Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16068

Search results for: active suspension system

16068 Retrofitted Semi-Active Suspension System for a Eelectric Model Vehicle

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yun-Han Yeh

Abstract:

A 40 steps manual adjusting shock absorber was refitted with DC motor driving mechanism to construct as a semi-active suspension system for a four-wheel drive electric vehicle. Accelerometer and potentiometer sensors are installed to measure the sprung mass acceleration and suspension system compression or rebound states for control purpose. A fuzzy logic controller was designed to derive appropriate damping target based on vehicle running condition for semi-active suspension system to follow. The damping ratio control of each wheel axis suspension system is executed with a robust fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC). Different road surface conditions are chosen to evaluate the control performance of this semi-active suspension system based on wheel axis acceleration signal.

Keywords: semi-active suspension, electric vehicle, fuzzy sliding mode control, accelerometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
16067 Sliding Mode Controller for Active Suspension System on a Passenger Car Model

Authors: Nouby M. Ghazaly, Ahmed O. Moaaz, Mostafa Makrahy

Abstract:

The main purpose of a car suspension system is to reduce the vibrations resulting from road roughness. The main objective of this research paper is to decrease vibration and improve passenger comfort through controlling car suspension system using sliding mode control techniques. The mathematical model for passive and active suspensions systems for quarter car model which subject to excitation from different road profiles is obtained. The active suspension system is synthesized based on sliding mode control for a quarter car model. The performance of the sliding mode control is determined through computer simulations using MATLAB and SIMULINK toolbox. The simulated results plotted in time domain, and root mean square values. It is found that active suspension system using sliding mode control improves the ride comfort and decrease vibration.

Keywords: quarter car model, active suspension system, sliding mode control, road profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
16066 Controller Design for Active Suspension System of 1/4 Car with Unknown Mass and Time-Delay

Authors: Ali Al-Zughaibi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a modeling and control of the quarter car active suspension system with unknown mass, unknown time-delay and road disturbance. The objective of designing the controller by deriving a control law to achieve stability of the system and convergence that can considerably improve the ride comfort and road disturbance handling. Thus is accomplished by using Routh-Herwitz criterion and based on some assumptions. A mathematical proof is given to show the ability of the designed controller to ensure stability and convergence of the active suspension system and dispersion oscillation of system with unknown mass, time-delay and road disturbances. Simulations were also performed for controlling quarter car suspension, where the results obtained from these simulations verify the validity of the proposed design.

Keywords: active suspension system, time-delay, disturbance rejection, dynamic uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
16065 Robust State feedback Controller for an Active Suspension System

Authors: Hussein Altartouri

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a modeling and control of the active suspension system using robust state feedback controller implemented for a half car model. This system represents a mechatronic system which contains all the essential components to be considered a complete mechatronic system. This system must adapt different conditions which are difficult to compromise, such as disturbances, slippage, and motion on rough road (that contains rocks, stones, and other miscellanies). Some current automobile suspension systems use passive components only by utilizing spring and damping coefficient with fixed rates. Vehicle suspensions systems are used to provide good road handling and improve passenger comfort. Passive suspensions only offer compromise between these two conflicting criteria. Active suspension poses the ability to reduce the traditional design as a compromise between handling and comfort by directly controlling the suspensions force actuators. In this study, the robust state feedback controller implemented to the active suspensions system for half car model.

Keywords: half-car model, active suspension system, state feedback, road profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
16064 Intelligent Semi-Active Suspension Control of a Electric Model Vehicle System

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yun-Han Yeh

Abstract:

A four-wheel drive electric vehicle was built with hub DC motors and FPGA embedded control structure. A 40 steps manual adjusting motorcycle shock absorber was refitted with DC motor driving mechanism to construct as a semi-active suspension system. Accelerometer and potentiometer sensors are installed to measure the sprung mass acceleration and suspension system compression or rebound states for control purpose. An intelligent fuzzy logic controller was proposed to real-time search appropriate damping ratio based on vehicle running condition. Then, a robust fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) is employed to regulate the target damping ratio of each wheel axis semi-active suspension system. Finally, different road surface conditions are chosen to evaluate the control performance of this semi-active suspension and compare with that of passive system based on wheel axis acceleration signal.

Keywords: acceleration, FPGA, Fuzzy sliding mode control, semi-active suspension

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
16063 Sliding Mode Control of a Bus Suspension System

Authors: Mujde Turkkan, Nurkan Yagiz

Abstract:

The vibrations, caused by the irregularities of the road surface, are to be suppressed via suspension systems. In this paper, sliding mode control for a half bus model with air suspension system is presented. The bus is modelled as five degrees of freedom (DoF) system. The mathematical model of the half bus is developed using Lagrange Equations. For time domain analysis, the bus model is assumed to travel at certain speed over the bump road. The numerical results of the analysis indicate that the sliding mode controllers can be effectively used to suppress the vibrations and to improve the ride comfort of the busses.

Keywords: active suspension system, air suspension, bus model, sliding mode control

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
16062 Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay

Authors: Aziz Sezgin, Yuksel Hacioglu, Nurkan Yagiz

Abstract:

Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.

Keywords: sliding mode control, active suspension system, actuator, time delay, vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
16061 Design and Development of an Innovative MR Damper Based on Intelligent Active Suspension Control of a Malaysia's Model Vehicle

Authors: L. Wei Sheng, M. T. Noor Syazwanee, C. J. Carolyna, M. Amiruddin, M. Pauziah

Abstract:

This paper exhibits the alternatives towards active suspension systems revised based on the classical passive suspension system to improve comfort and handling performance. An active Magneto rheological (MR) suspension system is proposed as to explore the active based suspension system to enhance performance given its freedom to independently specify the characteristics of load carrying, handling, and ride quality. Malaysian quarter car with two degrees of freedom (2DOF) system is designed and constructed to simulate the actions of an active vehicle suspension system. The structure of a conventional twin-tube shock absorber is modified both internally and externally to comprehend with the active suspension system. The shock absorber peripheral structure is altered to enable the assembling and disassembling of the damper through a non-permanent joint whereby the stress analysis of the designed joint is simulated using Finite Element Analysis. Simulation on the internal part where an electrified copper coil of 24AWG is winded is done using Finite Element Method Magnetics to measure the magnetic flux density inside the MR damper. The primary purpose of this approach is to reduce the vibration transmitted from the effects of road surface irregularities while maintaining solid manoeuvrability. The aim of this research is to develop an intelligent control system of a consecutive damping automotive suspension system. The ride quality is improved by means of the reduction of the vertical body acceleration caused by the car body when it experiences disturbances from speed bump and random road roughness. Findings from this research are expected to enhance the quality of ride which in return can prevent the deteriorating effect of vibration on the vehicle condition as well as the passengers’ well-being.

Keywords: active suspension, FEA, magneto rheological damper, Malaysian quarter car model, vibration control

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
16060 Dry Friction Occurring in the Suspensions for Passive and Switchable Damper Systems and Its Effect on Ride Comfort

Authors: Aref M. A. Soliman, Mahmoud A. Hassan

Abstract:

In all vehicle suspension, there is a dry friction. One of the various active suspensions, which have been shown to have considerable practical potential, is a switchable damper suspension system. In this paper, vehicle ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems as affected by the value of frictional force generated in springs is discussed. A mathematical model of a quarter vehicle model for two setting switchable damper suspension system with dry friction force is developed to evaluate vehicle ride comfort in terms of suspension performance criteria. The vehicle itself is treated as a rigid body undergoing vertical motions. Comparisons between passive and switchable damper suspensions systems with dry friction force in terms of ride performance are also discussed. The results showed that the ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems was deteriorated due to dry friction occurring in the suspensions. The two setting switchable damper with and without dry friction force gives better ride improvements compared with the passive suspension system. Also, the obtained results show an optimum value of damping ratio of the passive suspension system.

Keywords: ride comfort, dry friction, switchable damper, passive suspension

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
16059 Active Linear Quadratic Gaussian Secondary Suspension Control of Flexible Bodied Railway Vehicle

Authors: Kaushalendra K. Khadanga, Lee Hee Hyol

Abstract:

Passenger comfort has been paramount in the design of suspension systems of high speed cars. To analyze the effect of vibration on vehicle ride quality, a vertical model of a six degree of freedom railway passenger vehicle, with front and rear suspension, is built. It includes car body flexible effects and vertical rigid modes. A second order linear shaping filter is constructed to model Gaussian white noise into random rail excitation. The temporal correlation between the front and rear wheels is given by a second order Pade approximation. The complete track and the vehicle model are then designed. An active secondary suspension system based on a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) optimal control method is designed. The results show that the LQG control method reduces the vertical acceleration, pitching acceleration and vertical bending vibration of the car body as compared to the passive system.

Keywords: active suspension, bending vibration, railway vehicle, vibration control

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
16058 Vibration Control of a Tracked Vehicle Driver Seat via Magnetorheological Damper

Authors: Wael Ata

Abstract:

Tracked vehicles are exposed to severe operating conditions during their battlefield. The suspension system of such vehicles plays a crucial role in the mitigation of vibration transmitted from unevenness to vehicle hull and consequently to the crew. When the vehicles are crossing the road with high speeds, the driver is subjected to a high magnitude of vibration dose. This is because of the passive suspension system of the tracked vehicle lack the effectiveness to withstand induced vibration from irregular terrains. This paper presents vibration control of a semi-active seat suspension incorporating Magnetorheological (MR) damper fitted to a driver seat of an amphibious tracked vehicle (BMP-1). A half vehicle model featuring the proposed semi-active seat suspension is developed and its governing equations are derived. Two controllers namely; skyhook and fuzzy logic skyhook based to suppress the vibration dose at driver’s seat are formulated. The results show that the controlled MR suspension seat along with the vehicle model has substantially suppressed vibration levels at the driver’s seat under bump and sinusoidal excitations

Keywords: Tracked Vehicles, MR dampers, Skyhook controller, fuzzy logic controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
16057 A Gyro-stabilized Autonomous Multi-terrain Quadrupedal-wheeled Robot: Towards Edge-enabled Self-balancing, Autonomy, and Terramechanical Efficiency of Unmanned Off-road Vehicles

Authors: Mbadiwe S. Benyeogor, Oladayo O. Olakanmi, Kosisochukwu P. Nnoli, Olusegun I. Lawal, Eric JJ. Gratton

Abstract:

For a robot or any vehicular system to navigate in off-road terrain, its driving mechanisms and the electro-software system must be capable of generating, controlling, and moderating sufficient mechanical power with precision. This paper proposes an autonomous robot with a gyro-stabilized active suspension system in form of a hybrid quadrupedal wheel drive mechanism. This system is to serve as a miniature model for demonstrating how off-road vehicles can be robotized into efficient terramechanical mobile platforms that are capable of self-balanced autonomous navigation and maneuvering on rough and uneven topographies. Results from tests and analysis show that the developed system performs as expected. Therefore, our model and control devices can be adapted to computerizing, automating, and upgrading the operation of unmanned ground vehicles for off-road navigation.

Keywords: active suspension, autonomous robots, edge computing, navigational sensors, terramechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
16056 Simulation of a Control System for an Adaptive Suspension System for Passenger Vehicles

Authors: S. Gokul Prassad, S. Aakash, K. Malar Mohan

Abstract:

In the process to cope with the challenges faced by the automobile industry in providing ride comfort, the electronics and control systems play a vital role. The control systems in an automobile monitor various parameters, controls the performances of the systems, thereby providing better handling characteristics. The automobile suspension system is one of the main systems that ensure the safety, stability and comfort of the passengers. The system is solely responsible for the isolation of the entire automobile from harmful road vibrations. Thus, integration of the control systems in the automobile suspension system would enhance its performance. The diverse road conditions of India demand the need of an efficient suspension system which can provide optimum ride comfort in all road conditions. For any passenger vehicle, the design of the suspension system plays a very important role in assuring the ride comfort and handling characteristics. In recent years, the air suspension system is preferred over the conventional suspension systems to ensure ride comfort. In this article, the ride comfort of the adaptive suspension system is compared with that of the passive suspension system. The schema is created in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The system is controlled by a proportional integral differential controller. Tuning of the controller was done with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, since it suited the problem best. Ziegler-Nichols and Modified Ziegler-Nichols tuning methods were also tried and compared. Both the static responses and dynamic responses of the systems were calculated. Various random road profiles as per ISO 8608 standard are modelled in the MATLAB environment and their responses plotted. Open-loop and closed loop responses of the random roads, various bumps and pot holes are also plotted. The simulation results of the proposed design are compared with the available passive suspension system. The obtained results show that the proposed adaptive suspension system is efficient in controlling the maximum over shoot and the settling time of the system is reduced enormously.

Keywords: automobile suspension, MATLAB, control system, PID, PSO

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
16055 Ergonomic Design of Speed Control Humps/Dips

Authors: Emad Khorshid, Habib Awada

Abstract:

Newly developed Ergonomic speed control hump/Dip designs are conducted. The numerical simulation for the driver-vehicle-hump dynamic system will be performed using computer software. The design problem for which the speed hump or dip should provide: (1) discomfort feeling to the driver if speed is over the specified limit, and (2) normal/good comfort level to the driver (and or other passengers) if the speed is within the limit. For comparison reasons, different vehicles suspension systems (active, semi-active and non-active suspension) are used in the simulation. The measuring of the acceptable range of vibration will be referenced to the British standard BS6841, ISO 2631/1 and the new ISO 2631/5. All these standards are related to human health and comfort level in terms of acceptable range of whole body vibration exposure.

Keywords: speed hump, speed dip, ergonomic design, human health, vehicle modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
16054 Comparison of Two Fuzzy Skyhook Control Strategies Applied to an Active Suspension

Authors: Reginaldo Cardoso, Magno Enrique Mendoza Meza

Abstract:

This work focuses on simulation and comparison of two control skyhook techniques applied to a quarter-car of the active suspension. The objective is to provide comfort to the driver. The main idea of skyhook control is to imagine a damper connected to an imaginary sky; thus, the feedback is performed with the resultant force between the imaginary and the suspension damper. The first control technique is the Mandani fuzzy skyhook and the second control technique is a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy skyhook controller, in the both controllers the inputs are the relative velocity between the two masses and the vehicle body velocity, the output of the Mandani fuzzy skyhook is the coefficient of imaginary damper viscous-friction and the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy skyhook is the force. Finally, we compared the techniques. The Mandani fuzzy skyhook showed a more comfortable response to the driver, followed closely by the Takagi- Sugeno fuzzy skyhook.

Keywords: active suspention, Mandani, quarter-car, skyhook, Sugeno

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
16053 Stability Analysis of Hossack Suspension Systems in High Performance Motorcycles

Authors: Ciro Moreno-Ramirez, Maria Tomas-Rodriguez, Simos A. Evangelou

Abstract:

A motorcycle's front end links the front wheel to the motorcycle's chassis and has two main functions: the front wheel suspension and the vehicle steering. Up to this date, several suspension systems have been developed in order to achieve the best possible front end behavior, being the telescopic fork the most common one and already subjected to several years of study in terms of its kinematics, dynamics, stability and control. A motorcycle telescopic fork suspension model consists of a couple of outer tubes which contain the suspension components (coil springs and dampers) internally and two inner tubes which slide into the outer ones allowing the suspension travel. The outer tubes are attached to the frame through two triple trees which connect the front end to the main frame through the steering bearings and allow the front wheel to turn about the steering axis. This system keeps the front wheel's displacement in a straight line parallel to the steering axis. However, there exist alternative suspension designs that allow different trajectories of the front wheel with the suspension travel. In this contribution, the authors investigate an alternative front suspension system (Hossack suspension) and its influence on the motorcycle nonlinear dynamics to identify and reduce stability risks that a new suspension systems may introduce in the motorcycle dynamics. Based on an existing high-fidelity motorcycle mathematical model, the front end geometry is modified to accommodate a Hossack suspension system. It is characterized by a double wishbone design that varies the front end geometry on certain maneuverings and, consequently, the machine's behavior/response. It consists of a double wishbone structure directly attached to the chassis. In here, the kinematics of this system and its impact on the motorcycle performance/stability are analyzed and compared to the well known telescopic fork suspension system. The framework of this research is the mathematical modelling and numerical simulation. Full stability analyses are performed in order to understand how the motorcycle dynamics may be affected by the newly introduced front end design. This study is carried out by a combination of nonlinear dynamical simulation and root-loci methods. A modal analysis is performed in order to get a deeper understanding of the different modes of oscillation and how the Hossack suspension system affects them. The results show that different kinematic designs of a double wishbone suspension systems do not modify the general motorcycle's stability. The normal modes properties remain unaffected by the new geometrical configurations. However, these normal modes differ from one suspension system to the other. It is seen that the normal modes behaviour depends on various important dynamic parameters, such as the front frame flexibility, the steering damping coefficient and the centre of mass location.

Keywords: nonlinear mechanical systems, motorcycle dynamics, suspension systems, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
16052 Mechanism Design and Dynamic Analysis of Active Independent Front Steering System

Authors: Cheng-Chi Yu, Yu-Shiue Wang, Kei-Lin Kuo

Abstract:

Active Independent Front Steering system is a steering system which can according to vehicle driving situation adjusts the relation of steering angle between inner wheel and outer wheel. In low-speed cornering, AIFS sets the steering angles of inner and outer wheel into Ackerman steering geometry to make vehicle has less cornering radius. Besides, AIFS changes the steering geometry to parallel or even anti-Ackerman steering geometry to keep vehicle stability in high-speed cornering. Therefore, based on the analysis of the vehicle steering behavior from different steering geometries, this study develops a new screw type of active independent front steering system to make vehicles best cornering performance at any speeds. The screw type of active independent front steering system keeps the pinion and separates the rack into main rack and second rack. Two racks connect by a screw. Extra screw rotated motion powered by assistant motor through coupler makes second rack move relative to main rack, which can adjust both steering ratio and steering geometry. First of all, this study distinguishes the steering geometry by using Ackerman percentage and utilizes the software of ADAMS/Car to construct diverse steering geometry models. The different steering geometries are compared at low-speed and high-speed cornering, and then control strategies of the active independent front steering systems could be formulated. Secondly, this study applies closed loop equation to analyze tire steering angles and carries out optimization calculations to make the steering geometry from traditional rack and pinion steering system near to Ackerman steering geometry. Steering characteristics of the optimum steering mechanism and motion characteristics of vehicle installed the steering mechanism are verified by ADAMS/Car models of front suspension and full vehicle respectively. By adding dual auxiliary rack and dual motor to the optimum steering mechanism, the active independent front steering system could be developed to achieve the functions of variable steering ratio and variable steering geometry. At last, this study uses ADAMS/Car and Matlab/Simulink to co-simulate the cornering motion of vehicles confirms the vehicle installed the Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) system has better handling performance than that with Active Independent Steering (AFS) system or with Electric Power Steering (EPS) system. At low-speed cornering, the vehicles with AIFS system and with AFS system have better maneuverability, less cornering radius, than the traditional vehicle with EPS system because that AIFS and AFS systems both provide function of variable steering ratio. However, there is a slight penalty in the motor(s) power consumption. In addition, because of the capability of variable steering geometry, the vehicle with AIFS system has better high-speed cornering stability, trajectory keeping, and even less motor(s) power consumption than that with EPS system and also with AFS system.

Keywords: active front steering system, active independent front steering system, steering geometry, steering ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
16051 Fault Location Detection in Active Distribution System

Authors: R. Rezaeipour, A. R. Mehrabi

Abstract:

Recent increase of the DGs and microgrids in distribution systems, disturbs the tradition structure of the system. Coordination between protection devices in such a system becomes the concern of the network operators. This paper presents a new method for fault location detection in the active distribution networks, independent of the fault type or its resistance. The method uses synchronized voltage and current measurements at the interconnection of DG units and is able to adapt to changes in the topology of the system. The method has been tested on a 38-bus distribution system, with very encouraging results.

Keywords: fault location detection, active distribution system, micro grids, network operators

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
16050 Optimization Process for Ride Quality of a Nonlinear Suspension Model Based on Newton-Euler’ Augmented Formulation

Authors: Mohamed Belhorma, Aboubakar S. Bouchikhi, Belkacem Bounab

Abstract:

This paper addresses modeling a Double A-Arm suspension, a three-dimensional nonlinear model has been developed using the multibody systems formalism. Dynamical study of the different components responses was done, particularly for the wheel assembly. To validate those results, the system was constructed and simulated by RecurDyn, a professional multibody dynamics simulation software. The model has been used as the Objectif function in an optimization algorithm for ride quality improvement.

Keywords: double A-Arm suspension, multibody systems, ride quality optimization, dynamic simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
16049 Effect of Rainflow Cycle Number on Fatigue Lifetime of an Arm of Vehicle Suspension System

Authors: Hatem Mrad, Mohamed Bouazara, Fouad Erchiqui

Abstract:

Fatigue, is considered as one of the main cause of mechanical properties degradation of mechanical parts. Probability and reliability methods are appropriate for fatigue analysis using uncertainties that exist in fatigue material or process parameters. Current work deals with the study of the effect of the number and counting Rainflow cycle on fatigue lifetime (cumulative damage) of an upper arm of the vehicle suspension system. The major part of the fatigue damage induced in suspension arm is caused by two main classes of parameters. The first is related to the materials properties and the second is the road excitation or the applied force of the passenger’s number. Therefore, Young's modulus and road excitation are selected as input parameters to conduct repetitive simulations by Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. Latin hypercube sampling method is used to generate these parameters. Response surface method is established according to fatigue lifetime of each combination of input parameters according to strain-life method. A PYTHON script was developed to automatize finite element simulations of the upper arm according to a design of experiments.

Keywords: fatigue, monte carlo, rainflow cycle, response surface, suspension system

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
16048 Modeling of a Vehicle Wheel System having a Built-in Suspension Structure Consisted of Radially Deployed Colloidal Spokes between Hub and Rim

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In this work, by replacing the traditional solid spokes with colloidal spokes, a vehicle wheel with a built-in suspension structure is proposed. Following the background and description of the wheel system, firstly, a vibration model of the wheel equipped with colloidal spokes is proposed, and based on such model the equivalent damping coefficients and spring constants are identified. Then, a modified model of a quarter-vehicle moving on a rough pavement is proposed in order to estimate the transmissibility of vibration from the road roughness to vehicle body. In the end, the optimal design of the colloidal spokes and the optimum number of colloidal spokes are decided in order to minimize the transmissibility of vibration, i.e., to maximize the ride comfort of the vehicle.

Keywords: built-in suspension, colloidal spoke, intrinsic spring, vibration analysis, wheel

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
16047 New Suspension Mechanism for a Formula Car using Camber Thrust

Authors: Shinji Kajiwara

Abstract:

The basic ability of a vehicle is the ability to “run”, “turn” and “stop”. The safeness and comfort during a drive on various road surfaces and speed depends on the performance of these basic abilities of the vehicle. Stability and maneuverability of a vehicle is vital in automotive engineering. Stability of a vehicle is the ability of the vehicle to revert back to a stable state during a drive when faced with crosswind and irregular road conditions. Maneuverability of a vehicle is the ability of the vehicle to change direction during a drive swiftly based on the steering of the driver. The stability and maneuverability of a vehicle can also be defined as the driving stability of the vehicle. Since fossil fueled vehicle is the main type of transportation today, the environmental factor in automotive engineering is also vital. By improving the fuel efficiency of the vehicle, the overall carbon emission will be reduced thus reducing the effect of global warming and greenhouse gas on the Earth. Another main focus of the automotive engineering is the safety performance of the vehicle especially with the worrying increase of vehicle collision every day. With better safety performance on a vehicle, every driver will be more confidence driving every day. Next, let us focus on the “turn” ability of a vehicle. By improving this particular ability of the vehicle, the cornering limit of the vehicle can be improved thus increasing the stability and maneuverability factor. In order to improve the cornering limit of the vehicle, a study to find the balance between the steering systems, the stability of the vehicle, higher lateral acceleration and the cornering limit detection must be conducted. The aim of this research is to study and develop a new suspension system that that will boost the lateral acceleration of the vehicle and ultimately improving the cornering limit of the vehicle. This research will also study environmental factor and the stability factor of the new suspension system. The double wishbone suspension system is widely used in four-wheel vehicle especially for high cornering performance sports car and racing car. The double wishbone designs allow the engineer to carefully control the motion of the wheel by controlling such parameters as camber angle, caster angle, toe pattern, roll center height, scrub radius, scuff and more. The development of the new suspension system will focus on the ability of the new suspension system to optimize the camber control and to improve the camber limit during a cornering motion. The research will be carried out using the CAE analysis tool. Using this analysis tool we will develop a JSAE Formula Machine equipped with the double wishbone system and also the new suspension system and conduct simulation and conduct studies on performance of both suspension systems.

Keywords: automobile, camber thrust, cornering force, suspension

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
16046 Combating and Preventing Unemployment in Sweden

Authors: Beata Wentura-Dudek

Abstract:

In Sweden the needs of the labor market are regularly monitored. Test results and forecasts translate directly into the education system in this country, which is largely a state system. Sweden is one of the first countries in Europe that has used active labor market policies. It is realized that there is an active unemployment which includes a wide range of activities that can be divided into three groups: Active forms of influencing the creation of new jobs, active forms that affect the labor supply and active forms for people with disabilities. Most of the funding is allocated there for subsidized employment and training. Research conducted in Sweden shows that active forms of counteracting unemployment focused on the long-term unemployed can significantly raise the level of employment in this group.

Keywords: Sweden, research conducted in Sweden, labour market, labour market policies, unemployment, active forms of influencing the creation of new jobs, active forms of counteracting unemployment, employment, subsidized employment education

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
16045 Modified Active (MA) Algorithm to Generate Semantic Web Related Clustered Hierarchy for Keyword Search

Authors: G. Leena Giri, Archana Mathur, S. H. Manjula, K. R. Venugopal, L. M. Patnaik

Abstract:

Keyword search in XML documents is based on the notion of lowest common ancestors in the labelled trees model of XML documents and has recently gained a lot of research interest in the database community. In this paper, we propose the Modified Active (MA) algorithm which is an improvement over the active clustering algorithm by taking into consideration the entity aspect of the nodes to find the level of the node pertaining to a particular keyword input by the user. A portion of the bibliography database is used to experimentally evaluate the modified active algorithm and results show that it performs better than the active algorithm. Our modification improves the response time of the system and thereby increases the efficiency of the system.

Keywords: keyword matching patterns, MA algorithm, semantic search, knowledge management

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
16044 Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Suspension Stability, Zeta Potential and Contact Angle of Celestite

Authors: Kiraz Esmeli, Alper Ozkan

Abstract:

In this study, firstly, the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the stability of celestite suspension was investigated. In this context, the variations of the suspension stability with ultrasonic power, treatment time, immersion depth of ultrasonic probe, and treatment regime (batch and continuous) were determined. The experimental results showed that the suspension stability and zeta potential of celestite decreased with ultrasonic treatment. Also, the treatment time, immersion depth of probe, and treatment regime affected the stability of celestite suspension. Secondly, the effect of pre-treatment of the suspension with the ultrasonic process on the shear flocculation of celestite using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied and the variations of the flocculation, zeta potential, and contact angle of the mineral with SDS concentration were presented. It was found that the ultrasonic pre-treatment slightly improved the shear flocculation of celestite particles in accordance with the increase in the contact angles. In addition, the ultrasonic process again relatively reduced the magnitude of the negative potential of celestite particles in the presence of SDS.

Keywords: celestite, contact angle, suspension stability, ultrasonic treatment, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
16043 An Optimal Hybrid EMS System for a Hyperloop Prototype Vehicle

Authors: J. F. Gonzalez-Rojo, Federico Lluesma-Rodriguez, Temoatzin Gonzalez

Abstract:

Hyperloop, a new mode of transport, is gaining significance. It consists of the use of a ground-based transport system which includes a levitation system, that avoids rolling friction forces, and which has been covered with a tube, controlling the inner atmosphere lowering the aerodynamic drag forces. Thus, hyperloop is proposed as a solution to the current limitation on ground transportation. Rolling and aerodynamic problems, that limit large speeds for traditional high-speed rail or even maglev systems, are overcome using a hyperloop solution. Zeleros is one of the companies developing technology for hyperloop application worldwide. It is working on a concept that reduces the infrastructure cost and minimizes the power consumption as well as the losses associated with magnetic drag forces. For this purpose, Zeleros proposes a Hybrid ElectroMagnetic Suspension (EMS) for its prototype. In the present manuscript an active and optimal electromagnetic suspension levitation method based on nearly zero power consumption individual modules is presented. This system consists of several hybrid permanent magnet-coil levitation units that can be arranged along the vehicle. The proposed unit manages to redirect the magnetic field along a defined direction forming a magnetic circuit and minimizing the loses due to field dispersion. This is achieved using an electrical steel core. Each module can stabilize the gap distance using the coil current and either linear or non-linear control methods. The ratio between weight and levitation force for each unit is 1/10. In addition, the quotient between the lifted weight and power consumption at the target gap distance is 1/3 [kg/W]. One degree of freedom (DoF) (along the gap direction) is controlled by a single unit. However, when several units are present, a 5 DoF control (2 translational and 3 rotational) can be achieved, leading to the full attitude control of the vehicle. The proposed system has been successfully tested reaching TRL-4 in a laboratory test bench and is currently in TRL-5 state development if the module association in order to control 5 DoF is considered.

Keywords: active optimal control, electromagnetic levitation, HEMS, high-speed transport, hyperloop

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
16042 Condition Monitoring of Vehicle Suspension - A Machine Learning Proposal

Authors: Alexandra Baicoianu, Patric Stanoiu, Marian Velea, Calin Husar

Abstract:

Current trends involve machine learning techniques, Artificial Intelligence, etc., in most Industry4.0 specific research directions. In the automotive industry, but not only, but methods and new machine learning algorithms also appear in order to mainly shorten the development time of new components and their validation. The aim of this paper is to generate an input set of data, starting from a classic system existing in the Simcenter Amesim platform, use it as input data in a machine learning analysis and validate the new proposed machine learning methodology. This approach seeks to analyze a vehicle suspension model by using an artificial neural network. Essential for this work are the data sets on which the neural network is trained, as these require an exceptional degree of accuracy and robustness for the result to be as close as possible to mathematical calculations. The final aim is to help create a model enabling the prediction of the values of the vehicle’s suspension travel, speed and acceleration.

Keywords: condition monitoring, car suspension, hyper tuning, stochastic gradient descent, neural network builder, sim center amesim

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
16041 The Effects of Total Resistance Exercises Suspension Exercises Program on Physical Performance in Healthy Individuals

Authors: P. Cavlan, B. Kırmızıgil

Abstract:

Introduction: Each exercise in suspension exercises offer the use of gravity and body weight; and is thought to develop the equilibrium, flexibility and body stability necessary for daily life activities and sports, in addition to creating the correct functional force. Suspension exercises based on body weight focus the human body as an integrated system. Total Resistance Exercises (TRX) suspension training that physiotherapists, athletic health clinics, exercise centers of hospitals and chiropractic clinics now use for rehabilitation purposes. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of TRX suspension exercises on physical performance in healthy individuals. Method: Healthy subjects divided into two groups; the study group and the control group with 40 individuals for each, between ages 20 to 45 with similar gender distributions. Study group had 2 sessions of suspension exercises per week for 8 weeks and control group had no exercises during this period. All the participants were given explosive strength, flexibility, strength and endurance tests before and after the 8 week period. The tests used for evaluation were respectively; standing long jump test and single leg (left and right) long jump tests, sit and reach test, sit up and back extension tests. Results: In the study group a statistically significant difference was found between prior- and final-tests in all evaluations, including explosive strength, flexibility, core strength and endurance of the group performing TRX exercises. These values were higher than the control groups’ values. The final test results were found to be statistically different between the study and control groups. Study group showed development in all values. Conclusions: In this study, which was conducted with the aim of investigating and comparing the effects of TRX suspension exercises on physical performance, the results of the prior-tests of both groups were similar. There was no significant difference between the prior and the final values in the control group. It was observed that in the study group, explosive strength, flexibility, strength, and endurance development was achieved after 8 weeks. According to these results, it was shown that TRX suspension exercise program improved explosive strength, flexibility, especially core strength and endurance; therefore the physical performance. Based on the results of our study, it was determined that the physical performance, an indispensable requirement of our life, was developed by the TRX suspension system. We concluded that TRX suspension exercises can be used to improve the explosive strength and flexibility in healthy individuals, as well as developing the muscle strength and endurance of the core region. The specific investigations could be done in this area so that programs that emphasize the TRX's physical performance features could be created.

Keywords: core strength, endurance, explosive strength, flexibility, physical performance, suspension exercises

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
16040 Using Adaptive Pole Placement Control Strategy for Active Steering Safety System

Authors: Hadi Adibi-Asl, Alireza Doosthosseini, Amir Taghavipour

Abstract:

This paper studies the design of an adaptive control strategy to tune an active steering system for better drivability and maneuverability. In the first step, adaptive control strategy is applied to estimate the uncertain parameters on-line (e.g. cornering stiffness), then the estimated parameters are fed into the pole placement controller to generate corrective feedback gain to improve the steering system dynamic’s characteristics. The simulations are evaluated for three types of road conditions (dry, wet, and icy), and the performance of the adaptive pole placement control (APPC) are compared with pole placement control (PPC) and a passive system. The results show that the APPC strategy significantly improves the yaw rate and side slip angle of a bicycle plant model.

Keywords: adaptive control, active steering, pole placement, vehicle dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
16039 Design and Analysis of Active Rocket Control Systems

Authors: Piotr Jerzy Rugor, Julia Wajoras

Abstract:

The presented work regards a single-stage aerodynamically controlled solid propulsion rocket. Steering a rocket to fly along a predetermined trajectory can be beneficial for minimizing aerodynamic losses and achieved by implementing an active control system on board. In this particular case, a canard configuration has been chosen, although other methods of control have been considered and preemptively analyzed, including non-aerodynamic ones. The objective of this work is to create a system capable of guiding the rocket, focusing on roll stabilization. The paper describes initial analysis of the problem, covers the main challenges of missile guidance and presents data acquired during the experimental study.

Keywords: active canard control system, rocket design, numerical simulations, flight optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 112