Search results for: environmental degradation
6907 An Alteration of the Boltzmann Superposition Principle to Account for Environmental Degradation in Fiber Reinforced Plastics
Authors: Etienne K. Ngoy
Abstract:This analysis suggests that the comprehensive degradation caused by any environmental factor on fiber reinforced plastics under mechanical stress can be measured as a change in viscoelastic properties of the material. The change in viscoelastic characteristics is experimentally determined as a time-dependent function expressing the amplification of the stress relaxation. The variation of this experimental function provides a measure of the environmental degradation rate. Where real service environment conditions can be reliably simulated in the laboratory, it is possible to generate master curves that include environmental degradation effect and hence predict the durability of the fiber reinforced plastics under environmental degradation.
Keywords: environmental effects, fiber reinforced plastics durability, prediction, stress effectProcedia PDF Downloads 129
6906 Eco-Entrepreneurship Education in India: Exploring Online Course Structure
Authors: Vishwas Chakranarayan, Mariyam Al Salman
Abstract:Despite the global environmental threats, previous approaches used to overcome these problems have failed to prevent environmental degradation. Scholars believe that entrepreneurs can help conserve habitats, combat climate change, increase freshwater availability, sustain biodiversity, and reduce environmental degradation and deforestation. The pandemic is creating a different ecosystem for fostering the eco-entrepreneurship opportunities. However, attending a course physically is a challenge for many willing learners. Therefore, it is an opportune time to contemplate on developing a social entrepreneurship curriculum which can be offered online.
Keywords: ecopreneurship, environmental problems, environmental degradation, entrepreneurship educationProcedia PDF Downloads 82
6905 Environmental Degradation in Niger-Delta and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Issues for Consideration
Authors: Peter Okpamen
Abstract:The issue of environmental degradation in Nigeria is of serious concern. The colonial period brought a major change in environmental awareness and relationship with the environment. This period introduced a model of development, the major thrust of which was the exploration and transformation of natural and human resources for the benefit of the colonial masters. There is abundant evidence in the literature that there are various manifestations of environmental degradation in Nigeria, which have resulted in the various problems found throughout the Nigeria national space. The idea of the environment acting as a constraint to the growth of human activity has given way to the contrary. Environmental education, going by the literature, exists at the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. In short, the 1st National conference on environmental education gave several suggestions on how it could be realised. Thus, to realise sustainable environmental development we need to accelerate the process of providing basic education for both the old and young. Environmental education should cover the whole federation, and resources should be made available for the training of environmental education teachers and research into environmental education for the development of appropriate learning resources.
Keywords: degradation, development, education, environment, sustainableProcedia PDF Downloads 290
6904 Exploring the Sources of Environmental Degradation of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems
Authors: Timothy Frank, Josh Aldred, Justin White, Sophia Boulware, Michelle Cabonce
Abstract:Materials degrade at different rates in different environments depending on factors such as temperature, aridity, salinity, and solar radiation. Therefore, predicting asset longevity depends, in part, on the environmental conditions to which the asset is exposed. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are critical to building operations yet are responsible for a significant proportion of their energy consumption. HVAC energy use increases substantially with slight operational inefficiencies. Understanding the environmental influences on HVAC degradation in detail will inform maintenance schedules and capital investment, reduce energy use and increase lifecycle management efficiency. HVAC inspection records spanning ten years from 40 locations across the United States were compiled and associated with the weather conditions to which they were exposed. Fifteen environmental variables were explored in this study. Using a non-parametric feature selection method, the most critical variables were identified. Using the principal features, an environmental degradation model for HVAC systems is proposed. The sensitivity analysis and regression accuracy of the model were explored. Results indicate that environmental harshness plays a meaningful role in HVAC system degradation and can reduce errors in degradation modeling when compared to a model that does not account for differences in environmental conditions.
Keywords: environmental harshness, component degradation, HVAC, feature selection, regressionProcedia PDF Downloads 17
6903 A Model of Critical Consideration of Environmental Education: Concepts, Contexts, and Competencies
Authors: Mohammad Anwar, Shah Waliullah
Abstract:Recently, environmental education is the essential element to avoid environmental degradation around the globe that needs new articles and policymakers’ emphasis. Hence, the present article examines the impact of environmental education on environmental knowledge, environmental behavior, and environmental attitude in Indonesia. The present research also investigated the moderating role of government support among environmental education, environmental knowledge, environmental behavior, and environmental attitude in Indonesia. A questionnaire was used as the primary data collection method. The smart-PLS was utilized to test the association among variables and the hypotheses of the study. The results revealed that environmental education had a significant and positive linkage with environmental knowledge, environmental behavior, and environmental attitude in Indonesia. The findings also exposed that government support significantly moderated among environmental education, environmental knowledge, and environmental behavior in Indonesia. The findings of this research would provide help to the policymakers in establishing the policies related to environmental education and reduce environmental degradation.
Keywords: environmental education, environmental knowledge, environmental behavior, environmental attitude, government supportProcedia PDF Downloads 14
6902 A GIS Based Composite Land Degradation Assessment and Mapping of Tarkwa Mining Area
Authors: Bernard Kumi-Boateng, Kofi Bonsu
Abstract:The clearing of vegetation in the Tarkwa Mining Area (TMA) for the purposes of mining, lumbering and development of settlement for the increasing population has caused a large scale denudation of the forest cover and erosion of the top soil thereby degrading the agriculture land. It is, therefore, essential to know the current status of land degradation in TMA so as to facilitate land conservation policy-making. The types of degradation, the extents of the degradations and their various degrees were combined to develop a composite land degradation index to assess the current status of land degradation in TMA using GIS based techniques. The assessment revealed that the most significant types of degradation in TMA were open pit and quarry mining; urbanisation and other construction projects; and surface scraping during land clearing. It was found that 21.62 % of the total area of TMA (353.07 km2) had high degradation index rating. It is recommended that decision makers use this assessment as a reference point for future initiatives that will be taken in order to develop land conservation policy.
Keywords: degradation, GIS, land, miningProcedia PDF Downloads 271
6901 Ultrasonic Degradation of Acephate in Aqueous Solution: Effects of Operating Parameters
Authors: Naina S. Deshmukh, Manik P. Deosarkar
Abstract:With the wide production, consumption, and disposal of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their human and environmental health impacts are rapidly growing. Among developing treatment technologies, ultrasonication, as an emerging and promising technology for the removal of pesticides in the aqueous environment, has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. The degradation of acephate in aqueous solutions was investigated under the influence of ultrasound irradiation (20 kHz) in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Zinc oxide (ZnO). The influence of various factors such as amount of catalyst (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 g/l), initial acephate concentration (100, 200, 300, 400 mg/l), and pH (3, 5, 7, 9, 11) were studied. The optimum catalyst dose was found to be 1 g/l of TiO2 and 1.25 g/l of ZnO for acephate at 100 mg/l, respectively. The maximum percentage degradation of acephate was observed at pH 11 for catalyst TiO2 and ZnO, respectively.
Keywords: ultrasonic degradation, acephate, TiO2, ZnO, heterogeneous catalystProcedia PDF Downloads 37
6900 Drivers of Land Degradation in Trays Ecosystem as Modulated under a Changing Climate: Case Study of Côte d'Ivoire
Authors: Kadio Valere R. Angaman, Birahim Bouna Niang
Abstract:Land degradation is a serious problem in developing countries, including Cote d’Ivoire, which has its economy focused on agriculture. It occurs in all kinds of ecosystems over the world. However, the drivers of land degradation vary from one region to another and from one ecosystem to another. Thus, identifying these drivers is an essential prerequisite to developing and implementing appropriate policies to reverse the trend of land degradation in the country, especially in the trays ecosystem. Using the binary logistic model with primary data obtained through 780 farmers surveyed, we analyze and identify the drivers of land degradation in the trays ecosystem. The descriptive statistics show that 52% of farmers interviewed have stated facing land degradation in their farmland. This high rate shows the extent of land degradation in this ecosystem. Also, the results obtained from the binary logit regression reveal that land degradation is significantly influenced by a set of variables such as sex, education, slope, erosion, pesticide, agricultural activity, deforestation, and temperature. The drivers identified are mostly local; as a result, the government must implement some policies and strategies that facilitate and incentive the adoption of sustainable land management practices by farmers to reverse the negative trend of land degradation.
Keywords: drivers, land degradation, trays ecosystem, sustainable land managementProcedia PDF Downloads 49
6899 Prevention of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation on Fungal Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth Using Phanerochaete Chrysosporium
Authors: Eka Sari
Abstract:Potential degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fungal pretreatment of lignocellulose has led to fermentable sugar yield will be low. This potential is even greater if the pretreatment of lignocellulosic that have low lignin such as water hyacinth. In order to prepare lignocellulose that have low lignin content, especially water hyacinth efforts are needed to prevent the degradation of cellulose and cellulose. One attempt to prevent the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose is to replace the substrate needed by the addition of a simple carbon compounds such as glucose. Glucose sources used in this study is molasses. The purpose of this research to get the right of concentration of molasses to reduce the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment process and obtain fermentable sugar yields on high. The results showed that the addition of molasses with a concentration of 2% is able to reduce the degradation of cellulose from 25.53% to 10% and hemicellulose degradation of 20.12% to 10.89%. Fermentable sugar yields produced only reached 43.91%. To improve the yield of glucose is then performed additional combonation of molasses of 2% molasses and co-factor Mn2+ 0.5%. Fermentable sugar yield increased to 67.66% and the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose decreased to 2.44% and 2.71%, respectively.
Keywords: water hyacinth, cellulose, hemicelulose, degradation, pretreatment, fungusProcedia PDF Downloads 297
6898 The Delaying Influence of Degradation on the Divestment of Gas Turbines for Associated Gas Utilisation: Part 1
Authors: Mafel Obhuo, Dodeye I. Igbong, Duabari S. Aziaka, Pericles Pilidis
Abstract:An important feature of the exploitation of associated gas as fuel for gas turbine engines is a declining supply. So when exploiting this resource, the divestment of prime movers is very important as the fuel supply diminishes with time. This paper explores the influence of engine degradation on the timing of divestments. Hypothetical but realistic gas turbine engines were modelled with Turbomatch, the Cranfield University gas turbine performance simulation tool. The results were deployed in three degradation scenarios within the TERA (Techno-economic and environmental risk analysis) framework to develop economic models. An optimisation with Genetic Algorithms was carried out to maximize the economic benefit. The results show that degradation will have a significant impact. It will delay the divestment of power plants, while they are running less efficiently. Over a 20 year investment, a decrease of $0.11bn, $0.26bn and $0.45bn (billion US dollars) were observed for the three degradation scenarios as against the clean case.
Keywords: economic return, flared associated gas, net present value, optimizationProcedia PDF Downloads 71
6897 Service Life Modelling of Concrete Deterioration Due to Biogenic Sulphuric Acid (BSA) Attack-State-of-an-Art-Review
Authors: Ankur Bansal, Shashank Bishnoi
Abstract:Degradation of Sewage pipes, sewage pumping station and Sewage treatment plants(STP) is of major concern due to difficulty in their maintenance and the high cost of replacement. Most of these systems undergo degradation due to Biogenic sulphuric acid (BSA) attack. Since most of Waste water treatment system are underground, detection of this deterioration remains hidden. This paper presents a literature review, outlining the mechanism of this attack focusing on critical parameters of BSA attack, along with available models and software to predict the deterioration due to this attack. This paper critically examines the various steps and equation in various Models of BSA degradation, detail on assumptions and working of different softwares are also highlighted in this paper. The paper also focuses on the service life design technique available through various codes and method to integrate the servile life design with BSA degradation on concrete. In the end, various methods enhancing the resistance of concrete against Biogenic sulphuric acid attack are highlighted. It may be concluded that the effective modelling for degradation phenomena may bring positive economical and environmental impacts. With current computing capabilities integrated degradation models combining the various durability aspects can bring positive change for sustainable society.
Keywords: concrete degradation, modelling, service life, sulphuric acid attackProcedia PDF Downloads 250
6896 The Security Challenges of Urbanization and Environmental Degradation in the Niger-Delta Area of Nigeria
Authors: Gloria Ogungbade, Ogaba Oche, Moses Duruji, Chris Ehiobuche, Lady Ajayi
Abstract:Human’s continued sustenance on earth and the quality of living are heavily dependent on the environment. The major components of the environment being air, water and land are the supporting pillars of the human existence, which they depend on directly or indirectly for survival and well-being. Unfortunately, due to some of the human activities on the environment, there seems to be a war between humans and the environment, which is evident in his over-exploitation and inadequate management of the basic components of the environment. Since the discovery of crude oil in the Niger Delta, the region has experienced various forms of degradation caused by pollution from oil spillage, gas flaring and other forms of environmental pollution, as a result of reckless way and manner with which oil is being exploited by the International Oil Corporations (IOCs) operating within the region. The Nigerian government on the other, not having strong regulations guiding the activities of the operations of these IOCs, has done almost nothing to curtail the activities of these IOCs because of the revenue generated the IOCs, as such the region is deprived of the basic social amenities and infrastructures. The degree of environmental pollution suffered within the region affects their major sources of livelihood – being fishing and farming, and has also left the region in poverty, which has led to a large number of people migrating to the urban areas to escape poverty. This paper investigates how environment degradation impact urbanization and security in the region.
Keywords: environmental degradation, environmental pollution, gas flaring, oil spillage, urbanizationProcedia PDF Downloads 222
6895 Sono- and Photocatalytic Degradation of Indigocarmine in Water Using ZnO
Authors: V. Veena, Suguna Yesodharan, E. P. Yesodharan
Abstract:Two Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) i.e., sono- and photo-catalysis mediated by semiconductor oxide catalyst, ZnO has been found effective for the removal of trace amounts of the toxic dye pollutant Indigocarmine (IC) from water. The effect of various reaction parameters such as concentration of the dye, catalyst dosage, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen etc. as well as the addition of oxidisers and presence of salts in water on the rate of degradation has been evaluated and optimised. The degradation follows variable kinetics depending on the concentration of the substrate, the order of reaction varying from 1 to 0 with increase in concentration. The reaction proceeds through a number of intermediates and many of them have been identified using GCMS technique. The intermediates do not affect the rate of degradation significantly. The influence of anions such as chloride, sulphate, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate etc. on the degradation of IC is not consistent and does not follow any predictable pattern. Phosphates and fluorides inhibit the degradation while chloride, sulphate, carbonate and bicarbonate enhance. Adsorption studies of the dye in the absence as well as presence of these anions show that there may not be any direct correlation between the adsorption of the dye on the catalyst and the degradation. Oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and persulphate enhance the degradation though the combined effect and it is less than the cumulative effect of individual components. COD measurements show that the degradation proceeds to complete mineralisation. The results will be presented and probable mechanism for the degradation will be discussed.
Keywords: AOP, COD, indigocarmine, photocatalysis, sonocatalysisProcedia PDF Downloads 266
6894 Kinetic and Mechanistic Study on the Degradation of Typical Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Water by Using Carbon Nanodots/C₃N₄ Composite and Ultrasonic Irradiation
Authors: Miao Yang
Abstract:PPCPs (pharmaceutical and personal care products) in water, as an environmental pollutant, becomes an issue of increasing concern. Therefore, the techniques for degradation of PPCPs has been a hotspot in water pollution control field. Since there are several disadvantages for common degradation techniques of PPCPs, such as low degradation efficiency for certain PPCPs (ibuprofen and Carbamazepine) this proposal will adopt a combined technique by using CDs (carbon nanodots)/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation to mitigate or overcome these shortages. There is a significant scientific problem that the mechanism including PPCPs, major reactants, and interfacial active sites is not clear yet in the study of PPCPs degradation. This work aims to solve this problem by using both theoretical and experimental methodologies. Firstly, optimized parameters will be obtained by evaluating the kinetics and oxidation efficiency under different conditions. The competition between H₂O₂ and PPCPs with HO• will be elucidated, after which the degradation mechanism of PPCPs by the synergy of CDs/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation will be proposed. Finally, a sonolysis-adsorption-catalysis coupling mechanism will be established which is the theoretical basis and technical support for developing new efficient degradation techniques for PPCPs in the future.
Keywords: carbon nanodots/C₃N₄, pharmaceutical and personal care products, ultrasonic irradiation, hydroxyl radical, heterogeneous catalysisProcedia PDF Downloads 117
6893 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Cuprous Oxide/Graphene Nanocomposite
Authors: Bekan Bogale, Tsegaye Girma Asere, Tilahun Yai, Fekadu Melak
Abstract:Aims: To study photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite. Background: Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles are among the metal oxides that demonstrated photocatalytic activity. However, the stability of Cu2O nanoparticles due to the fast recombination rate of electron/hole pairs remains a significant challenge in their photocatalytic applications. This, in turn, leads to mismatching of the effective bandgap separation, tending to reduce the photocatalytic activity of the desired organic waste (MB). To overcome these limitations, graphene has been combined with cuprous oxides, resulting in cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite as a promising photocatalyst. Objective: In this study, Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite was synthesized and evaluated for its photocatalytic performance of methylene blue (MB) dye degradation. Method: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized from graphite powder and copper nitrate using the facile sol-gel method. Batch experiments have been conducted to assess the applications of the nanocomposites for MB degradation. Parameters such as contact time, catalyst dosage, and pH of the solution were optimized for maximum MB degradation. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by using UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, and SEM. The photocatalytic performance of Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites was compared against Cu2O nanoparticles for cationic MB dye degradation. Results: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite exhibits higher photocatalytic activity for MB degradation (with a degradation efficiency of 94%) than pure Cu2O nanoparticles (67%). This has been accomplished after 180 min of irradiation under visible light. The kinetics of MB degradation by Cu2O/graphene composites can be demonstrated by the second-order kinetic model. The synthesized nanocomposite can be used for more than three cycles of photocatalytic MB degradation. Conclusion: This work indicated new insights into Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite as high-performance in photocatalysis to degrade MB, playing a great role in environmental protection in relation to MB dye.
Keywords: methylene blue, photocatalysis, cuprous oxide, graphene nanocompositeProcedia PDF Downloads 89
6892 Weight Loss Degradation of Hybrid Blends LLDPE/Starch/PVA Upon Exposure to UV Light and Soil Burial
Authors: Rahmah M., Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, Farhan M., Mohd Muizz Fahimi M.
Abstract:Polybag and mulch film for agricultural field pose environmental wastage upon disposal. Thus a degradable polybag was designed with hybrid sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Two Different blended composition of SS and PVA Hybrid have been compounded. Then, the hybrids blended are mixed with linear line density polyethylene (LLDPE) resin to fabricate polybag film through conventional film blowing process. Hybrid blends was compounded at different ratios. Samples of LLDPE, SS and PVA hybrid film were exposed to UV light and soil burial. The weight loss were determined during degradation process. Hybrid film by degradation of starch was found to decrease on esterification. However the hybrid film showed greater degradation in soil and uv radiation up to 60% of SS. Weight loss were also determined in control humidity oven with 70% humidity and temperature set up at 30 °C and left in humidity chamber for a month.
Keywords: LLDPE, PVA, sago starch, degradation, soil burial, uv radiationProcedia PDF Downloads 568
6891 Efficacy of TiO₂ in the Removal of an Acid Dye by Photo Catalytic Degradation
Authors: Laila Mahtout, Kerami Ahmed, Rabhi Souhila
Abstract:The objective of this work is to reduce the impact on the environment of an acid dye (Black Eriochrome T) using catalytic photo-degradation in the presence of the semiconductor powder (TiO₂) previously characterized. A series of tests have been carried out in order to demonstrate the influence of certain parameters on the degree of dye degradation by titanium dioxide in the presence of UV rays, such as contact time, the powder mass and the pH of the solution. X-ray diffraction analysis of the powder showed that the anatase structure is predominant and the rutile phase is presented by peaks of low intensity. The various chemical groups which characterize the presence of the bands corresponding to the anatase and rutile form and other chemical functions have been detected by the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The photo degradation of the NET by TiO₂ is very interesting because it gives encouraging results. The study of photo-degradation at different concentrations of the dye showed that the lower concentrations give better removal rates. The degree of degradation of the dye increases with increasing pH; it reaches the maximum value at pH = 9. The ideal mass of TiO₂ which gives the high removal rate is 1.2 g/l. Thermal treatment of TiO₂ with the addition of CuO with contents of 5%, 10%, and 15% respectively gives better results of degradation of the NET dye. The high percentage of elimination is observed at a CuO content of 15%.
Keywords: acid dye, ultraviolet rays, degradation, photocatalyseProcedia PDF Downloads 122
6890 Visible-Light Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye Molecules over ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 Composite
Authors: Sudarat Issarapanacheewin, Katcharin Wetchakun, Sukon Phanichphant, Wiyong Kangwansupamonkon, Natda Wetchakun
Abstract:The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm) were studied in this research. The structural and photophysical properties of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite on the photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. The as-prepared ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite photocatalyst exhibits wide absorption in the visible-light region and display superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities in degradation of MB and RhB. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to electron-hole separation with the appropriate band potential and the physicochemical properties of ZnWO4 and Bi2WO6. The main active species for the degradation of organic dyes were investigated to explain the enhancement of photocatalytic performance of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of aqueous MB and RhB dyes and charge transfer of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite was proposed.
Keywords: composite, dyes, photocatalytic activity, ZnWO4-Bi2WO6Procedia PDF Downloads 237
6889 Degradation of Poly -β- Hydroxybutyrate by Trichoderma asperellum
Authors: Nuha Mansour Alhazmi
Abstract:Replacement of petro-based plastics by a biodegradable plastic are vastly growing process. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable biopolymer, synthesized by some bacterial genera. The objective of the current study is to explore the ability of some fungi to biodegrade PHB. The degradation of (PHB) was detected in Petri dish by the formation of a clear zone around the fungal colonies due to the production of depolymerase enzyme which has an interesting role in the PHB degradation process. Among 10 tested fungi, the most active PHB biodegraded fungi were identified as Trichoderma asperellum using morphological and molecular characters. The highest PHB degradation was at 25°C, pH 7.5 after 7 days of incubation for the tested fungi. Finally, the depolymerase enzyme was isolated, purified using column chromatography and characterized. In conclusion, PHB can be biodegraded in solid and liquid medium using depolymerase enzyme from T. asperellum.
Keywords: degradation, depolymerase enzyme, PHB, Trichoderma asperellumProcedia PDF Downloads 86
6888 Land Use Planning Tool to Achieve Land Degradation Neutrality: Tunisia Case Study
Authors: Rafla Attia, Claudio Zucca, Bao Quang Le, Sana Dridi, Thouraya Sahli, Taoufik Hermassi
Abstract:In Tunisia, landscape change and land degradation are critical issues for landscape conservation, management, and planning. Landscapes are undergoing crucial environmental problems made evident by soil degradation and desertification. Human improper uses of land resources (e.g., unsuitable land uses, unsustainable crop intensification, and poor rangeland management) and climate change are the main factors leading to the landscape transformation and desertification affecting high proportions of the Tunisian lands. Land use planning (LUP) to achieve Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) must be supported by methodologies and technologies that help identify best solutions and practices and design context-specific sustainable land management (SLM) strategies. Such strategies must include restoration or rehabilitation efforts in areas with high land degradation, as well as prevention of degradation that could be caused by improper land use (LU) and land management (LM). The geoinformatics Land Use Planning for LDN (LUP4LDN) tool has been designed for this purpose. Its aim is to support national and sub-national planners in i) mapping geographic patterns of current land degradation; ii) anticipating further future land degradation expected in areas that are unsustainably managed; and iii) providing an interactive procedure for developing participatory LU-LM transitional scenarios over selected regions of interest and timeframes, visualizing the related expected levels of impacts on ecosystem services via maps and graphs. The tool has been co-developed and piloted with national stakeholders in Tunisia. The piloting implementation assessed how the LUP4LDN tool fits with existing LUP processes and the benefits achieved by using the tool to support land use planning for LDN.
Keywords: land use system, land cover, sustainable land management, land use planning for land degradation neutralityProcedia PDF Downloads 13
6887 Photocatalytic Degradation of Gaseous Toluene: Effects of Operational Variables on Efficiency Rate of TiO2 Coated on Nickel Foam
Authors: Jafar Akbari, Masoud Rismanchian, Samira Ramezani
Abstract:Purpose: The photocatalytic degradation of pollutants is a novel technology with various advantages such as high efficiency and energy saving. In this research, the effects of operational variables on the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO₂ coated on nickel foam in the removal of toluene from the simulated indoor air have been investigated. Methods: TiO₂ film were prepared via the sol-gel method and coated on nickel foam. The characteristics and morphology were found using XRD, SEM, and BET technique. Then, the effects of relative humidity, UV-A intensity, the initial toluene concentration, TiO₂ loading, and the air circulation velocity on the photocatalytic degradation rate have been evaluated. Results: The optimal degradation of toluene has been achieved with loading 4.35 g TiO2 on the foam, 30% RH, 5.4 µW.cm−2 UV-A intensity, and 20 ppm initial concentration in the air circulation velocity of 0.15 fpm. Conclusion: The changes of toluene photocatalytic degradation rate have been studied at various times. Also, the kinetic behavior of toluene photocatalytic degradation has been investigated using Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model.
Keywords: photocatalytic degradation, operational variables, tio₂, nickel foam, gaseous toluene, nanotechnologyProcedia PDF Downloads 11
6886 Environmental Degradation and Biodiversity Loss in Bangladesh
Authors: Mohammad Atiqur Rahman
Abstract:The study aimed at inventorying the threatened biodiversity of Bangladesh and assessing the rate of loss of biodiversity caused due to environmental degradation for conservation management. The impact assessment of environmental depletion and rate of biodiversity loss determination have been made by a long term field investigation, examination of preserved herbarium specimens and survey of relevant floristic literature following the IUCN’s threatened criteria of assessing Red List Plants under the Flora Bangladesh Project. Biodiversity of Bangladesh, as evaluated, has been affected to a large extent during the last four and half decades due to spontaneous environmental degradation caused by frequent occurrence of cyclonic storms and tidal bores since 1970 and flooding, draught, unilateral diversion of trans-boundary waters by operating Farakka Barrage since 1975, indiscriminate destruction and over exploitation of natural resources, unplanned development and industrialization, overpopulation etc. Depletion of world’s largest mangrove biodiversity in Sundarbans, coastal and island biodiversity in southern part, agro-biodiversity and agro-fisheries all over the country, Haor and wetland biodiversity of plain lands, terrestrial and forest biodiversity in central and eastern hilly part of Bangladesh, as assessed, have greatly been occurred at a higher rate due to environmental degradation which in turn affect directly or indirectly the economy, food security and environmental health of the country. Complete inventory of 30 plant families resulted in the recognition of 45.18% species of Bangladesh as threatened environmentally and 13.23% species as possibly extinct from the flora since these have neither been reported or could be traced in the field for more than 100 years. The rate of extinction is determined to be 2.65% per 20 years. Hence the study indicates that the loss of biodiversity and environmental degradation in Bangladesh occurring at an alarming rate. The study focuses on the issues of environment, the extent of loss of different plant biodiversities in Bangladesh, prioritizing and implementing national conservation strategies for sustainable management of the environment.
Keywords: Bangladesh, biodiversity, conservation, environmental managementProcedia PDF Downloads 193
6885 Environmental Degradation and Globalization with Special Reference to Developing Economics
Authors: Indira Sinha
Abstract:According to the Oxford Advanced Learner's English Dictionary of Current English, environment is the complex of physical, chemical and biotic factors that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determines its form and survival. It is defined as conditions and circumstances which are affecting people's lives. The meaning of environmental degradation is the degradation of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil and the destruction of ecosystems and extinction of wildlife. Globalization is a significant feature of recent world history. The aim of this phenomenon is to integrate societies, economies and cultures through a common link of trading policies, technology and communication. Undoubtedly it has opened up the world economy at a very high speed but at the same time it has an adverse impact on the environment. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of globalization on the environmental conditions. An overview of what the forces of globalization have in store for the environment with constructing large number of industries and destroying large forests lands will be given in this paper. The forces of globalization have created many serious environmental problems like high temperature, extinction of many species of plant and animal and outlet of poisonous chemicals from industries. The revelation of this study is that in case of developing economics these problems are more critical. In developing countries like India many factories are built with less environmental regulations, while developed economies maintain positive environmental practices. The present study is a micro level study which aims to employ a combination of theoretical, descriptive, empirical and analytical approach in addition to the time tested case method.
Keywords: globalization, trade policies, environmental degradation, developing economies, large industriesProcedia PDF Downloads 161
6884 Rail Degradation Modelling Using ARMAX: A Case Study Applied to Melbourne Tram System
Authors: M. Karimpour, N. Elkhoury, L. Hitihamillage, S. Moridpour, R. Hesami
Abstract:There is a necessity among rail transportation authorities for a superior understanding of the rail track degradation overtime and the factors influencing rail degradation. They need an accurate technique to identify the time when rail tracks fail or need maintenance. In turn, this will help to increase the level of safety and comfort of the passengers and the vehicles as well as improve the cost effectiveness of maintenance activities. An accurate model can play a key role in prediction of the long-term behaviour of railroad tracks. An accurate model can decrease the cost of maintenance. In this research, the rail track degradation is predicted using an autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX). An ARMAX has been implemented on Melbourne tram data to estimate the values for the tram track degradation. Gauge values and rail usage in Million Gross Tone (MGT) are the main parameters used in the model. The developed model can accurately predict the future status of the tram tracks.
Keywords: ARMAX, dynamic systems, MGT, prediction, rail degradationProcedia PDF Downloads 173
6883 Photo-Thermal Degradation Analysis of Single Junction Amorphous Silicon Solar Module Eva Encapsulation
Authors: Gilbert O. Osayemwenre, Meyer L. Edson
Abstract:Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation degradation affects the performance of photovoltaic (PV) module. Hotspot formation causes the EVA encapsulation to undergo photothermal deterioration and molecular breakdown by UV radiation. This leads to diffusion of chemical particles into other layers. During outdoor deployment, the EVA encapsulation in the affect region loses its adhesive strength, when this happen the affected region layer undergoes rapid delamination. The presence of photo-thermal degradation is detrimental to PV modules as it causes both optical and thermal degradation. Also, it enables the encapsulant to be more susceptible to chemicals substance and moisture. Our findings show a high concentration of Sodium, Phosphorus and Aluminium which originate from the glass substrate, cell emitter and back contact respectively.
Keywords: ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), encapsulation, photo-thermal degradation, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning probe microscope (SPM)Procedia PDF Downloads 244
6882 Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Oxide and Cu-Doped Cobalt Oxide as Photocatalyst for Model Dye Degradation
Authors: Vrinda P. S. Borker
Abstract:Major water pollutants are dyes from effluents of industries. Different methods have been tried to degrade or treat the effluent before it is left to the environment. In order to understand the degradation process and later apply it to effluents, solar degradation study of methylene blue (MB) and methyl red (MR), the model dyes was carried out in the presence of photo-catalysts, the oxides of cobalt oxide Co₃O₄, and copper doped cobalt oxides (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ and (Co₀.₉₅Cu₀.₀₅)₃O₄. They were prepared from oxalate complex and hydrazinated oxalate complex of cobalt as well as mix metals, copper, and cobalt. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by FTIR. Complexes were decomposed to form oxides and were characterized by XRD. They were found to be monophasic. Solar degradation of MR and MB was carried out in presence of these oxides in acidic and basic medium. Degradation was faster in alkaline medium in the presence of Co₃O₄ obtained from hydrazinated oxalate. Doping of nanomaterial oxides modifies their characteristics. Doped cobalt oxides are found to photo-decolourise MR in alkaline media efficiently. In the absence of photocatalyst, solar degradation of alkaline MR does not occur. In acidic medium, MR is minimally decolorized even in the presence of photocatalysts. The industrial textile effluent contains chemicals like NaCl and Na₂CO₃ along with the unabsorbed dye. It is reported that these two chemicals hamper the degradation of dye. The chemicals like K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ are reported to enhance degradation. The solar degradation study of MB in presence of photocatalyst (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ and these four chemicals reveals that presence of K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ enhances degradation. It proves that H₂O₂ generates hydroxyl ions required for degradation of dye and the sulphate anion radical being strong oxidant attacks dye molecules leading to its fragmentation rapidly. Thus addition of K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ during solar degradation in presence of (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ helps to break the organic moiety efficiently.
Keywords: cobalt oxides, Cu-doped cobalt oxides, H₂O₂ in dye degradation, photo-catalyst, solar dye degradationProcedia PDF Downloads 116
6881 Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam
Authors: Juan C. Domínguez, Belén Del Saz-Orozco, María V. Alonso, Mercedes Oliet, Francisco Rodríguez
Abstract:In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement, and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ. mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (< 1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.
Keywords: kinetics, lignin, phenolic foam, thermal degradationProcedia PDF Downloads 412
6880 The Use of Polar Substituent Groups for Promoting Azo Disperse Dye Solubility and Reactivity for More Economic and Environmental Benign Applications: A Computational Study
Authors: Olaide O. Wahab, Lukman O. Olasunkanmi, Krishna K. Govender, Penny P. Govender
Abstract:The economic and environmental challenges associated with azo disperse dyes applications are due to poor aqueous solubility and low degradation tendency which stems from low chemical reactivity. Poor aqueous solubility property of this group of dyes necessitates the use of dispersing agents which increase operational costs and also release toxic chemical components into the environment, while their low degradation tendency is due to the high stability of the azo functional group (-N=N-) in their chemical structures. To address these problems, this study investigated theoretically the effects of some polar substituents on the aqueous solubility and reactivity properties of disperse yellow (DY) 119 dye with a view to theoretically develop new azo disperse dyes with improved solubility in water and higher degradation tendency in the environment using DMol³ computational code. All calculations were carried out using the Becke and Perdew version of Volsko-Wilk-Nusair (VWN-BP) level of density functional theory in conjunction with double numerical basis set containing polarization function (DNP). The aqueous solubility determination was achieved with conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) in conjunction with known empirical solubility model, while the reactivity was predicted using frontier molecular orbital calculations. Most of the new derivatives studied showed evidence of higher aqueous solubility and degradation tendency compared to the parent dye. We conclude that these derivatives are promising alternative dyes for more economic and environmental benign dyeing practice and therefore recommend them for synthesis.
Keywords: aqueous solubility, azo disperse dye, degradation, disperse yellow 119, DMol³, reactivityProcedia PDF Downloads 135
6879 SEC-MALLS Study of Hyaluronic Acid and BSA Thermal Degradation in Powder and in Solution
Authors: Vasile Simulescu, Jakub Mondek, Miloslav Pekař
Abstract:Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic glycosaminoglycan distributed throughout connective, epithelial and neural tissues. The importance of hyaluronic acid increased in the last decades. It has many applications in medicine and cosmetics. Hyaluronic acid has been used in attempts to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via injecting it into the joint. Bovine serum albumin (also known as BSA) is a protein derived from cows, which has many biochemical applications. The aim of our research work was to compare the thermal degradation of hyaluronic acid and BSA in powder and in solution, by determining changes in molar mass and conformation, by using SEC-MALLS (size exclusion chromatography -multi angle laser light scattering). The aim of our research work was to observe the degradation in powder and in solution of different molar mass hyaluronic acid samples, at different temperatures for certain periods. The degradation of the analyzed samples was mainly observed by modifications in molar mass.
Keywords: thermal degradation, hyaluronic acid, BSA, SEC-MALLSProcedia PDF Downloads 428
6878 Forced Degradation Study of Rifaximin Formulated Tablets to Determine Stability Indicating Nature of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analytical Method
Authors: Abid Fida Masih
Abstract:Forced degradation study of Rifaximin was conducted to determine the stability indicating potential of HPLC testing method for detection of Rifaximin in formulated tablets to be employed for quality control and stability testing. The questioned method applied with mobile phase methanol: water (70:30), 5µm, 250 x 4.6mm, C18 column, wavelength 293nm and flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Forced degradation study was performed under oxidative, acidic, basic, thermal and photolytic conditions. The applied method successfully determined the degradation products after acidic and basic degradation without interfering with Rifaximin detection. Therefore, the method was said to be stability indicating and can be applied for quality control and stability testing of Rifaxmin tablets during its shelf life.
Keywords: forced degradation, high-performance liquid chromatography, method validation, rifaximin, stability indicating methodProcedia PDF Downloads 205