Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 93

Search results for: adjuvant

93 Development of Biosurfactant-Based Adjuvant for Enhancing Biocontrol Efficiency

Authors: Kanyarat Sikhao, Nichakorn Khondee

Abstract:

Adjuvant is commonly mixed with agricultural spray solution during foliar application to improve the performance of microbial-based biological control, including better spreading, absorption, and penetration on a plant leaf. This research aims to replace chemical surfactants in adjuvant by biosurfactants for reducing a negative impact on antagonistic microorganisms and crops. Biosurfactant was produced from Brevibacterium casei NK8 and used as a cell-free broth solution containing a biosurfactant concentration of 3.7 g/L. The studies of microemulsion formation and phase behavior were applied to obtain the suitable composition of biosurfactant-based adjuvant, consisting of cell-free broth (70-80%), coconut oil-based fatty alcohol C12-14 (3) ethoxylate (1-7%), and sodium chloride (8-30%). The suitable formula, achieving Winsor Type III microemulsion (bicontinuous), was 80% of cell-free broth, 7% of fatty alcohol C12-14 (3) ethoxylate, and 8% sodium chloride. This formula reduced the contact angle of water on parafilm from 70 to 31 degrees. The non-phytotoxicity against plant seed of Oryza sativa and Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis were obtained from biosurfactant-based adjuvant (germination index equal and above 80%), while sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween80 showed phytotoxic effects to these plant seeds. The survival of Bacillus subtilis in biosurfactant-based adjuvant was higher than sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween80. The mixing of biosurfactant and plant-based surfactant could be considered as a viable, safer, and acceptable alternative to chemical adjuvant for sustainable organic farming.

Keywords: biosurfactant, microemulsion, bio-adjuvant, antagonistic microorganisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
92 Improvement of Spray Retention on Barley

Authors: Hassina Hafida Boukhalfa, Mohamed Belhamra

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Adjuvants contribute to change the types of impact and thus the amount of spray retained by the leaves of the treated plant. We have performed tests of retention on barley plants on BBCH 12 stage and small pieces of barley leaves at the same stage of growth. Spraying was done in three ways: water without adjuvant, water with Break-Thru® S240 and water with Li700®. The three slurries of fluorescein contained in an amount of 0.2 g/l. Fluorescein retained by the leaves in both cases is then measured by a spectrofluoremeter. The retention tests on whole plants show that it is tripled by the first adjuvant and doubled by the second. By cons on small pieces of barley leaves, the amount was increased by the use of surfactants but not to the same scale. This study concluded that the use of adjuvants in spray pesticides may increase the amount of retention as a function of leaf area and the type of adjuvant.

Keywords: Barley, adjuvant, spray retention, fluorometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
91 Monitoring of Humoral Immune Response of Monovalent and Combined PPR and FMD Serotype 'O' Virus Vaccines in Goats

Authors: Mudassar Hameed, Khushi Muhammad, Aamir Ghafoor, Masood Rabbani, Momena Habib, Jawad Nazir

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Comparative efficacy of three formulations (non-adjuvant, gel, and oil adjuvant) of monovalent and combined PPR and FMD virus vaccines was evaluated in goats. All kinds of monovalent PPRV vaccines elicited protective antibody titers at one-month post vaccination (PV) that remained so till six months PV. Monovalent non-adjuvant (NA) FMDV vaccine provoked non-protective antibody titers that declined to undetectable levels after three months. In case of combined vaccines, all of the formulations elicited protective antibody titers against PPRV in vaccinated animals which remained above that limit for six months. However, an exceptional immune response against FMDV was observed in combined NA vaccine group where antibody titers were extremely high and remained above protective level till 4 months PV in animals who received a single vaccine shot and till six months PV in booster group. Although, adjuvant or NA combined vaccines can induce protective antibody titers against both of the viruses within one month PV, but a booster vaccine shot is needed to retain protective antibody level for 6 months duration. Immune response elicited by combined vaccines is comparable or superior to the monovalent vaccines. Hence combined vaccine can be effectively used for the control and prevention of both of the diseases.

Keywords: antibody titer, protective, combined vaccine, non adjuvant

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
90 Elaboration and Characterization of Self-Compacting Mortar Based Biopolymer

Authors: I. Djefour, M. Saidi, I. Tlemsani, S. Toubal

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Lignin is a molecule derived from wood and also generated as waste from the paper industry. With a view to its valorization and protection of the environment, we are interested in its use as a superplasticizer-type adjuvant in mortars and concretes to improve their mechanical strengths. The additives of the concrete have a very strong influence on the properties of the fresh and / or hardened concrete. This study examines the development and use of industrial waste and lignin extracted from a renewable natural source (wood) in cementitious materials. The use of these resources is known at present as a definite resurgence of interest in the development of building materials. Physicomechanical characteristics of mortars are determined by optimization quantity of the natural superplasticizer. The results show that the mechanical strengths of mortars based on natural adjuvant have improved by 20% (64 MPa) for a W/C ratio = 0.4, and the amount of natural adjuvant of dry extract needed is 40 times smaller than commercial adjuvant. This study has a scientific impact (improving the performance of the mortar with an increase in compactness and reduction of the quantity of water), ecological use of the lignin waste generated by the paper industry) and economic reduction of the cost price necessary to elaboration of self-compacting mortars and concretes).

Keywords: biopolymer (lignin), industrial waste, mechanical resistances, self compacting mortars (SCM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
89 Evaluation of Anti-Arthritic Activity of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb in Freund's Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritic Rat Model

Authors: Akshada Amit Koparde, Candrakant S. Magdum

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Objective: To investigate the anti-arthritic activity of chloroform extract and Isolate 1 of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and dichloromethane extract and Isolate 2 of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb in adjuvant arthritic (AA) rat model induced by Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA). Methods: Forty two healthy albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups. Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA) was used to induce arthritis and then treated with chloroform extract, isolate 1 and dichloromethane extract, isolate 2 for 28 days. The various parameters like paw volume, haematological parameters (RBC, WBC, Hb and ESR), were studied. Structural elucidation of active constituents isolate 1 and isolate 2 from Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb will be done using GCMS and H1NMR. Results: In FCA induced arthritic rats, there was significant increase in rat paw volume whereas chloroform extract and Isolate 1 of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and dichloromethane extract and Isolate 2 of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb treated groups showed strong significant reduction in paw volume. The altered haematological parameters in the arthritic rats were significantly recovered to near normal by the treatment with extracts at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Further histopathological studies revealed the anti-arthritic activity of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb by preventing cartilage and bone destruction of the arthritic joints of AA rats. Conclusion: Extracts and isolates of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb have shown anti-arthritic activity. Decrease in paw volume and normalization of haematological abnormalities in adjuvant induced arthritic rats is significantly seen in the experiment. Further histopathological studies confirmed the anti-arthritic activity of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.

Keywords: arthritis, Eulophia ochreata Lindl, Freund's complete adjuvant, paw volume, Zingiber cassumunar Roxb

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
88 Adjuvant Effect and Mineral Addition in Aggressive Environments on the Sustainability of Using Local Materials Concretes

Authors: M. Belouadah, S. Rahmouni, N. Teballe

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The durability of concrete is not one of its features, but its response to service loads and environmental conditions. Thus, the durability of concrete depends on a variety of material characteristics, but also the aggressiveness of the environment. Much durability problems encountered in tropical regions (region M'sila) due to the presence of chlorides and sulfates (in the ground or in the aggregate) with the additional aggravation of the effect of hot weather and arid. This lack of sustainability has a direct influence on the structure of the building and can lead to the complete deterioration of many buildings. The characteristics of the nature of fillers are evaluated based on the degree of aggressiveness of the environment considering as a means of characterization: mechanical strength, porosity. Specimens will be exposed to different storage media chemically aggressive drinking water, salts and sulfates (sodium chloride, MgSO4), solutions are not renewed or PH control solutions. The parameters taken into account are: age, the nature and degree of aggressiveness of the environment conservation, the incorporation of adjuvant type superplasticizer dosage and mineral additives.

Keywords: ordinary concretes, marble powder fillers, adjuvant, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
87 Comparative Study of Amyloidogenic Potential of AgNO3 and Freund's Adjuvant (AF) with That of Vitamin Free Casein, on Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Experimental Amyloidosis in Mice

Authors: Alireza Javed, Keivan Jamshidi

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Reactive amyloidosis is a condition that complicates a long list of chronic inflammation, chronic infectious, malignant, and hereditary disorders. In the present study the potential effects of two amyloidogenic substances: ie. AgNO3 and Freund's Adjuvant (AF) with that of vitamin free casein, on spatio-temporal pattern of experimental amyloidosis in mice, were compared. For this purpose, a total of 40 male Swees mice, obtained from Pasteur Institute Tehran, after being weighted were randomly divided into 4 groups including 2 treatments, 1 control (vitamin free casein) and 1 positive control (normal saline). At the end of 3rd, 5th and 7th weeks of experiment 3 mice were randomly selected and euthnised. Spleen sample of each animal obtained and preserved in 10% neutral buffer formalin. Sample were then processed through different stages of dehydration, clearing and impregnation and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by alkaline Congo red techniques. Spleen weights and the data obtained from the microscopic quantitative analysis did show no significant differences between groups A and B, A and C, and B and C. However, significant differences were observed between groups A and D, B and D, and C and D respectively. It is concluded that two compounds ie; AgNO3 and Freund's Adjuvant have the same potential, as does vitamin free casein have, in spatio – temporal pattern of experimental amyloidosis in mice.

Keywords: amyloidosis, mice, AgNO3, Freund's Adjuvant

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
86 Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Arthritic Effects of Mirtazapine, Venalfaxine and Escitalopram in Rats

Authors: Sally A. El Awdan

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Objective and Design: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti inflammatory, anti-arthritic and analgesic effects of antidepressants. Methods: Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4th hour post challenge. Anti-nociceptive effect was evaluated by hot plate method. Chronic inflammation was developed using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). The animals were injected with Freund’s adjuvant in sub-plantar tissue of the right posterior paw. Paw volume, ankle flexion scores, adjuvant-induced hyperalgesia and serum cytokine levels were assessed. Results: Results obtained demonstrate that mirtazapine, venalfaxine and escitalopram significantly and dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. Mirtazapine, venalfaxine and escitalopram increased the reaction time of rats in hot plate test. We observed an increase in paw volume, ankle flexion scores, thermal hyperalgesia, serum levels of interleukin-1β, PGE2 and TNF-α, induced by intraplantar CFA injection. Regular treatment up to 28 days of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats with mirtazapine, venalfaxine and escitalopram showed anti anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by suppressing the paw volume, recovering the paw withdrawal latency, and by inhibiting the ankle flexion scores in CFA-induced rats. In addition significant reduction in serum levels of interleukin-1β, PGE2 and TNF-α level in arthritic rats was reduced by treatment with drugs. Conclusion: These results suggest that antidepressants have significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects in acute and chronic models in rats, which may be associated with the reduction of interleukin-1β, PGE2 and TNF-α levels.

Keywords: antidepressants, carrageenan, anti-nociceptive, Complete Freund's Adjuvant

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
85 Treatment Outcome Of Corneal Ulcers Using Levofloxacin Hydrate 1.5% Ophthalmic Solution And Adjuvant Oral Ciprofloxacin, A Treatment Strategy Applicable To Primary Healthcare

Authors: Celine Shi Ying Lee, Jong Jian Lee

Abstract:

Background: Infectious keratitis is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Prompt treatment with effective medication will control the infection early, preventing corneal scarring and visual loss. fluoroquinolones ophthalmic medication is used because of its broad-spectrum properties, potency, good intraocular penetration, and low toxicity. The study aims to evaluate the treatment outcome of corneal ulcers using Levofloxacin 1.5% ophthalmic solution (LVFX) with adjuvant oral ciprofloxacin when indicated and apply this treatment strategy in primary health care as first-line treatment. Methods: Patients with infective corneal ulcer treated in an eye center were recruited. Inclusion criteria includes Corneal infection consistent with bacterial keratitis, single or multiple small corneal ulcers. Treatment regime: LVFX hourly for the first 2 days, 2 hourly from the 3rd day, and 3 hourly on the 5th day of review. Adjuvant oral ciprofloxacin 500mg BD was administered for 5 days if there were multiple corneal ulcers or when the location of the cornea ulcer was central or paracentral. Results: 47 subjects were recruited. There were 16 (34%) males and 31 (66%) females. 40 subjects (85%) were contact lens (CL) related to corneal ulcer, and 7 subjects (15%) were non-contact lens related. 42 subjects (89%) presented with one ulcer, of which 20 of them (48%) needed adjuvant therapy. 5 subjects presented with 2 or 3 ulcers, of which 3 needed adjuvant therapy. A total of 23 subjects (49%) was given adjuvant therapy (oral ciprofloxacin 500mg BD for 5 days).21 of them (91%) were CL related. All subjects recovered fully, and the average duration of treatment was 3.7 days, with 49% of the subjects resolved on the 3rd day, 38% on the 5thday of and 13% on the 7thday. All subjects showed symptoms of relief of pain, light-sensitivity, and redness on the 3rd day with full visual recovery post-treatment. No adverse drug reactions were recorded. Conclusion: Our treatment regime demonstrated good clinical outcome as first-line treatment for corneal ulcers. A corneal ulcer is a common eye condition in Singapore, mainly due to CL wear. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent and potentially sight-threatening pathogen involved in CL related corneal ulcer. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus Pneumoniae were seen in non-CL users. All these bacteria exhibit good sensitivity rates to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. It is therefore logical in our study to use LVFX Eyedrops and adjuvant ciprofloxacin oral antibiotics when indicated as first line treatment for most corneal ulcers. Our study of patients, both CL related and non-CL related, have shown good clinical response and full recovery using the above treatment strategy. There was also a full restoration of visual acuity in all the patients. Eye-trained primary Healthcare practitioners can consider adopting this treatment strategy as first line treatment in patients with corneal ulcers. This is relevant during the COVID pandemic, where hospitals are overwhelmed with patients and in regions with limited access to specialist eye care. This strategy would enable early treatment with better clinical outcome.

Keywords: corneal ulcer, levofloxacin hydrate, treatment strategy, ciprofloxacin

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
84 Neo-Adjuvant B-CAT Chemotherapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Muneeb Nasir, Misbah Masood, Farrukh Rashid, Abubabakar Shahid

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Introduction: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is a potent option for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) as these tumours lack a clearly defined therapeutic target. Several recent studies lend support that pathological complete remission (pCR) is associated with improved disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and could be used as surrogate marker for DFS and OS in breast cancer patients. Methods: We have used a four-drug protocol in T3 and T4 TNBC patients either N+ or N- in the neo-adjuvant setting. The 15 patients enrolled in this study had a median age of 45 years. 12 patients went on to complete four planned cycles of B-CAT protocol. The chemotherapy regimen included inj. Bevacizumab 5mg/kg D1, inj. Adriamycin 50mg/m2 D1 and Docetaxel 65mg/m2 on D1. Inj. Cisplatin 60mg/m2 on D2. All patients received GCF support from D4 to D9 of each cycle. Results: Radiological assessment using ultrasound and PET-CT revealed a high percentage of responses. Radiological CR was documented in half of the patients (6/12) after four cycles. Remaining patients went on to receive 2 more cycles before undergoing radical surgery. pCR was documented in 7/12 patients and 3 more had a good partial response. The regimen was toxic and grade ¾ neutropenia was seen in 58% of patients. Four episodes of febrile neutropenia were reported and managed. Non-hematatological toxicities were common with mucositis, diarrhea, asthenia and neuropathy topping the list. Conclusion: B-CAT is a very active combination with very high pCR rates in TNBC. Toxicities though frequent, were manageable on outpatient basis. This protocol warrants further investigation.

Keywords: B-CAT:bevacizumab, cisplatin, adriamycin, taxotere, CR: complete response, pCR: pathological complete response, TNBC: triple negative breast cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
83 A Literature Review: The Anti-Obesity Effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extraction as a Potential Adjuvant Therapy for Management Obesity

Authors: Nunuy Nuraeni, Vera Amalia Lestari, Atri Laranova, Viena Nissa Mien Fadhillah, Mutia, Muhammad Ikhlas Abdian Putra

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Introduction: Obesity is a common disease with high prevalence especially in developing countries including Indonesia. The obesitygenic lifestyle such as excessive intake of food, sedentary lifestyle is the major environmental etiologies of obesity. Obesity is also as one of burden disease with high morbidity due to its complication, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The objective of this literature review is to know how the Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis effect as anti-obesity agent and reduce the complication of obesity. Material and Methods: This study based on the secondary data analysis complemented by primary data collection from several journal and textbook. We identified the effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis as adjuvant therapy for management obesity and to prevent the complications of obesity. Results: Based on the result, Green tea or Camellia sinensis contain Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate (EGCG) that has anti-obesity effect such as induce apoptosis, inhibit adipogenesis, increasing lipolytic activity, increasing fat oxidation and thermogenesis. Discussion: EGCG are naturally distributed in green tea, that contains a biological activity that has a potential effect to treat obesity. Conclusion: EGCG are capable to treat obesity. By consuming EGCG can prevent obesity in normal health person and prevent complication in patient with obesity.

Keywords: adjuvant therapy, anti-obesity effect, complication, epigallocathecin-3-gallate, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
82 Remote Electroacupuncture Analgesia at Contralateral LI4 Acupoint in Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Inflammatory Hindpaw Pain

Authors: Tong-Chien Wu, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

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There are accumulating evidences surrounding the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture (EA). Local EA can reliably attenuate inflammatory pain in mouse with unclear mechanisms. However, the effect of EA on distal and contralateral acupoint for pain control has been rarely studied and the result was controversial. Here in our study, we found that inflammatory hindpaw pain in mouth, which was induced by injecting the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) 2 days ago can be alleviated immediately after 2Hz 15mins EA treatment at contralateral forefoot acupoint LI4 through both mechanic and thermal behavior test, while sham acupoint group is not. The efficacy was observed to be more obvious after the second round of EA treatment on the following day. This analgesic effect is produced by applying EA to a site remote from the painful area. The present study provides a powerful experimental animal model that can be used for investigating the unique physiological mechanisms involved in acupuncture analgesia.

Keywords: remote electroacupuncture, distal EA, pain control, anti-inflammation

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
81 Efficacy of Celecoxib Adjunct Treatment on Bipolar Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Daniela V. Bavaresco, Tamy Colonetti, Antonio Jose Grande, Francesc Colom, Joao Quevedo, Samira S. Valvassori, Maria Ines da Rosa

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Objective: Performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluated the potential effect of the cyclo-oxygenases (Cox)-2 inhibitor Celecoxib adjunct treatment in Bipolar Disorder (BD), through of randomized controlled trials. Method: A search of the electronic databases was proceeded, on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Biomed Central, Web of Science, IBECS, LILACS, PsycINFO (American Psychological Association), Congress Abstracts, and Grey literature (Google Scholar and the British Library) for studies published from January 1990 to February 2018. A search strategy was developed using the terms: 'Bipolar disorder' or 'Bipolar mania' or 'Bipolar depression' or 'Bipolar mixed' or 'Bipolar euthymic' and 'Celecoxib' or 'Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors' or 'Cox-2 inhibitors' as text words and Medical Subject Headings (i.e., MeSH and EMTREE) and searched. The therapeutic effects of adjunctive treatment with Celecoxib were analyzed, it was possible to carry out a meta-analysis of three studies included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis was performed including the final results of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at the end of randomized controlled trials (RCT). Results: Three primary studies were included in the systematic review, with a total of 121 patients. The meta-analysis had significant effect in the YMRS scores from patients with BD who used Celecoxib adjuvant treatment in comparison to placebo. The weighted mean difference was 5.54 (95%CI=3.26-7.82); p < 0.001; I2 =0%). Conclusion: The systematic review suggests that adjuvant treatment with Celecoxib improves the response of major treatments in patients with BD when compared with adjuvant placebo treatment.

Keywords: bipolar disorder, Cox-2 inhibitors, Celecoxib, systematic review, meta-analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
80 Effect of Four Medicinal Plant Extracts on Chickpea Leaf Miner Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani)

Authors: Sabraoui Abdelhadi, El Bouhssini Mustapha, Lhaloui Saadia, El Fakhouri Karim, Bouchelta Aziz

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The surveys carried out in 2014, 2015 in the regions of Abda- Doukala, Chaouia- Ouardigha, Zemour- Zair and Fes- Sais have confirmed that the leaf miner was the main insect pest attacking chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Morocco. The grain yield losses caused by this pest could be more than 20% for winter planting and more than 42% for spring-sown crop. To reduce the chickpea leaf miner infestations, four essential oils, as biopesticide alternatives, were tested for their insecticidal effect on L. ciccerina, adults and larvae under laboratory conditions. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of these essential oils with and without adjuvant against this pest in comparison to three insecticides under field conditions. Mentha pulegium, with a dose of 33 µl/l of air caused 100% mortality on adults and larvae, after three hours and six hours of exposure, respectively. Eucalyptus showed 100% mortality on adults and larvae, with doses of 33 and 83 µl/l, after six and three hours of exposure, respectively. In the field conditions M. pulegium and E. globulus with adjuvant showed promising results compared with Abamectin, Azadirachtin and Spinetoram respectively. Essential oils could be used as one of the IPM components for the control of chickpea leaf miner.

Keywords: Liriomyza cicerina, chickpea, essential oils, insecticidal activity, Morocco

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
79 Inhibitory Effect of Coumaroyl Lupendioic Acid on Inflammation Mediator Generation in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis

Authors: Rayhana Begum, Manju Sharma

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Careya arborea Roxb. belongs to the Lecythidaceae family, is traditionally used in tumors, anthelmintic, bronchitis, epileptic fits, astringents, inflammation, an antidote to snake-venom, skin disease, diarrhea, dysentery with bloody stools, dyspepsia, ulcer, toothache, and ear pain. The present study was focused on investigating the anti-arthritic effect of coumaroyl lupendioic acid, a new lupane-type triterpene from Careya arborea stem bark in the chronic inflammatory model and further assessing its possible mechanism on the modulation of inflammatory biomarkers. Arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (5 mg/ml of heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis) into the subplantar region of the left hind paw. Treatment with coumaroyl lupendioic acid (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) and reference drugs (indomethacin and dexamethasone at the dose of 5 mg/kg, p.o.) were started on the day of induction and continued up to 28 days. The progression of arthritis was evaluated by measuring paw volume, tibio tarsal joint diameters, and arthritic index. The effect of coumaroyl lupendioic acid (CLA) on the production PGE₂, NO, MPO, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 on serum level as well as inflamed paw tissue were also assessed. In addition, ankle joints and spleen were collected and prepared for histological examination. CLA in inflamed rats resulted in significant amelioration of paw edema, tibio-tarsal joint swelling and arthritic score as compared to CFA control group. The results indicated that CLA treated groups markedly decreased the levels of inflammatory mediators (PGE₂, NO, MPO and NF-κB levels) and down-regulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in paw tissue homogenates as well as in serum. However, the more pronounced effect was observed in the inflamed paw tissue homogenates. CLA also revealed a protective effect to the tibio-tarsal joint cartilage and spleen. These results suggest that coumaroyl lupendioic acid inhibits inflammation may be through the suppression of the cascade of proinflammatory mediators via the down-regulation of NF-ҡB.

Keywords: complete Freund’s adjuvant , Coumaroyl lupendioic acid, pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
78 Pre-Malignant Breast Lesions, Methods of Treatment and Outcome

Authors: Ahmed Mostafa, Mohamed Mahmoud, Nesreen H. Hafez, Mohamed Fahim

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This retrospective study includes 60 patients with pre-invasive breast cancer. Aim of the study: Evaluation of premalignant lesions of the breast (DCIS), different treatment methods and outcome. Patients and methods: 60 patients with DCIS were studied from the period between 2005 to 2012, for 38 patients the primary surgical method was wide local resection (WLE) (63.3%) and the other cases (22 patients, 36.7%) had mastectomy, fourteen cases from those who underwent local excision received radiotherapy, while no adjuvant radiotherapy was given for those who underwent mastectomy. In case of hormonal receptor positive DCIS lesions hormonal treatment (Tamoxifen) was given after local control. Results: No difference in overall survival between mastectomy & breast conserving therapy (wide local excision and adjuvant radiotherapy), however local recurrence rate is higher in case of breast conserving therapy, also no role of Axillary evacuation in case of DCIS. The use of hormonal therapy decreases the incidence of local recurrence by about 98%. Conclusion: The main management of DCIS is local treatment (wide local excision and radiotherapy) with hormonal treatment in case of hormone receptor positive lesions.

Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ, surgical treatment, radiotherapy, breast conserving therapy, hormonal treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
77 Evaluation of Immunostimulant Potential of Proteoliposomes Derived from Vibrio anguillarum Administered by Immersion in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Authors: M. Caruffo, P. Navarrete, C. G. Feijoo, L. Sáenz

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Disease prevention through the use of vaccines has been crucial to achieve the current level of production in the salmon industry. However, vaccines have been developed based largely on inactivated bacterial formulations, using the whole pathogen. These formulations have demonstrated excellent efficacy against extracellular bacterial pathogens. However diseases with the greatest economic impacts correspond to intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens, vaccines based on these types of agents have shown a discrete effectiveness. It is for these reasons that the development of subunit vaccines based on defined antigens offers a promising solution. The main problem is that subunit vaccines offer a low immunogenicity, since they lack immunostimulatory elements, so that the development of new adjuvants platforms becomes an important challenge for this type of formulations. We evaluate the effect of a formulation based on proteoliposomes of Vibrio anguillarum administered by immersion as a new adjuvant strategy, allowing efficient stimulation of the innate immune system. Proteoliposomes physicochemical properties were evaluated in its ability to produce an inflammatory process. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae as a model species and the transgenic line (Tg(mpx: GFP)i114) allowed us to track the neutrophil migration in real time. Additionally we evaluated the gene expression of some molecular markers involved in the development of the innate immune response characterizing the adjuvant capacity of the formulation.

Keywords: adjuvants, vaccine development, zebrafish, innate immunity

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76 Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Sung Yong Kim, Byung Joo Song

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Background: Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels has been considered to be inversely related to breast cancer development, recurrence risk, and mortality. Mean vitamin D levels in Korean population is lower than western countries due to higher incidence of lactose intolerance and lower exposure to sunlight. The purpose of this study was to assess incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency at diagnosis and after adjuvant chemotherapy and to investigate the correlation serum 25(OH)D levels with clinicopathologic features. Methods: From December 2011 to October 2012, 280 breast cancer patients seen at a single tertiary cancer center were enrolled. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at the time of surgery and after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analyses used chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and ANOVA. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D was 18.5 ng/ml. The 25(OH)D levels were deficient (<20 ng/ml) in 190 patients (67.9%), insufficient (20-29 ng/ml) in 51 patients(18.2%), and sufficient (30-150 ng/ml) in 39 patients(13.9%). A notable decrease in 25(OH)D concentration was observed(p<0.001) after chemotherapy but was not related to chemotherapy regimens. It was found significant lower 25(OH)D levels at winter season(from October to March, p=0.030). Subjects with invasive carcinoma (IDC or ILC) had significantly lower circulating levels of 25(OH)D than those with ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) (p=0.010). Patients with larger tumor size tends to have lower serum 25(OH)D but there were no statistical significance. Conclusions: Most of the breast cancer patients showed deficient or insufficient serum 25(OH)D concentration. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency was higher in invasive carcinoma than DCIS. Serum 25(OH)D levels were decreased after chemotherapy. Consideration should be given to the supplement of vitamin D to those patients.

Keywords: breast neoplasms, vitamin D, Korean population, breast cancer

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75 Role of Inflammatory Markers in Arthritic Rats Treated with Ethanolic Bark Extract of Albizia procera

Authors: M. Sangeetha, D. Chamundeeswari, C. Saravanababu, C. Rose, V. Gopal

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, progressive, systemic inflammatory disorder affecting the synovial joints and typically producing symmetrical arthritis that leads to joint destruction, which is responsible for the deformity and disability. Despite improvements in the treatment of RA over the past decade, there still is a need for new therapeutic agents that are efficacious, less expensive, and free of severe adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate role of inflammatory markers in arthritic rats treated with ethanolic bark extract of Albizia procera. The protective effect of ethanolic bark extract of Albizia procera against complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. Arthritis was induced by an intradermal injection of 0.1 ml FCA in the foot pad of left hind limb of rats. ETBE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt./p.o) and the reference drug diclofenac (25 mg/kg b.wt./p.o) were administered to arthritic rats. Paw volume was measured for all the animals before inducing arthritis and thereafter once in seven days by using plethysmometer for 42 days. Gene expression of inflammatory markers such as IL-1β and IL-10 were investigated in paw tissues. Up regulation of IL-1β and Down regulation IL-10 were observed in CFA injected rats when compared to normal rats. ETBE attenuated these alterations dose dependently when compared to the vehicle treated rats. These results provide insights into the mechanism of anti-arthritic activity, and unravel potential therapeutic use of Albizia procera in arthritis.

Keywords: CFA-Complete Freund’s adjuvant, ETBE – ethanolic bark extract, IL- interleukins, RA-rheumatoid arthritis

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74 Hemodynamic Effects of Magnesium Sulphate Therapy in Critically Ill Infants and Children with Wheezy Chest

Authors: Yasmin Sayed, Hala Hamdy, Hafez Bazaraa, Hanaa Rady, Sherif Elanwary

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Intravenous and inhaled magnesium sulfate (MgSO₄) had been recently used as an adjuvant therapy in cases suffering from the wheezy chest. Objective: We aimed to determine the possible change in the hemodynamic state in cases received intravenous or inhaled MgSO₄ in comparison to cases received standard treatment in critically ill infants and children with the wheezy chest. Methods: A randomized controlled trial comprised 81 patients suffering from wheezy chest divided into 3 groups. In addition to bronchodilators and systemic steroids, MgSO₄ was given by inhalation in group A, intravenously in group B, and group C didn't receive MgSO₄. The hemodynamic state was determined by assessment of blood pressure, heart rate, capillary refill time and the need for shock therapy or inotropic support just before and 24 hours after receiving treatment in 3 groups. Results: There was no significant difference in the hemodynamic state of the studied groups before and after treatment. Means of blood pressure were 102.2/63.2, 105.1/64.8 before and after inhaled MgSO₄; respectively. Means of blood pressure were 105.5/64.2, 104.1/64.9 before and after intravenous MgSO₄; respectively. Means of blood pressure were 107.4/62.8, 104.4/62.1 before and after standard treatment, respectively. There was a statistically insignificant reduction of the means of the heart rate in group A and group B after treatment rather than group C. There was no associated prolongation in capillary refill time and/or the need for inotropic support or shock therapy after treatment in the studied groups. Conclusion: MgSO₄ is a safe adjuvant therapy and not associated with significant alteration in the hemodynamic state in critically ill infants and children with the wheezy chest.

Keywords: critically ill infants and children, inhaled MgSO₄, intravenous MgSO₄, wheezy chest

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
73 Botulinum Toxin type A for Lower Limb Lengthening and Deformity Correction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Authors: Jawaher F. Alsharef, Abdullah A. Ghaddaf, Mohammed S. Alomari, Abdullah A. Al Qurashi, Ahmed S. Abdulhamid, Mohammed S. Alshehri, Majed Alosaimi

Abstract:

Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is the most popular therapeutic agent for muscle relaxation and pain control. Lately, BTX-A injection received great interest as a part of multimodal pain management for lower limb lengthening and deformity correction. This systematic review aimed to determine the role of BTX-A injection in pain management for during lower limb lengthening and/or deformity correction. We searched Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the BTX-A injection to placebo for individuals undergoing lower limb lengthening and/or deformity correction. We sought to evaluate the following outcomes: pain on visual analogue scale (VAS), range of motion parameters, average opioid consumption, and adverse events. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was used to represent continuous outcomes while risk ratio (RR) was used to represent dichotomous outcomes. A total of 4 RCTs that enrolled 257 participants (337 limbs) deemed eligible. Adjuvant BTX-A injection showed a significant reduction in post-operative pain compared to placebo (SMD=–0.28, 95% CI –0.53 to –0.04). No difference was found between BTX-A injection and placebo in terms of range of motion parameters, average opioid consumption, or adverse events after surgical limb lengthening and/or deformity correction (RR= 0.77, 95% CI –0.58 to 1.03). Conclusions: Adjuvant BTX-A injection conferred a discernible reduction in post-operative pain during surgical limb lengthening and/or deformity without increasing the risk of adverse events.

Keywords: botulinum toxin type A, limb lengthening, distraction osteogenesis, deformity correction, pain management

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72 Environmental and Toxicological Impacts of Glyphosate with Its Formulating Adjuvant

Authors: I. Székács, Á. Fejes, S. Klátyik, E. Takács, D. Patkó, J. Pomóthy, M. Mörtl, R. Horváth, E. Madarász, B. Darvas, A. Székács

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Environmental and toxicological characteristics of formulated pesticides may substantially differ from those of their active ingredients or other components alone. This phenomenon is demonstrated in the case of the herbicide active ingredient glyphosate. Due to its extensive application, this active ingredient was found in surface and ground water samples collected in Békés County, Hungary, in the concentration range of 0.54–0.98 ng/ml. The occurrence of glyphosate appeared to be somewhat higher at areas under intensive agriculture, industrial activities and public road services, but the compound was detected at areas under organic (ecological) farming or natural grasslands, indicating environmental mobility. Increased toxicity of the formulated herbicide product Roundup, compared to that of glyphosate was observed on the indicator aquatic organism Daphnia magna Straus. Acute LC50 values of Roundup and its formulating adjuvant Polyethoxylated Tallowamine (POEA) exceeded 20 and 3.1 mg/ml, respectively, while that of glyphosate (as isopropyl salt) was found to be substantially lower (690-900 mg/ml) showing good agreement with literature data. Cytotoxicity of Roundup, POEA and glyphosate has been determined on the neuroectodermal cell line, NE-4C measured both by cell viability test and holographic microscopy. Acute toxicity (LC50) of Roundup, POEA and glyphosate on NE-4C cells was found to be 0.013±0.002%, 0.017±0.009% and 6.46±2.25%, respectively (in equivalents of diluted Roundup solution), corresponding to 0.022±0.003 and 53.1±18.5 mg/ml for POEA and glyphosate, respectively, indicating no statistical difference between Roundup and POEA and 2.5 orders of magnitude difference between these and glyphosate. The same order of cellular toxicity seen in average cell area has been indicated under quantitative cell visualization. The results indicate that toxicity of the formulated herbicide is caused by the formulating agent, but in some parameters toxicological synergy occurs between POEA and glyphosate.

Keywords: glyphosate, polyethoxylated tallowamine, Roundup, combined aquatic and cellular toxicity, synergy

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
71 Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Cognitive Function among Breast Cancer Patients in Eastern Country

Authors: Arunima Datta, Prathama Guha Chaudhuri, Ashis Mukhopadhyay

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Background: Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one of the newer forms (third wave) therapy. This therapy helps a cancer patient to increase acceptance level about their disease as well as their present situation. Breast cancer patients are known to suffer from depression and mild cognitive impairment; both affect their quality of life. Objectives:The present study had assessed effect of structured ACT intervention on cognitive function and acceptance level among breast cancer patients who were undergoing chemotherapy. Method: Data was collected from 123 breast cancer patients those who were undergoing chemotherapy were willing to undergo psychological treatment, with no history of past psychiatric illness. Their baseline of cognitive function and acceptance levels were assessed using validated tools. The effect of sociodemographic factors and clinical factors on cognitive function was determined at baseline.The participants were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (ACT, 4 sessions over 2 months) and control group. Cognitive function and acceptance level were measured during post intervention on 2months follow-up. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect on cognitive function and acceptance level in two groups. Result: At baseline, the factors that significantly influenced slower speed of task performance were ER PR HER2 status; number of chemo cycle, treatment type (Adjuvant and neo-adjuvant) was related with that. Sociodemographic characteristics did not show any significant difference between slow and fast performance. Per and post intervention analysis showed that ACT intervention resulted in significant difference both in terms of speed of cognitive performance and acceptance level. Conclusion: ACT is an effective therapeutic option for treating mild cognitive impairment and improve acceptance level among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Keywords: acceptance and commitment therapy, breast cancer, quality of life, cognitive function

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70 Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Experimental Rats

Authors: Prerna Kalra, Surender Singh

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Cisplatin is the most common chemotherapeutic agent used in different solid tumors, but its main limiting factor is dose-dependent nephrotoxicity by generating reactive oxygen species, by stimulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. Additional adjuvant therapies to decrease the toxicity of this chemotherapeutic drug are essential. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of Emblica officinalis Geartn (Indian gooseberry) against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Emblica officinalis was orally administered to Wistar rats (n=6) for 10 days in 50, 100 and 200mg/kg body weight. On day 7, 8mg/kg of cisplatin was administered intra-peritoneally to rats in all groups. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and antioxidant levels were measured on day10. The renal damage was evaluated by histopathological and transmission electron microscopy. We found that 200mg/kg dose of Emblica officinalis significantly inhibited the elevation of biochemical parameters i.e. serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, oxidant stress marker (malondialdehyde) and increased the reduced levels of antioxidant marker (endogenous glutathione and superoxide dismutase). Cisplatin treated rats have shown acute tubular necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rat kidney which was reversed after treating the animals with Emblica officinalis in the treatment group. In ultrastructural changes cisplatin treated group showed the damaged mitochondria (M) with dissolved cristae and large number of lysosomes (L) and vacuole (V) formation in tubular epithelial cells. EOE administered group showed visible cristae formation and sign of autophagy vacuoles at a dose of 200mg/kg. Further in-silico studies revealed that ellagic acid is responsible for its nephroprotective effect. The above findings conclude that the Emblica officinalis may be used as an adjuvant therapy in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: antioxidant, cisplatin, Emblica officinalis, in silico, nephrotoxicity

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69 Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits

Authors: Hamza I. Isa, Gezina C. H. Ferreira, Jan E. Crafford, Christoffel J. Botha

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Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.

Keywords: antibodies , bufadienolides, cross-reactivity, epoxyscillirosidine, Moraea pallida, poisoning

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68 Factors Associated with Recurrence and Long-Term Survival in Younger and Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

Authors: Sopit Tubtimhin, Chaliya Wamaloon, Anchalee Supattagorn

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Background and Significance: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed and leading cause of cancer death among women. This study aims to determine factors potentially predicting recurrence and long-term survival after the first recurrence in surgically treated patients between postmenopausal and younger women. Methods and Analysis: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 498 Thai women with invasive breast cancer, who had undergone mastectomy and been followed-up at Ubon Ratchathani Cancer Hospital, Thailand. We collected based on a systematic chart audit from medical records and pathology reports between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2011. The last follow-up time point for surviving patients was December 31, 2016. A Cox regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios of recurrence and death. Findings: The median age was 49 (SD ± 9.66) at the time of diagnosis, 47% was post-menopausal women ( ≥ 51years and not experienced any menstrual flow for a minimum of 12 months), and 53 % was younger women ( ˂ 51 years and have menstrual period). Median time from the diagnosis to the last follow-up or death was 10.81 [95% CI = 9.53-12.07] years in younger cases and 8.20 [95% CI = 6.57-9.82] years in postmenopausal cases. The recurrence-free survival (RFS) for younger estimates at 1, 5 and 10 years of 95.0 %, 64.0% and 58.93% respectively, appeared slightly better than the 92.7%, 58.1% and 53.1% for postmenopausal women [HRadj = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.95-1.64]. Regarding overall survival (OS) for younger at 1, 5 and 10 years were 97.7%, 72.7 % and 52.7% respectively, for postmenopausal patients, OS at 1, 5 and 10 years were 95.7%, 70.0% and 44.5 respectively, there were no significant differences in survival [HRadj = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.94 -1.64]. Multivariate analysis identified five risk factors for negatively impacting on survival were triple negative [HR= 2.76, 95% CI = 1.47-5.19], Her2-enriched [HR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.37-4.91], luminal B [HR = 2.29, 95 % CI=1.35-3.89], not free margin [HR = 1.98, 95%CI=1.00-3.96] and patients who received only adjuvant chemotherapy [HR= 3.75, 95% CI = 2.00-7.04]. Statistically significant risks of overall cancer recurrence were Her2-enriched [HR = 5.20, 95% CI = 2.75-9.80], triple negative [HR = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.98-7.59], luminal B [HR= 2.59, 95% CI = 1.48-4.54,] and patients who received only adjuvant chemotherapy [HR= 2.59, 95% CI = 1.48-5.66]. Discussion and Implications: Outcomes from this studies have shown that postmenopausal women have been associated with increased risk of recurrence and mortality. As the results, it provides useful information for planning the screening and treatment of early-stage breast cancer in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, menopause status, recurrence-free survival, overall survival

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67 Extending ACOSOG Z0011 to Encompass Mastectomy Patients: A Retrospective Review

Authors: Ruqayya Naheed Khan, Awais Amjad Malik, Awais Naeem, Amina Khan, Asad Parvaiz

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Introduction: Axillary nodal status in breast cancer patients is a paramount prognosticator, next to primary tumor size and grade. It has been well established that patients with negative sentinel lymph node biopsy can safely avoid axillary lymph node dissection. A positive sentinel lymph node has traditionally required subsequent axillary dissection. According to ACOSOG Z11 trial, patients who underwent axillary dissection with 3 or more positive sentinel nodes or opted for observation in case of negative sentinel lymph node, did not find any difference in Overall Survival (OS) and Disease Free Survival (DFS). The Z11 trial included patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and excluded patients with mastectomies. The purpose of this study is to determine whether Z0011 can be applied to mastectomy patients as well in 1-3 positive sentinel lymph nodes and avoid unnecessary ALND. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted at Shaukat Khanam Memorial Cancer Hospital Pakistan from Jan 2015 to Dec 2017 including patients who were treated for invasive breast cancer and required upfront mastectomy. They were clinically node negative, so sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. Patients underwent ALND with positive sentinel lymph node. A total of 156 breast cancer patients with mastectomies were reviewed. Results: 95% of the patients were female while 3% were male. Average age was 44 years. There was no difference in race, comorbidities, histology, T stage, N stage, and overall stage, use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. 64 patients underwent ALND for positive lymph node while 92 patients were spared of axillary dissection due to negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. Out of 64 patients, 38 patients (59%) had only 1 lymph node positive which was the sentinel node. 18 patients (28%) had 2 lymph nodes positive including the sentinel node while only 8 patients (13%) had 3 or more positive nodes. Conclusion: Keeping in mind the complications related to ALND, above results clearly show that ALND could have been avoided in 87% of patients in the setting of adjuvant radiation, possibly avoiding the morbidity associated with axillary lymphadenectomy although a prospective randomized trial needs to confirm these results.

Keywords: mastectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, axillary lymph node dissection, breast cancer

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66 A Randomised Controlled Study to Compare Efficacy and Safety of Bupivacaine plus Dexamethasone Versus Bupivacaine plus Fentanyl for Caudal Block in Children

Authors: Ashwini Patil

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Caudal block is one of the most commonly used regional anesthetic techniques in children. Currently, fentanyl is used as an adjuvant to bupivacaine to prolong analgesia but fentanyl is a narcotic. Dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid with strong anti-inflammatory effects provides improvement in post-operative analgesia and post-operative side effects. However, its analgesic efficacy and safety in comparison with fentanyl has not been extensively studied. So the objective of this randomized controlled study is to compare dexamethasone with fentanyl as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal block in children in relation to the duration of caudal analgesia, post-operative analgesic requirement and incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting. This study included 100 children, aged 1–6 years, undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. Patients were randomized into two groups, 50 each to receive a combination of dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg along with 1 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% (group A) or combination of fentanyl (1 ug/kg) along with 1ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% (group B). In the post-operative period, pain was assessed using a Modified Objective Pain Scale (MOPS) until 12 hr after surgery and rescue analgesia is administered when MOPS score 4 or more is recorded. Residual motor block, number of analgesic doses required within 24 hr after surgery, sedation scores, intra-operative and post-operative hemodynamic variables, post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and other adverse effects were recorded. Data is analysed using unpaired t test and Significance level of P< 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Group A showed a significantly longer time to first analgesic requirement than group B (p<0.05). The number of rescue analgesic doses required in the first 24 h was significantly less in group A (p<0.05). Group A showed significantly lower MOPS scores than group B(p<0.05). Intra-operative and post-operative hemodynamic variables, Modified Bromage Scale scores, and sedation scores were comparable in both the groups. Group A showed significantly fewer incidences of PONV compared with group B(p<0.05). This study reveals that adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and decreases the incidence of PONV as compared to combination of fentanyl to bupivacaine after a caudal block in pediatric patients.

Keywords: bupivacaine, caudal analgesia, dexamethasone, pediatric

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
65 Detection of Lymphedema after Breast Cancer in Yucatecan Women

Authors: Olais A. Ingrid, Peraza G. Leydi, Estrella C. Damaris

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Breast cancer is the most common among women worldwide; the different treatments can bring sequels that directly affect the quality of life, such as lymphedema. The objective was to determine if there is presence of lymphedema secondary to breast cancer in Yucatecan women. It was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study, 92 women were included who met the following criteria: women with surgical treatment for unilateral: breast cancer, aged between 25 and 65 years old, minimum 6 weeks after unilateral breast surgery and have completed any type of chemotherapy or adjuvant radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. The evaluation was through indirect measurement volume by circometry to determine the presence of lymphedema. 23% of women had lymphedema grade I. It related to the presence of some of the symptoms like stiffness, swelling, decreased range of motion and feeling of heaviness in the arm of the operated side of the breast. It is important to determine the presence of lymphedema to perform physical therapy treatment.

Keywords: breast cancer, lymphedema, physical therapy, Yucatan

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64 Prevention of Preterm Birth and Management of Uterine Contractions with Traditional Korean Medicine: Integrative Approach

Authors: Eun-Seop Kim, Eun-Ha Jang, Rana R. Kim, Sae-Byul Jang

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Objective: Preterm labor is the most common antecedent of preterm birth(PTB), which is characterized by regular uterine contraction before 37 weeks of pregnancy and cervical change. In acute preterm labor, tocolytics are administered as the first-line medication to suppress uterine contractions but rarely delay pregnancy to 37 weeks of gestation. On the other hand, according to the Korean Traditional Medicine, PTB is caused by the deficiency of Qi and unnecessary energy in the body of the mother. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the benefit of Traditional Korean Medicine as an adjuvant therapy in management of early uterine contractions and the prevention of PTB. Methods: It is a case report of a 38-year-old woman (0-0-6-0) hospitalized for irregular uterine contractions and cervical change at 33+3/7 weeks of gestation. Past history includes chemical pregnancies achieved by Artificial Rroductive Technology(ART), one stillbirth (at 7 weeks) and a laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis. After seven trials of IVF and articificial insemination, she had succeeded in conception via in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with help of Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) treatments. Due to irregular uterine contractions and cervical changes, 2 TKM were prescribed: Gami-Dangguisan, and Antae-eum, known to nourish blood and clear away heat. 120ml of Gami-Dangguisan was given twice a day monring and evening along with same amount of Antae-eum once a day from 31 August 2013 to 28 November 2013. Tocolytics (Ritodrine) was administered as a first aid for maintenance of pregnancy. Information regarding progress until the delivery was collected during the patient’s visit. Results: On admission, the cervix of 15mm in length and cervical os with 0.5cm-dilated were observed via ultrasonography. 50% cervical effacement was also detected in physical examination. Tocolysis had been temporarily maintained. As a supportive therapy, TKM herbal preparations(gami-dangguisan and Antae-eum) were concomitantly given. As of 34+2/7 weeks of gestation, however intermittent uterine contractions appeared (5-12min) on cardiotocography and vaginal bleeding was also smeared at 34+3/7 weeks. However, enhanced tocolytics and continuous administration of herbal medicine sustained the pregnancy to term. At 37+2/7 weeks, no sign of labor with restored cervical length was confirmed. The woman gave a term birth to a healthy infant via vaginal delivery at 39+3/7 gestational weeks. Conclusions: This is the first successful case report about a preter labor patient administered with conventional tocolytic agents as well as TKM herbal decoctions, delaying delivery to term. This case deserves attention considering it is rare to maintain gestation to term only with tocolytic intervention. Our report implies the potential of herbal medicine as an adjuvant therapy for preterm labor treatment. Further studies are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of TKM herbal medicine as a therapeutic alternative for curing preterm birth.

Keywords: preterm labor, traditional Korean medicine, herbal medicine, integrative treatment, complementary and alternative medicine

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