Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: pyrochlore

8 Influence of Substitution on Structure of Tin Lantanium Pyrochlore La₂₋ₓSrₓSn₂O₇₋δ(0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Bounar Nedjemeddine


Materials with the pyrochlore lattice structure have attracted much recent attention due to their wide applications in ceramic thermal barrier coatings, high-permittivity dielectrics, and potential solid electrolytes in solid-oxide fuel cells. The work described in this paper is devoted to the synthesis and characterization of a pyrochlore structure based on lanthanum (La₂O₃) and tin (SnO₂) oxides of general formula La₂Sn₂O₇, substituted by Sr at the site La. Their structures were determined from X-ray powder diffraction using CELFER analysis. All the compositions present the space group Fd-3m. The substitution of La by Sr in the La₂Sn₂O₇ compound causes a variation of the cell parameters. The difference in charge between La³⁺ and Sr²⁺ and the difference in size cause the cell parameters to decrease from a=10.7165 A° to a=10.6848 A° for the substitution rates (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 ...), which leads to a decrease in the volume of the mesh. For a substitution rate x = 0.25, there is an increase in the cell parameters (a=10.7035A°), which can be explained by a competitiveness of the size effect and the presence of a gap in the structure which go in the opposite direction.

Keywords: solid-oxide fuel cells, structure, pyrochlore, X-ray diffraction

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7 Photoluminescence Properties of Lu1.98Er0.02Ti2O7 Pyrochlore (A2B2O7) Phosphor

Authors: Esra Öztürk, Erkul Karacaoglu


Pyrochlores, having compounds of the general formula, A2B2O7 (A and B are metals/rare earths) are important class of materials thanks to having technological applications like in luminescence, ionic conductivity, nuclear waste immobilization etc. The rare earths included pyrochlore compounds have also potential photoluminescence characteristics. In this context, Er3+-activated Lu2Ti2O7 pyrochlore was chosen and synthesized through a high-temperature solid-state reaction route that was sintered under the open atmosphere in this study. The optimal reaction conditions to obtain expected single phase system, the thermal analysis (DTA/TG) were carried out. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to determine phase properties of the sample. The photoluminescence (PL) results were done to obtain excitation, emission and decay time properties by a PL spectrometer under room temperature. According to the PL, there are excitation bands at 352 nm, 388 nm, 423 nm and 453 nm that are due to 4I15/2 → 2G7/2, 4I15/2 → 4G11/2 and 4I15/2 → 4F5/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively. The emission bands are placed at 582 nm, 677 nm and 762 nm that are associated with 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2, 4F9/2 → 4I15/2, 4I9/2 → 4I15/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively.

Keywords: Er3+, Lu2Ti2O7, photoluminescence, pyrochlore, rare-earths

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6 Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline Europium-Yttrium Titanate EuYTi2O7

Authors: J. Mrazek, R. Skala, S. Bysakh, Ivan Kasik


Lanthanide-doped yttrium titanium oxides, which crystallize in a pyrochlore structure with general formula (RExY1-x)2Ti2O7 (RE=rare earth element), have been extensively investigated in recent years for their interesting physical and chemical properties. Despite that the pure pyrochlore structure does not present luminescence ability, the presence of yttrium ions in the pyrochlore structure significantly improves the luminescence properties of the RE. Moreover, the luminescence properties of pyrochlores strongly depend on the size of formed nanocrystals. In this contribution, we present a versatile sol-gel synthesis of nanocrystalline EuYTi2O7pyrochlore. The nanocrystalline powders and thin films were prepared by the condensation of titanium(IV)butoxide with europium(III) chloride followed by the calcination. The introduced method leads to the formation of the highly-homogenous nanocrystalline EuYTi2O7 with tailored grain size ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. The morphology and the structure of the formed nanocrystals are linked to the luminescence properties of Eu3+ ions incorporated into the pyrochlore lattice. The results of XRD and HRTEM analysis show that the Eu3+ and Y3+ ions are regularly distributed inside the lattice. The lifetime of Eu3+ ions in calcinated powders is regularly decreasing from 140 us to 68 us and the refractive index of prepared thin films regularly increases from 2.0 to 2.45 according to the calcination temperature. The shape of the luminescence spectra and the decrease of the lifetime correspond with the crystallinity of prepared powders. The results present fundamental information about the effect of the size of the nanocrystals to their luminescence properties. The promising application of prepared nanocrystals in the field of lasers and planar optical amplifiers is widely discussed in the contribution.

Keywords: europium, luminescence, nanocrystals, sol-gel

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5 Complete Enumeration Approach for Calculation of Residual Entropy for Diluted Spin Ice

Authors: Yuriy A. Shevchenko, Konstantin V. Nefedev


We consider the antiferromagnetic systems of Ising spins located at the sites of the hexagonal, triangular and pyrochlore lattices. Such systems can be diluted to a certain concentration level by randomly replacing the magnetic spins with nonmagnetic ones. Quite recently we studied density of states (DOS) was calculated by the Wang-Landau method. Based on the obtained data, we calculated the dependence of the residual entropy (entropy at a temperature tending to zero) on the dilution concentration for quite large systems (more than 2000 spins). In the current study, we obtained the same data for small systems (less than 20 spins) by a complete search of all possible magnetic configurations and compared the result with the result for large systems. The shape of the curve remains unchanged in both cases, but the specific values of the residual entropy are different because of the finite size effect.

Keywords: entropy, pyrochlore, spin ice, Wang-Landau algorithm

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4 Cluster Analysis and Benchmarking for Performance Optimization of a Pyrochlore Processing Unit

Authors: Ana C. R. P. Ferreira, Adriano H. P. Pereira


Given the frequent variation of mineral properties throughout the Araxá pyrochlore deposit, even if a good homogenization work has been carried out before feeding the processing plants, an operation with quality and performance’s high variety standard is expected. These results could be improved and standardized if the blend composition parameters that most influence the processing route are determined, and then the types of raw materials are grouped by them, finally presenting a great reference with operational settings for each group. Associating the physical and chemical parameters of a unit operation through benchmarking or even an optimal reference of metallurgical recovery and product quality reflects in the reduction of the production costs, optimization of the mineral resource, and guarantee of greater stability in the subsequent processes of the production chain that uses the mineral of interest. Conducting a comprehensive exploratory data analysis to identify which characteristics of the ore are most relevant to the process route, associated with the use of Machine Learning algorithms for grouping the raw material (ore) and associating these with reference variables in the process’ benchmark is a reasonable alternative for the standardization and improvement of mineral processing units. Clustering methods through Decision Tree and K-Means were employed, associated with algorithms based on the theory of benchmarking, with criteria defined by the process team in order to reference the best adjustments for processing the ore piles of each cluster. A clean user interface was created to obtain the outputs of the created algorithm. The results were measured through the average time of adjustment and stabilization of the process after a new pile of homogenized ore enters the plant, as well as the average time needed to achieve the best processing result. Direct gains from the metallurgical recovery of the process were also measured. The results were promising, with a reduction in the adjustment time and stabilization when starting the processing of a new ore pile, as well as reaching the benchmark. Also noteworthy are the gains in metallurgical recovery, which reflect a significant saving in ore consumption and a consequent reduction in production costs, hence a more rational use of the tailings dams and life optimization of the mineral deposit.

Keywords: mineral clustering, machine learning, process optimization, pyrochlore processing

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3 Studies on Plasma Spray Deposited La2O3 - YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia) Composite Thermal Barrier Coating

Authors: Prashant Sharma, Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar


The present study concerns development of a composite thermal barrier coating consisting of a mixture of La2O3 and YSZ (with 8 wt.%, 32 wt.% and 50 wt.% 50% La2O3) by plasma spray deposition technique on a CoNiCrAlY based bond coat deposited on Inconel 718 substrate by high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF) technique. The addition of La2O3 in YSZ causes the formation of pyrochlore (La2Zr2O7) phase in the inter splats boundary along with the presence of LaYO3 phase. The coefficient of thermal expansion is significantly reduced from due to the evolution of different phases and structural defects in the sprayed coating. The activation energy for TGO growth under isothermal and cyclic oxidation was increased in the composite coating as compared to YSZ coating.

Keywords: plasma spraying, oxidation resistance, thermal barrier coating, microstructure, X-ray method

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2 Dry Reforming of Methane Using Metal Supported and Core Shell Based Catalyst

Authors: Vinu Viswanath, Lawrence Dsouza, Ugo Ravon


Syngas typically and intermediary gas product has a wide range of application of producing various chemical products, such as mixed alcohols, hydrogen, ammonia, Fischer-Tropsch products methanol, ethanol, aldehydes, alcohols, etc. There are several technologies available for the syngas production. An alternative to the conventional processes an attractive route of utilizing carbon dioxide and methane in equimolar ratio to generate syngas of ratio close to one has been developed which is also termed as Dry Reforming of Methane technology. It also gives the privilege to utilize the greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. The dry reforming process is highly endothermic, and indeed, ΔG becomes negative if the temperature is higher than 900K and practically, the reaction occurs at 1000-1100K. At this temperature, the sintering of the metal particle is happening that deactivate the catalyst. However, by using this strategy, the methane is just partially oxidized, and some cokes deposition occurs that causing the catalyst deactivation. The current research work was focused to mitigate the main challenges of dry reforming process such coke deposition, and metal sintering at high temperature.To achieve these objectives, we employed three different strategies of catalyst development. 1) Use of bulk catalysts such as olivine and pyrochlore type materials. 2) Use of metal doped support materials, like spinel and clay type material. 3) Use of core-shell model catalyst. In this approach, a thin layer (shell) of redox metal oxide is deposited over the MgAl2O4 /Al2O3 based support material (core). For the core-shell approach, an active metal is been deposited on the surface of the shell. The shell structure formed is a doped metal oxide that can undergo reduction and oxidation reactions (redox), and the core is an alkaline earth aluminate having a high affinity towards carbon dioxide. In the case of metal-doped support catalyst, the enhanced redox properties of doped CeO2 oxide and CO2 affinity property of alkaline earth aluminates collectively helps to overcome coke formation. For all of the mentioned three strategies, a systematic screening of the metals is carried out to optimize the efficiency of the catalyst. To evaluate the performance of them, the activity and stability test were carried out under reaction conditions of temperature ranging from 650 to 850 ̊C and an operating pressure ranging from 1 to 20 bar. The result generated infers that the core-shell model catalyst showed high activity and better stable DR catalysts under atmospheric as well as high-pressure conditions. In this presentation, we will show the results related to the strategy.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, dry reforming, supports, core shell catalyst

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1 Exploration Tools for Tantalum-Bearing Pegmatites along Kibara Belt, Central and Southwestern Uganda

Authors: Sadat Sembatya


Tantalum metal is used in addressing capacitance challenge in the 21st-century technology growth. Tantalum is rarely found in its elemental form. Hence it’s often found with niobium and the radioactive elements of thorium and uranium. Industrial processes are required to extract pure tantalum. Its deposits are mainly oxide associated and exist in Ta-Nb oxides such as tapiolite, wodginite, ixiolite, rutile and pyrochlore-supergroup minerals are of minor importance. The stability and chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment and a substitute for platinum. Each period of Tantalum ore formation is characterized by specific mineralogical and geochemical features. Compositions of Columbite-Group Minerals (CGM) are variable: Fe-rich types predominate in the Man Shield (Sierra Leone), the Congo Craton (DR Congo), the Kamativi Belt (Zimbabwe) and the Jos Plateau (Nigeria). Mn-rich columbite-tantalite is typical of the Alto Ligonha Province (Mozambique), the Arabian-Nubian Shield (Egypt, Ethiopia) and the Tantalite Valley pegmatites (southern Namibia). There are large compositional variations through Fe-Mn fractionation, followed by Nb-Ta fractionation. These are typical for pegmatites usually associated with very coarse quartz-feldspar-mica granites. They are young granitic systems of the Kibara Belt of Central Africa and the Older Granites of Nigeria. Unlike ‘simple’ Be-pegmatites, most Ta-Nb rich pegmatites have the most complex zoning. Hence we need systematic exploration tools to find and rapidly assess the potential of different pegmatites. The pegmatites exist as known deposits (e.g., abandoned mines) and the exposed or buried pegmatites. We investigate rocks and minerals to trace for the possibility of the effect of hydrothermal alteration mainly for exposed pegmatites, do mineralogical study to prove evidence of gradual replacement and geochemistry to report the availability of trace elements which are good indicators of mineralisation. Pegmatites are not good geophysical responders resulting to the exclusion of the geophysics option. As for more advanced prospecting, we bulk samples from different zones first to establish their grades and characteristics, then make a pilot test plant because of big samples to aid in the quantitative characterization of zones, and then drill to reveal distribution and extent of different zones but not necessarily grade due to nugget effect. Rapid assessment tools are needed to assess grade and degree of fractionation in order to ‘rule in’ or ‘rule out’ a given pegmatite for future work. Pegmatite exploration is also unique, high risk and expensive hence right traceability system and certification for 3Ts are highly needed.

Keywords: exploration, mineralogy, pegmatites, tantalum

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