Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 442

Search results for: Amadou Fall Dia

442 Perception of Nurses and Caregivers on Fall Preventive Management for Hospitalized Children Based on Ecological Model

Authors: Mirim Kim, Won-Oak Oh

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify hospitalized children's fall risk factors, fall prevention status and fall prevention strategies recognized by nurses and caregivers of hospitalized children and present an ecological model for fall preventive management in hospitalized children. Method: The participants of this study were 14 nurses working in medical institutions and having more than one year of child care experience and 14 adult caregivers of children under 6 years of age receiving inpatient treatment at a medical institution. One to one interview was attempted to identify their perception of fall preventive management. Transcribed data were analyzed through latent content analysis method. Results: Fall risk factors in hospitalized children were 'unpredictable behavior', 'instability', 'lack of awareness about danger', 'lack of awareness about falls', 'lack of child control ability', 'lack of awareness about the importance of fall prevention', 'lack of sensitivity to children', 'untidy environment around children', 'lack of personalized facilities for children', 'unsafe facility', 'lack of partnership between healthcare provider and caregiver', 'lack of human resources', 'inadequate fall prevention policy', 'lack of promotion about fall prevention', 'a performanceism oriented culture'. Fall preventive management status of hospitalized children were 'absence of fall prevention capability', 'efforts not to fall', 'blocking fall risk situation', 'limit the scope of children's activity when there is no caregiver', 'encourage caregivers' fall prevention activities', 'creating a safe environment surrounding hospitalized children', 'special management for fall high risk children', 'mutual cooperation between healthcare providers and caregivers', 'implementation of fall prevention policy', 'providing guide signs about fall risk'. Fall preventive management strategies of hospitalized children were 'restrain dangerous behavior', 'inspiring awareness about fall', 'providing fall preventive education considering the child's eye level', 'efforts to become an active subject of fall prevention activities', 'providing customed fall prevention education', 'open communication between healthcare providers and caregivers', 'infrastructure and personnel management to create safe hospital environment', 'expansion fall prevention campaign', 'development and application of a valid fall assessment instrument', 'conversion of awareness about safety'. Conclusion: In this study, the ecological model of fall preventive management for hospitalized children reflects various factors that directly or indirectly affect the fall prevention of hospitalized children. Therefore, these results can be considered as useful baseline data for developing systematic fall prevention programs and hospital policies to prevent fall accident in hospitalized children. Funding: This study was funded by the National Research Foundation of South Korea (grant number NRF-2016R1A2B1015455).

Keywords: fall down, safety culture, hospitalized children, risk factors

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441 Numerical Investigation of Embankments for Protecting Rock Fall

Authors: Gökhan Altay, Cafer Kayadelen

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Rock fall is a movement of huge rock blocks from dip slopes due to physical effects. It generally occurs where loose tuffs lying under basalt flow or stringcourse is being constituted by limestone layers which stand on clay. By corrosion of some parts, big cracks occur on layers and these cracks continue to grow with the effect of freezing-thawing. In this way, the breaking rocks fall down from these dip slopes. Earthquakes which can induce lots of rock movements is another reason for rock fall events. In Turkey, we have a large number of regions prone to the earthquake as in the World so this increases the possibility of rock fall events. A great number of rock fall events take place in Turkey as in the World every year. The rock fall events occurring in urban areas cause serious damages in houses, roads and workplaces. Sometimes it also hinders transportation and furthermore it maybe kills people. In Turkey, rock fall events happen mostly in Spring and Winter because of freezing- thawing of water in rock cracks frequently. In mountain and inclined areas, rock fall is risky for engineering construction and environment. Some countries can invest significant money for these risky areas. For instance, in Switzerland, approximately 6.7 million dollars is spent annually for a distance of 4 km, to the systems to prevent rock fall events. In Turkey, we have lots of urban areas and engineering structure that have the rock fall risk. The embankments are preferable for rock fall events because of its low maintenance and repair costs. Also, embankments are able to absorb much more energy according to other protection systems. The current design method of embankments is only depended on field tests results so there are inadequate studies about this design method. In this paper, the field test modeled in three dimensions and analysis are carried out with the help of ANSYS programme. By the help of field test from literature the numerical model validated. After the validity of numerical models additional parametric studies performed. Changes in deformation of embankments are investigated by the changes in, geometry, velocity and impact height of falling rocks.

Keywords: ANSYS, embankment, impact height, numerical analysis, rock fall

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
440 Pre-Service Teachers’ Conceptual Difficulties about Gravitational Force: The Case of the Free Fall Bodies

Authors: A. Metioui

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Research related to the student’s conceptual difficulties in sciences, particularly in the field of physics, are relatively numerous. In this work, we will analyze the results of qualitative research conducted with 80 elementary preservice teachers from Quebec in Canada on their understandings after studying the free fall bodies. First, we will illustrate the paper-pencil questionnaire built for this purpose. Then we will give the analysis of the experimental data. The results show that, even though there is a continuing physics education, many misconceptions persist despite the teaching provided.

Keywords: pre-service teachers, elementary school, conceptual difficulties, free fall bodies

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
439 Developing Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for Falls Detection

Authors: Nantakrit Yodpijit, Teppakorn Sittiwanchai

Abstract:

The number of older adults is rising rapidly. The world’s population becomes aging. Falls is one of common and major health problems in the elderly. Falls may lead to acute and chronic injuries and deaths. The fall-prone individuals are at greater risk for decreased quality of life, lowered productivity and poverty, social problems, and additional health problems. A number of studies on falls prevention using fall detection system have been conducted. Many available technologies for fall detection system are laboratory-based and can incur substantial costs for falls prevention. The utilization of alternative technologies can potentially reduce costs. This paper presents the new design and development of a wearable-based fall detection system using an Accelerometer and Gyroscope as motion sensors for the detection of body orientation and movement. Algorithms are developed to differentiate between Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and falls by comparing Threshold-based values with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Results indicate the possibility of using the new threshold-based method with neural network algorithm to reduce the number of false positive (false alarm) and improve the accuracy of fall detection system.

Keywords: aging, algorithm, artificial neural networks (ANN), fall detection system, motion sensorsthreshold

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
438 Seasonal and Monthly Field Soil Respiration Rate and Litter Fall Amounts of Kasuga-Yama Hill Primeval Forest

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

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The seasonal (January, April, July and October) and monthly soil respiration rate and the monthly litter fall amounts were examined in the laurel-leaved (B_B-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (B_B-2 and PW) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The change of the seasonal soil respiration rate corresponded to that of the soil temperature. The soil respiration rate was higher in October when fresh organic matter was supplied in the forest floor than in April in spite of the same temperature. The seasonal soil respiration rate of B_B-1 was higher than that of B_B-2, which corresponded to more numbers of bacteria and fungi counted by the dilution plate method and by the direct count method by microscopy in B_B-1 than that of B_B-2. The seasonal soil respiration rate of B_B-2 was higher than that of PW, which corresponded to more microbial biomass by the direct count method by microscopy in B_B-2 than that of PW. The correlation coefficient with the seasonal soil respiration and the soil temperature was higher than that of the monthly soil respiration. The soil respiration carbon was more than the litter fall carbon. It was suggested that the soil respiration included in the carbon dioxide which was emitted by the plant root and soil animal, or that the litter fall supplied to the forest floor included in animal and plant litter.

Keywords: field soil respiration rate, forest soil, litter fall, mineralization rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
437 Yield Performance of Two Locally Adapted and Two Introductions of Common Cowpea in Response to Amended In-Row-Spaces and Planting Dates

Authors: Ayman M. A. Rashwan, Mohamed F. Mohamed, Mohamed M. A. Abdalla

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A field experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station, at El-Ghoraieb, Assiut to study dry seed yield performance of two locally adapted cultivars (‘Azmerly’ and ‘Cream 7’) and two line introductions (IT81D-1032 and IT82D-812) of common cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) grown at three different within-row spaces (20, 30 and 40 cm) and two planting dates in the summer (April 15th and 30th) and in the fall season (Aug. 12th and 27th) of two successive seasons. The data showed that total dry-seed yield produced by plants grown at 20 cm was greater than at 30 cm in all cvs/lines in both years. Increases in 1000-seed weight were detected in cv ‘Azmerly’ and line IT82D-812 when they were grown at 30 cm as compared with 20 cm in the summer season. However, in the fall season such increases were found in all cvs/lines. Planting at 40 cm produced seeds of greater weight than planting at 30 cm for all cvs/lines in the fall season and also in cv. Cream 7 and line IT82D-812 in the summer season. Planting on April 15th in the summer and also planting on Aug. 12th in the fall had plants which showed increases in 1000-seed weight and total dry-seed yield. The greatest 1000-seed weight was found in the line IT81D-1032 in the summer season and in the line IT82D-812 in the fall season. The sum up results revealed that ‘Azmerly’ produced greater dry-seed yield than ‘Cream 7’ and both of them were superior to the line IT82D-812 and IT81D-1032 in the summer season. In the fall, however, the line IT82D-812 produced greater dry-seed yield than the other cultivars/lines.

Keywords: Cowpea, Assiut, fall, planting dates, El-Ghoraieb, dry-seed yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 549
436 Deep Learning Based Fall Detection Using Simplified Human Posture

Authors: Kripesh Adhikari, Hamid Bouchachia, Hammadi Nait-Charif

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Falls are one of the major causes of injury and death among elderly people aged 65 and above. A support system to identify such kind of abnormal activities have become extremely important with the increase in ageing population. Pose estimation is a challenging task and to add more to this, it is even more challenging when pose estimations are performed on challenging poses that may occur during fall. Location of the body provides a clue where the person is at the time of fall. This paper presents a vision-based tracking strategy where available joints are grouped into three different feature points depending upon the section they are located in the body. The three feature points derived from different joints combinations represents the upper region or head region, mid-region or torso and lower region or leg region. Tracking is always challenging when a motion is involved. Hence the idea is to locate the regions in the body in every frame and consider it as the tracking strategy. Grouping these joints can be beneficial to achieve a stable region for tracking. The location of the body parts provides a crucial information to distinguish normal activities from falls.

Keywords: fall detection, machine learning, deep learning, pose estimation, tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
435 Graph-Oriented Summary for Optimized Resource Description Framework Graphs Streams Processing

Authors: Amadou Fall Dia, Maurras Ulbricht Togbe, Aliou Boly, Zakia Kazi Aoul, Elisabeth Metais

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Existing RDF (Resource Description Framework) Stream Processing (RSP) systems allow continuous processing of RDF data issued from different application domains such as weather station measuring phenomena, geolocation, IoT applications, drinking water distribution management, and so on. However, processing window phase often expires before finishing the entire session and RSP systems immediately delete data streams after each processed window. Such mechanism does not allow optimized exploitation of the RDF data streams as the most relevant and pertinent information of the data is often not used in a due time and almost impossible to be exploited for further analyzes. It should be better to keep the most informative part of data within streams while minimizing the memory storage space. In this work, we propose an RDF graph summarization system based on an explicit and implicit expressed needs through three main approaches: (1) an approach for user queries (SPARQL) in order to extract their needs and group them into a more global query, (2) an extension of the closeness centrality measure issued from Social Network Analysis (SNA) to determine the most informative parts of the graph and (3) an RDF graph summarization technique combining extracted user query needs and the extended centrality measure. Experiments and evaluations show efficient results in terms of memory space storage and the most expected approximate query results on summarized graphs compared to the source ones.

Keywords: centrality measures, RDF graphs summary, RDF graphs stream, SPARQL query

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
434 Particle Filter Implementation of a Non-Linear Dynamic Fall Model

Authors: T. Kobayashi, K. Shiba, T. Kaburagi, Y. Kurihara

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For the elderly living alone, falls can be a serious problem encountered in daily life. Some elderly people are unable to stand up without the assistance of a caregiver. They may become unconscious after a fall, which can lead to serious aftereffects such as hypothermia, dehydration, and sometimes even death. We treat the subject as an inverted pendulum and model its angle from the equilibrium position and its angular velocity. As the model is non-linear, we implement the filtering method with a particle filter which can estimate true states of the non-linear model. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the particle filter estimation results, we calculate the root mean square error (RMSE) between the estimated angle/angular velocity and the true values generated by the simulation. The experimental results give the highest accuracy RMSE of 0.0141 rad and 0.1311 rad/s for the angle and angular velocity, respectively.

Keywords: fall, microwave Doppler sensor, non-linear dynamics model, particle filter

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433 A Smartphone-Based Real-Time Activity Recognition and Fall Detection System

Authors: Manutchanok Jongprasithporn, Rawiphorn Srivilai, Paweena Pongsopha

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Fall is the most serious accident leading to increased unintentional injuries and mortality. Falls are not only the cause of suffering and functional impairments to the individuals, but also the cause of increasing medical cost and days away from work. The early detection of falls could be an advantage to reduce fall-related injuries and consequences of falls. Smartphones, embedded accelerometer, have become a common device in everyday life due to decreasing technology cost. This paper explores a physical activity monitoring and fall detection application in smartphones which is a non-invasive biomedical device to determine physical activities and fall event. The combination of application and sensors could perform as a biomedical sensor to monitor physical activities and recognize a fall. We have chosen Android-based smartphone in this study since android operating system is an open-source and no cost. Moreover, android phone users become a majority of Thai’s smartphone users. We developed Thai 3 Axis (TH3AX) as a physical activities and fall detection application which included command, manual, results in Thai language. The smartphone was attached to right hip of 10 young, healthy adult subjects (5 males, 5 females; aged< 35y) to collect accelerometer and gyroscope data during performing physical activities (e.g., walking, running, sitting, and lying down) and falling to determine threshold for each activity. Dependent variables are including accelerometer data (acceleration, peak acceleration, average resultant acceleration, and time between peak acceleration). A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to test whether there are any differences between DVs’ means. Statistical analyses were considered significant at p<0.05. After finding threshold, the results were used as training data for a predictive model of activity recognition. In the future, accuracies of activity recognition will be performed to assess the overall performance of the classifier. Moreover, to help improve the quality of life, our system will be implemented with patients and elderly people who need intensive care in hospitals and nursing homes in Thailand.

Keywords: activity recognition, accelerometer, fall, gyroscope, smartphone

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432 The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Frailty and Its Relationship with Falls in Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Bo-Jian Wu, Si-Heng Wu

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Objectives: Frailty is a condition of a person who has chronic health problems complicated by a loss of physiological reserve and deteriorating functional abilities. The frailty syndrome was defined by Fried and colleagues, i.e., weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity. However, to our best knowledge, there have been rare studies exploring the prevalence of frailty and its association with falls in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 559 hospitalized patients were recruited from a public psychiatric hospital in 2013. The majority of the subjects were males (361, 64.6%). The average age was 53.5 years. All patients received the assessment of frailty status defined by Fried and colleagues. The status of a fall within one year after the assessment of frailty, clinical and demographic data was collected from medical records. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio of associated factors. Results : A total of 9.2% of the participants met the criteria of frailty. The percentage of patients having a fall was 7.2%. Age were significantly associated with frailty (odds ratio = 1.057, 95% confidence interval = 1.025-1.091); however, sex was not associated with frailty (p = 0.17). After adjustment for age and sex, frailty status was associated with a fall (odds ratio = 3.62, 95% confidence interval = 1.58-8.28). Concerning the components of frailty, decreased grip strength (odds ratio = 2.44, 95% confidence interval = 1.16-5.14), slow gait speed (odds ratio = 2.82, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-6.53), and low physical activity (odds ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-5.78) were found to be associated with a fall. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the prevalence of frailty was about 10% in hospitalized patients with chronic patients with schizophrenia, and frailty status was significant with a fall in this group. By using the status of frailty, it may be beneficial to potential target candidates having fallen in the future as early as possible. The effective intervention of prevention of further falls may be given in advance. Our results bridge this gap and open a potential avenue for the prevention of falls in patients with schizophrenia. Frailty is certainly an important factor for maintaining wellbeing among these patients.

Keywords: fall, frailty, schizophrenia, Taiwan

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431 Identification of High Stress Regions in Proximal Femur During Single-Leg Stance and Sideways Fall Using QCT-Based Finite Element Model

Authors: Hossein Kheirollahi, Yunhua Luo

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Studying stress and strain trends in the femur and recognizing femur failure mechanism is very important for preventing hip fracture in the elderly. The aim of this study was to identify high stress and strain regions in the femur during normal walking and falling to find the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of the femur. We developed a finite element model of the femur from the subject’s quantitative computed tomography (QCT) image and used it to identify potentially high stress and strain regions during the single-leg stance and the sideways fall. It was found that fracture may initiate from the superior region of femoral neck and propagate to the inferior region during a high impact force such as sideways fall. The results of this study showed that the femur bone is more sensitive to strain than stress which indicates the effect of strain, in addition to effect of stress, should be considered for failure analysis.

Keywords: finite element analysis, hip fracture, strain, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
430 Financial Burden of Occupational Slip and Fall Incidences in Taiwan

Authors: Kai Way Li, Lang Gan

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Slip &Fall are common in Taiwan. They could result in injuries and even fatalities. Official statistics indicate that more than 15% of all occupational incidences were slip/fall related. All the workers in Taiwan are required by the law to join the worker’s insurance program administered by the Bureau of Labor Insurance (BLI). The BLI is a government agency under the supervision of the Ministry of Labor. Workers claim with the BLI for insurance compensations when they suffer fatalities or injuries at work. Injuries statistics based on worker’s compensation claims were rarely studied. The objective of this study was to quantify the injury statistics and financial cost due to slip-fall incidences based on the BLI compensation records. Compensation records in the BLI during 2007 to 2013 were retrieved. All the original application forms, approval opinions, results for worker’s compensations were in hardcopy and were stored in the BLI warehouses. Xerox copies of the claims, excluding the personal information of the applicants (or the victim if passed away), were obtained. The content in the filing forms were coded in an Excel worksheet for further analyses. Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze the data. There were a total of 35,024 claims including 82 deaths, 878 disabilities, and 34,064 injuries/illnesses which were slip/fall related. It was found that the average losses for the death cases were 40 months. The total dollar amount for these cases paid was 86,913,195 NTD. For the disability cases, the average losses were 367.36 days. The total dollar amount for these cases paid was almost 2.6 times of those for the death cases (233,324,004 NTD). For the injury/illness cases, the average losses for the illness cases were 58.78 days. The total dollar amount for these cases paid was approximately 13 times of those of the death cases (1134,850,821 NTD). For the applicants/victims, 52.3% were males. There were more males than females for the deaths, disability, and injury/illness cases. Most (57.8%) of the female victims were between 45 to 59 years old. Most of the male victims (62.6%) were, on the other hand, between 25 to 39 years old. Most of the victims were in manufacturing industry (26.41%), next the construction industry (22.20%), and next the retail industry (13.69%). For the fatality cases, head injury was the main problem for immediate or eventual death (74.4%). For the disability case, foot (17.46%) and knee (9.05%) injuries were the leading problems. The compensation claims other than fatality and disability were mainly associated with injuries of the foot (18%), hand (12.87%), knee (10.42%), back (8.83%), and shoulder (6.77%). The slip/fall cases studied indicate that the ratios among the death, disability, and injury/illness counts were 1:10:415. The ratios of dollar amount paid by the BLI for the three categories were 1:2.6:13. Such results indicate the significance of slip-fall incidences resulting in different severity. Such information should be incorporated in to slip-fall prevention program in industry.

Keywords: epidemiology, slip and fall, social burden, workers’ compensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
429 Fall Avoidance Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Type Robotic Wheelchair While Climbing Stairs

Authors: Nan Ding, Motoki Shino, Nobuyasu Tomokuni, Genki Murata

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The wheelchair is the major means of transport for physically disabled people. However, it cannot overcome architectural barriers such as curbs and stairs. In this paper, the authors proposed a method to avoid falling down of a wheeled inverted pendulum type robotic wheelchair for climbing stairs. The problem of this system is that the feedback gain of the wheels cannot be set high due to modeling errors and gear backlash, which results in the movement of wheels. Therefore, the wheels slide down the stairs or collide with the side of the stairs, and finally the wheelchair falls down. To avoid falling down, the authors proposed a slider control strategy based on skyhook model in order to decrease the movement of wheels, and a rotary link control strategy based on the staircase dimensions in order to avoid collision or slide down. The effectiveness of the proposed fall avoidance control strategy was validated by ODE simulations and the prototype wheelchair.

Keywords: EPW, fall avoidance control, skyhook, wheeled inverted pendulum

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
428 Fall Prevention: Evidence-Based Intervention in Exercise Program Implementation for Keeping Older Adults Safe and Active

Authors: Jennifer Holbein, Maritza Wiedel

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Background: Aging is associated with an increased risk of falls in older adults, and as a result, falls have become public health crises. However, the incidence of falls can be reduced through healthy aging and the implementation of a regular exercise and strengthening program. Public health and healthcare professionals authorize the use of evidence‐based, exercise‐focused fall interventions, but there are major obstacles to translating and disseminating research findings into healthcare practices. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of an intervention, A Matter of Balance, in terms of demand, acceptability, and implementation into current exercise programs. Subjects: Seventy-five participants from rural communities, above the age of sixty, were randomized to an intervention or attention-control of the standardized senior fitness test. Methods: Subject completes the intervention, which combines two components: (1) motivation and (2) fall-reducing physical activities with protocols derived from baseline strength and balanced assessments. Participants (n=75) took part in the program after completing baseline functional assessments as well as evaluations of their personal knowledge, health outcomes, demand, and implementation interventions. After 8-weeks of the program, participants were invited to complete follow-up assessments with results that were compared to their baseline functional analyses. Out of all the participants in the study who complete the initial assessment, approximately 80% are expected to maintain enrollment in the implemented prescription. Furthermore, those who commit to the program should show mitigation of fall risk upon completion of their final assessment.

Keywords: aging population, exercise, falls, functional assessment, healthy aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
427 Student Authenticity: A Foundation for First-Year Experience Courses

Authors: Amy L. Smith

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This study investigates the impact of student authenticity while engaging in academic exploration of students' sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence. Research questions include: How does incorporating authenticity in first-year academic exploration courses impact; 1) first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence? 2) first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence during the first and last halves of the fall semester? 3) first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence among various student demographics? First-year students completed a Likert-like survey at the conclusion of eight weeks (first and last eight weeks/fall semester) academic exploration courses. Course redesign included grounding the curriculum and instruction with student authenticity and creating opportunities for students to explore, define, and reflect upon their authenticity during academic exploration. Surveys were administered at the conclusion of these eight week courses (first and last eight weeks/fall semester). Data analysis included an entropy balancing matching method and t-tests. Research findings indicate integrating authenticity into academic exploration courses for first-year students has a positive impact on students' autonomy and persistence. There is a significant difference between authenticity and first-year students' autonomy (p = 0.00) and persistence (p = 0.01). Academic exploration courses with the underpinnings of authenticity are more effective in the second half of the fall semester. There is a significant difference between an academic exploration course grounding the curriculum and instruction in authenticity offered M8A (first half, fall semester) and M8B (second half, fall semester) (p = 0); M8B courses illustrate an increase of students' sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence. Integrating authenticity into academic exploration courses for first-year students has a positive impact on varying student demographics (p = 0.00). There is a significant difference between authenticity and low-income (p = 0.04), first-generation (p = 0.00), Caucasian (p = 0.02), and American Indian/Alaskan Native (p = 0.05) first-year students' sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence. Academic exploration courses embedded in authenticity helps develop first-year students’ sense of belonging, autonomy, and persistence, which are effective traits of college students. As first-year students engage in content courses, professors can empower students to have greater engagement in their learning process by relating content to students' authenticity and helping students think critically about how content is authentic to them — how students' authenticity relates to the content, how students can take their content expertise into the future in ways that, to the student, authentically contribute to the greater good. A broader conversation within higher education needs to include 1) designing courses that allow students to develop and reflect upon their authenticity/to formulate answers to the questions: who am I, who am I becoming, and how will I move my authentic self forward; and 2) a discussion of how to shift from the university shaping students to the university facilitating the process of students shaping themselves.

Keywords: authenticity, first-year experience, sense of belonging, autonomy, persistence

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
426 Understanding the Effect of Fall Armyworm and Integrated Pest Management Practices on the Farm Productivity and Food Security in Malawi

Authors: Innocent Pangapanga, Eric Mungatana

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Fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda), an invasive lepidopteran pest, has caused substantial yield loss since its first detection in September 2016, thereby threatening the farm productivity food security and poverty reduction initiatives in Malawi. Several stakeholders, including households, have adopted chemical pesticides to control FAW without accounting for its costs on welfare, health and the environment. Thus, this study has used panel data endogenous switching regression model to investigate the impact of FAW and the integrated pest management (IPM) –related practices on-farm productivity and food security. The study finds that FAW substantively reduces farm productivity by seven (7) percent and influences the adoption of IPM –related practices, namely, intercropping, mulching, and agroforestry, by 6 percent, ceteris paribus. Interestingly, multiple adoptions of the IPM -related practices noticeably increase farm productivity by 21 percent. After accounting for potential endogeneity through the endogenous switching regression model, the IPM practices further demonstrate tenfold more improvement on food security, implying the role of the IPM –related practices in containing the effect of FAW at the household level.

Keywords: hunger, invasive fall army worms, integrated pest management practices, farm productivity, endogenous switching regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
425 Evidence on the Nature and Extent of Fall in Oil Prices on the Financial Performance of Listed Companies: A Ratio Analysis Case Study of the Insurance Sector in the UAE

Authors: Pallavi Kishore, Mariam Aslam

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The sharp decline in oil prices that started in 2014 affected most economies in the world either positively or negatively. In some economies, particularly the oil exporting countries, the effects were felt immediately. The Gulf Cooperation Council’s (GCC henceforth) countries are oil and gas-dependent with the largest oil reserves in the world. UAE (United Arab Emirates) has been striving to diversify away from oil and expects higher non-oil growth in 2018. These two factors, falling oil prices and the economy strategizing away from oil dependence, make a compelling case to study the financial performance of various sectors in the economy. Among other sectors, the insurance sector is widely recognized as an important indicator of the health of the economy. An expanding population, surge in construction and infrastructure, increased life expectancy, greater expenditure on automobiles and other luxury goods translate to a booming insurance sector. A slow-down of the insurance sector, on the other hand, may indicate a general slow-down in the economy. Therefore, a study on the insurance sector will help understand the general nature of the current economy. This study involves calculations and comparisons of ratios pre and post the fall in oil prices in the insurance sector in the UAE. A sample of 33 companies listed on the official stock exchanges of UAE-Dubai Financial Market and Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange were collected and empirical analysis employed to study the financial performance pre and post fall in oil prices. Ratios were calculated in 5 categories: Profitability, Liquidity, Leverage, Efficiency, and Investment. The means pre- and post-fall are compared to conclude that the profitability ratios including ROSF (Return on Shareholder Funds), ROCE (Return on Capital Employed) and NPM (Net Profit Margin) have all taken a hit. Parametric tests, including paired t-test, concludes that while the fall in profitability ratios is statistically significant, the other ratios have been quite stable in the period. The efficiency, liquidity, gearing and investment ratios have not been severely affected by the fall in oil prices. This may be due to the implementation of stronger regulatory policies and is a testimony to the diversification into the non-oil economy. The regulatory authorities can use the findings of this study to ensure transparency in revealing financial information to the public and employ policies that will help further the health of the economy. The study will also help understand which areas within the sector could benefit from more regulations.

Keywords: UAE, insurance sector, ratio analysis, oil price, profitability, liquidity, gearing, investment, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
424 Postural Balance And Falls Risk In Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: Effect Of Gender Differences

Authors: Sonda Jallouli, Sameh Ghroubi, Salma Sakka, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Mohamed Habib Elleuch, Imen Ben Dhia, Chokri Mhiri, Omar Hammouda

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The pathophysiology, prevalence, and progression of MS are gender dependent. Indeed, the inflammation is more pronounced in women, but the neurodegeneration is more important in men. In addition, women have more sleep disorders while men suffer more from cognitive decline. These non-physical disorders can negatively affect postural balance and fall risk. However, no study has examined the difference between men and women in those physical parameters in MS. Our objective was to determine the effect gender difference on postural balance and fall risk in MS persons. Methods: Eight men and twelve women with relapsing remitting-MS participated in this study. The assessment includes a posturographic examination to assess static (with eyes opened (EO) and eyes closed (EC)) and dynamic (with EO) postural balance. Unipedal balance and fall risk were assessed by a clinical unipedal balance test and the Four Square Step Test, respectively. Sleep quality was assessed using Spiegel's questionnaire, and cognitive assessment was performed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Simple Reaction Time Test. Results: Compared to men, women showed an increase in CdPVm in static bipedal condition with EC (p=0.037; d=0.71) and a decrease in MoCA scores (p=0.028; d=1.06). No gender differences were found in the other tests. Discussion: Static postural balance was more impaired in women compared to men. This result could be explained by the more pronounced cognitive decline observed in women compared to men. Indeed, cognitive disorders have been shown to be predictive factors of postural balance impairment. Conclusion: women were less stable than men in the static condition, possibly due to their lower cognitive performance. This gender difference could be taken into account by therapists in training programs.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, bipedal postural balance, fall risk, sleep disturbance, cognitive deficiency

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423 Seasonal Variation in 25(OH)D Concentration and Sprint Performance in Elite Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Robert C. Pritchett, Elizabeth Broad, Kelly L. Pritchett

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Individuals a with spinal cord injuries have been suggested to be at risk for a 25(OH)D insufficiency. However, little is known regarding the relationship between seasonal Vitamin D status and performance in a spinally injured athletic population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was: 1) to examine the seasonal change in 25(OH)D concentrations and 2) to determine whether 25(OH)D status impacts athletic performance in US Paralympic athletes. Methods: 25 (OH)D concentrations were measured in 11 outdoor track athletes ( 5 men/6 females), between fall (October/November) and winter(February). Dietary intake and lifestyle habits were assessed via questionnaire, and performance measurements were assessed using a 20meter sprint test. 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed using a blood spot method (ZRT Laboratory). Results: There was no significant change in 25 (OH) D concentrations across seasons (P=0.505; 31 + 6.35 ng/mL, 29 + 8.72 ng/mL (mean + SD) for Fall and Winter, respectively. In the Fall,42% of the athletes had sufficient levels (>32ng/mL), and 58% were insufficient. (20ng/mL -31ng/mL) where as the winter levels dropped with 33% being sufficient and 58% being insufficient and 1% being deficient (<20ng/mL). There was a weak but significant correlation between a change in 25(OH)D concentrations, and change in 20m sprint time (p<0.05; r=0.408). Conclusion: A substantial proportion of elite athletes with an SCI have low vitamin D status. However, results suggest there was little seasonal variation in 25(OH)D status in elite track athletes with an SCI. Furthermore, any change that was observed demonstrated a very weak relationship with a change in performance.

Keywords: 25(oh)d, performance, spinal cord injuries, elite, sprint, concentration

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422 The Nursing Rounds System: Effect of Patient's Call Light Use, Bed Sores, Fall and Satisfaction Level

Authors: Bassem Saleh, Hussam Nusair, Nariman Al Zubadi, Shams Al Shloul, Usama Saleh

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The nursing round system (NRS) means checking patients on an hourly basis during the A (0700–2200 h) shift and once every 2 h during the B (2200–0700 h) by the assigned nursing staff. The overall goal of this prospective study is to implement an NRS in a major rehabilitation centre—Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City—in the Riyadh area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The purposes of this study are to measure the effect of the NRS on: (i) the use of patient call light; (ii) the number of incidences of patients’ fall; (iii) the number of incidences of hospital-acquired bed sores; and (iv) the level of patients’ satisfaction. All patients hospitalized in the male stroke unit will be involved in this study. For the period of 8 weeks (17 December 2009–17 February 2010) All Nursing staff on the unit will record each call light and the patient’s need. Implementation of the NRS would start on 18 February 2010 and last for 8 weeks, until 18 April 2010. Data collected throughout this period will be compared with data collected during the 8 weeks period immediately preceding the implementation of the NRS (17 December 2009–17 February 2010) in order to measure the impact of the call light use. The following information were collected on all subjects involved in the study: (i) the Demographic Information Form; (ii) authors’ developed NRS Audit Form; (iii) Patient Call Light Audit Form; (iv) Patient Fall Audit Record; (v) Hospital-Acquired Bed Sores Audit Form; and (vi) hospital developed Patient Satisfaction Records. The findings suggested that a significant reduction on the use of call bell (P < 0.001), a significant reduction of fall incidence (P < 0.01) while pressure ulcer reduced by 50% before and after the implementation of NRS. In addition, the implementation of NRS increased patient satisfaction by 7/5 (P < 0.05).

Keywords: call light, patient-care management, patient safety, patient satisfaction, rounds

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421 Research on the Development of Ancient Cities in Wenzhou from the Historical Perspective

Authors: Ying Sun, Ji-wu Wang

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The establishment of a city is the result of the accumulation of local historical and cultural heritage and the sublimation of settlements. Take history as a mirror, it’s known how the things rise and fall. Based on the perspective of history, the development of the ancient city of Wenzhou was combed, and the urban development history of Wenzhou in 2200 could be divided into seven stages. This paper mainly studies the four stages of germination, formation, initial development and tortuous development, explores the external and internal driving forces of urban development and the structural evolution of urban layout, and discusses how the ancient Wenzhou evolved from a remote town to an important coastal port city. This paper finds that the most important factors affecting the development of ancient cities in Wenzhou are war, policy and geographical environment, and then points out the importance of urban policies to the rise and fall of cities.

Keywords: ancient city development, history, Wenzhou city, city policy

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420 Development of an Image-Based Biomechanical Model for Assessment of Hip Fracture Risk

Authors: Masoud Nasiri Sarvi, Yunhua Luo

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Low-trauma hip fracture, usually caused by fall from standing height, has become a main source of morbidity and mortality for the elderly. Factors affecting hip fracture include sex, race, age, body weight, height, body mass distribution, etc., and thus, hip fracture risk in fall differs widely from subject to subject. It is therefore necessary to develop a subject-specific biomechanical model to predict hip fracture risk. The objective of this study is to develop a two-level, image-based, subject-specific biomechanical model consisting of a whole-body dynamics model and a proximal-femur finite element (FE) model for more accurately assessing the risk of hip fracture in lateral falls. Required information for constructing the model is extracted from a whole-body and a hip DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) image of the subject. The proposed model considers all parameters subject-specifically, which will provide a fast, accurate, and non-expensive method for predicting hip fracture risk.

Keywords: bone mineral density, hip fracture risk, impact force, sideways falls

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419 Eliminating Injury in the Work Place and Realizing Vision Zero Using Accident Investigation and Analysis as Method: A Case Study

Authors: Ramesh Kumar Behera, Md. Izhar Hassan

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Accident investigation and analysis are useful to identify deficiencies in plant, process, and management practices and formulate preventive strategies for injury elimination. In India and other parts of the world, industrial accidents are investigated to know the causes and also to fulfill legal compliances. However, findings of investigation are seldom used appropriately to strengthen Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in expected lines. The mineral rich state of Odisha in eastern coast of India; known as a hub for Iron and Steel industries, witnessed frequent accidents during 2005-2009. This article based on study of 982 fatal ‘factory-accidents’ occurred in Odisha during the period 2001-2016, discusses the ‘turnaround-story’ resulting in reduction of fatal accident from 122 in 2009 to 45 in 2016. This paper examines various factors causing incidents; accident pattern in steel and chemical sector; role of climate and harsh weather conditions on accident causation. Software such as R, SQL, MS-Excel and Tableau were used for analysis of data. It is found that maximum fatality is caused due to ‘fall from height’ (24%); steel industries are relatively more accident prone; harsh weather conditions of summer increase chances of accident by 20%. Further, the study suggests that enforcement of partial work-restriction around lunch time during peak summer, screening and training of employees reduce accidents due to fall from height. The study indicates that learning from accident investigation and analysis can be used as a method to reduce work related accidents in the journey towards ‘Vision Zero’.

Keywords: accident investigation and analysis, fatal accidents in India, fall from height, vision zero

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418 Analytical Solution for End Depth Ratio in Rectangular Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman, Abir Abdulrahman

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Free over-fall is an instrument for measuring discharge in open channels by measuring end depth. A comprehensive researchers investigated theoretically and experimentally brink phenomenon with various approaches for different cross-sectional shapes. Anderson's method, based on Boussinq's approximation and energy approach was used to derive a pressure distribution factor at end depth. Applying the one-dimensional momentum equation and the principles of limit slope analysis, a relevant analytical solution may be derived for brink depth ratio (EDR) in prismatic rectangular channel. Also relationships between end depth ratio and slope ratio for a given non-dimensional normal or critical depth with upstream supercritical flow regime are presented. Simple indirect procedure is used to estimate the end depth discharge ratio (EDD) for subcritical and supercritical flow using measured end depth. The comparison of this analysis with all previous theoretical and experimental studies showed an excellent agreement.

Keywords: analytical solution, brink depth, end depth, flow measurement, free over fall, hydraulics, rectangular channel

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417 Economic Development Process: A Compartmental Analysis of a Model with Two Delays

Authors: Amadou Banda Ndione, Charles Awono Onana

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In this paper the compartmental approach is applied to build a macroeconomic model characterized by countries. We consider a total of N countries that are subdivided into three compartments according to their economic status: D(t) denotes the compartment of developing countries at time t, E(t) stands for the compartment of emerging countries at time t while A(t) represents advanced countries at time t. The model describes the process of economic development and includes the notion of openness through collaborations between countries. Two delays appear in this model to describe the average time necessary for collaborations between countries to become efficient for their development process. Our model represents the different stages of development. It further gives the conditions under which a country can change its economic status and demonstrates the short-term positive effect of openness on economic growth. In addition, we investigate bifurcation by considering the delay as a bifurcation parameter and examine the onset and termination of Hopf bifurcations from a positive equilibrium. Numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate the theoretical part and to support discussion.

Keywords: compartmental systems, delayed dynamical system, economic development, fiscal policy, hopf bifurcation

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416 Prevalence of Malocclusion and Assessment of Orthodontic Treatment Needs in Malay Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia Patients

Authors: Mohamed H. Kosba, Heba A. Ibrahim, H. Rozita

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Statement of the Problem: The life expectancy for transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients has increased dramatically with iron-chelation therapy and other modern management modalities. In these patients, the most dominant maxillofacial manifestations are protrusion of zygomatic bones and premaxilla due to the hyperplasia of bone marrow. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) among Malay transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. Orientation: This is a cross-sectional study consist of 43 Malay transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients, 22 males, and 19 females with the mean age of 15.9 years old (SD 3.58). The subjects were selected randomly from patients attending Paediatrics and Internal Medicine Clinic at Hospital USM and Hospital Sultana Bahiyah. The subjects were assessed for malocclusion according to Angle’s classification, and orthodontic treatment needs using DAI. The results show that 22 of the subjects (51.1%) have class II malocclusion, 12 subjects (28%) have class І, while 9 subjects (20.9%) have class Ⅲ. The assessment of orthodontic treatment needs to reveal 22 cases (51.1%) fall in the normal/minor needs category, 12 subjects (28%) fall in the severe and very severe category, while 9 subjects (20.9%) fall in the definite category. Conclusion & Significance: Half of Malay transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients have Class Ⅱmalocclusion. About 28% had malocclusion and required orthodontic treatment. This research shows that Malay transfusion-dependent thalassemia may require orthodontic management; earlier intervention to reduce the complexity of the treatment later, suggesting functional appliance as a suitable treatment option for them, a twin block appliance together with headgear to restrict maxillary growth suggested for management. The current protocol implemented by the Malaysian Ministry of Health for the management of these patients seems to be sufficient since the result shows that about 28% require orthodontic treatment need, according to DAI.

Keywords: prevalence, DAI, thalassaemia, angle classification

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415 Dynamic Conformal Arc versus Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Image Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Cranial Lesion

Authors: Chor Yi Ng, Christine Kong, Loretta Teo, Stephen Yau, FC Cheung, TL Poon, Francis Lee

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Purpose: Dynamic conformal arc (DCA) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are two treatment techniques commonly used for stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy of cranial lesions. IMRT plans usually give better dose conformity while DCA plans have better dose fall off. Rapid dose fall off is preferred for radiotherapy of cranial lesions, but dose conformity is also important. For certain lesions, DCA plans have good conformity, while for some lesions, the conformity is just unacceptable with DCA plans, and IMRT has to be used. The choice between the two may not be apparent until each plan is prepared and dose indices compared. We described a deviation index (DI) which is a measurement of the deviation of the target shape from a sphere, and test its functionality to choose between the two techniques. Method and Materials: From May 2015 to May 2017, our institute has performed stereotactic radiotherapy for 105 patients treating a total of 115 lesions (64 DCA plans and 51 IMRT plans). Patients were treated with the Varian Clinac iX with HDMLC. Brainlab Exactrac system was used for patient setup. Treatment planning was done with Brainlab iPlan RT Dose (Version 4.5.4). DCA plans were found to give better dose fall off in terms of R50% (R50% (DCA) = 4.75 Vs R50% (IMRT) = 5.242) while IMRT plans have better conformity in terms of treatment volume ratio (TVR) (TVR(DCA) = 1.273 Vs TVR(IMRT) = 1.222). Deviation Index (DI) is proposed to better facilitate the choice between the two techniques. DI is the ratio of the volume of a 1 mm shell of the PTV and the volume of a 1 mm shell of a sphere of identical volume. DI will be close to 1 for a near spherical PTV while a large DI will imply a more irregular PTV. To study the functionality of DI, 23 cases were chosen with PTV volume ranged from 1.149 cc to 29.83 cc, and DI ranged from 1.059 to 3.202. For each case, we did a nine field IMRT plan with one pass optimization and a five arc DCA plan. Then the TVR and R50% of each case were compared and correlated with the DI. Results: For the 23 cases, TVRs and R50% of the DCA and IMRT plans were examined. The conformity for IMRT plans are better than DCA plans, with majority of the TVR(DCA)/TVR(IMRT) ratios > 1, values ranging from 0.877 to1.538. While the dose fall off is better for DCA plans, with majority of the R50%(DCA)/ R50%(IMRT) ratios < 1. Their correlations with DI were also studied. A strong positive correlation was found between the ratio of TVRs and DI (correlation coefficient = 0.839), while the correlation between the ratio of R50%s and DI was insignificant (correlation coefficient = -0.190). Conclusion: The results suggest DI can be used as a guide for choosing the planning technique. For DI greater than a certain value, we can expect the conformity for DCA plans to become unacceptably great, and IMRT will be the technique of choice.

Keywords: cranial lesions, dynamic conformal arc, IMRT, image guided radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy

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414 Hemp Defoliation Technology and Management before Harvesting

Authors: Rataya Yanaphan, Saksiri Kuppatarat, Sarita Pinmanee

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Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. ssp. Sativa) cultivation for fiber is limited by extremely high labor cost, especially for the removal of the leaves before harvest. This study evaluated chemical defoliants as a means to remove the leaves of hemp before harvest, in an effort to reduce labor expenditures in the production on hemp fiber. This study was conducted by spraying the leaves of hemp with five different treatments: saline solution, Urea (CH4N2O), Ethephon, copper Sulphate (CuSO4) and water (control) before harvesting. The largest percentage of leaf loss 6 days after spraying was with saline solution (43%), followed by Ethephon (32%). However, saline solution also caused drying of the stems but Ethephon did not. Thus, Ethephon was evaluated in the second experiment by spraying with Ethephon concentrations of 0, 10, 15 and 20 ml per 1 liter of water at 7 days before harvest. Spraying with 0.5% Ethephon resulted in 13.6% leaf fall. Spraying with 1.5% and 2% Ethephon resulted in 82.2% and 82.3 % leaf fall, respectively. In addition, using Ethephon to defoliate hemp had no detrimental effect the yield. Therefore, Ethephon concentration at 15 ml per 1 liter of water will be recommended for use in removing hemp leaves by spraying at 7 days before harvest to lower labor cost.

Keywords: defoliation technology, ethephon, hemp cultivation, saline solution

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413 The Intention to Use Telecare in People of Fall Experience: Application of Fuzzy Neural Network

Authors: Jui-Chen Huang, Shou-Hsiung Cheng

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This study examined their willingness to use telecare for people who have had experience falling in the last three months in Taiwan. This study adopted convenience sampling and a structural questionnaire to collect data. It was based on the definition and the constructs related to the Health Belief Model (HBM). HBM is comprised of seven constructs: perceived benefits (PBs), perceived disease threat (PDT), perceived barriers of taking action (PBTA), external cues to action (ECUE), internal cues to action (ICUE), attitude toward using (ATT), and behavioral intention to use (BI). This study adopted Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) to put forward an effective method. It shows the dependence of ATT on PB, PDT, PBTA, ECUE, and ICUE. The training and testing data RMSE (root mean square error) are 0.028 and 0.166 in the FNN, respectively. The training and testing data RMSE are 0.828 and 0.578 in the regression model, respectively. On the other hand, as to the dependence of ATT on BI, as presented in the FNN, the training and testing data RMSE are 0.050 and 0.109, respectively. The training and testing data RMSE are 0.529 and 0.571 in the regression model, respectively. The results show that the FNN method is better than the regression analysis. It is an effective and viable good way.

Keywords: fall, fuzzy neural network, health belief model, telecare, willingness

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