Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14146

Search results for: time delay

14146 Modification of Fick’s First Law by Introducing the Time Delay

Authors: H. Namazi, H. T. N. Kuan

Abstract:

Fick's first law relates the diffusive flux to the concentration field, by postulating that the flux goes from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration, with a magnitude that is proportional to the concentration gradient (spatial derivative). It is clear that the diffusion of flux cannot be instantaneous and should be some time delay in this propagation. But Fick’s first law doesn’t consider this delay which results in some errors especially when there is a considerable time delay in the process. In this paper, we introduce a time delay to Fick’s first law. By this modification, we consider that the diffusion of flux cannot be instantaneous. In order to verify this claim an application sample in fluid diffusion is discussed and the results of modified Fick’s first law, Fick’s first law and the experimental results are compared. The results of this comparison stand for the accuracy of the modified model. The modified model can be used in any application where the time delay has considerable value and neglecting its effect reflects in undesirable results.

Keywords: Fick's first law, flux, diffusion, time delay, modified Fick’s first law

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14145 An Active Rectifier with Time-Domain Delay Compensation to Enhance the Power Conversion Efficiency

Authors: Shao-Ku Kao

Abstract:

This paper presents an active rectifier with time-domain delay compensation to enhance the efficiency. A delay calibration circuit is designed to convert delay time to voltage and adaptive control on/off delay in variable input voltage. This circuit is designed in 0.18 mm CMOS process. The input voltage range is from 2 V to 3.6 V with the output voltage from 1.8 V to 3.4 V. The efficiency can maintain more than 85% when the load from 50 Ω ~ 1500 Ω for 3.6 V input voltage. The maximum efficiency is 92.4 % at output power to be 38.6 mW for 3.6 V input voltage.

Keywords: wireless power transfer, active diode, delay compensation, time to voltage converter, PCE

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14144 A Low-Power Comparator Structure with Arbitrary Pre-Amplification Delay

Authors: Ata Khorami, Mohammad Sharifkhani

Abstract:

In the dynamic comparators, the pre-amplifier amplifies the input differential voltage and when the output Vcm of the pre-amplifier becomes larger than Vth of the latch input transistors, the latch is activated and finalizes the comparison. As a result, the pre-amplification delay is fixed to a value and cannot be set at the minimum required delay, thus, significant power and delay are imposed. In this paper, a novel structure is proposed through which the pre-amplification delay can be set at any low value saving power and time. Simulations show that using the proposed structure, by setting the pre-amplification delay at the minimum required value the power and comparison delay can be reduced by 55% and 100ps respectively.

Keywords: dynamic comparator, low power comparator, analog to digital converter, pre-amplification delay

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14143 A Time Delay Neural Network for Prediction of Human Behavior

Authors: A. Hakimiyan, H. Namazi

Abstract:

Human behavior is defined as a range of behaviors exhibited by humans who are influenced by different internal or external sources. Human behavior is the subject of much research in different areas of psychology and neuroscience. Despite some advances in studies related to forecasting of human behavior, there are not many researches which consider the effect of the time delay between the presence of stimulus and the related human response. Analysis of EEG signal as a fractal time series is one of the major tools for studying the human behavior. In the other words, the human brain activity is reflected in his EEG signal. Artificial Neural Network has been proved useful in forecasting of different systems’ behavior especially in engineering areas. In this research, a time delay neural network is trained and tested in order to forecast the human EEG signal and subsequently human behavior. This neural network, by introducing a time delay, takes care of the lagging time between the occurrence of the stimulus and the rise of the subsequent action potential. The results of this study are useful not only for the fundamental understanding of human behavior forecasting, but shall be very useful in different areas of brain research such as seizure prediction.

Keywords: human behavior, EEG signal, time delay neural network, prediction, lagging time

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14142 Nitrogen Effects on Ignition Delay Time in Supersonic Premixed and Diffusion Flames

Authors: A. M. Tahsini

Abstract:

Computational study of two dimensional supersonic reacting hydrogen-air flows is performed to investigate the nitrogen effects on ignition delay time for premixed and diffusion flames. Chemical reaction is treated using detail kinetics and the advection upstream splitting method is used to calculate the numerical inviscid fluxes. The results show that only in the stoichiometric condition for both premixed and diffusion flames, there is monotone dependency of the ignition delay time to the nitrogen addition. In other situations, the optimal condition from ignition viewpoint should be found using numerical investigations.

Keywords: diffusion flame, ignition delay time, mixing layer, numerical simulation, premixed flame, supersonic flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
14141 Time Delay Estimation Using Signal Envelopes for Synchronisation of Recordings

Authors: Sergei Aleinik, Mikhail Stolbov

Abstract:

In this work, a method of time delay estimation for dual-channel acoustic signals (speech, music, etc.) recorded under reverberant conditions is investigated. Standard methods based on cross-correlation of the signals show poor results in cases involving strong reverberation, large distances between microphones and asynchronous recordings. Under similar conditions, a method based on cross-correlation of temporal envelopes of the signals delivers a delay estimation of acceptable quality. This method and its properties are described and investigated in detail, including its limits of applicability. The method’s optimal parameter estimation and a comparison with other known methods of time delay estimation are also provided.

Keywords: cross-correlation, delay estimation, signal envelope, signal processing

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14140 Project Time and Quality Management during Construction

Authors: Nahed Al-Hajeri

Abstract:

Time and cost is an integral part of every construction plan and can affect each party’s contractual obligations. The performance of both time and cost are usually important to the client and contractor during the project. Almost all construction projects are experiencing time overrun. These time overruns always contributed as expensive to both client and contractor. Construction of any project inside the gathering centers involves complex management skills related to work force, materials, plant, machineries, new technologies etc. It also involves many agencies interdependent on each other like the vendors, structural and functional designers including various types of specialized engineers and it includes support of contractors and specialized contractors. This paper mainly highlights the types of construction delays due to which project suffer time and cost overrun. This paper also speaks about the delay causes and factors that contribute to the construction sequence delay for the oil and gas projects. Construction delay is supposed to be one of the repeated problems in the construction projects and it has an opposing effect on project success in terms of time, cost and quality. Some effective methods are identified to minimize delays in construction projects such as: 1. Site management and supervision, 2. Effective strategic planning, 3. Clear information and communication channel. Our research paper studies the types of delay with some real examples with statistic results and suggests solutions to overcome this problem.

Keywords: non-compensable delay, delays caused by force majeure, compensable delay, delays caused by the owner or the owner’s representative, non-excusable delay, delay caused by the contractor or the contractor’s representative, concurrent delay, delays resulting from two separate causes at the same time

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14139 Quality-Of-Service-Aware Green Bandwidth Allocation in Ethernet Passive Optical Network

Authors: Tzu-Yang Lin, Chuan-Ching Sue

Abstract:

Sleep mechanisms are commonly used to ensure the energy efficiency of each optical network unit (ONU) that concerns a single class delay constraint in the Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON). How long the ONUs can sleep without violating the delay constraint has become a research problem. Particularly, we can derive an analytical model to determine the optimal sleep time of ONUs in every cycle without violating the maximum class delay constraint. The bandwidth allocation considering such optimal sleep time is called Green Bandwidth Allocation (GBA). Although the GBA mechanism guarantees that the different class delay constraints do not violate the maximum class delay constraint, packets with a more relaxed delay constraint will be treated as those with the most stringent delay constraint and may be sent early. This means that the ONU will waste energy in active mode to send packets in advance which did not need to be sent at the current time. Accordingly, we proposed a QoS-aware GBA using a novel intra-ONU scheduling to control the packets to be sent according to their respective delay constraints, thereby enhancing energy efficiency without deteriorating delay performance. If packets are not explicitly classified but with different packet delay constraints, we can modify the intra-ONU scheduling to classify packets according to their packet delay constraints rather than their classes. Moreover, we propose the switchable ONU architecture in which the ONU can switch the architecture according to the sleep time length, thus improving energy efficiency in the QoS-aware GBA. The simulation results show that the QoS-aware GBA ensures that packets in different classes or with different delay constraints do not violate their respective delay constraints and consume less power than the original GBA.

Keywords: Passive Optical Networks, PONs, Optical Network Unit, ONU, energy efficiency, delay constraint

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14138 Number of Parametrization of Discrete-Time Systems without Unit-Delay Element: Single-Input Single-Output Case

Authors: Kazuyoshi Mori

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the parametrization of the discrete-time systems without the unit-delay element within the framework of the factorization approach. In the parametrization, we investigate the number of required parameters. We consider single-input single-output systems in this paper. By the investigation, we find, on the discrete-time systems without the unit-delay element, three cases that are (1) there exist plants which require only one parameter and (2) two parameters, and (3) the number of parameters is at most three.

Keywords: factorization approach, discrete-time system, parameterization of stabilizing controllers, system without unit-delay

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14137 Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay

Authors: Aziz Sezgin, Yuksel Hacioglu, Nurkan Yagiz

Abstract:

Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.

Keywords: sliding mode control, active suspension system, actuator, time delay, vehicle

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14136 Estimation and Comparison of Delay at Signalized Intersections Based on Existing Methods

Authors: Arpita Saha, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh

Abstract:

Delay implicates the time loss of a traveler while crossing an intersection. Efficiency of traffic operation at signalized intersections is assessed in terms of delay caused to an individual vehicle. Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) method and Webster’s method are the most widely used in India for delay estimation purpose. However, in India, traffic is highly heterogeneous in nature with extremely poor lane discipline. Therefore, to explore best delay estimation technique for Indian condition, a comparison was made. In this study, seven signalized intersections from three different cities where chosen. Data was collected for both during morning and evening peak hours. Only under saturated cycles were considered for this study. Delay was estimated based on the field data. With the help of Simpson’s 1/3 rd rule, delay of under saturated cycles was estimated by measuring the area under the curve of queue length and cycle time. Moreover, the field observed delay was compared with the delay estimated using HCM, Webster, Probabilistic, Taylor’s expansion and Regression methods. The drawbacks of the existing delay estimation methods to be use in Indian heterogeneous traffic conditions were figured out, and best method was proposed. It was observed that direct estimation of delay using field measured data is more accurate than existing conventional and modified methods.

Keywords: delay estimation technique, field delay, heterogeneous traffic, signalised intersection

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14135 Hybrid Subspace Approach for Time Delay Estimation in MIMO Systems

Authors: Mojtaba Saeedinezhad, Sarah Yousefi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a hybrid subspace approach for Time Delay Estimation (TDE) in multivariable systems. While several methods have been proposed for time delay estimation in SISO systems, delay estimation in MIMO systems were always a big challenge. In these systems the existing TDE methods have significant limitations because most of procedures are just based on system response estimation or correlation analysis. We introduce a new hybrid method for TDE in MIMO systems based on subspace identification and explicit output error method; and compare its performance with previously introduced procedures in presence of different noise levels and in a statistical manner. Then the best method is selected with multi objective decision making technique. It is shown that the performance of new approach is much better than the existing methods, even in low signal-to-noise conditions.

Keywords: system identification, time delay estimation, ARX, OE, merit ratio, multi variable decision making

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14134 Controller Design for Active Suspension System of 1/4 Car with Unknown Mass and Time-Delay

Authors: Ali Al-Zughaibi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a modeling and control of the quarter car active suspension system with unknown mass, unknown time-delay and road disturbance. The objective of designing the controller by deriving a control law to achieve stability of the system and convergence that can considerably improve the ride comfort and road disturbance handling. Thus is accomplished by using Routh-Herwitz criterion and based on some assumptions. A mathematical proof is given to show the ability of the designed controller to ensure stability and convergence of the active suspension system and dispersion oscillation of system with unknown mass, time-delay and road disturbances. Simulations were also performed for controlling quarter car suspension, where the results obtained from these simulations verify the validity of the proposed design.

Keywords: active suspension system, time-delay, disturbance rejection, dynamic uncertainty

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14133 Stability of Hybrid Stochastic Systems

Authors: Manlika Ratchagit

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with robust mean square stability of uncertain stochastic switched discrete time-delay systems. The system to be considered is subject to interval time-varying delays, which allows the delay to be a fast time-varying function and the lower bound is not restricted to zero. Based on the discrete Lyapunov functional, a switching rule for the robust mean square stability for the uncertain stochastic discrete time-delay system is designed via linear matrix inequalities. Finally, some examples are exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

Keywords: robust mean square stability, discrete-time stochastic systems, hybrid systems, interval time-varying delays, Lyapunov functional, linear matrix inequalities

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14132 New Results on Stability of Hybrid Stochastic Systems

Authors: Manlika Rajchakit

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with robust mean square stability of uncertain stochastic switched discrete time-delay systems. The system to be considered is subject to interval time-varying delays, which allows the delay to be a fast time-varying function and the lower bound is not restricted to zero. Based on the discrete Lyapunov functional, a switching rule for the robust mean square stability for the uncertain stochastic discrete time-delay system is designed via linear matrix inequalities. Finally, some examples are exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

Keywords: robust mean square stability, discrete-time stochastic systems, hybrid systems, interval time-varying delays, lyapunov functional, linear matrix inequalities

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14131 Travel Delay and Modal Split Analysis: A Case Study

Authors: H. S. Sathish, H. S. Jagadeesh, Skanda Kumar

Abstract:

Journey time and delay study is used to evaluate the quality of service, the travel time and study can also be used to evaluate the quality of traffic movement along the route and to determine the location types and extent of traffic delays. Components of delay are boarding and alighting, issue of tickets, other causes and distance between each stops. This study investigates the total journey time required to travel along the stretch and the influence the delays. The route starts from Kempegowda Bus Station to Yelahanka Satellite Station of Bangalore City. The length of the stretch is 16.5 km. Modal split analysis has been done for this stretch. This stretch has elevated highway connecting to Bangalore International Airport and the extension of metro transit stretch. From the regression analysis of total journey time it is affected by delay due to boarding and alighting moderately, Delay due to issue of tickets affects the journey time to a higher extent. Some of the delay factors affecting significantly the journey time are evident from F-test at 10 percent level of confidence. Along this stretch work trips are more prevalent as indicated by O-D study. Modal shift analysis indicates about 70 percent of commuters are ready to shift from current system to Metro Rail System. Metro Rail System carries maximum number of trips compared to private mode. Hence Metro is a highly viable choice of mode for Bangalore Metropolitan City.

Keywords: delay, journey time, modal choice, regression analysis

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14130 Investigation of Ignition Delay for Low Molecular Hydrocarbon Fuel and Oxygen Mixture behind the Reflected Shock

Authors: K. R. Guna, Aldin Justin Sundararaj, B. C. Pillai, A. N. Subash

Abstract:

A systematic study has been made for ignition delay times measurement behind a reflected shock wave for the low molecular weight hydrocarbon fuel in argon simulated gas mixtures. The low molecular hydrocarbon fuel–oxygen was diluted with argon for desired concentration is taken for the study. The suitability of the shock tube for measuring the ignition delay time is demonstrated by measuring the ignition delay for the liquefied petroleum gas for equivalence ratios (ф=0.5 & 1) in the temperature range 1150-1650 K. The pressure range was fixed from 5-15 bar. The ignition delay was measured by recording the ignition-induced pressure jump and emission from CH radical simultaneously. From conducting experiments, it was found that the ignition delay time for liquefied petroleum gas reduces with increase in temperature. The shock tube was calibrated for ethane-oxygen gas mixture and the results obtained from this study is compared with the earlier reported values and found to be comparably well suited for the measurement of ignition delay times. The above work was carried out using the shock tube facility at propulsion and high enthalpy laboratory, Karunya University.

Keywords: ignition delay, LPG, reflected shock, shock wave

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14129 New Results on Exponential Stability of Hybrid Systems

Authors: Grienggrai Rajchakit

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the exponential stability of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays. The time delay is any continuous function belonging to a given interval, in which the lower bound of delay is not restricted to zero. By constructing a suitable augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with Leibniz-Newton's formula, a switching rule for the exponential stability of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays and new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the exponential stability of the systems are first established in terms of LMIs. Finally, some examples are exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

Keywords: exponential stability, hybrid systems, time-varying delays, lyapunov-krasovskii functional, leibniz-newton's formula

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14128 Advanced Stability Criterion for Time-Delayed Systems of Neutral Type and Its Application

Authors: M. J. Park, S. H. Lee, C. H. Lee, O. M. Kwon

Abstract:

This paper investigates stability problem for linear systems of neutral type with time-varying delay. By constructing various Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, and utilizing some mathematical techniques, the sufficient stability conditions for the systems are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily solved by various effective optimization algorithms. Finally, some illustrative examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed criterion.

Keywords: neutral systems, time-delay, stability, Lyapnov method, LMI

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14127 Formation Control for Linear Multi-Robot System with Switched Directed Topology and Time-Varying Delays

Authors: Yaxiao Zhang, Yangzhou Chen

Abstract:

This study investigate the formation problem for high-order continuous-time multi-robot with bounded symmetric time-varying delay protocol under switched directed communication topology. By using a linear transformation, the formation problem is transformed to stability analysis of a switched delay system. Under the assumption that each communication topology has a directed spanning tree, sufficient conditions are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that the multi-robot system can achieve a desired formation by the trade-off among the pre-exist topologies with the help of the scheme of average dwell time. A numeral example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

Keywords: multi-robot systems, formation, switched directed topology, symmetric time-varying delay, average dwell time, linear matrix inequalities (lmis)

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14126 Internet Based Teleoperation of the Quad Rotor with Force Feedback Using Smith Predictor

Authors: K. Senthil Kumar, A. Vasumalaikannan

Abstract:

In this paper, teleoperation of the quadrotor using Internet with Force feedback is addressed. Teleoperation with Force feedback is the ability to remotely control a robot, where contact (obstacle) or environment (wind gust etc) information (force feedback) is communicated from the quadrotor to the master joystick and thus giving the operator a sense of telepresence. The stability and performance of such a teleoperator is highly dependent on the amount of time delay present in the control loop. This problem is further complicated given the fact that for network based communication the time delay is itself time varying and highly non deterministic. In this paper, a novel method using Neural based Smith Predictor at the master side the stability is achieved. The performance of the system even during worst case scenario is within acceptable.

Keywords: teleoperation, quadrotor, neural smith predictor, time delay

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14125 Using Optimal Control Method to Investigate the Stability and Transparency of a Nonlinear Teleoperation System with Time Varying Delay

Authors: Abasali Amini, Alireza Mirbagheri, Amir Homayoun Jafari

Abstract:

In this paper, a new structure for teleoperation systems with time varying delay has been modeled and proposed. A random time varying the delay of up to 150 msec is simulated in teleoperation channel of both masters to slave and vice versa. The system stability and transparency have been investigated, comparing the result of a PID controller and an optimal controller on each master and slave sub-systems separately. The controllers have been designed in slave subsystem for reducing position errors between master and slave, and another controller has been designed in the master subsystem to establish stability, transparency and force tracking. Results have been compared together. The results showed PID controller is appropriate in position tracking, but force response oscillates in contact with the environment. We showed the optimal control established position tracking properly. Also, force tracking is achieved in this controller appropriately.

Keywords: optimal control, time varying delay, teleoperation systems, stability and transparency

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14124 Stability of Hybrid Systems

Authors: Kreangkri Ratchagit

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with exponential stability of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays. The time delay is any continuous function belonging to a given interval, in which the lower bound of delay is not restricted to zero. By constructing a suitable augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with Leibniz-Newton’s formula, a switching rule for the exponential stability of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays and new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the exponential stability of the systems are first established in terms of LMIs. Finally, some examples are exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

Keywords: exponential stability, hybrid systems, timevarying delays, Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, Leibniz-Newton’s formula

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
14123 The On-Board Critical Message Transmission Design for Navigation Satellite Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network

Authors: Ji-yang Yu, Dan Huang, Guo-ping Feng, Xin Li, Lu-yuan Wang

Abstract:

The navigation satellite network, especially the Beidou MEO Constellation, can relay data effectively with wide coverage and is applied in navigation, detection, and position widely. But the constellation has not been completed, and the amount of satellites on-board is not enough to cover the earth, which makes the data-relay disrupted or delayed in the transition process. The data-relay function needs to tolerant the delay or disruption in some extension, which make the Beidou MEO Constellation a delay/disruption-tolerant network (DTN). The traditional DTN designs mainly employ the relay table as the basic of data path schedule computing. But in practical application, especially in critical condition, such as the war-time or the infliction heavy losses on the constellation, parts of the nodes may become invalid, then the traditional DTN design could be useless. Furthermore, when transmitting the critical message in the navigation system, the maximum priority strategy is used, but the nodes still inquiry the relay table to design the path, which makes the delay more than minutes. Under this circumstances, it needs a function which could compute the optimum data path on-board in real-time according to the constellation states. The on-board critical message transmission design for navigation satellite delay/disruption-tolerant network (DTN) is proposed, according to the characteristics of navigation satellite network. With the real-time computation of parameters in the network link, the least-delay transition path is deduced to retransmit the critical message in urgent conditions. First, the DTN model for constellation is established based on the time-varying matrix (TVM) instead of the time-varying graph (TVG); then, the least transition delay data path is deduced with the parameters of the current node; at last, the critical message transits to the next best node. For the on-board real-time computing, the time delay and misjudges of constellation states in ground stations are eliminated, and the residual information channel for each node can be used flexibly. Compare with the minute’s delay of traditional DTN; the proposed transmits the critical message in seconds, which improves the re-transition efficiency. The hardware is implemented in FPGA based on the proposed model, and the tests prove the validity.

Keywords: critical message, DTN, navigation satellite, on-board, real-time

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14122 Analysis of Delay Causes in Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Mahamid, A. Al-Ghonamy, M. Aichouni

Abstract:

This study aims at identifying the risk matrix for delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ viewpoint. A questionnaire survey was undertaken of 51 consultants working on construction projects in the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia. 35 delay causes were identified through a literature review. The study concluded that the top delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ perspective are: bid award for lowest price, changes in material types and specifications during construction, contract management, duration of contract period, fluctuation of prices of materials, frequent changes in design, improper planning, inflationary pressure, lack of adequate manpower, long period of design and time of implementation, payments delay, poor labor productivity, and rework.

Keywords: delays, construction, consultants, contributors, risk map

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14121 Response Delay Model: Bridging the Gap in Urban Fire Disaster Response System

Authors: Sulaiman Yunus

Abstract:

The need for modeling response to urban fire disaster cannot be over emphasized, as recurrent fire outbreaks have gutted most cities of the world. This necessitated the need for a prompt and efficient response system in order to mitigate the impact of the disaster. Promptness, as a function of time, is seen to be the fundamental determinant for efficiency of a response system and magnitude of a fire disaster. Delay, as a result of several factors, is one of the major determinants of promptgness of a response system and also the magnitude of a fire disaster. Response Delay Model (RDM) intends to bridge the gap in urban fire disaster response system through incorporating and synchronizing the delay moments in measuring the overall efficiency of a response system and determining the magnitude of a fire disaster. The model identified two delay moments (pre-notification and Intra-reflex sequence delay) that can be elastic and collectively plays a significant role in influencing the efficiency of a response system. Due to variation in the elasticity of the delay moments, the model provides for measuring the length of delays in order to arrive at a standard average delay moment for different parts of the world, putting into consideration geographic location, level of preparedness and awareness, technological advancement, socio-economic and environmental factors. It is recommended that participatory researches should be embarked on locally and globally to determine standard average delay moments within each phase of the system so as to enable determining the efficiency of response systems and predicting fire disaster magnitudes.

Keywords: delay moment, fire disaster, reflex sequence, response, response delay moment

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14120 Contractors Perspective on Causes of Delays in Power Transmission Projects

Authors: Goutom K. Pall

Abstract:

At the very heart of the power system, power transmission (PT) acts as an essential link between power generation and distribution. Timely completion of PT infrastructures is therefore crucial to support the development of power system as a whole. Yet despite the importance, studies on PT infrastructure development projects are embryonic and, hence, PT projects undergoing widespread delays worldwide. These delay factors are idiosyncratic and identifying the critical delay factors is essential if the PT industry professionals are to complete their projects efficiently and within the expected timeframes. This study identifies and categorizes 46 causes of PT project delay under ten major groups using six sector expert’s recommendations studied by a preliminary questionnaire survey. Based on the experts’ strong recommendations, two new groups are introduced in the final questionnaire survey: sector specific factors (SSF) and general factors (GF). SSF pertain to delay factors applicable only to the PT projects, while GF represents less biased samples with shared responsibilities of all project parties involved in a project. The study then uses 112 data samples from the contractors to rank the delay factors using relative importance index (RII). The results reveal that SSF, GF and external factors are the most critical groups, while the highest ranked delay factors include the right of way (RoW) problems of transmission lines (TL), delay in payments, frequent changes in TL routes, poor communication and coordination among the project parties and accessibility to TL tower locations. Finally, recommendations are made to minimize the identified delay. The findings are expected to be of substantial benefit to professionals in minimizing time overrun in PT projects implementation, as well as power generation, power distribution, and non-power linear construction projects worldwide.

Keywords: delay, project delay, power transmission projects, time-overruns

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14119 Application on Metastable Measurement with Wide Range High Resolution VDL Circuit

Authors: Po-Hui Yang, Jing-Min Chen, Po-Yu Kuo, Chia-Chun Wu

Abstract:

This paper proposed a high resolution Vernier Delay Line (VDL) measurement circuit with coarse and fine detection mechanism, which improved the trade-off problem between high resolution and less delay cells in traditional VDL circuits. And the measuring time of proposed measurement circuit is also under the high resolution requests. At first, the testing range of input signal which proposed high resolution delay line is detected by coarse detection VDL. Moreover, the delayed input signal is transmitted to fine detection VDL for measuring value with better accuracy. This paper is implemented at 0.18μm process, operating frequency is 100 MHz, and the resolution achieved 2.0 ps with only 16-stage delay cells. The test range is 170ps wide, and 17% stages saved compare with traditional single delay line circuit.

Keywords: vernier delay line, D-type flip-flop, DFF, metastable phenomenon

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14118 Identifying Project Delay Factors in the Australian Construction Industry

Authors: Syed Sohaib Bin Hasib, Hiyam Al-Kilidar

Abstract:

Meeting project deadlines is a major challenge for most construction projects. In this study, perceptions of contractors, clients, and consultants are compared relative to a list of factors derived from the review of the extant literature on project delay. 59 causes (categorized into 8 groups) of project delays were identified from the literature. A survey was devised to get insights and ranking of these factors from clients, consultants & contractors in the Australian construction industry. Findings showed that project delays in the Australian construction industry are mainly the result of skill shortages, interference in execution, and poor coordination and communication between the project stakeholders.

Keywords: construction, delay factors, time delay, australian construction industry

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14117 A Hybrid MAC Protocol for Delay Constrained Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Hanefi Cinar, Musa Cibuk, Ismail Erturk, Fikri Aggun, Munip Geylani

Abstract:

Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs) carry heterogeneous data traffic with different urgency and quality of service (QoS) requirements. There are a lot of studies made on energy efficiency, bandwidth, and communication methods in literature. But delay, high throughput, utility parameters are not well considered. Increasing demand for real-time data transfer makes these parameters more important. In this paper we design new MAC protocol which is delay constrained and targets for improving delay, utility, and throughput performance of the network and finding solutions on collision and interference problems. Protocol improving QoS requirements by using TDMA, FDM, and OFDMA hybrid communication methods with multi-channel communication.

Keywords: MWSN, delay, hybrid MAC, TDMA, FDM, OFDMA

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