Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: polyol

28 Newly Developed Epoxy-Polyol and Epoxy- Polyurethane from Renewable Resources

Authors: Akintayo Emmanuel Temitope, Akintayo Cecilia Olufunke, Ziegler Thomas

Abstract:

Bio-polyols are important components in polyurethane industries. The preliminary studies into the synthesis of bio-polyol products (epoxy-polyol and epoxyl-polyurethanes) from Jatropha curcas were investigated. The reactions were followed by both infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance. Physico-chemical characterisation of the samples for iodine value (IV), acid value (AV), saponification value (SV) and hydroxyl value (HV) were carried out. Thermal transitions of the products were studied by heating 5 mg of the sample from 20ºC to 800ºC and then cooling down to -500ºC on a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The preparation of epoxylpolyol and polyurethane from Jatropha curcas oil was smooth and efficient. Results of film and solubility properties revealed that coatings of Jatropha curcas epoxy-polyurethanes performed better with increased loading of toluylene 2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) up to 2 wt% while their solvent resistance decreased beyond a TDI loading of 1.2 wt%. DSC analysis shows the epoxy-polyurethane to be less stable compared to the epoxy-polyol.

Keywords: synthesis, epoxy-polyol, epoxy-polyurethane, jatropha curcas oil

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27 Synthesis and Use of Bio Polyols in Rigid Polyurethane Foam Production

Authors: A. Esra Pişkin, L. Yusuf Yivlik

Abstract:

Polyurethane consumption in the world increases every year. Polyetherpolyol, which is the main raw material of polyurethane, is produced from petroleum, and bioresources are needed in polyol production due to the damage it causes to the environment and the consumption of too much energy during the production phase. In this present work, bio polyol was synthesized with castor oil and soybean oil, and its use in rigid polyurethane systems was investigated. Transesterification and ring opening methods were applied for polyol synthesis, and the obtained bio polyols were compared with polyols derived petroleum. The goal of the present study was to synthesize biopolyols and to investigate the mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of the synthesized polyurethane in terms of bio polyols.

Keywords: polyurethane, polyol, biopolyol, vegetable oil, foam, rigid polyurethane foam, ring opening, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
26 Preparation of Nano-Scaled linbo3 by Polyol Method

Authors: Gabriella Dravecz, László Péter, Zsolt Kis

Abstract:

Abstract— The growth of optical LiNbO3 single crystal and its physical and chemical properties are well known on the macroscopic scale. Nowadays the rare-earth doped single crystals became important for coherent quantum optical experiments: electromagnetically induced transparency, slow down of light pulses, coherent quantum memory. The expansion of applications is increasingly requiring the production of nano scaled LiNbO3 particles. For example, rare-earth doped nanoscaled particles of lithium niobate can be act like single photon source which can be the bases of a coding system of the quantum computer providing complete inaccessibility to strangers. The polyol method is a chemical synthesis where oxide formation occurs instead of hydroxide because of the high temperature. Moreover the polyol medium limits the growth and agglomeration of the grains producing particles with the diameter of 30-200 nm. In this work nano scaled LiNbO3 was prepared by the polyol method. The starting materials (niobium oxalate and LiOH) were diluted in H2O2. Then it was suspended in ethylene glycol and heated up to about the boiling point of the mixture with intensive stirring. After the thermal equilibrium was reached, the mixture was kept in this temperature for 4 hours. The suspension was cooled overnight. The mixture was centrifuged and the particles were filtered. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement was carried out and the size of the particles were found to be 80-100 nms. This was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) investigations. The element analysis of SEM showed large amount of Nb in the sample. The production of LiNbO3 nano particles were succesful by the polyol method. The agglomeration of the particles were avoided and the size of 80-100nm could be reached.

Keywords: lithium-niobate, nanoparticles, polyol, SEM

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25 Optimization of Batch to Up-Scaling of Soy-Based Prepolymer Polyurethane

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus

Abstract:

The chemical structure of soybean oils have to be chemically modified through its tryglyceride to attain resemblance properties with petrochemicals. Sulfur acid catalyst in peracetic acid co-reagent has good performance on modified soybean oil strucutures through its unsaturated fatty acid moiety to the desired hydroxyl functional groups. A series of screening reactions have indicated that the ratio of acetic/peroxide acid 1:7.25 (mol/mol) with temperature of 600°C for soy-epoxide synthesis are prevailed for up-scaling of bodied soybean into 10 and 20 folds from initials. A two-step process was conducted for the preparation of soy-polyol in designated temperatures.

Keywords: soybean, polyol, up-scaling, polyurethane

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24 The Interactive Effect of Sodium Chloride and Diatomaceous Earth (DE) on Bacillus aquimaris

Authors: Bassam O AlJohny

Abstract:

The growth of Bacillus aquimaris was inhibited from 6 - 20 % of NaCl but it showed some tolerance when Diatomaceous earth (DE) added from 2 - 12% NaCl. Concerning the effect of NaCl on polyol production, we can conclude that, the test bacterium showed some tolerance to NaCl by producing glycerol up to 8 % of NaCl. Then decreased sharply. The addition of DE decrease the amount of polyol and glycerol remarkably and this due to the productive effect of DE to the bacterial cells. The SEM figures represented the presence of electron dense bodies due to the accumulation of small particles of DE as protective molecules.

Keywords: Bacillus aquimaris, Diatomaceous earth (DE), osmoticstress, sodium chloride

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23 Role of NaCl and Temperature in Glycerol Mediated Rapid Growth of Silver Nanostructures

Authors: L. R. Shobin, S. Manivannan

Abstract:

One dimensional silver nanowires and nanoparticles gained more interest in developing transparent conducting films, catalysis, biological and chemical sensors. Silver nanostructures can be synthesized by varying reaction conditions such as the precursor concentration, molar ratio of the surfactant, injection speed of silver ions, etc. in the polyol process. However, the reaction proceeds for greater than 2 hours for the formation of silver nanowires. The introduction of etchant in the medium promotes the growth of silver nanowires from silver nanoparticles along the [100] direction. Rapid growth of silver nanowires is accomplished using the Cl- ions from NaCl and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant. The role of Cl- ion was investigated in the growth of the nanostructured silver. Silver nanoparticles (<100 nm) were harvested from glycerol medium in the absence of Cl- ions. Trace amount of Cl- ions (2.5 mM -NaCl) produced the edge joined nanowires of length upto 2 μm and width ranging from 40 to 65 nm. Formation and rapid growth (within 25 minutes) of long, uniform silver nanowires (upto 5 μm) with good yield were realized in the presence of 5 mM NaCl at 200ºC. The growth of nanostructures was monitored by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopes reveal the morphology of the silver nano harvests. The role of temperature in the reduction of silver ions, growth mechanism for nanoparticles, edge joined and straight nanowires will be discussed.

Keywords: silver nanowires, glycerol mediated polyol process, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis- NIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy

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22 Syntheses in Polyol Medium of Inorganic Oxides with Various Smart Optical Properties

Authors: Shian Guan, Marie Bourdin, Isabelle Trenque, Younes Messaddeq, Thierry Cardinal, Nicolas Penin, Issam Mjejri, Aline Rougier, Etienne Duguet, Stephane Mornet, Manuel Gaudon

Abstract:

At the interface of the studies performed by 3 Ph.D. students: Shian Guan (2017-2020), Marie Bourdin (2016-2019) and Isabelle Trenque (2012-2015), a single synthesis route: polyol-mediated process, was used with success for the preparation of different inorganic oxides. Both of these inorganic oxides were elaborated for their potential application as smart optical compounds. This synthesis route has allowed us to develop nanoparticles of zinc oxide, vanadium oxide or tungsten oxide. This route is with easy implementation, inexpensive and with large-scale production potentialities and leads to materials of high purity. The obtaining by this route of nanometric particles, however perfectly crystalline, has notably led to the possibility of doping these matrix materials with high doping ion concentrations (high solubility limits). Thus, Al3+ or Ga3+ doped-ZnO powder, with high doping rate in comparison with the literature, exhibits remarkable infrared absorption properties thanks to their high free carrier density. Note also that due to the narrow particle size distribution of the as-prepared nanometric doped-ZnO powder, the original correlation between crystallite size and unit-cell parameters have been established. Also, depending on the annealing atmosphere use to treat vanadium precursors, VO2, V2O3 or V2O5 oxides with thermochromic or electrochromic properties can be obtained without any impurity, despite the versatility of the oxidation state of vanadium. This is of more particular interest on vanadium dioxide, a relatively difficult-to-prepare oxide, whose first-order metal-insulator phase transition is widely explored in the literature for its thermochromic behavior (in smart windows with optimal thermal insulation). Finally, the reducing nature of the polyol solvents ensures the production of oxygen-deficient tungsten oxide, thus conferring to the nano-powders exotic colorimetric properties, as well as optimized photochromic and electrochromic behaviors.

Keywords: inorganic oxides, electrochromic, photochromic, thermochromic

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21 An Enzyme Technology - Metnin™ - Enables the Full Replacement of Fossil-Based Polymers by Lignin in Polymeric Composites

Authors: Joana Antunes, Thomas Levée, Barbara Radovani, Anu Suonpää, Paulina Saloranta, Liji Sobhana, Petri Ihalainen

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Lignin is an important component in the exploitation of lignocellulosic biomass. It has been shown that within the next years, the yield of added-value lignin-based chemicals and materials will generate renewable alternatives to oil-based products (e.g. polymeric composites, resins and adhesives) and enhance the economic feasibility of biorefineries. In this paper, a novel technology for lignin valorisation (METNIN™) is presented. METNIN™ is based on the oxidative action of an alkaliphilic enzyme in aqueous alkaline conditions (pH 10-11) at mild temperature (40-50 °C) combined with a cascading membrane operation, yielding a collection of lignin fractions (from oligomeric down to mixture of tri-, di- and monomeric units) with distinct molecular weight distribution, low polydispersity and favourable physicochemical properties. The alkaline process conditions ensure the high processibility of crude lignin in an aqueous environment and the efficiency of the enzyme, yielding better compatibility of lignin towards targeted applications. The application of a selected lignin fraction produced by METNIN™ as a suitable lignopolyol to completely replace a commercial polyol in polyurethane rigid foam formulations is presented as a prototype. Liquid lignopolyols with a high lignin content were prepared by oxypropylation and their full utilization in the polyurethane rigid foam formulation was successfully demonstrated. Moreover, selected technical specifications of different foam demonstrators were determined, including closed cell count, water uptake and compression characteristics. These specifications are within industrial standards for rigid foam applications. The lignin loading in the lignopolyol was a major factor determining the properties of the foam. In addition to polyurethane foam demonstrators, other examples of lignin-based products related to resins and sizing applications will be presented.

Keywords: enzyme, lignin valorisation, polyol, polyurethane foam

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20 Influence Study of the Molar Ratio between Solvent and Initiator on the Reaction Rate of Polyether Polyols Synthesis

Authors: María José Carrero, Ana M. Borreguero, Juan F. Rodríguez, María M. Velencoso, Ángel Serrano, María Jesús Ramos

Abstract:

Flame-retardants are incorporated in different materials in order to reduce the risk of fire, either by providing increased resistance to ignition, or by acting to slow down combustion and thereby delay the spread of flames. In this work, polyether polyols with fire retardant properties were synthesized due to their wide application in the polyurethanes formulation. The combustion of polyurethanes is primarily dependent on the thermal properties of the polymer, the presence of impurities and formulation residue in the polymer as well as the supply of oxygen. There are many types of flame retardants, most of them are phosphorous compounds of different nature and functionality. The addition of these compounds is the most common method for the incorporation of flame retardant properties. The employment of glycerol phosphate sodium salt as initiator for the polyol synthesis allows obtaining polyols with phosphate groups in their structure. However, some of the critical points of the use of glycerol phosphate salt are: the lower reactivity of the salt and the necessity of a solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO). Thus, the main aim in the present work was to determine the amount of the solvent needed to get a good solubility of the initiator salt. Although the anionic polymerization mechanism of polyether formation is well known, it seems convenient to clarify the role that DMSO plays at the starting point of the polymerization process. Regarding the fact that the catalyst deprotonizes the hydroxyl groups of the initiator and as a result of this, two water molecules and glycerol phosphate alkoxide are formed. This alkoxide, together with DMSO, has to form a homogeneous mixture where the initiator (solid) and the propylene oxide (PO) are soluble enough to mutually interact. The addition rate of PO increased when the solvent/initiator ratios studied were increased, observing that it also made the initiation step shorter. Furthermore, the molecular weight of the polyol decreased when higher solvent/initiator ratios were used, what revealed that more amount of salt was activated, initiating more chains of lower length but allowing to react more phosphate molecules and to increase the percentage of phosphorous in the final polyol. However, the final phosphorous content was lower than the theoretical one because only a percentage of salt was activated. On the other hand, glycerol phosphate disodium salt was still partially insoluble in DMSO studied proportions, thus, the recovery and reuse of this part of the salt for the synthesis of new flame retardant polyols was evaluated. In the recovered salt case, the rate of addition of PO remained the same than in the commercial salt but a shorter induction period was observed, this is because the recovered salt presents a higher amount of deprotonated hydroxyl groups. Besides, according to molecular weight, polydispersity index, FT-IR spectrum and thermal stability, there were no differences between both synthesized polyols. Thus, it is possible to use the recovered glycerol phosphate disodium salt in the same way that the commercial one.

Keywords: DMSO, fire retardants, glycerol phosphate disodium salt, recovered initiator, solvent

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19 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane

Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar

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In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.

Keywords: alendronic acid, clay, ketonic resin, polyurethane

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18 Development of Plantar Insoles Reinforcement Using Biocomposites

Authors: A. C. Vidal, D. R. Mulinari, C. F. Bandeira, S. R. Montoro

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Due to the great effort suffered by foot during movement, is of great importance to count on a shoe that has a proper structure and excellent support tread to prevent the immediate and long-term consequences in all parts of the body. In this sense, new reinforcements of insoles with high impact absorption were developed in this work, from a polyurethane (PU) biocomposite derived from castor oil reinforced or not with palm fibers. These insoles have been obtained from the mixture with polyol prepolymer (diisocyanate) and subsequently were evaluated morphologically, mechanically and by thermal analysis. The results revealed that the biocomposites showed lower flexural strength, higher impact strength and open interconnected pores in their microstructure, but with smaller cells and degradation temperature slightly higher compared to the marketed material, showing interesting properties for a possible application as reinforcement of insoles.

Keywords: composite, polyurethane insole, palm fibers, plantar insoles reinforcement

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17 Synthesis and Physico-Chemical Analysis of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil for ISO VG32 and VG46 Applications

Authors: M. Nuhu, M. S. Amina, A. H. Aminu, A. J. Abbas, N. Salahudeen, A. Z. Yusuf

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Transesterification of jatropha methyl ester (JME) with the common polyol, trimethylolpropane (TMP) produced the TMP based ester which exhibits improved temperature properties. This paper discusses the physic-chemical properties of jatropha bio-lubricant base oil applicable for ISO VG32 and VG46 requirement. The catalyst employed for the JME was CaO synthesized in National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT) that gives 100% conversion. The molar ratio of JME to TMP was 3.5:1 and the catalyst (NaOCH3) loading were found to be 0.8% of the weight of the total reactants. The final fractionated jatropha bio-lubricant base was found to contain 11.95% monoesters, 43.89% diesters and 44.16% triesters (desired product). In addition, it was found that the bio-lubricant base oil produced is comparable to the ISO VG46 commercial standards for light and industrial gears applications and other plant based bio-lubricant.

Keywords: biodegradability, methyl ester, pour point, transesterification, viscosity index

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16 Production of Polyurethane Foams from Bark Wastes

Authors: Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, Liliana Rodrigues, Idalina Domingos, José Ferreira, Luís Teixeira de Lemos, Bruno Esteves

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Currently, the polyurethanes industry is dependent on fossil resources to obtain their basic raw materials (polyols and isocyanate), as these are obtained from petroleum products. The aim of this work was to use biopolyols from liquefied Pseudotsuga (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) barks for the production of polyurethane foams and optimize the process. Liquefaction was done with glycerol catalyzed by KOH. Foams were produced following different formulations and using biopolyols from both barks. Subsequently, the foams were characterized according to their mechanical properties and the reaction of the foam formation was monitored by FTIR-ATR. The results show that it is possible to produce polyurethane foams using bio-based polyols and the liquefaction conditions are very important because they influence the characteristics of biopolyols and, consequently the characteristics of the foams. However, the process has to be further optimized so that it can obtain better quality foams.

Keywords: Bio-based polyol, mechanical tests, polyurethane foam, Pseudotsuga bark, renewable resources, Turkey oak bark

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15 In situ Polymerization and Properties of Biobased Polyurethane/Epoxy Interpenetrating Network Nanocomposites

Authors: Aiswarea Mathew, Smita Mohanty, Jr., S. K. Nayak

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Polyurethane networks based on castor oil (CO) as a renewable resource polyol were synthesized. Polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating network nanocomposites containing modified montmorillonite organoclay (C30B-PU/EP nanocomposites) were prepared by an in situ intercalation method. The conventional spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized samples using FT-IR confirms the existence of the proposed castor oil based PU structure and also showed that strong interactions existed between C30B and EP/PU matrix. The dispersion degree of C30B in EP/PU matrix was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) method. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis showed that the interpenetrating process of PU and EP increases the exfoliation degree of C30B, and it improves the compatibility and the phase structure of polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating polymer networks (PU/EP IPNs). The thermal stability improves compared to the polyurethane when the PU/EP IPN is formed. Mechanical properties including the Young’s modulus and tensile strength reflected marked improvement with addition of C30B.

Keywords: castor oil, epoxy, montmorillonite, polyurethane

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14 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi

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Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.

Keywords: reactive rotational molding, simulation, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, surface tension, rheology, free surface flows, viscoelastic, interpolation

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13 Exchange Bias in Ceramics: From Polyol Made CoFe₂O₄[email protected] NPs to Nanostructured Ceramics

Authors: N. Flores-Martinez, G. Franceschin, T. Gaudisson, J.-M. Greneche, R. Valenzuela-Monjaras, S. Ammar

Abstract:

Tailoring bulk materials keeping their nanoscale properties is the daydream of material scientists. But especially in magnetism, this single desire can revolutionize our everyday life. Now, thanks to the methods of synthesis, based on the combination of colloidal chemistry (CC) to flash sintering (FS), customizing magnets becomes each time more 'easy', 'cheap' and 'clean'. Although by CC we can obtain straightway nanopowders with good magnetic featuring, like exchange bias (EB) phenomenon, it does not result so attractive for applications. Since a solid material is simple to manipulate and integrate in a device, many consolidation methods have been tested aiming to keep the nanopowders characteristics after consolidation. Unfortunately, the lack of structural crystalline arrangement and the grain growth worsen the magnetic properties. In this work, we exhibit, for the first-time author’s best knowledge, the EB in sintered ceramics, starting from CoFe₂O₄[email protected] NPs obtained by CC. Despite the fact that EB field is about 28 mT in ceramics and it is not yet considered for applications, this work opens an alternative in the permanent magnets fabrication through a FS method, the spark plasma sintering, starting from CC synthesized nanopowders.

Keywords: core-shell nanoparticles, exchange bias, nanostructured ceramics, spark plasma sintering

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12 Biobased Polyurethane Derived from Transesterified Castor Oil: Synthesis and Charecterization

Authors: Sonalee Das, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak

Abstract:

Recent years has witnessed the increasing demand for natural resources and products in polyurethane synthesis because of global warming, sustainable development and oil crisis. For this purpose, different plant oils such as soybean oil, castor oil and linseed oil are extensively used. Moreover, the isocyanate used for the synthesis of polyurethane is derived from petroleum resources. In this present work attempts have been made for the successful synthesis of biobased isocyanate from castor oil with partially biobased isocyanate in presence of catalyst dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL). The goal of the present study was to investigate the thermal, mechanical, morphological and chemical properties of the synthesized polyurethane in terms of castor oil modification. The transesterified polyol shows broad and higher hydroxyl value as compared to castor oil which was confirmed by FTIR studies. The FTIR studies also revealed the successful synthesis of bio based polyurethane by showing characteristic peaks at 3300cm-1, 1715cm-1 and 1532cm-1 respectively. The TGA results showed three step degradation mechanism for the synthesized polyurethane from modified and unmodified castor oil. However, the modified polyurethane exhibited higher degradation temperature as compared to unmodified one. The mechanical properties also demonstrated higher tensile strength for modified polyurethane as compared to unmodified one.

Keywords: castor oil, partially biobased Isocyanate, polyurethane synthesis, FTIR

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11 Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Root-Nodules of Medicago sativa in Al-Ahasa Region

Authors: Ashraf Y. Z. Khalifa, Mohammed A. Almalki

Abstract:

Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) is an important forage crop legume worldwide including Saudia Arabia due to its high nutritive value. Soil bacteria exist in root or root-nodules of Medicago sativa in either symbiotic relationships or in associations. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria that live in association with non-nodulated roots of Medicago sativa growing in Al-Ahsaa region, Saudia Arabia. Several bacterial strains were isolated from sterilized roots of Medicago sativa. Strains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequences, phylogenetic relationships analysis, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The strains utilized 50% (10 out of 20) of the different chemical substrates contained in the API20E strip. In general, many strains had the ability to ferment/oxidise all the carbohydrate tested except for rhamnose and the polyol carbohydrate, inositol. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene indicated that the strains were closely related to the genus Bacillus. Furthermore, the growth parameters of Vigna sinensis were enhanced upon single-inoculation of the isolated strains, compared to the uninoculated control plants. The results highlighted that the root-nodules of Medicago sativa harbor non-nodulating bacterial strains that could have significant agricultural applications.

Keywords: Medicago sativa, endophytic bacteria, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis

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10 Acoustic Behavior of Polymer Foam Composite of Shorea leprosula after UV-Irradiation Exposure

Authors: Anika Zafiah M. Rus, S. Shafizah

Abstract:

This study was developed to compare the behavior and the ability of polymer foam composites towards sound absorption test of Shorea leprosula wood (SL) of acid hydrolysis treatment with particle size < 355µm. Three different weight ratio of polyol to wood particle has been selected which are 10wt%, 15wt%, and 20wt%. The acid hydrolysis treatment is to optimize the surface interaction of a wood particle with polymer foam matrix. In addition, the acoustic characteristic of sound absorption coefficient (Į) was determined. Further treatment is to expose the polymer composite in UV irradiation by using UV-Weatherometer. Polymer foam composite of untreated shorea leprosula particle (SL-B) with respective percentage loading shows uniform pore structure as compared with treated wood particle (SL-A). As the filler percentage loading in polymer foam increases, the Į value approaching 1 for both samples. Furthermore, SL-A shows better Į value at 3500-4500 frequency absorption level(Hz), meanwhile Į value for SL-B is maximum at 4000-5000 Hz. The frequencies absorption level for both SL-B and SL-A after UV exposure was increased with the increasing of exposure time from 0-1000 hours. It is, therefore, concluded that the Į for each sound absorbing material, with or without acid hydrolysis treatment of wood particles and it’s percentages loading in polymer matrix effect the sound absorption behavior.

Keywords: polymer foam composite, sound absorption coefficient, UV-irradiation, wood

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9 Dow Polyols near Infrared Chemometric Model Reduction Based on Clustering: Reducing Thirty Global Hydroxyl Number (OH) Models to Less Than Five

Authors: Wendy Flory, Kazi Czarnecki, Matthijs Mercy, Mark Joswiak, Mary Beth Seasholtz

Abstract:

Polyurethane Materials are present in a wide range of industrial segments such as Furniture, Building and Construction, Composites, Automotive, Electronics, and more. Dow is one of the leaders for the manufacture of the two main raw materials, Isocyanates and Polyols used to produce polyurethane products. Dow is also a key player for the manufacture of Polyurethane Systems/Formulations designed for targeted applications. In 1990, the first analytical chemometric models were developed and deployed for use in the Dow QC labs of the polyols business for the quantification of OH, water, cloud point, and viscosity. Over the years many models have been added; there are now over 140 models for quantification and hundreds for product identification, too many to be reasonable for support. There are 29 global models alone for the quantification of OH across > 70 products at many sites. An attempt was made to consolidate these into a single model. While the consolidated model proved good statistics across the entire range of OH, several products had a bias by ASTM E1655 with individual product validation. This project summary will show the strategy for global model updates for OH, to reduce the number of models for quantification from over 140 to 5 or less using chemometric methods. In order to gain an understanding of the best product groupings, we identify clusters by reducing spectra to a few dimensions via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP). Results from these cluster analyses and a separate validation set allowed dow to reduce the number of models for predicting OH from 29 to 3 without loss of accuracy.

Keywords: hydroxyl, global model, model maintenance, near infrared, polyol

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8 Pretreatment of Aquatic Weed Typha latifolia with Sodium Bisulphate for Enhanced Acid and Enzyme Hydrolysis for Production of Xylitol and Bioethanol

Authors: Jyosthna Khanna Goli, Shaik Naseeruddin, Hameeda Bee

Abstract:

Employing lignocellulosic biomass in fermentative production of xylitol and bioethanol is gaining interest as it is renewable, cheap, and abundantly available. Xylitol is a polyol, gaining its importance in the food and pharmacological industry due to its low calorific value and anti-cariogenic nature. Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is widely accepted as an alternative fuel for transportation with reduced CO₂ emissions, thus reducing the greenhouse effect. Typha latifolia, an aquatic weed, was found to be promising lignocellulosic substrate as it posses a high amount of sugars and does not compete with arable lands and interfere with food and feed competition. In the present study, xylose from hemicellulosic fraction of typha is converted to xylitol by isolate Jfh5 (Candida. tropicalis) and cellulose part to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiaeVS3. Initially, alkali pretreatment of typha using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, sodium bisulphate and sodium dithionate for overnight (18h) at room temperature (28 ± 2°C), resulted in maximum delignification of 75% with 2% (v/v) sodium bisulphate. Later, pretreated biomass was subjected to acid hydrolysis with 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 3% H₂SO₄ at 110 °C and 121°C for 30 and 60 min, respectively. 2% H₂SO₄ at 121°C for 60 min was found to release 13.5 g /l sugars, which on detoxification and fermentation produced 8.1g/l xylitol with yield and productivity of 0.65g/g and 0.112g/l/h respectively. Further enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual substrate obtained after acid hydrolysis released 11g/l sugar, which on fermentation with VS3 produced 4.9g/l ethanol with yield and productivity of 0.22g/g and 0.136g/l/h respectively.

Keywords: delignification, xylitol, bioethanol, acid hydrolysis, enzyme hydrolysis

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7 Role of Cellulose Fibers in Tuning the Microstructure and Crystallographic Phase of α-Fe₂O₃ and α-FeOOH Nanoparticles

Authors: Indu Chauhan, Bhupendra S. Butola, Paritosh Mohanty

Abstract:

It is very well known that properties of material changes as their size approach to nanoscale level due to the high surface area to volume ratio. However, in last few decades, a tenet ‘structure dictates function’ is quickly being adopted by researchers working with nanomaterials. The design and exploitation of nanoparticles with tailored shape and size has become one of the primary goals of materials science researchers to expose the properties of nanostructures. To date, various methods, including soft/hard template/surfactant assisted route hydrothermal reaction, seed mediated growth method, capping molecule-assisted synthesis, polyol process, etc. have been adopted to synthesize the nanostructures with controlled size and shape and monodispersity. However controlling the shape and size of nanoparticles is an ultimate challenge of modern material research. In particular, many efforts have been devoted to rational and skillful control of hierarchical and complex nanostructures. Thus in our research work, role of cellulose in manipulating the nanostructures has been discussed. Nanoparticles of α-Fe₂O₃ (diameter ca. 15 to 130 nm) were immobilized on the cellulose fiber surface by a single step in situ hydrothermal method. However, nanoflakes of α-FeOOH having thickness ca. ~25 nm and length ca. ~250 nm were obtained by the same method in absence of cellulose fibers. A possible nucleation and growth mechanism of the formation of nanostructures on cellulose fibers have been proposed. The covalent bond formation between the cellulose fibers and nanostructures has been discussed with supporting evidence from the spectroscopic and other analytical studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The role of cellulose in manipulating the nanostructures has been discussed.

Keywords: cellulose fibers, α-Fe₂O₃, α-FeOOH, hydrothermal, nanoflakes, nanoparticles

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6 Effect of Goat Milk Kefir and Soy Milk Kefir on IL-6 in Diabetes Mellitus Wistar Mice Models Induced by Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide

Authors: Agatha Swasti Ayuning Tyas

Abstract:

Hyperglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an important factor in cellular and vascular damage, which is caused by activation of C Protein Kinase, polyol and hexosamine track, and production of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGE). Those mentioned before causes the accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Oxidative stress increases the expression of proinflammatory factors IL-6 as one of many signs of endothelial disfunction. Genistein in soy milk has a high immunomodulator potential. Goat milk contains amino acids which have antioxidative potential. Fermented kefir has an anti-inflammatory activity which believed will also contribute in potentiating goat milk and soy milk. This study is a quasi-experimental posttest-only research to 30 Wistar mice. This study compared the levels of IL-6 between healthy Wistar mice group (G1) and 4 DM Wistar mice with intervention and grouped as follows: mice without treatment (G2), mice treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3), mice treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G4), and mice treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). DM animal models were induced with Streptozotocin & Nicotinamide to achieve hyperglycemic condition. Goat milk kefir and soy milk kefir are given at a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight/day for four weeks to intervention groups. Blood glucose was analyzed by the GOD-POD principle. IL-6 was analyzed by enzyme-linked sandwich ELISA. The level of IL-6 in DM untreated control group (G2) showed a significant difference from the group treated with the combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) (p=0,006) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5) (p=0,009). Whereas the difference of IL-6 in group treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3) was not significant (p=0,131). There is also synergism between glucose level and IL-6 in intervention groups treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). Combination of 50 % goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir and administration of 100% soy milk kefir alone can control the level of IL-6 remained low in DM Wistar mice induced with streptozocin and nicotinamide.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, goat milk kefir, soy milk kefir, interleukin 6

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5 Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Film and Nanoparticles for Novel Applications

Authors: Hanan. Al Chaghouri, Mohammad Azad Malik, P. John Thomas, Paul O’Brien

Abstract:

The process of assembling metal nanoparticles at the interface of two liquids has received a great interest over the past few years due to a wide range of important applications and their unusual properties compared to bulk materials. We present a low cost, simple and cheap synthesis of metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors followed by assembly of these particles between immiscible liquids. The aim of this talk is divided to three parts: firstly, to describe the achievement of a closed loop recycling for producing cadmium sulphide as powders and/or nanostructured thin films for solar cells or other optoelectronic devices applications by using a different chain length of commercially available secondary amines of dithiocarbamato complexes. The approach can be extended to other metal sulphides such as those of Zn, Pb, Cu, or Fe and many transition metals and oxides. Secondly, to synthesis significantly cheaper magnetic particles suited for the mass market. Ni/NiO nanoparticles with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were among the smallest and strongest magnets (5 nm) were made in solution. The applications of this work can be applied to produce viable storage devices and the other possibility is to disperse these nanocrystals in solution and use it to make ferro-fluids which have a number of mature applications. The third part is about preparing and assembling of submicron silver, cobalt and nickel particles by using polyol methods and liquid/liquid interface, respectively. Noble metal like gold, copper and silver are suitable for plasmonic thin film solar cells because of their low resistivity and strong interactions with visible light waves. Silver is the best choice for solar cell application since it has low absorption losses and high radiative efficiency compared to gold and copper. Assembled cobalt and nickel as films are promising for spintronic, magnetic and magneto-electronic and biomedics.

Keywords: assembling nanoparticles, liquid/liquid interface, thin film, core/shell, solar cells, recording media

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
4 Novel Routes to the Synthesis and Functionalization of Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Film and Nanoparticles

Authors: Hanan. Al Chaghouri, Mohammad Azad Malik, P. John Thomas, Paul O’Brien

Abstract:

The process of assembling metal nanoparticles at the interface of two liquids has received a great deal of attention over the past few years due to a wide range of important applications and their unusual properties as compared to bulk materials. We present a low cost, simple and cheap synthesis of metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors followed by assembly of these particles between immiscible liquids. The aim of this talk is divided to three parts: Firstly, to describe the achievement of a closed loop recycling for producing cadmium sulfide as powders and/or nanostructured thin films for solar cells or other optoelectronic devices applications by using a different chain length of commercially available secondary amines of dithiocarbamato complexes. The approach can be extended to other metal sulfides such as those of Zn, Pb, Cu, or Fe and many transition metals and oxides. Secondly, to synthesis significantly cheaper magnetic particles suited for the mass market. Ni/NiO nanoparticles with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were among the smallest and strongest magnets (5 nm) were made in solution. The applications of this work can be to produce viable storage devices and the other possibility is to disperse these nanocrystals in solution and use it to make ferrofluids which have a number of mature applications. The third part is about preparing and assembling of submicron silver, cobalt and nickel particles by using polyol methods and liquid/liquid interface, respectively. Coinage metals like gold, copper and silver are suitable for plasmonic thin film solar cells because of their low resistivity and strong interactions with visible light waves. Silver is the best choice for solar cell application since it has low absorption losses and high radiative efficiency compared to gold and copper. Assembled cobalt and nickel as films are promising for spintronic, magnetic and magneto-electronic and biomedics.

Keywords: metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors, ferromagnetic properties, closed loop recycling, liquid/liquid interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
3 Anti-Apoptotic Effect of Pueraria tuberosa in Rats with Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Rashmi Shukla, Yamini Bhusan Tripathi

Abstract:

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized as diabetic kidney disease which involves many pathways e.g. hyperactivated protein kinase c (PKC), polyol pathway, excess production of advanced glycation end product (AGEs) & free radical accumulation etc. All of them results to hypoxia followed by apoptosis of podocytes, glomerulosclerosis, extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and fibrosis resulting to irreversible changes in kidney. This is continuously rising worldwide and there are not enough specific drugs, to retard its progress. Due to increasing side effects of allopathic drugs, interest in herbal remedies is growing. Earlier, we have reported that PTY-2 (a phytomedicine, derived from Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) inhibits the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) through activation of MMP-9. Present study exhibited the therapeutic potential of Pueraria tuberosa in the prevention of podocytes apoptosis and modulation of nephrin expression in streptozotocin (STZ) induced DN rats. DN rats were produced by maintaining persistent hyperglycemia for 8 weeks by intra-peritoneal injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). These rats were randomly divided in 2 groups, i.e. DN control, and DN+ water extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PTW). One group of age-matched normal rats served as non-diabetic control (group-1), The STZ induced DN rats (group-2) and DN+PTW treated rats (group-3). The PTW was orally administered (0.3g/kg) daily to group-2 rats and drug vector (1 ml of 10% tween 20) in control rats. The treatments were continued for 20 days and blood and urine samples were collected. Rats were then sacrificed to investigate the expression Bcl2, Bax and nephroprotective protein i.e. nephrin in kidney glomerulus. The effect of PTW was evaluated, we have found that the PTW significantly(p < .001) reversed the raised serum urea, serum creatinine, urine protein and improved the creatinine clearance in STZ induce diabetic nephropathy in rats and also significantly(p < .001) prevented the rise in urine albumin excretion. The Western blot analysis of kidney tissue homogenate showed increased expression of Bcl2 in PTW treated rats. The RT-PCR showed the increased expression and accumulation of nephrin mRNA. The confocal photomicrographs also supported the reduction of Bax and a simultaneous increase in Bcl2 and nephrin in glomerular podocytes. Hence, our finding suggests that the nephroprotective role of PTW is mediated via restoration of nephrin thus prevents the podocytes apoptosis and ameliorates diabetic nephropathy. The clinical trial of PTW would prove to be a potential food supplement/ drug of alternative medicine for patients with diabetic nephropathy in early stage.

Keywords: Pueraria tuberosa, diabetic nephropathy, anti-apoptosis, nephrin

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
2 Syntheses of Anionic Poly(urethanes) with Imidazolium, Phosphonium, and Ammonium as Counter-cations and Their Evaluation for CO2 Separation

Authors: Franciele L. Bernard, Felipe Dalla Vecchia, Barbara B. Polesso, Jose A. Donato, Marcus Seferin, Rosane Ligabue, Jailton F. do Nascimento, Sandra Einloft

Abstract:

The increasing level of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere related to fossil fuels processing and utilization are contributing to global warming phenomena considerably. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies appear as one of the key technologies to reduce CO2 emissions mitigating the effects of climate change. Absorption using amines solutions as solvents have been extensively studied and used in industry for decades. However, solvent degradation and equipment corrosion are two of the main problems in this process. Poly (ionic liquid) (PIL) is considered as a promising material for CCS technology, potentially more environmentally friendly and lesser energy demanding than traditional material. PILs possess a unique combination of ionic liquids (ILs) features, such as affinity for CO2, thermal and chemical stability and adjustable properties, coupled with the intrinsic properties of the polymer. This study investigated new Poly (ionic liquid) (PIL) based on polyurethanes with different ionic liquids cations and its potential for CO2 capture. The PILs were synthesized by the addition of diisocyante to a difunctional polyol, followed by an exchange reaction with the ionic Liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl); tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide (TBPB). These materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Tensile strength analysis, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The PILs CO2 sorption capacity were gravimetrically assessed in a Magnetic Suspension Balance (MSB). It was found that the ionic liquids cation influences in the compounds properties as well as in the CO2 sorption. The best result for CO2 sorption (123 mgCO2/g at 30 bar) was obtained for the PIL (PUPT-TBA). The higher CO2 sorption in PUPT-TBA is probably linked to the fact that the tetraalkylammonium cation having a higher positive density charge can have a stronger interaction with CO2, while the imidazolium charge is delocalized. The comparative CO2 sorption values of the PUPT-TBA with different ionic liquids showed that this material has greater capacity for capturing CO2 when compared to the ILs even at higher temperature. This behavior highlights the importance of this study, as the poly (urethane) based PILs are cheap and versatile materials.

Keywords: capture, CO2, ionic liquids, ionic poly(urethane)

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
1 Co₂Fe LDH on Aromatic Acid Functionalized N Doped Graphene: Hybrid Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Biswaranjan D. Mohapatra, Ipsha Hota, Swarna P. Mantry, Nibedita Behera, Kumar S. K. Varadwaj

Abstract:

Designing highly active and low-cost oxygen evolution (2H₂O → 4H⁺ + 4e⁻ + O₂) electrocatalyst is one of the most active areas of advanced energy research. Some precious metal-based electrocatalysts, such as IrO₂ and RuO₂, have shown excellent performance for oxygen evolution reaction (OER); however, they suffer from high-cost and low abundance which limits their applications. Recently, layered double hydroxides (LDHs), composed of layers of divalent and trivalent transition metal cations coordinated to hydroxide anions, have gathered attention as an alternative OER catalyst. However, LDHs are insulators and coupled with carbon materials for the electrocatalytic applications. Graphene covalently doped with nitrogen has been demonstrated to be an excellent electrocatalyst for energy conversion technologies such as; oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER) & hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, they operate at high overpotentials, significantly above the thermodynamic standard potentials. Recently, we reported remarkably enhanced catalytic activity of benzoate or 1-pyrenebutyrate functionalized N-doped graphene towards the ORR in alkaline medium. The molecular and heteroatom co-doping on graphene is expected to tune the electronic structure of graphene. Therefore, an innovative catalyst architecture, in which LDHs are anchored on aromatic acid functionalized ‘N’ doped graphene may presumably boost the OER activity to a new benchmark. Herein, we report fabrication of Co₂Fe-LDH on aromatic acid (AA) functionalized ‘N’ doped reduced graphene oxide (NG) and studied their OER activities in alkaline medium. In the first step, a novel polyol method is applied for synthesis of AA functionalized NG, which is well dispersed in aqueous medium. In the second step, Co₂Fe LDH were grown on AA functionalized NG by co-precipitation method. The hybrid samples are abbreviated as Co₂Fe LDH/AA-NG, where AA is either Benzoic acid or 1, 3-Benzene dicarboxylic acid (BDA) or 1, 3, 5 Benzene tricarboxylic acid (BTA). The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These studies confirmed the growth of layered single phase LDH. The electrocatalytic OER activity of these hybrid materials was investigated by rotating disc electrode (RDE) technique on a glassy carbon electrode. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) on these catalyst samples were taken at 1600rpm. We observed significant OER performance enhancement in terms of onset potential and current density on Co₂Fe LDH/BTA-NG hybrid, indicating the synergic effect. This exploration of molecular functionalization effect in doped graphene and LDH system may provide an excellent platform for innovative design of OER catalysts.

Keywords: π-π functionalization, layered double hydroxide, oxygen evolution reaction, reduced graphene oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 99