Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9122

Search results for: alternative energy

9122 A System Dynamics Model for Assessment of Alternative Energy Policy Measures: A Case of Energy Management System as an Energy Efficiency Policy Tool

Authors: Andra Blumberga, Uldis Bariss, Anna Kubule, Dagnija Blumberga

Abstract:

European Union Energy Efficiency Directive provides a set of binding energy efficiency measures to reach. Each of the member states can use either energy efficiency obligation scheme or alternative policy measures or combination of both. Latvian government has decided to divide savings among obligation scheme (65%) and alternative measures (35%). This decision might lead to significant energy tariff increase hence impact on the national economy. To assess impact of alternative policy measures focusing on energy management scheme based on ISO 50001 and ability to decrease share of obligation scheme a System Dynamics modeling was used. Simulation results show that energy efficiency goal can be met with alternative policy measure to large energy consumers in industrial, tertiary and public sectors by applying the energy tax exemption for implementers of energy management system. A delay in applying alternative policy measures plays very important role in reaching the energy efficiency goal. One year delay in implementation of this policy measure reduces cumulative energy savings from 2016 to 2017 from 5200 GWh to 3000 GWh in 2020.

Keywords: system dynamics, energy efficiency, policy measure, energy management system, obligation scheme

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
9121 SWOT Analysis of Renewable Energy

Authors: Bahadır Aydın

Abstract:

Being one of the most important elements of social evolution, energy has a vital role for a sustainable economy and development. Energy has great importance to level up the welfare. By this importance, countries having rich resources can apply energy as an political instrument. While needs of energy is increasing, sources to respond this need is very limited. Therefore, countries seek for alternative resources to meet their needs. Renewable energy sources have firstly taken into consideration. Being clean and belonging to countries own sources, renewable energy resources have been widely applied during the last decades. However, renewable energy cannot meet all the expectation of energy needs. In this respect, energy efficiency can be seen as an alternative. Energy efficiency can minimize energy consumption without degrading standard of living, lessening quality of products and without increasing energy bills. In this article, energy resources, SWOT analysis of renewable sources, and energy efficiency topics are mainly discussed.

Keywords: energy efficiency, renewable energy, energy regulations, oil, international relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
9120 Environmental Sustainability: A Renewable Energy Prospect with a Biofuel Alternative

Authors: Abul Quasem Al-Amin, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Walter Leal Filho

Abstract:

With regard to the future energy strategy and vision, this study aimed to find the drawbacks of proposed energy diversification policy for 2020. To have a clear picture of the drawback and competitive alternative, this study has explored two scenarios, namely Scenario a and Scenario b. The Scenario a indicates that in the year 2020 the GHG emissions would be 823,498.00 million tons (Mt) with a 2020 final demand and proposed fuel mix such as by the Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy. In contrast, as an alternative, the Scenario b with biofuel potentials indicates that the substitution of coal energy by 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, with biofuel, would reduce the GHG emissions from 374,551.00, 405,118.00, and 823,498.00 million tons to 339,964.00, 329,834.00, and 305,288.00 million tons, respectively, by the present fuel mix, business-as-usual fuel mix, and proposed fuel mix up to the year 2020. Therefore, this study has explored a healthy alternative by introducing biofuel renewable energy option instead of conventional energy utilization in the power generation with environmental aspect in minds. This study effort would lessen the gap between GHG mitigation and future sustainable development and would useful to formulate effective renewable energy strategy in Malaysia.

Keywords: energy, environmental impacts, renewable energy, biofuel, energy policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
9119 Solar Energy: The Alternative Electric Power Resource in Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi

Abstract:

More than ever human activity relating to uncontrolled greenhouse gas (GHG) and its effects on the earth is gaining greater attention in the global academic and policy discussions. Activities of man has greatly influenced climate change over the years as a result of consistent increase in the use of fossil fuel energy. Scientists and researchers globally are making significant and devoted efforts towards the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies that are harmless to the environment. One of such energy is solar energy with its source from the sun. There are currently two primary ways of harvesting this energy from the sun: through photovoltaic (PV) panels and through thermal collectors. This work discuses solar energy the abundant renewable energy in the tropical Nigeria, processes of harvesting and recommends same as an alternative means of electric power generation in a time the demand for power supersedes supply.

Keywords: electric, power, renewable energy, solar energy, sun, tropical

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
9118 Evaluation of Alternative Energy Sources for Energy Production in Turkey

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan, Murat Ahmet Ökmen

Abstract:

In parallel with the population growth rate, the need of human being for energy sources in the world is gradually increasing incessant. The addition of this situation that demand for energy will be busier in the future, industrialization, the rise in living standards and technological developments, especially in developing countries. Alternative energy sources have aroused interest due to reasons such as serious environmental issues that were caused by fossil energy sources, potentially decreasing reserves, different social, political and economic problems caused by dependency on source providing countries and price instability. Especially in developed countries as European countries and also U.S.A particularly, alternative energy sources such as wind, geothermal, solar and biomass energy, hydrolic and hydrogen have been utilized in different forms, especially in electricity production. It includes a review of technical and environmental factors for energy sources that are potential replacements for fossil fuels and examines their fitness to supply the energy for a high standard of living on a worldwide basis. Despite all developments, fossil energy sources have been overwhelmingly used all around the world in primary energy sources consumption and they will outnumber other energy sources in the short term. Today, parallel to population growth and economy in Turkey, energy sources consumption is increasingly continuing. On one side, Turkey, currently 80% dependent on energy providing countries, has been heavily conducting fossil energy sources raw material quest within its own borders in order to lower the percentage, and the other side, there have been many researches for exploring potential of alternative energy sources and utilization. This case will lead to both a decrease in foreign energy dependency and a variety of energy sources. This study showed the current energy potential of Turkey and presents historical development of these energy sources and their share in electricity production. The research also seeked for answers to arguments that if the potential can be sufficient in the future. As a result of this study, it was concluded that observed geothermal energy, particularly active tectonic regions of Turkey, to have an alternative energy potential could be considered to be valuable on bass wind and solar energy.

Keywords: alternative energy sources, energy productions, hydroenergy, solar energy, wind energy

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9117 Scanning Electron Microscopy of Cement Clinkers Produced Using Alternative Fuels

Authors: Sorour Semsari Parapari, Mehmet Ali Gülgün, Melih Papila

Abstract:

Cement production is one of the most energy-intensive processes consuming a high amount of thermal energy. Nowadays, alternative fuels are being used in cement manufacturing in a large scale as a help to provide the necessary energy. The alternative fuels could consist of any disposal like waste plastics, used tires and biomass. It has been suggested that the clinker properties might be affected by using these fuels because of foreign elements incorporation to the composition. Studying the distribution of clinker phases and their chemical composition is possible with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, clinker samples were produced using different alternative fuels in cement firing kilns. The microstructural observations by back-scattered electrons (BSE) mode in SEM (JEOL JSM-6010LV) showed that the clinker phase distribution was dissimilar in samples prepared with different alternative fuels. The alite to belite (a/b) phase content of samples was quantified by image analysis. The results showed that the a/b varied between 5.2 and 1.5 among samples as the average value for six clinker nodules. The elemental analysis by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mounted on SEM indicated the variation in chemical composition among samples. Higher amounts of sulfur and alkalis seemed to reduce the alite phase formation in clinkers.

Keywords: alternative fuels, cement clinker, microstructure, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
9116 Energy Potential of Turkey and Evaluation of Solar Energy Technology as an Alternative Energy

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan, Murat Ahmet Ökmen

Abstract:

Emerging demand for energy in developing countries rapid population growth and industrialization are causing a rapid increase, such as Turkey. Energy is an important and indispensable factor in the industry. At the same time, energy is one of the main indicators that reflect a country's economic and social development potential. There is a linear relationship between the energy consumption and social development, and in parallel this situation, it is seen that energy consumption increase with economic growth and prosperity. In recent year’s, energy sources consumption is increasingly continuing, because of population growth and economy in Turkey. 80% of the energy used in Turkey is supplied from abroad. At the same time, while almost all of the energy obtained from our country is met by hydropower. Alternatively, studies of determining and using potential renewable energy sources such as solar energy have been realized for recent years. In this study, first of all, the situation of energy sources was examined in Turkey. Information of reserve/capacity, production and consumption values of energy sources were emphasized. For this purpose, energy production and consumption, CO2 emission and electricity energy consumption of countries were investigated. Energy consumption and electricity energy consumption per capita were comparatively analyzed.

Keywords: energy potential, alternative energy sources, solar energy, Turkey

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9115 A Review of Renewable Energy Conditions in Iran Country

Authors: Ehsan Atash Zaban

Abstract:

In recent years, concerns over the depletion of non-renewable fuels and environmental pollution have led countries around the world to look for alternative energy sources for these fuels. An energy source that can have the necessary reliability, be a suitable alternative to fossil fuels, be technologically achievable, comply with environmental standards to the maximum, and at the same time cause countries to meet domestic consumption for electricity production. Iran is a place with high numbers of energy resources in the world because it has extensive sources of fossil and non-renewable and also has great potential for renewable energy. In this paper, we review renewable energy in the country, which includes solar, wind, geothermal, hydrogen technology, and biomass has been reviewed and analyzed.

Keywords: solar stations, wind, hydropower, renewable energy

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9114 Conceptualization and Strategies of Biogas Technology for Rural Development in Nigeria

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi

Abstract:

The main challenge of present world is to harness the energy source which is environment friendly and ecologically balanced. This need has forced to search for other alternate source of energy. But unfortunately the new alternative energy sources like the solar, hydro, wind etc. require huge economical value and technical power to operate, which seem to be very difficult for the developing countries like Nigeria. In the present moment biogas energy can be one and only reliable, easily available and economically feasible source of alternative and renewable source which can be managed by locally available sources and simple technology for secondary schools, tertiary institution and rural villages. This paper is aimed at boosting the energy generation for developing of rural Nigeria, through Biogas.

Keywords: bio-gas, energy, environment, nigeria, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
9113 Independent Village Planning Based Eco Village and Save Energy in Region of Maritime Tourism

Authors: Muhamad Rasyid Angkotasan

Abstract:

Eco-village is an ecosystem where the countryside or urban communities that are inside trying to integrate the social environment with low impact way of life to achieve this, they integrate the various aspects of ecological design, agriculture permanent, ecological building and the alternative energy. Eco-village in question is eco-village conducted on of marine tourism areas, where natural resources are very good, without ignoring the global issue of climate change. Desperately needed a source of energy, which can support the fulfillment of energy needs in a sustainable. Fulfillment of energy sources that offer is the use or application of environmentally friendly technologies of usage is still very low in Indonesia, the technology namely the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), OTEC is expected to be a source of the alternative energy, which can support the goal of eco-village of the region's of marine tourism.

Keywords: eco village, saving energy, ocean thermal energy conversion, environmental engineering

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9112 Analysis of Electricity Demand at Household Level Using Leap Model in Balochistan, Pakistan

Authors: Sheikh Saeed Ahmad

Abstract:

Electricity is vital for any state’s development that needs policy for planning the power network extension. This study is about simulation modeling for electricity in Balochistan province. Baseline data of electricity consumption was used of year 2004 and projected with the help of LEAP model up to subsequent 30 years. Three scenarios were created to run software. One scenario was baseline and other two were alternative or green scenarios i.e. solar and wind energy scenarios. Present study revealed that Balochistan has much greater potential for solar and wind energy for electricity production. By adopting these alternative energy forms, Balochistan can save energy in future nearly 23 and 48% by incorporating solar and wind power respectively. Thus, the study suggests to government planners, an aspect of integrating renewable sources in power system for ensuring sustainable development and growth.

Keywords: demand and supply, LEAP, solar energy, wind energy, households

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
9111 Effects of Using Alternative Energy Sources and Technologies to Reduce Energy Consumption and Expenditure of a Single Detached House

Authors: Gul Nihal Gugul, Merih Aydinalp-Koksal

Abstract:

In this study, hourly energy consumption model of a single detached house in Ankara, Turkey is developed using ESP-r building energy simulation software. Natural gas is used for space heating, cooking, and domestic water heating in this two story 4500 square feet four-bedroom home. Hourly electricity consumption of the home is monitored by an automated meter reading system, and daily natural gas consumption is recorded by the owners during 2013. Climate data of the region and building envelope data are used to develop the model. The heating energy consumption of the house that is estimated by the ESP-r model is then compared with the actual heating demand to determine the performance of the model. Scenarios are applied to the model to determine the amount of reduction in the total energy consumption of the house. The scenarios are using photovoltaic panels to generate electricity, ground source heat pumps for space heating and solar panels for domestic hot water generation. Alternative scenarios such as improving wall and roof insulations and window glazing are also applied. These scenarios are evaluated based on annual energy, associated CO2 emissions, and fuel expenditure savings. The pay-back periods for each scenario are also calculated to determine best alternative energy source or technology option for this home to reduce annual energy use and CO2 emission.

Keywords: ESP-r, building energy simulation, residential energy saving, CO2 reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
9110 Analysis of an Alternative Data Base for the Estimation of Solar Radiation

Authors: Graciela Soares Marcelli, Elison Eduardo Jardim Bierhals, Luciane Teresa Salvi, Claudineia Brazil, Rafael Haag

Abstract:

The sun is a source of renewable energy, and its use as both a source of heat and light is one of the most promising energy alternatives for the future. To measure the thermal or photovoltaic systems a solar irradiation database is necessary. Brazil still has a reduced number of meteorological stations that provide frequency tests, as an alternative to the radio data platform, with reanalysis systems, quite significant. ERA-Interim is a global fire reanalysis by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The data assimilation system used for the production of ERA-Interim is based on a 2006 version of the IFS (Cy31r2). The system includes a 4-dimensional variable analysis (4D-Var) with a 12-hour analysis window. The spatial resolution of the dataset is approximately 80 km at 60 vertical levels from the surface to 0.1 hPa. This work aims to make a comparative analysis between the ERA-Interim data and the data observed in the Solarimmetric Atlas of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, to verify its applicability in the absence of an observed data network. The analysis of the results obtained for a study region as an alternative to the energy potential of a given region.

Keywords: energy potential, reanalyses, renewable energy, solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
9109 Green Procedure for Energy and Emission Balancing of Alternative Scenario Improvements for Cogeneration System: A Case of Hardwood Lumber Manufacturing Process

Authors: Aldona Kluczek

Abstract:

Energy efficient process have become a pressing research field in manufacturing. The arguments for having an effective industrial energy efficiency processes are interacted with factors: economic and environmental impact, and energy security. Improvements in energy efficiency are most often achieved by implementation of more efficient technology or manufacturing process. Current processes of electricity production represents the biggest consumption of energy and the greatest amount of emissions to the environment. The goal of this study is to improve the potential energy-savings and reduce greenhouse emissions related to improvement scenarios for the treatment of hardwood lumber produced by an industrial plant operating in the U.S. through the application of green balancing procedure, in order to find the preferable efficient technology. The green procedure for energy is based on analysis of energy efficiency data. Three alternative scenarios of the cogeneration systems plant (CHP) construction are considered: generation of fresh steam, the purchase of a new boiler with the operating pressure 300 pounds per square inch gauge (PSIG), an installation of a new boiler with a 600 PSIG pressure. In this paper, the application of a bottom-down modelling for energy flow to devise a streamlined Energy and Emission Flow Analyze method for the technology of producing electricity is illustrated. It will identify efficiency or technology of a given process to be reached, through the effective use of energy, or energy management. Results have shown that the third scenario seem to be the efficient alternative scenario considered from the environmental and economic concerns for treating hardwood lumber. The energy conservation evaluation options could save an estimated 6,215.78 MMBtu/yr in each year, which represents 9.5% of the total annual energy usage. The total annual potential cost savings from all recommendations is $143,523/yr, which represents 30.1% of the total annual energy costs. Estimation have presented that energy cost savings are possible up to 43% (US$ 143,337.85), representing 18.6% of the total annual energy costs.

Keywords: alternative scenario improvements, cogeneration system, energy and emission flow analyze, energy balancing, green procedure, hardwood lumber manufacturing process

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
9108 Design Analysis of Solar Energy Panels for Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Cyril Agochi Okorowo

Abstract:

More than ever human activity relating to uncontrolled greenhouse gas (GHG) and its effects on the earth is gaining greater attention in the global academic and policy discussions. Activities of man have greatly influenced climate change over the years as a result of a consistent increase in the use of fossil fuel energy. Scientists and researchers globally are making significant and devoted efforts towards the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies that are harmless to the environment. One of such energy is solar energy with its source from the sun. There are currently two primary ways of harvesting this energy from the sun: through photovoltaic (PV) panels and through thermal collectors. This work discusses solar energy as the abundant renewable energy in the tropical Nigeria, processes of harvesting the energy and recommends solar energy as an alternative means of electric power generation in a time the demand for power in Nigeria supersedes supply.

Keywords: analysis, energy, design, solar

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
9107 Alternative Mathematical form for Determining the Effectiveness of High-LET Radiations at Lower Doses Region

Authors: Abubaker A. Yousif, Muhamad S. Yasir

Abstract:

The Effectiveness of lower doses of high-LET radiations is not accurately determined by using energy-based physical parameters such as absorbed dose and radio-sensitivity parameters. Therefore, an attempt has been carried out in this research to propose alternative parameter that capable to quantify the effectiveness of these high LET radiations at lower doses regions. The linear energy transfer and mean free path are employed to achieve this objective. A new mathematical form of the effectiveness of high-LET radiations at lower doses region has been formulated. Based on this parameter, the optimized effectiveness of high-LET radiations occurs when the energy of charged particles is deposited at spacing of 2 nm for primary ionization.

Keywords: effectiveness, low dose, radiation mean free path, linear energy transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
9106 Advancement of Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Technologies through Integrated Applications and Alternative Systems

Authors: S. Doyle, G. A. Aggidis

Abstract:

Wave energy converter technologies continue to show good progress in worldwide research. One of the most researched technologies, the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), is arguably one of the most popular categories within the converter technologies due to its robustness, simplicity and versatility. However, the versatility of the OWC is still largely untapped with most deployments following similar trends with respect to applications and operating systems. As the competitiveness of the energy market continues to increase, the demand for wave energy technologies to be innovative also increases. For existing wave energy technologies, this requires identifying areas to diversify for lower costs of energy with respect to applications and synergies or integrated systems. This paper provides a review of all OWCs systems integrated into alternative applications in the past and present. The aspects and variation in their design, deployment and system operation are discussed. Particular focus is given to the Multi-OWCs (M-OWCs) and their great potential to increase capture on a larger scale, especially in synergy applications. It is made clear that these steps need to be taken in order to make wave energy a competitive and viable option in the renewable energy mix as progression to date shows that stand alone single function devices are not economical. Findings reveal that the trend of development is moving toward these integrated applications in order to reduce the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) and will ultimately continue in this direction in efforts to make wave energy a competitive option in the renewable energy mix.

Keywords: wave energy converter, oscillating water column, ocean energy, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
9105 Environmental Evaluation of Alternative/Renewable Fuels Technology

Authors: Muhammad Hadi Ibrahim

Abstract:

The benefits of alternative/renewable fuels in general and a study of the environmental impacts of biofuels in particular have been reviewed in this paper. It is a known fact that, energy generation using fossil fuel produces many important pollutants including; nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, soot, dust, smoke and other particulate harmful matter. It’s believed that if carbon dioxide levels continue to increase drastically, the planet will become warmer and will most likely result in a variety of negative impacts including; sea-level rise, extreme and unpredictable weather events and an increased frequency of draughts in inland agricultural zones. Biofuels such as alcohols, biogas, etc. appear to be more viable alternatives, especially for use as fuels in diesel engines. The substitution of fossil fuel through increased utilization of biofuels produced in a sustainable manner, can contribute immensely towards a cleaner environment, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation of climate change. Stakeholders in the energy sector can be sensitized by the findings of the research study and to consider the possible adverse effects in developing technologies for the production and combustion of biofuels.

Keywords: emission, energy, renewable/alternative fuel, environment, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
9104 Microgrid: An Alternative of Electricity Supply to an Island in Thailand

Authors: Pawitchaya Srijaiwong, Surin Khomfoi

Abstract:

There are several solutions to supply electricity to an island in Thailand such as diesel generation, submarine power cable, and renewable energy power generation. However, each alternative has its own limitation like fuel and pollution of diesel generation, submarine power cable length resulting in loss of cable and cost of investment, and potential of renewable energy in the local area. This paper shows microgrid system which is a new alternative for power supply to an island. It integrates local power plant from renewable energy, energy storage system, and microgrid controller. The suitable renewable energy power generation on an island is selected from geographic location and potential evaluation. Thus, photovoltaic system and hydro power plant are taken into account. The capacity of energy storage system is also estimated by transient stability study in order to supply electricity demand sufficiently under normal condition. Microgrid controller plays an important role in conducting, communicating and operating for both sources and loads on an island so that its functions are discussed in this study. The conceptual design of microgrid operation is investigated in order to analyze the reliability and power quality. The result of this study shows that microgrid is able to operate in parallel with the main grid and in case of islanding. It is applicable for electricity supply to an island and a remote area. The advantages of operating microgrid on an island include the technical aspect like improving reliability and quality of power system and social aspects like outage cost saving and CO₂ reduction.

Keywords: energy storage, islanding, microgrid, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
9103 Assessing the Viability of Solar Water Pumps Economically, Socially and Environmentally in Soan Valley, Punjab

Authors: Zenab Naseem, Sadia Imran

Abstract:

One of the key solutions to the climate change crisis is to develop renewable energy resources, such as solar and wind power and biogas. This paper explores the socioeconomic and environmental viability of solar energy, based on a case study of the Soan Valley Development Program. Under this project, local farmers were provided solar water pumps at subsidized rates. These have been functional for the last seven years and have gained popularity among the local communities. The study measures the economic viability of using solar energy in agriculture, based on data from 36 households, of which 12 households each use diesel, electric and solar water pumps. Our findings are based on the net present value of each technology type. We also carry out a qualitative assessment of the social impact of solar water pumps relative to diesel and electric pumps. Finally, we conduct an environmental impact assessment, using the lifecycle assessment approach. All three analyses indicate that solar energy is a viable alternative to diesel and electricity.

Keywords: alternative energy sources, pollution control adoption and costs, solar energy pumps, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
9102 Role of Non-Renewable and Renewable Energy for Sustainable Electricity Generation in Malaysia

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Nor Hamisham Harun

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of non-renewable energy and renewable energy utilization in Malaysia, including hydropower, solar photovoltaic, biomass and biogas technologies. Malaysia mainly depends on non-renewable energy (natural gas, coal and crude oil) for electricity generation. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the energy sector and discusses diversification of electricity generation as a strategy for providing sustainable energy in Malaysia. Energy policies and strategies to protect the non-renewable energy utilization also are highlighted, focusing in the different sources of energy available for high and sustained economic growth. Emphasis is also placed on a discussion of the role of renewable energy as an alternative source for the increase of electricity supply security. It is now evident that to achieve sustainable development through renewable energy, energy policies and strategies have to be well designed and supported by the government, industries (firms), and individual or community participation. The hope is to create a positive impact on sustainable development through renewable sources for current and future generations.

Keywords: Malaysia, non-renewable energy, renewable energy, sustainable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
9101 Heating System for Water Pool by Solar Energy

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

A swimming pool heating system is presented, composed of two alternative collectors with serial PVC absorber tubes that work in regimen of forced stream that is gotten through a bomb. A 500 liters reservoir was used, simulating the swimming pool, being raised some data that show the viability of the considered system. The chosen outflow was corresponding to 100 l/h. In function of the low outflow it was necessary the use of a not popular bomb, choosing the use of a low outflow alternative pumping system, using an air conditioner engine with three different rotations for the desired end. The thermal data related to each collector and their developed system will be presented. The UV and thermal degradations of the PVC exposed to solar radiation will be also boarded, demonstrating the viability of using tubes of this material as absorber elements of radiation in water heating solar collectors.

Keywords: solar energy, solar swimming pool, water heating, PVC tubes, alternative system

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9100 The Environmental Impact of Geothermal Energy and Opportunities for Its Utilization in Hungary

Authors: András Medve, Katalin Szabad, István Patkó

Abstract:

According to the International Energy Association the previous principles of the energy sector should be reassessed, in which renewable energy sources have a significant role. We might witness the exchange of roles of countries from importer to exporter, which look for the main resources of market needs. According to the World Energy Outlook 2013, the duration of high oil prices is exceptionally long in the history of the energy market. Forecasts also point at the expected great differences between the regional prices of gas and electric energy. The energy need of the world will grow by its third. two thirds of which will appear in China, India, and South-East Asia, while only 4 per cent of which will be related to OECD countries. Current trends also forecast the growth of the price of energy sources and the emission of glasshouse gases. As a reflection of these forecasts alternative energy sources will gain value, of which geothermic energy is one of the cheapest and most economical. Hungary possesses outstanding resources of geothermic energy. The aim of the study is to research the environmental effects of geothermic energy and the opportunities of its exploitation in Hungary, related to „Horizon 2020” project.

Keywords: sustainable energy, renewable energy, development of geothermic energy in Hungary

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9099 Multidimensional Approach to Analyse the Environmental Impacts of Mobility

Authors: Andras Gyorfi, Andras Torma, Adrienn Buruzs

Abstract:

Mobility has been evolved to a determining field of science. The continuously developing segment involves a variety of affected issues such as public and economic sectors. Beside the changes in mobility the state of environment had also changed in the last period. Alternative mobility as a separate category and the idea of its widespread appliance is such a new field that needs to be studied deeper. Alternative mobility implies finding new types of propulsion, using innovative kinds of power and energy resources, revolutionizing the approach to vehicular control. Including new resources and excluding others has such a complex effect which cannot be unequivocally confirmed by today’s scientific achievements. Changes in specific parameters will most likely reduce the environmental impacts, however, the production of new substances or even their subtraction of the system will cause probably energy deficit as well. The aim of this research is to elaborate the environmental impact matrix of alternative mobility and cognize the factors that are yet unknown, analyse them, look for alternative solutions and conclude all the above in a coherent system. In order to this, we analyse it with a method called ‘the system of systems (SoS) method’ to model the effects and the dynamics of the system. A part of the research process is to examine its impacts on the environment, and to decide whether the newly developed versions of alternative mobility are affecting the environmental state. As a final result, a complex approach will be used which can supplement the current scientific studies. By using the SoS approach, we create a framework of reference containing elements in which we examine the interactions as well. In such a way, a flexible and modular model can be established which supports the prioritizing of effects and the deeper analysis of the complex system.

Keywords: environment, alternative mobility, complex model, element analysis, multidimensional map

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9098 Fuelwood Rsources Utilisation and Its Impact on Sustainable Environment: A Rural Perception

Authors: Abubakar Abdullahi

Abstract:

Large amount of human energy are spent gathering and collecting fuel wood in many parts of the world, most especially in rural areas. In Nigeria fuel wood serves million houses in both rural and urban centers for various energy needs. It’s a common scene in many places while passing by roads to see bunch of woods being sold by the road sides. Even though the resource serves millions of peoples energy needs it has serious consequences on our environment, thus sustainable environment. Majority of the rural areas who rely heavily on the firewood as a means of energy are not aware of the dangers associated with the uses of the products. The aim of this work is to look into the utilization of fuel wood among rural dwellers and their perception about the dangers associated with it and how to sustain our environment. The methodology used involves a structured questionnaire designed with the question about the utilization and perception. The questionnaire is administered to the people of Kashere, a rural area in Gombe state. The result clearly shows there is a high level of ignorance among rural dwellers on the dangers of using fuel wood and how it constitute the depletion of the immediate environment. However, what is surprising in the research is the people’s readiness for alternative energy sources. The research recommend that proper orientation and sensitization is required to create education and awareness to the rural dwellers as well as provide alternative energy that is available, environment friendly and accessible to address the problems.

Keywords: energy, rural dwellers, environment, fuel wood, resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
9097 Mathematical Modeling for Continuous Reactive Extrusion of Poly Lactic Acid Formation by Ring Opening Polymerization Considering Metal/Organic Catalyst and Alternative Energies

Authors: Satya P. Dubey, Hrushikesh A Abhyankar, Veronica Marchante, James L. Brighton, Björn Bergmann

Abstract:

Aims: To develop a mathematical model that simulates the ROP of PLA taking into account the effect of alternative energy to be implemented in a continuous reactive extrusion production process of PLA. Introduction: The production of large amount of waste is one of the major challenges at the present time, and polymers represent 70% of global waste. PLA has emerged as a promising polymer as it is compostable, biodegradable thermoplastic polymer made from renewable sources. However, the main limitation for the application of PLA is the traces of toxic metal catalyst in the final product. Thus, a safe and efficient production process needs to be developed to avoid the potential hazards and toxicity. It has been found that alternative energy sources (LASER, ultrasounds, microwaves) could be a prominent option to facilitate the ROP of PLA via continuous reactive extrusion. This process may result in complete extraction of the metal catalysts and facilitate less active organic catalysts. Methodology: Initial investigation were performed using the data available in literature for the reaction mechanism of ROP of PLA based on conventional metal catalyst stannous octoate. A mathematical model has been developed by considering significant parameters such as different initial concentration ratio of catalyst, co-catalyst and impurity. Effects of temperature variation and alternative energies have been implemented in the model. Results: The validation of the mathematical model has been made by using data from literature as well as actual experiments. Validation of the model including alternative energies is in progress based on experimental data for partners of the InnoREX project consortium. Conclusion: The model developed reproduces accurately the polymerisation reaction when applying alternative energy. Alternative energies have a great positive effect to increase the conversion and molecular weight of the PLA. This model could be very useful tool to complement Ludovic® software to predict the large scale production process when using reactive extrusion.

Keywords: polymer, poly-lactic acid (PLA), ring opening polymerization (ROP), metal-catalyst, bio-degradable, renewable source, alternative energy (AE)

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9096 Unconventional Hydrocarbon Management Strategy

Authors: Edi Artono, Budi Tamtomo, Gema Wahyudi Purnama

Abstract:

The world energy demand increasing extreamly high time by time, including domestic demand. That is impossible to avoid because energy a country demand proportional to surge in the number of residents, economic growth and addition of industrial sector. Domestic Oil and gas conventional reserves depleted naturally while production outcome from reservoir also depleted time to time. In the other hand, new reserve did not discover significantly to replace it all. Many people are investigating to looking for new alternative energy to answer the challenge. There are several option to solve energy fossil needed problem using Unconventional Hydrocarbon. There are four aspects to consider as a management reference in order that Unconventional Hydrocarbon business can work properly, divided to: 1. Legal aspect, 2. Environmental aspect, 3. Technical aspect and 4. Economy aspect. The economic aspect as the key to whether or not a project can be implemented or not in Oil and Gas business scheme, so do Unconventional Hydorcarbon business scheme. The support of regulation are needed to buttress Unconventional Hydorcarbon business grow up and make benefits contribute to Government.

Keywords: alternative energy, unconventional hydrocarbon, regulation support, management strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
9095 Increasing the Efficiency of the Biomass Gasification Technology with Using the Organic Rankin Cycle

Authors: Jaroslav Frantík, Jan Najser

Abstract:

This article deals with increasing the energy efficiency of a plant in terms of optimizing the process. The European Union is striving to achieve the climate-energy package in the area increasing of energy efficiency. The goal of energy efficiency is to reduce primary energy consumption by 20% within the EU until 2020. The objective of saving energy consumption in the Czech Republic was set at 47.84 PJ (13.29 TWh). For reducing electricity consumption, it is possible to choose: a) mandatory increasing of energy efficiency, b) alternative scheme, c) combination of both actions. The Czech Republic has chosen for reducing electricity consumption using-alternative scheme. The presentation is focused on the proposal of a technological unit dealing with the gasification process of processing of biomass with an increase of power in the output. The synthesis gas after gasification of biomass is used as fuel in a cogeneration process of reciprocating internal combustion engine with the classic production of heat and electricity. Subsequently, there is an explanation of the ORC system dealing with the conversion of waste heat to electricity with the using closed cycle of the steam process with organic medium. The arising electricity is distributed to the power grid as a further energy source, or it is used for needs of the partial coverage of the technological unit. Furthermore, there is a presented schematic description of the technology with the identification of energy flows starting from the biomass treatment by drying, through its conversion to gaseous fuel, producing of electricity and utilize of thermal energy with minimizing losses. It has been found that using of ORC system increased the efficiency of the produced electricity by 7.5%.

Keywords: biomass, efficiency, gasification, ORC system

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
9094 An Electromechanical Device to Use in Road Pavements to Convert Vehicles Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy

Authors: Francisco Duarte, Adelino Ferreira, Paulo Fael

Abstract:

With the growing need for alternative energy sources, research into energy harvesting technologies has increased considerably in recent years. The particular case of energy harvesting on road pavements is a very recent area of research, with different technologies having been developed in recent years. However, none of them have presented high conversion efficiencies nor technical or economic viability. This paper deals with the development of a mechanical system to implement on a road pavement energy harvesting electromechanical device, to transmit energy from the device surface to an electrical generator. The main goal is to quantify the energy harvesting, transmission and conversion efficiency of the proposed system and compare it with existing systems. Conclusions about the system’s efficiency are presented.

Keywords: road pavement, energy harvesting, energy conversion, system modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
9093 Efficiency Enhancement in Solar Panel

Authors: R. S. Arun Raj

Abstract:

In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental issues, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is the solar energy. The SUN provides every hour as much energy as mankind consumes in one year. This paper clearly explains about the solar panel design and new models and methodologies that can be implemented for better utilization of solar energy. Minimisation of losses in solar panel as heat is my innovative idea revolves around. The pay back calculations by implementation of solar panels is also quoted.

Keywords: on-grid and off-grid systems, pyro-electric effect, pay-back calculations, solar panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 494