, Traditional Machine Learning, and Human Performance

Authors: Liang Wang, Beste F. Yuksel, David Guy Brizan


A computational model of affect that can distinguish between spontaneous and posed smiles with no errors on a large, popular data set using deep learning techniques is presented in this paper. A Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) classifier, a type of Recurrent Neural Network, is utilized and compared to human classification. Results showed that while human classification (mean of 0.7133) was above chance, the LSTM model was more accurate than human classification and other comparable state-of-the-art systems. Additionally, a high accuracy rate was maintained with small amounts of training videos (70 instances). The derivation of important features to further understand the success of our computational model were analyzed, and it was inferred that thousands of pairs of points within the eyes and mouth are important throughout all time segments in a smile. This suggests that distinguishing between a posed and spontaneous smile is a complex task, one which may account for the difficulty and lower accuracy of human classification compared to machine learning models.

Keywords: affective computing, affect detection, computer vision, deep learning, human-computer interaction, machine learning, posed smile detection, spontaneous smile detection

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37 Experimental Behavior of Composite Shear Walls Having L Shape Steel Sections in Boundary Regions

Authors: S. Bahadır Yüksel, Alptuğ Ünal


The composite shear walls (CSW) with steel encased profiles can be used as lateral-load resisting systems for buildings that require considerable large lateral-load capacity. The aim of this work is to propose the experimental work conducted on CSW having L section folded plate (L shape steel made-up sections) as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The study in this paper present the experimental test conducted on CSW having L section folded plate as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The tested 1/3 geometric scaled CSW has aspect ratio of 3.2. L-shape structural steel materials with 2L-19x57x7mm dimensions were placed in shear wall boundary zones. The seismic behavior of CSW test specimen was investigated by evaluating and interpreting the hysteresis curves, envelope curves, rigidity and consumed energy graphs of this tested element. In addition to this, the experimental results, deformation and cracking patterns were evaluated, interpreted and suggestions of the design recommendations were proposed.

Keywords: shear wall, composite shear wall, boundary reinforcement, earthquake resistant structural design, L section

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36 UV-Reactive Electrospinning: Preparation, Characterization and Cell Culture Applications of Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing Keratin

Authors: Duygu Yüksel Deniz, Memet Vezir Kahraman, Serap Erdem Kuruca, Mediha Süleymanoğlu


Our first aim was to synthesize Hydroxy Apatite (HAP) and then modify its surface by adding 4-Vinylbenzene boronic acid (4-VBBA). The characterization was done by FT-IR. By adding Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to 4- VBBA-HAP, we obtained a suitable electrospinning solution. PVA solution which was also modified by using alkoxy silanes, in order to prevent the scaffolds from being damaged by aqueous cell medium, was added. Keratin was dissolved and then added into the electrospinning solution. Keratin containing 4-VBBA- HAP/PVA composite was used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds with the simultaneous UV-reactive electrospinning technique. The structural characterization was done by FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was also performed by using TGA. The morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. Our second aim was to create a scaffold where cells could grow. With this purpose, suitable nanofibers were choosen according to their SEM analysis. Keratin containing nanofibers were seeded with 3T3, ECV and SAOS cells and their cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were investigated by using MTT assay. After cell culturing process morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. These scaffolds were designed to be nontoxic biomaterials. Here, a comparision was made between keratin containing 3T3, ECV and SAOS seeded nanofiber scaffolds and the results were presented and discussed.

Keywords: cell culture, keratin, nanofibers, UV-reactive electrospinning

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35 Inter Laboratory Comparison with Coordinate Measuring Machine and Uncertainty Analysis

Authors: Tugrul Torun, Ihsan A. Yuksel, Si̇nem On Aktan, Taha K. Vezi̇roglu


In the quality control processes in some industries, the usage of CMM has increased in recent years. Consequently, the CMMs play important roles in the acceptance or rejection of manufactured parts. For parts, it’s important to be able to make decisions by performing fast measurements. According to related technical drawing and its tolerances, measurement uncertainty should also be considered during assessment. Since uncertainty calculation is difficult and time-consuming, most companies ignore the uncertainty value in their routine inspection method. Although studies on measurement uncertainty have been carried out on CMM’s in recent years, there is still no applicable method for analyzing task-specific measurement uncertainty. There are some standard series for calculating measurement uncertainty (ISO-15530); it is not possible to use it in industrial measurement because it is not a practical method for standard measurement routine. In this study, the inter-laboratory comparison test has been carried out in the ROKETSAN A.Ş. with all dimensional inspection units. The reference part that we used is traceable to the national metrology institute TUBİTAK UME. Each unit has measured reference parts according to related technical drawings, and the task-specific measuring uncertainty has been calculated with related parameters. According to measurement results and uncertainty values, the En values have been calculated.

Keywords: coordinate measurement, CMM, comparison, uncertainty

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34 The Effectiveness of Using Video Modeling Procedures on the ipad to Teach Play Skills Children with ASD

Authors: Esra Orum Cattik


This study evaluated the effects of using video modeling procedures on the iPad to teach play skills to children with autism spectrum disorders. A male student with autism spectrum disorders participated in this study. A multiple baseline-across-skills single-subject design was used to evaluate the effects of using video modeling procedures on the iPad. During baseline, no prompts were presented to participants. In the intervention phase, the teacher gave video model on iPad to the first skill and asked play with toys for him. When the first play skill completed the second play skill began intervention. This procedure continued till all three play skill completed intervention. Finally, the participant learned all three play skills to use video modeling presented on the iPad. Based upon findings of this study, suggestions have been made to future researches.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, play, play skills, video modeling, single subject design

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33 Physical Properties of Nano-Sized Poly-N-Isopropylacrylamide Hydrogels

Authors: Esra Alveroglu Durucu, Kenan Koc


In this study, we synthesized and characterized nano-sized Poly- N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) hydrogels. N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) micro and macro gels are known as a thermosensitive colloidal structure, and they respond to changes in the environmental conditions such as temperature and pH. Here, nano-sized gels were synthesized via precipitation copolymerization method. N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) and ammonium persulfate APS were used as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. 8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6- trisulfonic Acid (Pyranine, Py) molecules were used for arranging the particle size and thus physical properties of the nano-sized hydrogels. Fluorescence spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and light scattering methods were used for characterizing the synthesized hydrogels. The results show that the gel size was decreased with increasing amount of ionic molecule from 550 to 140 nm due to the electrostatic behavior of the ionic side groups of pyranine. Light scattering experiments demonstrate that lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the gels shifts to the lower temperature with decreasing size of gel due to the hydrophobicity–hydrophilicity balance of the polymer chains.

Keywords: hydrogels, lower critical solution temperature, nanogels, poly(n-isopropylacrylamide)

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32 Effect of Copper Ions Doped-Hydroxyapatite 3D Fiber Scaffold

Authors: Adil Elrayah, Jie Weng, Esra Suliman


The mineral in human bone is not pure stoichiometric calcium phosphate (Ca/P) as it is partially substituted by in organic elements. In this study, the copper ions (Cu2+) substituted hydroxyapatite (CuHA) powder has been synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The CuHA powder has been used to fabricate CuHA fiber scaffolds by sol-gel process and the following sinter process. The resulted CuHA fibers have slightly different microstructure (i.e. porosity) compared to HA fiber scaffold, which is denser. The mechanical properties test was used to evaluate CuHA, and the results showed decreases in both compression strength and hardness tests. Moreover, the in vitro used endothelial cells to evaluate the angiogenesis of CuHA. The result illustrated that the viability of endothelial cell on CuHA fiber scaffold surfaces tends to antigenic behavior. The results obtained with CuHA scaffold give this material benefit in biological applications such as antimicrobial, antitumor, antigens, compacts, filling cavities of the tooth and for the deposition of metal implants anti-tumor, anti-cancer, bone filler, and scaffold.

Keywords: fiber scaffold, copper ions, hydroxyapatite, in vitro, mechanical property

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31 Effect of Vinclozolin on Some Biochemical Parameters of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Authors: Rahile Ozturk, Esra Maltas


This study aimed to determine the effect of vinclozolin on some biochemical characteristics of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) which is an economically harmful species damaging the honeycomb in beekeeping. For experimental groups, the eggs obtained from stock were dropped into the mixed feed of vinclozolin at different doses (20, 40 and 60 ppm) and had the larvae fed with this feed. As result of the addition of vinclozolin at concentrations of 20, 40 and 60 ppm, glycogen contents of G. mellonella were determined and a significant reduction in the amount of glycogen was observed with increasing concentration of vinclozolin. In this study, activity of catalase enzyme, particularly effective in defense mechanism, activity of xanthine oxidase involved in nucleotide metabolism and activity of glucose oxidase in the metabolism of carbohydrates were measured. When compared with the results from control groups, the enzyme activities of the larvaes fed with the feed including 20, 40 and 60 ppm of vinclozolin were observed to vary or remain constant. Accordingly, glucose oxidase and catalase activities increased with the increase in amount of vinclozolin in the feed and the activity of xanthine oxidase remained stable.

Keywords: Catalase, Galleria mellonella, glucose oxidase, vinclozolin, xanthine oxidase.

Procedia PDF Downloads 215