Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 422

Search results for: Egyptian sheep

422 Phylogenetic Studies of Six Egyptian Sheep Breeds Using Cytochrome B

Authors: Othman Elmahdy Othman, Agnés Germot, Daniel Petit, Muhammad Khodary, Abderrahman Maftah

Abstract:

Recently, the control (D-loop) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) regions of mtDNA have received more attention due to their role in the genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies in different livestock which give important knowledge towards the genetic resource conservation. Studies based on sequencing of sheep mitochondrial DNA showed that there are five maternal lineages in the world for domestic sheep breeds; A, B, C, D and E. By using cytochrome B sequencing, we aimed to clarify the genetic affinities and phylogeny of six Egyptian sheep breeds. Blood samples were collected from 111 animals belonging to six Egyptian sheep breeds; Barki, Rahmani, Ossimi, Saidi, Sohagi and Fallahi. The total DNA was extracted and the specific primers were used for conventional PCR amplification of the cytochrome B region of mtDNA. PCR amplified products were purified and sequenced. The alignment of sequences was done using BioEdit software and DnaSP 5.00 software was used to identify the sequence variation and polymorphic sites in the aligned sequences. The result showed that the presence of 39 polymorphic sites leading to the formation of 29 haplotypes. The haplotype diversity in six tested breeds ranged from 0.643 in Rahmani breed to 0.871 in Barki breed. The lowest genetic distance was observed between Rahmani and Saidi (D: 1.436 and Dxy: 0.00127) while the highest distance was observed between Ossimi and Sohagi (D: 6.050 and Dxy: 0.00534). Neighbour-joining (Phylogeny) tree was constructed using Mega 5.0 software. The sequences of 111 analyzed samples were aligned with references sequences of different haplogroups; A, B, C, D and E. The phylogeny result showed the presence of four haplogroups; HapA, HapB, HapC and HapE in the examined samples whereas the haplogroup D was not found. The result showed that 88 out of 111 tested animals cluster with haplogroup B (79.28%), whereas 12 tested animals cluster with haplogroup A (10.81%), 10 animals cluster with haplogroup C (9.01%) and one animal belongs to haplogroup E (0.90%).

Keywords: phylogeny, genetic biodiversity, MtDNA, cytochrome B, Egyptian sheep

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421 The Implementation of Animal Welfare for Garut Sheep Fighting Contest in West Java

Authors: Mustopa, Nadya R. Susilo, Rhizal D. Nuva

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This study aims to determine the application of animal welfare in Garut sheep fighting contest at West Java. This study conducted by survey and discussion methods with 5 Garut sheep owners in the contest. The animal welfare is going to be proved by observing the condition of the cage, the cleanliness of it, the health of the sheep, feeding and water, also owner treatments for their sheep that will be served as a fighter. Observations made using stable conditions ACRES form with assessment scores ranged from 1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = regular, 4 = good and 5 = very good, animal welfare conditions seen by conducting observations and interviews with garut sheep owners. The result shows that the Garut sheep fighting contest has fulfilled the criteria of animal welfare application. Application of animal welfare principle by the owner of Garut sheep terms of ACRES (Animal Concerns Research and Education Society) below standard, the average score obtained was 1.76 which is mean in a very bad ratings. Besides considering the animal welfare application, sheep owners also do special treatments for their Garut sheep with the purpose to produce fighters that are healthy and strong. So, if the sheep wins in Garut sheep fight contest, it will purchase a high-value prices.

Keywords: animal welfare, contest, garut sheep, sheep fighting

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
420 Cytochrome B Diversity and Phylogeny of Egyptian Sheep Breeds

Authors: Othman E. Othman, Agnés Germot, Daniel Petit, Abderrahman Maftah

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Threats to the biodiversity are increasing due to the loss of genetic diversity within the species utilized in agriculture. Due to the progressive substitution of the less productive, locally adapted and native breeds by highly productive breeds, the number of threatened breeds is increased. In these conditions, it is more strategically important than ever to preserve as much the farm animal diversity as possible, to ensure a prompt and proper response to the needs of future generations. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) sequencing has been used to explain the origins of many modern domestic livestock species. Studies based on sequencing of sheep mitochondrial DNA showed that there are five maternal lineages in the world for domestic sheep breeds; A, B, C, D and E. Because of the eastern location of Egypt in the Mediterranean basin and the presence of fat-tailed sheep breeds- character quite common in Turkey and Syria- where genotypes that seem quite primitive, the phylogenetic studies of Egyptian sheep breeds become particularly attractive. We aimed in this work to clarify the genetic affinities, biodiversity and phylogeny of five Egyptian sheep breeds using cytochrome B sequencing. Blood samples were collected from 63 animals belonging to the five tested breeds; Barki, Rahmani, Ossimi, Saidi and Sohagi. The total DNA was extracted and the specific primer allowed the conventional PCR amplification of the cytochrome B region of mtDNA (approximately 1272 bp). PCR amplified products were purified and sequenced. The alignment of Sixty-three samples was done using BioEdit software. DnaSP 5.00 software was used to identify the sequence variation and polymorphic sites in the aligned sequences. The result showed that the presence of 34 polymorphic sites leading to the formation of 18 haplotypes. The haplotype diversity in five tested breeds ranged from 0.676 in Rahmani breed to 0.894 in Sohagi breed. The genetic distances (D) and the average number of pairwise differences (Dxy) between breeds were estimated. The lowest distance was observed between Rahmani and Saidi (D: 1.674 and Dxy: 0.00150) while the highest distance was observed between Ossimi and Sohagi (D: 5.233 and Dxy: 0.00475). Neighbour-joining (Phylogeny) tree was constructed using Mega 5.0 software. The sequences of the 63 analyzed samples were aligned with references sequences of different haplogroups. The phylogeny result showed the presence of three haplogroups (HapA, HapB and HapC) in the 63 examined samples. The other two haplogroups described in literature (HapD and HapE) were not found. The result showed that 50 out of 63 tested animals cluster with haplogroup B (79.37%) whereas 7 tested animals cluster with haplogroup A (11.11%) and 6 animals cluster with haplogroup C (9.52%). In conclusion, the phylogenetic reconstructions showed that the majority of Egyptian sheep breeds belonging to haplogroup B which is the dominant haplogroup in Eastern Mediterranean countries like Syria and Turkey. Some individuals are belonging to haplogroups A and C, suggesting that the crosses were done with other breeds for characteristic selection for growth and wool quality.

Keywords: cytochrome B, diversity, phylogheny, Egyptian sheep breeds

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419 Prevalence of Sarcocystosis in Slaughtered Sheep and Goats

Authors: Shivan N. Hussein, Ihsan K. Zangana

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A total of 2358 sheep and 532 goats were examined for the presence of macrocystis of Sarcocystis. For microcysts, different muscle tissues were randomly taken from 118 sheep and 110 goats. Macrocystis were examined through naked eye inspection, while microcysts were examined microscopically by using histopathology, pepsin digestion, mincing & squeezing, and muscle squash method. Overall prevalence of macrocystis was 1.2% in sheep and 2.6% in goats. The intensity rate of the cysts was 4 cysts/ gram in sheep & 3 cysts/ gram in goats, respectively, while the overall prevalence of microcysts in sheep and goats was 96.5%. The infection rate in sheep was 96.6% and in goats was 96.4%. The total intensity rate of microcysts was 32.4 cysts/ field in sheep and 16.8 cysts/ field in goats, respectively. Histopathological examination found different shapes, size, wall thickness, and intensity rates of microcysts in muscle tissues of sheep & goats. The pathological reaction showed mild to moderate granulocytosis, and mononuclear cells infiltrated surrounding the microcysts with necrotizing and degeneration of myofibrils. The largest average size of spindle and round shaped cysts (290 ± 89.7 x 76.1 ± 10 µm and 88.8 ± 10.3 µm) in goats and (127.2 ± 18.9 x 53.3 ± 5.4 µm and 74.4 ± 7.5 µm) in sheep, was detected in the esophageal muscle. Statistically, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of macrocystis in sheep and goats, while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the prevalence of microcysts between both animal species.

Keywords: macrocystis, microcysts, intensity rate, measurement size

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
418 Manure Management Systems in Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya, Türkiye

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi

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Goat and sheep milk is quite significant in human nutrition. It is considered as more important day by day. This study was carried out in order to determine applied manure management system and their possibilities of improvement in goat and sheep farm in between 2012 and 2013 years. In the study, it was investigated manure management systems of 25 pieces of sheep and goat farms. It was analyzed the manure collecting, storage and treatment features of farms and whether or not they are suitable for animal breeding. As a result of the study, it was determined that the applied manure management systems in the farm were insufficient. Planning the manure management systems in goat and sheep breeding is appropriate technical criteria is useful in respect of the animal welfare, animal health, the health of workers in the barn and environmental pollution.

Keywords: goat farm, sheep farm, manure storage, manure management

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
417 Assessment of Base Station Radiation Pollution in Areas of Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya-Turkey

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi, Levent Seyfi

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The technological devices are more often being used days by day. Thus, electro magnetic pollution is being more important now than last decades. Especially mobile phones and their base stations are subject to assessment in respect of all living beings health as well as of human beings. In this context, it is worth to evaluate the situation of electromagnetic radiation exposing living beings such as animals. In this study, electromagnetic radiation levels to which sheep are exposed in Konya/Turkey are presented. The electromagnetic radiation is measured at 1800 MHz for GSM base stations. 1085 sheep farms are determined in areas of Konya center region (Selçuklu, Meram, and Karatay) in which sheep and goat breeding is widely carried out. In this study, 790 sheep and goat farms, 10.8 % for total farms in Konya region (7276), having more than 100 animals are assessed. Then, the data obtained are depicted. As a conclusion, the results should be evaluated together with the future measurements to determine the exact effect on health of sheep and their productivity.

Keywords: electromagnetic pollution, sheep housing, sheep and goat farm, environmental pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
416 MHC Class II DRB1 Gene Polymorphism in Lori Sheep Breed

Authors: Shahram Nanekarani, Majid Goodarzi, Majid Khosravi

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The present study aimed at analyzing of ovine major histocompatibility complex class II (Ovar II) DRB1 gene second exon in Lori Sheep breed. The MHC plays a central role in the control of disease resistance and immunological response. Genomic DNA from blood samples of 124 sheep was extracted and a 296 bp MHC exon 2 fragment was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. PCR products were characterized by the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using Hin1I restriction enzyme. The PCRRFLP patterns showed three genotypes, AA, AB and BB with frequency of 0.282, 0.573 and 0.145, respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.05) deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for this locus in this population. The results of the present study indicate that exon 2 of the Ovar-DRB1 gene is highly polymorphic in Lori sheep and could be considered as an important marker assisted selection, for improvement of immunity in sheep.

Keywords: MHC-DRB1 gene, polymorphism, PCR-RFLP, lori sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
415 Spatial Distribution of Local Sheep Breeds in Antalya Province

Authors: Serife Gulden Yilmaz, Suleyman Karaman

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Sheep breeding is important in terms of meeting both the demand of red meat consumption and the availability of industrial raw materials and the employment of the rural sector in Turkey. It is also very important to ensure the selection and continuity of the breeds that are raised in order to increase quality and productive products related to sheep breeding. The protection of local breeds and crossbreds also enables the development of the sector in the region and the reduction of imports. In this study, the data were obtained from the records of the Turkish Statistical Institute and Antalya Sheep & Goat Breeders' Association. Spatial distribution of sheep breeds in Antalya is reviewed statistically in terms of concentration at the local level for 2015 period spatially. For this reason; mapping, box plot, linear regression are used in this study. Concentration is introduced by means of studbook data on sheep breeding as locals and total sheep farm by mapping. It is observed that Pırlak breed (17.5%) and Merinos crossbreed (16.3%) have the highest concentration in the region. These breeds are respectively followed by Akkaraman breed (11%), Pirlak crossbreed (8%), Merinos breed (7.9%) Akkaraman crossbreed (7.9%) and Ivesi breed (7.2%).

Keywords: sheep breeds, local, spatial distribution, agglomeration, Antalya

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
414 Revival of Ancient Egyptian Food Habits: Preserving the Past and Living the Present

Authors: Dina M. Ezz El-Din

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A variety of sources on Ancient Egypt provides us with knowledge about its agricultural and eating habits. This wealth of information testifies that the ancient Egyptians disposed of a wide variety of food choices. Egyptian agricultural diet was complemented by livestock breeding (Cows, sheep, geese, ducks, quail, pigeons, pelicans, etc). Moreover, the ancient Egyptians planted and harvested large amounts of cereals and vegetables (onions, leeks, lettuces, garlic). They had a varied and well-balanced diet throughout their history. Like in modern times, their eating habits not only changed from one region to the other, but also these also differed according to social classes. The present research is a descriptive-analytical study that tackles eating habits and culinary experience of the ancient Egyptians in an attempt to revive and preserve Egyptians’ food heritage. It focuses on different meals that were prepared and consumed in different occasions, and the habits that can be traced in Egypt in modern times. It also suggests means of bringing to life the ancient Egyptians’ food experience through restaurants and other tourism activities.

Keywords: cultural heritage, ancient Egyptian food, eating habits, preserving food traditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
413 Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Mycoplasmosis in Sheep in Egypt

Authors: Walid Mousa, Mohamed Nayel, Ahmed Zaghawa, Akram Salama, Ahmed El-Sify, Hesham Rashad, Dina El-Shafey

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Mycoplasmosis in small ruminants constitutes a serious contagious problem in smallholders causing severe economic losses worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the clinical, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and molecular characterization of Mycoplasma species associated in sheep breeding herds in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt. Out of the examination of 400 sheep, 104 (26%) showed respiratory manifestations, nasal discharges, cough and conjunctivitis with systemic body reaction. Meanwhile, out of these examined sheep, only 56 (14%) were positive for mycoplasma isolation onto PPLO(Pleuropneumonia-like organisms) specific medium. The MIC for evaluating the efficacy of sensitivity of Mycoplasma isolates against different antibiotics groups revealed that both the Linospectin and Tylosin with 2ug, 0.25ug/ml concentration were the most effective antibiotics for Mycoplasma isolates. The application of PCR was the rapid, specific and sensitive molecular approach for detection of M. ovipneumoniae, and M. arginine at 390 and 326 bp, respectively, in all tested isolates. In conclusion, the diagnosis of Mycoplsamosis in sheep is important to achieve effective control measures and minimizing the disease dissemination among sheep herds.

Keywords: MIC, mycoplasmosis, PCR, sheep

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412 Haemobiogram after Intramuscular Administration of Amoxicillin to Sheep

Authors: Amer Elgerwi, Abdelrazzag El-Magdoub, Abubakr El-Mahmoudy

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There are many bacterial infections affecting sheep that necessitates antibiotic intervention. Amoxicillin is among commonly used antibiotics in such case for its broad spectrum of activity. However, the side alterations in blood and organ function that may be associated during or after treatment are questionable. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the possible alterations in blood parameters and organ function bio markers of sheep that may occur following intramuscular injection of amoxicillin. Amoxicillin has been administered intramuscularly to 10 sheep at a dosage regimen of 7 mg/kg of body weight for 5 successive days. Two types of blood samples (with and without anticoagulant) were collected from the jugular vein pre- and post-administration of the drug. Amoxicillin significantly (P < 0.001) increased total leukocyte count and (P < 0.05) absolute eosinophilic count when compared with those of the control samples. Aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the corresponding control values. In addition, amoxicillin significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine but decreased phosphorus level when compared with those of prior-administration samples. These data may indicate that although the side changes caused by amoxicillin are minor in sheep, yet the liver and kidney functions should be monitored during its usage in therapy and it should be used with care for treatment of sheep with renal and/or hepatic impairments.

Keywords: amoxicillin, biogram, haemogram, sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
411 Effects of Corynebacterium cutis Lysate Administration on Hematology and Biochemistry Parameters with PPR Vaccine

Authors: Burak Dik, Oguzhan Avci, Irmak Dik, Emre Bahcivan

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alone and combined administration of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine with Corynebacterium cutis lysate (CCL) on the hematology and biochemistry parameters levels in sheep. CCL and PPR vaccine changes cell and organ activity. In this study, 12 ewes were divided into equal groups; first group; PPR vaccine was applied only one time 1 mL subcutan of armpit on 6 sheep, and the second group; CCL (1 mL) and PPR vaccine (1 mL) combination were applied only one time subcutan of armpit on 6 sheep. Blood samples were collected before treatment (0. hour, control) and after treatment (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) from the sheep. Plasma and serum samples were evaluated for hematology and biochemistry parameters and there were statistically significant in sheep. In conclusion, combined usage of PPR vaccine with CCL may not influence cells and organs. Repeated CCL treatment with vaccine can create hepatotoxic, renal and bone marrow effects in sheep.

Keywords: Corynebacterium cutis lysate, hematology, peste des petits ruminants, vaccine

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
410 Characterization of the Physical Properties of Sheep Wool Fiber in Amhara National Regional State

Authors: Erkihun Zelalem

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Ethiopian’s sheep population, estimated to be 25.5 million heads, is found widely distributed across the diverse agro-ecological zones of the country. In the past, there were many projects that done to improve production of meat, milk and productivity of sheep breed. However, no significance research has been done so far on production of wool fiber in Ethiopia which could be taken as a potential fiber next to cotton. The measurement of the sheep wool fiber physical properties is critically important, technical, commercial and certification point of view. A total of 24 sheep from different breeds (Menz, Tikur, Farta and Washera) were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard measurements for wool fiber length (WFL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of wool fiber diameter (FDCV), breaking strength, elongation, crimp, cleanness and moisture content. Based on the result all parameters shows that there is a great potential of getting of wool fiber from the skin of sheep and according to the standards of its property and grading system based on wool fiber fineness is medium to course. These types of fibers can be making carpets, blankets, rugs, coverings and other products.

Keywords: Fiber, Fineness, Carpet, Fleece, Raw Wool

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
409 The Egyptian eGovernment Journey

Authors: Ali Abdelsattar Elshabrawy

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The Egyptian government is struggling to build it's eGovernment project. They succeeded to build the Egyptian digital portal, which contain links for number of services provided by different ministries. For achieving such success, their are requirements necessary to build such a project such as: internet dissemination, IT literacy, Strategy, disqualification of paper based services. This paper is going to clarify the main obstacles to the Egyptian eGovernment project from both the supply and demand sides. Also will clarify the most critical requirements in this phase of the project lifecycle. This paper should be in great value for the project team and also for many other developing countries that share the same obstacles.

Keywords: the egyptian egovernment project lifecycle, supply side barriers, demand side barriers, egovernment project requirements

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
408 Interdisciplinary Urban Design: Toward Egyptian Manifesto

Authors: Hisham M. G. Abusaada

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This article focuses on the field the art of the city, at the beginning of the third millennium, in the 21st century. It seems that a few Egyptian architects suffer from the lack of the ability to create and share knowledge in their field of proficiency. The assumption is that this weakness is the main reason that led to the invalidity of the local theorizing process. The presupposition is that the absence of respecting the conceptualization of enlightenment during the two phases of preparing and teaching the educational programs makes the students urban design projects not well designed. This paper submits an Egyptian Manifesto, to formulate some guidelines for the development of the work of some researchers, scholars and specialist's method.

Keywords: Egyptian manifesto, pedagogy, knowledge, urban design

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
407 Polymorphism of Candidate Genes for Meat Production in Lori Sheep

Authors: Shahram Nanekarania, Majid Goodarzia

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Calpastatin and callipyge have been known as one of the candidate genes in meat quality and quantity. Calpastatin gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep and callipyge gene has been localized in the telomeric region on ovine chromosome 18. The objective of this study was identification of calpastatin and callipyge genes polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of Lori sheep kept in Iran. Blood samples were taken from 120 Lori sheep breed and genomic DNA was extracted by salting out method. Polymorphism was identified using the PCR-RFLP technique. The PCR products were digested with MspI and FaqI restriction enzymes for calpastatin gene and callipyge gene, respectively. In this population, three patterns were observed and AA, AB, BB genotype have been identified with the 0.32, 0.63, 0.05 frequencies for calpastatin gene. The results obtained for the callipyge gene revealed that only the wild-type allele A was observed, indicating that only genotype AA was present in the population under consideration.

Keywords: polymorphism, calpastatin, callipyge, PCR-RFLP, Lori sheep

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406 The Effects of Seasonal Variation on the Microbial-N Flow to the Small Intestine and Prediction of Feed Intake in Grazing Karayaka Sheep

Authors: Mustafa Salman, Nurcan Cetinkaya, Zehra Selcuk, Bugra Genc

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The objectives of the present study were to estimate the microbial-N flow to the small intestine and to predict the digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) in grazing Karayaka sheep based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, and allantoin) by the use of spot urine sampling under field conditions. In the trial, 10 Karayaka sheep from 2 to 3 years of age were used. The animals were grazed in a pasture for ten months and fed with concentrate and vetch plus oat hay for the other two months (January and February) indoors. Highly significant linear and cubic relationships (P<0.001) were found among months for purine derivatives index, purine derivatives excretion, purine derivatives absorption, microbial-N and DOMI. Through urine sampling and the determination of levels of excreted urinary PD and Purine Derivatives / Creatinine ratio (PDC index), microbial-N values were estimated and they indicated that the protein nutrition of the sheep was insufficient. In conclusion, the prediction of protein nutrition of sheep under the field conditions may be possible with the use of spot urine sampling, urinary excreted PD and PDC index. The mean purine derivative levels in spot urine samples from sheep were highest in June, July and October. Protein nutrition of pastured sheep may be affected by weather changes, including rainfall. Spot urine sampling may useful in modeling the feed consumption of pasturing sheep. However, further studies are required under different field conditions with different breeds of sheep to develop spot urine sampling as a model.

Keywords: Karayaka sheep, spot sampling, urinary purine derivatives, PDC index, microbial-N, feed intake

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
405 Renal Amyloidosis in Domestic Iranian Sheep

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Fateme Behbahani, Sara Omidi, Nadia Shahi, Alireza Farkhonde

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Amyloidosis represents a heterogenous group of diseases that have in common the deposition of fibrils composed of proteins of beta-pleated sheet structure, which can be specifically identified by histochemistry using the Congo red or similar stains. Between October 2013 to April 2014 (6 months) different patterns of renal amyloidosis was diagnosed on histopathological examination of kidneys belong to 196 out of 7065 slaughtered sheep subjected to postmortem examination. Microscopic examination of renal tissue sections stained with H&E and CR staining techniques revealed 3 patterns of renal amyloid deposition; including glomerular (22.72%), medullary (68.18%), and vascular (9.09%) were recognized. Renal medullary amyloidosis (RMA) was detected as the most prevalence pattern of renal amyloidosis in domestic sheep.

Keywords: sheep, amyloidosis, kidney, slaughterhouse

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
404 Identification of Anaplasma Species in Sheep of Khouzestan Province by PCR

Authors: Masoud Soltanialvar, Ali Bagherpour

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The aim of this study was to determinate the variety of Anaplasma species among sheep of khouzestan province, Iran. From April 2013 to June 2013, a total of 200 blood samples were collected via the jugular vein from healthy sheep (100), randomly. The extracted DNA from blood cells were amplified by Anaplasma-all primers, which amplify an approximately 1468bp DNA fragment from region of 16S rRNA gene from various members of the genus Anaplasma. For raising the test sensivity, the PCR products were amplified with the primers, which were designed from the region flanked by the first primers. The amplified nested PCR product had an expected PCR product with 345 nucleotides in length. In 100 sheep blood samples, 7 samples were Anaplasma spp. positive by first PCR and nested PCR. The results showed that 2 of total 100 blood samples (2%) were A.phagocytophilum positive by specific nested PCR based on 16S rRNA gene. The extracted DNA from positive Anaplasma spp. samples were amplified by Anaplasma ovis specific primers, which amplify an approximately 866bp DNA fragment from region of msp4 gene. 5 out of 100 sheep blood samples (5%) were positive for Anaplasma ovis. This study is the first molecular detection of A. ovis and A.phagocytophilum from sheep in Iran.

Keywords: Iran, anaplasma species, sheep, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
403 Polymorphisms of Calpastatin Gene and Its Association with Growth Traits in Indonesian Thin Tail Sheep

Authors: Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong, Cece Sumantri, Ronny Rachman Noor, Rachmat Herman, Mohamad Yamin

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Calpastatin involved in various physiological processes in the body such as the protein turnover, growth, fusion and mioblast migration. Thus, allegedly Calpastatin gene diversity (CAST) have an association with growth and potential use as candidate genes for growth trait. This study aims to identify the association between the genetic diversity of CAST gene with some growth properties such as body dimention (morphometric), body weight and daily weight gain in sheep. A total of 157 heads of Thin Tail Sheep (TTS) reared intensively for fattening purposes in the uniform environmental conditions. Overall sheep used were male, and maintained for 3 months. The parameters of growth properties were measured among others: body weight gain (ADG) (g/head / day), body weight (kg), body length (cm), chest circumference (cm), height (cm). All the sheep were genotyped by using PCR-SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) methods. CAST gene in locus fragment intron 5 - exon 6 were amplified with a predicted length of about 254 bp PCR products. Then the sheep were stratified based on their CAST genotypes. The result of this research showed that no association were found between the CAST gene variations with morphometric body weight, but there was a significant association with daily body weight gain (ADG) in sheep observed. CAST-23 and CAST-33 genotypes has higher average daily gain than other genotypes. CAST-23 and CAST-33 genotypes that carrying the CAST-2 and CAST-3 alleles potential to be used in the selection of the nature of the growth trait of the TTS sheep.

Keywords: body weight, calpastatin, genotype, growth trait, thin tail sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
402 Structural Analysis of Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya Province

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi

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Goat milk is a quite important in human nutrition. In order to meet the demand to the goat and sheep milk occurring in the recent years, an increase is seen in the demand to housing projects, which will enable animals to be sheltered in the suitable environments. This study was carried out in between 2012 and 2013, in order to identify the existing cases of sheep and goat housings in the province Konya and their possibilities to be developed. In the study, in the province Konya, 25 pieces of sheep and goat farms and 46 pieces of sheep and goat housings (14 sheep housings, 3 goat housings, and 29 housings, in which both sheep and goat are bred ) that are present in the farm were investigated as material. In the study, examining the general features of the farms that are present in the region and structural features of housings that are present in the farms, it is studied whether or not they are suitable for animal breeding. As a result of the study, the barns were evaluated as insufficient in terms of barn design, although 48% of they were built after 2000. In 63% of housings examined, stocking density of resting area was below the value of 1 m2/animal and in 59% of the housings, stocking density of courtyard area was below the 2 m2/animal. Feeding length, in 57% of housings has a value of 0.30 m and below. In the region, it will be possible to obtain the desired productivity level by building new barn designs, developed in accordance with the animal behaviors and welfare. Carrying out the necessary works is an important issue in terms of country and regional economy.

Keywords: barn design, goat housing, sheep housing, structural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
401 Effects of Some Factors Affecting Optimum Reproductive Capacity of Local Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria

Authors: D. Zahraddeen, N. M. Lemu, P. P. Barje, I. S. R. Butswat

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This study was conducted to investigate some of the factors affecting the optimum reproductive capacity of the indigenous breeds of sheep in Nigeria. A total of 767 sheep of different breeds were investigated. The reproductive indices considered were birth/weaning weights, litter size, parity, mortality, reproductive problems/disorders, body condition score (BCS), as well as growth traits. The results showed that litter size, parity, and BCS had significant (p < 0.05) effects on birth/weaning weights, mortality rates and growth traits of the sheep breeds studied. Similarly, the rearing method/system significantly (p < 0.05) influenced other reproductive traits such as birth/weaning weights, mortality, growth performance of lambs. However, the major reproductive problems/disorders in the ewes were dystocia (30.94%), retained placenta (16.91%), mastitis (15.83), pregnancy toxaemia (11.51%), uterine prolapse (6.48%) and vaginal prolapse (3.24%). In the rams, the incidence of reproductive problems included cryptorchidism (1.08%), orchitis (2.87%) and scrotal dermatophilosis (1.79%), among others. This study concludes that the four breeds of sheep (Balami, Yankasa, Uda, and West African Dwarf sheep) and their crosses exhibited varied genetic make-up and potentials. However, the large number of sheep farmers practicing the extensive production system might be responsible for the low reproductive performance of this species in the country. It is, therefore, recommended that significant improvement could be achieved through enhanced management practices of these animals.

Keywords: sheep, breeds, reproduction, disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
400 Characterization of the Immune Response of Inactivated RVF Vaccine: A Comparative Study in Sheep and Goats as Experimental Model

Authors: Ahmed Zaghawa

Abstract:

Rift Valley Fever is an economically specific disease of the health and arboviral disease that affects many types of animals, causing significant economic losses in livestock, and it is transmitted to humans and has public health issues. The vaccine program is the backbone for the control of this disease. The goal of this study was to apply a new approach to evaluate the inactivated RVF vaccine developed in Egypt. In this study, the RVF vaccine was evaluated in young puppies and compared with sheep; the findings showed that young puppies were susceptible to infection with the inhibitory RVF virus and had a strong response of antibodies with two doses of the RVF vaccine within the two-week interval. The neutralization indices began to appear to the protective level on the 7th day at 1.35 and steadily elevated at 14,21 and 28 days to 1.35, 1.43, and 1.20, respectively, in comparison to the control group. While in sheep, the neutralization indices began to appear to the protective level on the 7th day at 1.10 and remain strongly at high titer at 14, 21, and 28 days with NI values 1.20, 1.50, and 1.50, respectively. The new approach for comparing the immune response in puppies and sheep via SNT indicated the high response in both species was evident as well as the neutralization indices values in young puppies at different periods after RVF vaccination reported the value of 1.08±0.03, 1.23±0.04, 1.30±0.03, and 1.45±0.02 after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-vaccination respectively. On the other side, a nearly similar immune response was noticed in sheep with NI values of 1.15±0.02, 1.27±0.02, 1.42±0.05, and 1.55±0.03 at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-vaccination, respectively. In conclusion, young puppies are similar to sheep in developing antibodies after vaccination with the RVF vaccine and can replace sheep for evaluating the efficacy of the RVF vaccine. Further studies are mandatory to assess more recent methods for evaluating inhibition of the RVF vaccine.

Keywords: immune response, puppies, RVF, sheep, vaccine

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399 Documentation Project on Boat Models from Saqqara, in the Grand Egyptian Museum

Authors: Ayman Aboelkassem, Mohamoud Ali, Rezq Diab

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This project aims to document and preserve boat models which were discovered in the Saqqara by Czech Institute of Egyptology archeological mission at Saqqara (GEM numbers, 46007, 46008, 46009). These boat models dates back to Egyptian Old Kingdom and have been transferred to the Conservation Center of the Grand Egyptian Museum, to be displayed at the new museum.The project objectives making such boat models more visible to visitors through the use of 3D reconstructed models and high resolution photos which describe the history of using the boats during the Ancient Egyptian history. Especially, The Grand Egyptian Museum is going to exhibit the second boat of King Khufu from Old kingdom. The project goals are to document the boat models and arrange an exhibition, where such Models going to be displayed next to the Khufu Second Boat. The project shows the importance of using boats in Ancient Egypt, and connecting their usage through Ancient Egyptian periods till now. The boat models had a unique Symbolized in ancient Egypt and connect the public with their kings. The Egyptian kings allowed high ranked employees to put boat models in their tombs which has a great meaning that they hope to fellow their kings in the journey of the afterlife.

Keywords: archaeology, boat models, 3D digital tools for heritage management, museums

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398 Archaeology Study of Soul Houses in Ancient Egypt on Five Models in the Grand Egyptian Museum

Authors: Ayman Aboelkassem, Mahmoud Ali

Abstract:

Introduction: The models of soul houses have appeared in the prehistory, old kingdom and middle kingdom period. These soul houses represented the imagination of the deceased about his house in the afterlife, some of these soul houses were two floors and the study will examine five models of soul houses which were discovered near Saqqara site by an Egyptian mission. These models had been transferred to The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM) to be ready to display at the new museum. We focus on models of soul houses (GEM Numbers, 1276, 1280, 1281, 1282, 8711) these models of soul houses were related to the old kingdom period. These models were all made of pottery, the five models have an oval shape and were decorated with relief. Methodology: The study will focus on the development of soul houses during the different periods in ancient Egypt, the function of soul houses, the kind of offerings which were put in it and the symbolism of the offerings colors in ancient Egyptian believe. Conclusion: This study is useful for the heritage and ancient civilizations especially when we talk about opening new museums like The Grand Egyptian Museum which will display a new collection of soul houses. The study of soul houses and The kinds of offerings which put in it reflect the economic situation in the Egyptian society and kinds of oils which were famous in ancient Egypt.

Keywords: archaeology study, Grand Egyptian Museum, relief, soul houses

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397 Acute Phase Proteins, Proinflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Sheep with Pneumonic Pasteurellosis

Authors: Wael M. El-Deeb

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The aim of this study was to assess the pathophysiological importance of lipid profile, acute phase proteins, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 36 Pasteurellamultocida-infected sheep, together with 20 healthy controls. Samples for bacteriological examination (nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage) were collected from all animals and subjected to bacteriological examinations. Moreover, heart blood and lung samples were collected from the dead pneumonic sheep and subjected also to bacteriological examinations. A lipid profile was determined, along with a blood picture and other biochemical parameters. The acute phase proteins (fibrinogen, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A), the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6), interferon-gamma and the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde, super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase were also measured. The examined biochemical parameters were increased in the pneumonic sheep, except for cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which were significantly lower than control group. Acute phase proteins and cytokines were significantly higher in the pneumonic sheep when compared to the healthy sheep. There was a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde; however, a significant decrease in the levels of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase was observed. The present study shed the light on the possible pathphysiological role of lipid profile, acute phase proteins (APPs), proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in pneumonic pasteurelosis in sheep.

Keywords: acute phase proteins, sheep, pasteurella, interleukins, stress

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396 The Effect of the Dramas on the Egyptian Public Opinion Regarding the State of Israel: A Survey Study on the Egyptian Youth at Cairo University

Authors: Dana Hisham Mohamed Abdrabo

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The paper examines the effect of Drama works on the Egyptian public opinion regarding the religion of Judaism, Israel as a state and the Jew's image to Egyptian Muslims. The paper examines the role of Media and in particular, Dramas on achieving interreligious dialogue between Judaism and Islam and its role in making peace between the Egyptian Muslims -and Arabs in general- on the one hand, and the Jew on the other hand, and the implications of this on the relationship between Arab countries and Israel as a state. The research uses the Survey method with Egyptian Muslims as a main sample for the research to examine such effect. Dramas have a role in presenting the Jew, Judaism, and Israel as a state and as a political system in various ways. The paper is related to multidisciplinary fields; it is related to political sciences, political sociology, communication, social change, and cognitive sociology fields. The research adds a new analytical study for a new tool for the peacemaking process in the Middle East region through adopting an interdisciplinary approach which is needed in the studies aim to achieve stability and peace in the Middle East region and its neighboring countries.

Keywords: dramas tool, Egyptian public opinion, interreligious dialogue, Israel & Egyptian relations , Judaism

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395 Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Farm Animals by Copro-Culture

Authors: Mosaab A. Omar, Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboody

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In the present study, examination of 442 faecal samples was performed: 171 from cattle, 128 from buffaloes and 143 from sheep. During the period from May, 2014 to April, 2015, fecal examination showed the infection rate with abomasal nematodes was 30% in cattle, 22.6% in buffaloes, and 31.4% in sheep. Fecal culture gave results of 47.5%, 30%, and 50.3% in cattle, buffaloes and sheep respectively. Seasonal infection with abomasal nematodes as shown by faecal culture in cattle, reveals the highest infection rate is in summer (55.9%), followed by spring (54.1%), autumn (50%), and winter (33.3%). Cooperia spp. is the most prevalent larva in both cattle and buffaloes; Strongyloides papillosus is the most predominant one in sheep. Here we introduce the first study of abomasal worms infection in ruminants in Qena, Egypt. The prevalence is found to be so high among the all examined animals, that we recommend that the authorities apply suitable control programs.

Keywords: haemonchus, ostertagia, seasonal dynamics, floatation

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394 The Differences between Direct Examination and ELISA Test during the Diagnosis of Fasciolosis in Jaundiced Slaughtered Sheep in Iraq

Authors: Azad A. Meerkhan, Alaa Hani Razak, Bayan M. S. Younis

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The efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica was studied. 232 jaundiced sheep among 5208 sheep slaughter in the Duhok abattoir (regardless of the age and gender) between the period of May. 2012 to Oct. 2012 were examined by direct examination (Searching of adult flukes in the bile duct) and by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the prevalence of fascioliasis in the studied population which showed a high observed infection ratio in Sep. 2012 (12.2%) with the high (ELISA) result of infection in May. 2012 (25.36%). Significant differences were found between the two ways in all of the months with the highest difference in May. 2012 and the net deference between the both ways was 6.91%.

Keywords: fascioliasis, Fasciola hepatica, layers, liver fluk, ELISA, direct examination

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
393 The Attitude of Egyptian Nubian University Students towards Arabic and Nubian Languages

Authors: Sanaa Abouras

Abstract:

This research investigates the attitude of Egyptian Nubian University students towards the Arabic and the two Nubian languages, Nobiin, and Kenuzi-Dongola. The Nubian languages are called by Egyptian Nubians, Fadijja/Fadicca and Kenzi, respectively. Nubians are people who live in the Nubia area which lies between Egypt’s southern borders with the northern part of Sudan. Nubia is divided into two parts - one under the Egyptian regime, and the other under the Sudanese regime. The number of participants used in the study was forty - half male and half female. Twenty of these participants live in the Nubian region and are enrolled at the South Valley University in Aswan, Egypt. This number was compared with an additional twenty Egyptian-Nubian university students who live outside the Nubian region and attend various Egyptian universities located in Alexandria and Cairo. The hypothesis of this study is that Egyptian Nubian University students tend to have positive attitudes toward Arabic and also the Nubian languages. This research is a qualitative and partially quantitative one. Observations, questionnaires, and interviews were used to collect data in order to explore the following: (1) the language students prefer to speak at home and in public and if language preferences are gender-related, (2) the factors that influence the Egyptian Nubian university students' attitudes towards Arabic and Nubian languages, and (3) a look at the future of these ethnic Nubian languages. Results that answered the main question on the attitude of Egyptian Nubian University students toward Arabic and Nubian languages revealed that students who live inside and outside the Nubian region tend to have positive attitudes towards both the Arabic and the Nubian languages.

Keywords: language attitude, minority, Arabic language, Nubian Language

Procedia PDF Downloads 191