Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5802

Search results for: environmental degradation

5802 An Alteration of the Boltzmann Superposition Principle to Account for Environmental Degradation in Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Authors: Etienne K. Ngoy

Abstract:

This analysis suggests that the comprehensive degradation caused by any environmental factor on fiber reinforced plastics under mechanical stress can be measured as a change in viscoelastic properties of the material. The change in viscoelastic characteristics is experimentally determined as a time-dependent function expressing the amplification of the stress relaxation. The variation of this experimental function provides a measure of the environmental degradation rate. Where real service environment conditions can be reliably simulated in the laboratory, it is possible to generate master curves that include environmental degradation effect and hence predict the durability of the fiber reinforced plastics under environmental degradation.

Keywords: environmental effects, fiber reinforced plastics durability, prediction, stress effect

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5801 Environmental Degradation in Niger-Delta and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Issues for Consideration

Authors: Peter Okpamen

Abstract:

The issue of environmental degradation in Nigeria is of serious concern. The colonial period brought a major change in environmental awareness and relationship with the environment. This period introduced a model of development, the major thrust of which was the exploration and transformation of natural and human resources for the benefit of the colonial masters. There is abundant evidence in the literature that there are various manifestations of environmental degradation in Nigeria, which have resulted in the various problems found throughout the Nigeria national space. The idea of the environment acting as a constraint to the growth of human activity has given way to the contrary. Environmental education, going by the literature, exists at the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. In short, the 1st National conference on environmental education gave several suggestions on how it could be realised. Thus, to realise sustainable environmental development we need to accelerate the process of providing basic education for both the old and young. Environmental education should cover the whole federation, and resources should be made available for the training of environmental education teachers and research into environmental education for the development of appropriate learning resources.

Keywords: degradation, development, education, environment, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
5800 A GIS Based Composite Land Degradation Assessment and Mapping of Tarkwa Mining Area

Authors: Bernard Kumi-Boateng, Kofi Bonsu

Abstract:

The clearing of vegetation in the Tarkwa Mining Area (TMA) for the purposes of mining, lumbering and development of settlement for the increasing population has caused a large scale denudation of the forest cover and erosion of the top soil thereby degrading the agriculture land. It is, therefore, essential to know the current status of land degradation in TMA so as to facilitate land conservation policy-making. The types of degradation, the extents of the degradations and their various degrees were combined to develop a composite land degradation index to assess the current status of land degradation in TMA using GIS based techniques. The assessment revealed that the most significant types of degradation in TMA were open pit and quarry mining; urbanisation and other construction projects; and surface scraping during land clearing. It was found that 21.62 % of the total area of TMA (353.07 km2) had high degradation index rating. It is recommended that decision makers use this assessment as a reference point for future initiatives that will be taken in order to develop land conservation policy.

Keywords: degradation, GIS, land, mining

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5799 Prevention of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation on Fungal Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth Using Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

Authors: Eka Sari

Abstract:

Potential degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fungal pretreatment of lignocellulose has led to fermentable sugar yield will be low. This potential is even greater if the pretreatment of lignocellulosic that have low lignin such as water hyacinth. In order to prepare lignocellulose that have low lignin content, especially water hyacinth efforts are needed to prevent the degradation of cellulose and cellulose. One attempt to prevent the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose is to replace the substrate needed by the addition of a simple carbon compounds such as glucose. Glucose sources used in this study is molasses. The purpose of this research to get the right of concentration of molasses to reduce the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment process and obtain fermentable sugar yields on high. The results showed that the addition of molasses with a concentration of 2% is able to reduce the degradation of cellulose from 25.53% to 10% and hemicellulose degradation of 20.12% to 10.89%. Fermentable sugar yields produced only reached 43.91%. To improve the yield of glucose is then performed additional combonation of molasses of 2% molasses and co-factor Mn2+ 0.5%. Fermentable sugar yield increased to 67.66% and the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose decreased to 2.44% and 2.71%, respectively.

Keywords: water hyacinth, cellulose, hemicelulose, degradation, pretreatment, fungus

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5798 The Delaying Influence of Degradation on the Divestment of Gas Turbines for Associated Gas Utilisation: Part 1

Authors: Mafel Obhuo, Dodeye I. Igbong, Duabari S. Aziaka, Pericles Pilidis

Abstract:

An important feature of the exploitation of associated gas as fuel for gas turbine engines is a declining supply. So when exploiting this resource, the divestment of prime movers is very important as the fuel supply diminishes with time. This paper explores the influence of engine degradation on the timing of divestments. Hypothetical but realistic gas turbine engines were modelled with Turbomatch, the Cranfield University gas turbine performance simulation tool. The results were deployed in three degradation scenarios within the TERA (Techno-economic and environmental risk analysis) framework to develop economic models. An optimisation with Genetic Algorithms was carried out to maximize the economic benefit. The results show that degradation will have a significant impact. It will delay the divestment of power plants, while they are running less efficiently. Over a 20 year investment, a decrease of $0.11bn, $0.26bn and $0.45bn (billion US dollars) were observed for the three degradation scenarios as against the clean case.

Keywords: economic return, flared associated gas, net present value, optimization

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5797 Service Life Modelling of Concrete Deterioration Due to Biogenic Sulphuric Acid (BSA) Attack-State-of-an-Art-Review

Authors: Ankur Bansal, Shashank Bishnoi

Abstract:

Degradation of Sewage pipes, sewage pumping station and Sewage treatment plants(STP) is of major concern due to difficulty in their maintenance and the high cost of replacement. Most of these systems undergo degradation due to Biogenic sulphuric acid (BSA) attack. Since most of Waste water treatment system are underground, detection of this deterioration remains hidden. This paper presents a literature review, outlining the mechanism of this attack focusing on critical parameters of BSA attack, along with available models and software to predict the deterioration due to this attack. This paper critically examines the various steps and equation in various Models of BSA degradation, detail on assumptions and working of different softwares are also highlighted in this paper. The paper also focuses on the service life design technique available through various codes and method to integrate the servile life design with BSA degradation on concrete. In the end, various methods enhancing the resistance of concrete against Biogenic sulphuric acid attack are highlighted. It may be concluded that the effective modelling for degradation phenomena may bring positive economical and environmental impacts. With current computing capabilities integrated degradation models combining the various durability aspects can bring positive change for sustainable society.

Keywords: concrete degradation, modelling, service life, sulphuric acid attack

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5796 The Security Challenges of Urbanization and Environmental Degradation in the Niger-Delta Area of Nigeria

Authors: Gloria Ogungbade, Ogaba Oche, Moses Duruji, Chris Ehiobuche, Lady Ajayi

Abstract:

Human’s continued sustenance on earth and the quality of living are heavily dependent on the environment. The major components of the environment being air, water and land are the supporting pillars of the human existence, which they depend on directly or indirectly for survival and well-being. Unfortunately, due to some of the human activities on the environment, there seems to be a war between humans and the environment, which is evident in his over-exploitation and inadequate management of the basic components of the environment. Since the discovery of crude oil in the Niger Delta, the region has experienced various forms of degradation caused by pollution from oil spillage, gas flaring and other forms of environmental pollution, as a result of reckless way and manner with which oil is being exploited by the International Oil Corporations (IOCs) operating within the region. The Nigerian government on the other, not having strong regulations guiding the activities of the operations of these IOCs, has done almost nothing to curtail the activities of these IOCs because of the revenue generated the IOCs, as such the region is deprived of the basic social amenities and infrastructures. The degree of environmental pollution suffered within the region affects their major sources of livelihood – being fishing and farming, and has also left the region in poverty, which has led to a large number of people migrating to the urban areas to escape poverty. This paper investigates how environment degradation impact urbanization and security in the region.

Keywords: environmental degradation, environmental pollution, gas flaring, oil spillage, urbanization

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5795 Sono- and Photocatalytic Degradation of Indigocarmine in Water Using ZnO

Authors: V. Veena, Suguna Yesodharan, E. P. Yesodharan

Abstract:

Two Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) i.e., sono- and photo-catalysis mediated by semiconductor oxide catalyst, ZnO has been found effective for the removal of trace amounts of the toxic dye pollutant Indigocarmine (IC) from water. The effect of various reaction parameters such as concentration of the dye, catalyst dosage, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen etc. as well as the addition of oxidisers and presence of salts in water on the rate of degradation has been evaluated and optimised. The degradation follows variable kinetics depending on the concentration of the substrate, the order of reaction varying from 1 to 0 with increase in concentration. The reaction proceeds through a number of intermediates and many of them have been identified using GCMS technique. The intermediates do not affect the rate of degradation significantly. The influence of anions such as chloride, sulphate, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate etc. on the degradation of IC is not consistent and does not follow any predictable pattern. Phosphates and fluorides inhibit the degradation while chloride, sulphate, carbonate and bicarbonate enhance. Adsorption studies of the dye in the absence as well as presence of these anions show that there may not be any direct correlation between the adsorption of the dye on the catalyst and the degradation. Oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and persulphate enhance the degradation though the combined effect and it is less than the cumulative effect of individual components. COD measurements show that the degradation proceeds to complete mineralisation. The results will be presented and probable mechanism for the degradation will be discussed.

Keywords: AOP, COD, indigocarmine, photocatalysis, sonocatalysis

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5794 Kinetic and Mechanistic Study on the Degradation of Typical Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Water by Using Carbon Nanodots/C₃N₄ Composite and Ultrasonic Irradiation

Authors: Miao Yang

Abstract:

PPCPs (pharmaceutical and personal care products) in water, as an environmental pollutant, becomes an issue of increasing concern. Therefore, the techniques for degradation of PPCPs has been a hotspot in water pollution control field. Since there are several disadvantages for common degradation techniques of PPCPs, such as low degradation efficiency for certain PPCPs (ibuprofen and Carbamazepine) this proposal will adopt a combined technique by using CDs (carbon nanodots)/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation to mitigate or overcome these shortages. There is a significant scientific problem that the mechanism including PPCPs, major reactants, and interfacial active sites is not clear yet in the study of PPCPs degradation. This work aims to solve this problem by using both theoretical and experimental methodologies. Firstly, optimized parameters will be obtained by evaluating the kinetics and oxidation efficiency under different conditions. The competition between H₂O₂ and PPCPs with HO• will be elucidated, after which the degradation mechanism of PPCPs by the synergy of CDs/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation will be proposed. Finally, a sonolysis-adsorption-catalysis coupling mechanism will be established which is the theoretical basis and technical support for developing new efficient degradation techniques for PPCPs in the future.

Keywords: carbon nanodots/C₃N₄, pharmaceutical and personal care products, ultrasonic irradiation, hydroxyl radical, heterogeneous catalysis

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5793 Weight Loss Degradation of Hybrid Blends LLDPE/Starch/PVA Upon Exposure to UV Light and Soil Burial

Authors: Rahmah M., Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, Farhan M., Mohd Muizz Fahimi M.

Abstract:

Polybag and mulch film for agricultural field pose environmental wastage upon disposal. Thus a degradable polybag was designed with hybrid sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Two Different blended composition of SS and PVA Hybrid have been compounded. Then, the hybrids blended are mixed with linear line density polyethylene (LLDPE) resin to fabricate polybag film through conventional film blowing process. Hybrid blends was compounded at different ratios. Samples of LLDPE, SS and PVA hybrid film were exposed to UV light and soil burial. The weight loss were determined during degradation process. Hybrid film by degradation of starch was found to decrease on esterification. However the hybrid film showed greater degradation in soil and uv radiation up to 60% of SS. Weight loss were also determined in control humidity oven with 70% humidity and temperature set up at 30 °C and left in humidity chamber for a month.

Keywords: LLDPE, PVA, sago starch, degradation, soil burial, uv radiation

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5792 Efficacy of TiO₂ in the Removal of an Acid Dye by Photo Catalytic Degradation

Authors: Laila Mahtout, Kerami Ahmed, Rabhi Souhila

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to reduce the impact on the environment of an acid dye (Black Eriochrome T) using catalytic photo-degradation in the presence of the semiconductor powder (TiO₂) previously characterized. A series of tests have been carried out in order to demonstrate the influence of certain parameters on the degree of dye degradation by titanium dioxide in the presence of UV rays, such as contact time, the powder mass and the pH of the solution. X-ray diffraction analysis of the powder showed that the anatase structure is predominant and the rutile phase is presented by peaks of low intensity. The various chemical groups which characterize the presence of the bands corresponding to the anatase and rutile form and other chemical functions have been detected by the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The photo degradation of the NET by TiO₂ is very interesting because it gives encouraging results. The study of photo-degradation at different concentrations of the dye showed that the lower concentrations give better removal rates. The degree of degradation of the dye increases with increasing pH; it reaches the maximum value at pH = 9. The ideal mass of TiO₂ which gives the high removal rate is 1.2 g/l. Thermal treatment of TiO₂ with the addition of CuO with contents of 5%, 10%, and 15% respectively gives better results of degradation of the NET dye. The high percentage of elimination is observed at a CuO content of 15%.

Keywords: acid dye, ultraviolet rays, degradation, photocatalyse

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5791 Visible-Light Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye Molecules over ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 Composite

Authors: Sudarat Issarapanacheewin, Katcharin Wetchakun, Sukon Phanichphant, Wiyong Kangwansupamonkon, Natda Wetchakun

Abstract:

The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm) were studied in this research. The structural and photophysical properties of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite on the photocatalytic degradation process were investigated. The as-prepared ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite photocatalyst exhibits wide absorption in the visible-light region and display superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities in degradation of MB and RhB. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to electron-hole separation with the appropriate band potential and the physicochemical properties of ZnWO4 and Bi2WO6. The main active species for the degradation of organic dyes were investigated to explain the enhancement of photocatalytic performance of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of aqueous MB and RhB dyes and charge transfer of ZnWO4-Bi2WO6 composite was proposed.

Keywords: composite, dyes, photocatalytic activity, ZnWO4-Bi2WO6

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5790 Degradation of Poly -β- Hydroxybutyrate by Trichoderma asperellum

Authors: Nuha Mansour Alhazmi

Abstract:

Replacement of petro-based plastics by a biodegradable plastic are vastly growing process. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable biopolymer, synthesized by some bacterial genera. The objective of the current study is to explore the ability of some fungi to biodegrade PHB. The degradation of (PHB) was detected in Petri dish by the formation of a clear zone around the fungal colonies due to the production of depolymerase enzyme which has an interesting role in the PHB degradation process. Among 10 tested fungi, the most active PHB biodegraded fungi were identified as Trichoderma asperellum using morphological and molecular characters. The highest PHB degradation was at 25°C, pH 7.5 after 7 days of incubation for the tested fungi. Finally, the depolymerase enzyme was isolated, purified using column chromatography and characterized. In conclusion, PHB can be biodegraded in solid and liquid medium using depolymerase enzyme from T. asperellum.

Keywords: degradation, depolymerase enzyme, PHB, Trichoderma asperellum

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5789 Environmental Degradation and Biodiversity Loss in Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Atiqur Rahman

Abstract:

The study aimed at inventorying the threatened biodiversity of Bangladesh and assessing the rate of loss of biodiversity caused due to environmental degradation for conservation management. The impact assessment of environmental depletion and rate of biodiversity loss determination have been made by a long term field investigation, examination of preserved herbarium specimens and survey of relevant floristic literature following the IUCN’s threatened criteria of assessing Red List Plants under the Flora Bangladesh Project. Biodiversity of Bangladesh, as evaluated, has been affected to a large extent during the last four and half decades due to spontaneous environmental degradation caused by frequent occurrence of cyclonic storms and tidal bores since 1970 and flooding, draught, unilateral diversion of trans-boundary waters by operating Farakka Barrage since 1975, indiscriminate destruction and over exploitation of natural resources, unplanned development and industrialization, overpopulation etc. Depletion of world’s largest mangrove biodiversity in Sundarbans, coastal and island biodiversity in southern part, agro-biodiversity and agro-fisheries all over the country, Haor and wetland biodiversity of plain lands, terrestrial and forest biodiversity in central and eastern hilly part of Bangladesh, as assessed, have greatly been occurred at a higher rate due to environmental degradation which in turn affect directly or indirectly the economy, food security and environmental health of the country. Complete inventory of 30 plant families resulted in the recognition of 45.18% species of Bangladesh as threatened environmentally and 13.23% species as possibly extinct from the flora since these have neither been reported or could be traced in the field for more than 100 years. The rate of extinction is determined to be 2.65% per 20 years. Hence the study indicates that the loss of biodiversity and environmental degradation in Bangladesh occurring at an alarming rate. The study focuses on the issues of environment, the extent of loss of different plant biodiversities in Bangladesh, prioritizing and implementing national conservation strategies for sustainable management of the environment.

Keywords: Bangladesh, biodiversity, conservation, environmental management

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5788 Environmental Degradation and Globalization with Special Reference to Developing Economics

Authors: Indira Sinha

Abstract:

According to the Oxford Advanced Learner's English Dictionary of Current English, environment is the complex of physical, chemical and biotic factors that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determines its form and survival. It is defined as conditions and circumstances which are affecting people's lives. The meaning of environmental degradation is the degradation of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil and the destruction of ecosystems and extinction of wildlife. Globalization is a significant feature of recent world history. The aim of this phenomenon is to integrate societies, economies and cultures through a common link of trading policies, technology and communication. Undoubtedly it has opened up the world economy at a very high speed but at the same time it has an adverse impact on the environment. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of globalization on the environmental conditions. An overview of what the forces of globalization have in store for the environment with constructing large number of industries and destroying large forests lands will be given in this paper. The forces of globalization have created many serious environmental problems like high temperature, extinction of many species of plant and animal and outlet of poisonous chemicals from industries. The revelation of this study is that in case of developing economics these problems are more critical. In developing countries like India many factories are built with less environmental regulations, while developed economies maintain positive environmental practices. The present study is a micro level study which aims to employ a combination of theoretical, descriptive, empirical and analytical approach in addition to the time tested case method.

Keywords: globalization, trade policies, environmental degradation, developing economies, large industries

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5787 Rail Degradation Modelling Using ARMAX: A Case Study Applied to Melbourne Tram System

Authors: M. Karimpour, N. Elkhoury, L. Hitihamillage, S. Moridpour, R. Hesami

Abstract:

There is a necessity among rail transportation authorities for a superior understanding of the rail track degradation overtime and the factors influencing rail degradation. They need an accurate technique to identify the time when rail tracks fail or need maintenance. In turn, this will help to increase the level of safety and comfort of the passengers and the vehicles as well as improve the cost effectiveness of maintenance activities. An accurate model can play a key role in prediction of the long-term behaviour of railroad tracks. An accurate model can decrease the cost of maintenance. In this research, the rail track degradation is predicted using an autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX). An ARMAX has been implemented on Melbourne tram data to estimate the values for the tram track degradation. Gauge values and rail usage in Million Gross Tone (MGT) are the main parameters used in the model. The developed model can accurately predict the future status of the tram tracks.

Keywords: ARMAX, dynamic systems, MGT, prediction, rail degradation

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5786 Photo-Thermal Degradation Analysis of Single Junction Amorphous Silicon Solar Module Eva Encapsulation

Authors: Gilbert O. Osayemwenre, Meyer L. Edson

Abstract:

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation degradation affects the performance of photovoltaic (PV) module. Hotspot formation causes the EVA encapsulation to undergo photothermal deterioration and molecular breakdown by UV radiation. This leads to diffusion of chemical particles into other layers. During outdoor deployment, the EVA encapsulation in the affect region loses its adhesive strength, when this happen the affected region layer undergoes rapid delamination. The presence of photo-thermal degradation is detrimental to PV modules as it causes both optical and thermal degradation. Also, it enables the encapsulant to be more susceptible to chemicals substance and moisture. Our findings show a high concentration of Sodium, Phosphorus and Aluminium which originate from the glass substrate, cell emitter and back contact respectively.

Keywords: ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), encapsulation, photo-thermal degradation, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning probe microscope (SPM)

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5785 Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Oxide and Cu-Doped Cobalt Oxide as Photocatalyst for Model Dye Degradation

Authors: Vrinda P. S. Borker

Abstract:

Major water pollutants are dyes from effluents of industries. Different methods have been tried to degrade or treat the effluent before it is left to the environment. In order to understand the degradation process and later apply it to effluents, solar degradation study of methylene blue (MB) and methyl red (MR), the model dyes was carried out in the presence of photo-catalysts, the oxides of cobalt oxide Co₃O₄, and copper doped cobalt oxides (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ and (Co₀.₉₅Cu₀.₀₅)₃O₄. They were prepared from oxalate complex and hydrazinated oxalate complex of cobalt as well as mix metals, copper, and cobalt. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by FTIR. Complexes were decomposed to form oxides and were characterized by XRD. They were found to be monophasic. Solar degradation of MR and MB was carried out in presence of these oxides in acidic and basic medium. Degradation was faster in alkaline medium in the presence of Co₃O₄ obtained from hydrazinated oxalate. Doping of nanomaterial oxides modifies their characteristics. Doped cobalt oxides are found to photo-decolourise MR in alkaline media efficiently. In the absence of photocatalyst, solar degradation of alkaline MR does not occur. In acidic medium, MR is minimally decolorized even in the presence of photocatalysts. The industrial textile effluent contains chemicals like NaCl and Na₂CO₃ along with the unabsorbed dye. It is reported that these two chemicals hamper the degradation of dye. The chemicals like K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ are reported to enhance degradation. The solar degradation study of MB in presence of photocatalyst (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ and these four chemicals reveals that presence of K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ enhances degradation. It proves that H₂O₂ generates hydroxyl ions required for degradation of dye and the sulphate anion radical being strong oxidant attacks dye molecules leading to its fragmentation rapidly. Thus addition of K₂S₂O₈ and H₂O₂ during solar degradation in presence of (Co₀.₉Cu₀.₁)₃O₄ helps to break the organic moiety efficiently.

Keywords: cobalt oxides, Cu-doped cobalt oxides, H₂O₂ in dye degradation, photo-catalyst, solar dye degradation

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5784 The Use of Polar Substituent Groups for Promoting Azo Disperse Dye Solubility and Reactivity for More Economic and Environmental Benign Applications: A Computational Study

Authors: Olaide O. Wahab, Lukman O. Olasunkanmi, Krishna K. Govender, Penny P. Govender

Abstract:

The economic and environmental challenges associated with azo disperse dyes applications are due to poor aqueous solubility and low degradation tendency which stems from low chemical reactivity. Poor aqueous solubility property of this group of dyes necessitates the use of dispersing agents which increase operational costs and also release toxic chemical components into the environment, while their low degradation tendency is due to the high stability of the azo functional group (-N=N-) in their chemical structures. To address these problems, this study investigated theoretically the effects of some polar substituents on the aqueous solubility and reactivity properties of disperse yellow (DY) 119 dye with a view to theoretically develop new azo disperse dyes with improved solubility in water and higher degradation tendency in the environment using DMol³ computational code. All calculations were carried out using the Becke and Perdew version of Volsko-Wilk-Nusair (VWN-BP) level of density functional theory in conjunction with double numerical basis set containing polarization function (DNP). The aqueous solubility determination was achieved with conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) in conjunction with known empirical solubility model, while the reactivity was predicted using frontier molecular orbital calculations. Most of the new derivatives studied showed evidence of higher aqueous solubility and degradation tendency compared to the parent dye. We conclude that these derivatives are promising alternative dyes for more economic and environmental benign dyeing practice and therefore recommend them for synthesis.

Keywords: aqueous solubility, azo disperse dye, degradation, disperse yellow 119, DMol³, reactivity

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5783 Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam

Authors: Juan C. Domínguez, Belén Del Saz-Orozco, María V. Alonso, Mercedes Oliet, Francisco Rodríguez

Abstract:

In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement, and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ. mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (< 1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.

Keywords: kinetics, lignin, phenolic foam, thermal degradation

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5782 SEC-MALLS Study of Hyaluronic Acid and BSA Thermal Degradation in Powder and in Solution

Authors: Vasile Simulescu, Jakub Mondek, Miloslav Pekař

Abstract:

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic glycosaminoglycan distributed throughout connective, epithelial and neural tissues. The importance of hyaluronic acid increased in the last decades. It has many applications in medicine and cosmetics. Hyaluronic acid has been used in attempts to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via injecting it into the joint. Bovine serum albumin (also known as BSA) is a protein derived from cows, which has many biochemical applications. The aim of our research work was to compare the thermal degradation of hyaluronic acid and BSA in powder and in solution, by determining changes in molar mass and conformation, by using SEC-MALLS (size exclusion chromatography -multi angle laser light scattering). The aim of our research work was to observe the degradation in powder and in solution of different molar mass hyaluronic acid samples, at different temperatures for certain periods. The degradation of the analyzed samples was mainly observed by modifications in molar mass.

Keywords: thermal degradation, hyaluronic acid, BSA, SEC-MALLS

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5781 A Framework for Incorporating Non-Linear Degradation of Conductive Adhesive in Environmental Testing

Authors: Kedar Hardikar, Joe Varghese

Abstract:

Conductive adhesives have found wide-ranging applications in electronics industry ranging from fixing a defective conductor on printed circuit board (PCB) attaching an electronic component in an assembly to protecting electronics components by the formation of “Faraday Cage.” The reliability requirements for the conductive adhesive vary widely depending on the application and expected product lifetime. While the conductive adhesive is required to maintain the structural integrity, the electrical performance of the associated sub-assembly can be affected by the degradation of conductive adhesive. The degradation of the adhesive is dependent upon the highly varied use case. The conventional approach to assess the reliability of the sub-assembly involves subjecting it to the standard environmental test conditions such as high-temperature high humidity, thermal cycling, high-temperature exposure to name a few. In order to enable projection of test data and observed failures to predict field performance, systematic development of an acceleration factor between the test conditions and field conditions is crucial. Common acceleration factor models such as Arrhenius model are based on rate kinetics and typically rely on an assumption of linear degradation in time for a given condition and test duration. The application of interest in this work involves conductive adhesive used in an electronic circuit of a capacitive sensor. The degradation of conductive adhesive in high temperature and humidity environment is quantified by the capacitance values. Under such conditions, the use of established models such as Hallberg-Peck model or Eyring Model to predict time to failure in the field typically relies on linear degradation rate. In this particular case, it is seen that the degradation is nonlinear in time and exhibits a square root t dependence. It is also shown that for the mechanism of interest, the presence of moisture is essential, and the dominant mechanism driving the degradation is the diffusion of moisture. In this work, a framework is developed to incorporate nonlinear degradation of the conductive adhesive for the development of an acceleration factor. This method can be extended to applications where nonlinearity in degradation rate can be adequately characterized in tests. It is shown that depending on the expected product lifetime, the use of conventional linear degradation approach can overestimate or underestimate the field performance. This work provides guidelines for suitability of linear degradation approximation for such varied applications

Keywords: conductive adhesives, nonlinear degradation, physics of failure, acceleration factor model.

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5780 Forced Degradation Study of Rifaximin Formulated Tablets to Determine Stability Indicating Nature of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analytical Method

Authors: Abid Fida Masih

Abstract:

Forced degradation study of Rifaximin was conducted to determine the stability indicating potential of HPLC testing method for detection of Rifaximin in formulated tablets to be employed for quality control and stability testing. The questioned method applied with mobile phase methanol: water (70:30), 5µm, 250 x 4.6mm, C18 column, wavelength 293nm and flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Forced degradation study was performed under oxidative, acidic, basic, thermal and photolytic conditions. The applied method successfully determined the degradation products after acidic and basic degradation without interfering with Rifaximin detection. Therefore, the method was said to be stability indicating and can be applied for quality control and stability testing of Rifaxmin tablets during its shelf life.

Keywords: forced degradation, high-performance liquid chromatography, method validation, rifaximin, stability indicating method

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5779 Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A Using ZnO Nanoparticles as Catalyst under UV/Solar Light: Effect of Different Parameters and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Farida Kaouah, Chahida Oussalah, Wassila Hachi, Salim Boumaza, Mohamed Trari

Abstract:

A catalyst of ZnO nanoparticles was used in the photocatalytic process of treatment for potential use towards bisphenol A (BPA) degradation in an aqueous solution. To achieve this study, the effect of parameters such as the catalyst dose, initial concentration of BPA and pH on the photocatalytic degradation of BPA was studied. The results reveal that the maximum degradation (more than 93%) of BPA occurred with ZnO catalyst in 120 min of stirring at natural pH (7.1) under solar light irradiation. It was found that chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction takes place at a faster rate under solar light as compared to that of UV light. The kinetic studies were achieved and revealed that the photocatalytic degradation process obeyed a Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and followed a pseudo-first order rate expression. This work envisages the great potential that sunlight mediated photocatalysis has in the removal of bisphenol A from wastewater.

Keywords: bisphenol A, photocatalytic degradation, sunlight, zinc oxide, Langmuir–Hinshelwood model, chemical oxygen demand

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5778 Enhanced Degradation of Endosulfan in Soil Using Lycopersicon esculentum L. (Tomato) and Endosulfan Tolerant Bacterium Strains

Authors: Rupa Rani, Vipin Kumar

Abstract:

Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide is of environmental concern due to its apparent persistence and toxicity. It has been reported as contaminants in soil, air, and water and is bioaccumulated and magnified in ecosystems. The combined use of microorganisms and plants has great potential for remediating soil contaminated with organic compounds such as pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the bacterial inoculation influences plant growth promotion, endosulfan degradation in soil and endosulfan accumulation in different plant parts. Lycopersicon esculentum L. (Tomato) was grown in endosulfan spiked soil and inoculated with endosulfan tolerant bacterial strains. Endosulfan residues from different parts of plants and soil were extracted and estimated by using gas chromatograph equipped with 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The inoculation of bacterial strains into the soil with plants showed a beneficial effect on endosulfan degradation and plant biomass production. Maximum endosulfan (90%) degradation was observed after 120 days of bacterial inoculation in the soil. Furthermore, there was significantly less endosulfan accumulation in roots and shoots of bacterial strains inoculated plants as compared to uninoculated plants. The results show the effectiveness of inoculated endosulfan tolerant bacterial strains to increase the remediation of endosulfan contaminated soil.

Keywords: organochlorine pesticides, endosulfan, degradation, plant-bacteria partnerships

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
5777 Standard and Processing of Photodegradable Polyethylene

Authors: Nurul-Akidah M. Yusak, Rahmah Mohamed, Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz

Abstract:

The introduction of degradable plastic materials into agricultural sectors has represented a promising alternative to promote green agriculture and environmental friendly of modern farming practices. Major challenges of developing degradable agricultural films are to identify the most feasible types of degradation mechanisms, composition of degradable polymers and related processing techniques. The incorrect choice of degradable mechanisms to be applied during the degradation process will cause premature losses of mechanical performance and strength. In order to achieve controlled process of agricultural film degradation, the compositions of degradable agricultural film also important in order to stimulate degradation reaction at required interval of time and to achieve sustainability of the modern agricultural practices. A set of photodegradable polyethylene based agricultural film was developed and produced, following the selective optimization of processing parameters of the agricultural film manufacturing system. Example of agricultural films application for oil palm seedlings cultivation is presented.

Keywords: photodegradable polyethylene, plasticulture, processing schemes

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
5776 Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol in Aqueous Solutions Using Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

In this study, photo-catalytic degradation of phenol by titanium dioxide (TiO2) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The UV energy of solar light was utilized by compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) technology. The effect of irradiation time, initial pH, and dosage of TiO2 were investigated. Aromatic intermediates (catechol, benzoquinone, and hydroquinone) were quantified during the reaction to study the pathways of the oxidation process. 94.5% degradation efficiency of phenol was achieved after 150 minutes of irradiation when the initial concentration was 100 mg/L. The dosage of TiO2 significantly affected the degradation efficiency of phenol. The observed optimum pH for the reaction was 5.2. Phenol photo-catalytic degradation fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic according to Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: compound parabolic collectors, phenol, photo-catalytic, titanium dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
5775 Challenges of Peri-Urban Agriculture in Cities of Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nairobi City Peri-Urban Area

Authors: Aggrey Daniel Maina Thuo

Abstract:

Rapid urban population growth means an increasing demand for urban land, particularly for housing, and also for various other urban uses. This land is not available within cities but in peri-urban areas. The expansion of the cities into the peri-urban areas is creating direct and indirect impacts with those living there facing new challenges and opportunities in meeting their life needs and accommodating the by-products of urbanization. Although urbanization of these areas provides opportunities for employment, better housing, education, knowledge and technology transfer, and ready markets for the agricultural products, increase in population places enormous stress on natural resources and existing social services and infrastructure, therefore causing environmental degradation. This environmental degradation is affecting agriculture for those still holding onto their farms for agricultural purposes. This paper, using a multiple theoretical framework and qualitative research approach, attempts to describe the positive and adverse effects of urbanization on peri-urban agriculture, using the Town Council of Karuri within Nairobi peri-urban areas as a case study.

Keywords: peri-urban agriculture, urbanization, land use, environmental degradation, planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
5774 The Use of Degradation Measures to Design Reliability Test Plans

Authors: Stephen V. Crowder, Jonathan W. Lane

Abstract:

With short production development times, there is an increased need to demonstrate product reliability relatively quickly with minimal testing. In such cases there may be few if any observed failures. Thus it may be difficult to assess reliability using the traditional reliability test plans that measure only time (or cycles) to failure. For many components, degradation measures will contain important information about performance and reliability. These measures can be used to design a minimal test plan, in terms of number of units placed on test and duration of the test, necessary to demonstrate a reliability goal. In this work we present a case study involving an electronic component subject to degradation. The data, consisting of 42 degradation paths of cycles to failure, are first used to estimate a reliability function. Bootstrapping techniques are then used to perform power studies and develop a minimal reliability test plan for future production of this component.

Keywords: degradation measure, time to failure distribution, bootstrap, computational science

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
5773 Chemical Stability and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Min-Hwa Lim, Mi-Jeong Park, Ho-Young Jung

Abstract:

Imidazolium-brominated polyphenylene oxide (Im-bPPO) is based on the functionalization of bromomethylated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) using 1-Methylimdazole. For the purpose of long cycle life of vanadium redox battery (VRB), the chemical stability of Im-bPPO, sPPO (sulfonated 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and Fumatech membranes were evaluated firstly in the 0.1M vanadium (V) solution dissolved in 3M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for 72h, and UV analyses of the degradation products proved that ether bond in PPO backbone was vulnerable to be attacked by vanadium (V) ion. It was found that the membranes had slightly weight loss after soaking in 2 ml distilled water included in STS pressure vessel for 1 day at 200◦C. ATR-FT-IR data indicated before and after the degradation of the membranes. Further evaluation on the degradation mechanism of the menbranes were carried out in Fenton’s reagent solution for 72 h at 50 ◦C and analyses of the membranes before and after degradation confirmed the weight loss of the membranes. The Fumatech membranes exhibited better performance than AEM and CEM, but Nafion 212 still suffers chemical degradation.

Keywords: vanadium redox flow battery, ion exchange membrane, permeability, degradation, chemical stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 180