Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 77

Search results for: hydropower

77 Critical Terrain Slope Calculation for Locating Small Hydropower Plants

Authors: C. Vrekos, C. Evagelides, N. Samarinas, G. Arampatzis

Abstract:

As known, the water energy is a renewable and clean source of energy. Energy production from hydropower has been the first, and still is today a renewable source used to generate electricity. The optimal location and sizing of a small hydropower plant is a very important issue in engineering design which encourages investigation. The aim of this paper is to present a formula that can be utilized for locating the position of a small hydropower plant although there is a high dependence on economic, environmental, and social parameters. In this paper, the economic and technical side of the problem is considered. More specifically, there is a critical terrain slope that determines if the plant should be located at the end of the slope or not. Of course, this formula can be used for a first estimate and does not include detailed economic analysis. At the end, a case study is presented for the location of a small hydropower plant in order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed formula.

Keywords: critical terrain slope, economic analysis, hydropower plant locating, renewable energy

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76 Future Optimization of the Xin’anjiang Hydropower

Authors: Muhammad Zaman, Guohua Fang, Muhammad Saifullah,

Abstract:

The presented study emphasize at an optimal model to compare past and future optimal hydropower generation. In order to get maximum benefits from the Xin’anjiang hydropower station a model is developed. A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has purposed and past and future water flow is used to get the maximum benefits from future water resources in this study. The results revealed that the future hydropower generation is more than the past generation. This paper gives us idea that what could we get in the past using optimal method of electricity generation and what can we get in the future using this technique.

Keywords: PSO, future water resources, optimization, Xin’anjiang,

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75 Opportunities of Clean Development Mechanism through Hydropower in Nepal

Authors: Usha Khatiwada

Abstract:

Nepal’s overall energy baseline: It has been proposed that hydropower projects for domestic consumption can earn CDM revenue in Nepal if a new methodology is established that takes into account not only consumption in Nepal of grid electricity but also other fuels such as kerosene, diesel, and firewood, used by a vast majority of the population for their lighting and other needs. However, this would mean that we would be trying to combine grid electricity supply and consumers not supplied from the grid into one methodology. Such a sweeping baseline may have a very small chance of success with the CDM Executive Board.

Keywords: environment, clean development mechanism, hydropower, Nepal

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74 A Case Study of Low Head Hydropower Opportunities at Existing Infrastructure in South Africa

Authors: Ione Loots, Marco van Dijk, Jay Bhagwan

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Historically, South Africa had various small-scale hydropower installations in remote areas that were not incorporated in the national electricity grid. Unfortunately, in the 1960s most of these plants were decommissioned when Eskom, the national power utility, rapidly expanded its grid and capability to produce cheap, reliable, coal-fired electricity. This situation persisted until 2008, when rolling power cuts started to affect all citizens. This, together with the rising monetary and environmental cost of coal-based power generation, has sparked new interest in small-scale hydropower development, especially in remote areas or at locations (like wastewater treatment works) that could not afford to be without electricity for long periods at a time. Even though South Africa does not have the same, large-scale, hydropower potential as some other African countries, significant potential for micro- and small-scale hydropower is hidden in various places. As an example, large quantities of raw and potable water are conveyed daily under either pressurized or gravity conditions over large distances and elevations. Due to the relative water scarcity in the country, South Africa also has more than 4900 registered dams of varying capacities. However, institutional capacity and skills have not been maintained in recent years and therefore the identification of hydropower potential, as well as the development of micro- and small-scale hydropower plants has not gained significant momentum. An assessment model and decision support system for low head hydropower development has been developed to assist designers and decision makers with first-order potential analysis. As a result, various potential sites were identified and many of these sites were situated at existing infrastructure like weirs, barrages or pipelines. One reason for the specific interest in existing infrastructure is the fact that capital expenditure could be minimized and another is the reduced negative environmental impact compared to greenfield sites. This paper will explore the case study of retrofitting an unconventional and innovative hydropower plant to the outlet of a wastewater treatment works in South Africa.

Keywords: low head hydropower, retrofitting, small-scale hydropower, wastewater treatment works

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73 Development of National Scale Hydropower Resource Assessment Scheme Using SWAT and Geospatial Techniques

Authors: Rowane May A. Fesalbon, Greyland C. Agno, Jodel L. Cuasay, Dindo A. Malonzo, Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang

Abstract:

The Department of Energy of the Republic of the Philippines estimates that the country’s energy reserves for 2015 are dwindling– observed in the rotating power outages in several localities. To aid in the energy crisis, a national hydropower resource assessment scheme is developed. Hydropower is a resource that is derived from flowing water and difference in elevation. It is a renewable energy resource that is deemed abundant in the Philippines – being an archipelagic country that is rich in bodies of water and water resources. The objectives of this study is to develop a methodology for a national hydropower resource assessment using hydrologic modeling and geospatial techniques in order to generate resource maps for future reference and use of the government and other stakeholders. The methodology developed for this purpose is focused on two models – the implementation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the river discharge and the use of geospatial techniques to analyze the topography and obtain the head, and generate the theoretical hydropower potential sites. The methodology is highly coupled with Geographic Information Systems to maximize the use of geodatabases and the spatial significance of the determined sites. The hydrologic model used in this workflow is SWAT integrated in the GIS software ArcGIS. The head is determined by a developed algorithm that utilizes a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived digital elevation model (DEM) which has a resolution of 10-meters. The initial results of the developed workflow indicate hydropower potential in the river reaches ranging from pico (less than 5 kW) to mini (1-3 MW) theoretical potential.

Keywords: ArcSWAT, renewable energy, hydrologic model, hydropower, GIS

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72 Estimation of Small Hydropower Potential Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in Pakistan

Authors: Malik Abid Hussain Khokhar, Muhammad Naveed Tahir, Muhammad Amin

Abstract:

Energy demand has been increased manifold due to increasing population, urban sprawl and rapid socio-economic improvements. Low water capacity in dams for continuation of hydrological power, land cover and land use are the key parameters which are creating problems for more energy production. Overall installed hydropower capacity of Pakistan is more than 35000 MW whereas Pakistan is producing up to 17000 MW and the requirement is more than 22000 that is resulting shortfall of 5000 - 7000 MW. Therefore, there is a dire need to develop small hydropower to fulfill the up-coming requirements. In this regards, excessive rainfall, snow nurtured fast flowing perennial tributaries and streams in northern mountain regions of Pakistan offer a gigantic scope of hydropower potential throughout the year. Rivers flowing in KP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) province, GB (Gilgit Baltistan) and AJK (Azad Jammu & Kashmir) possess sufficient water availability for rapid energy growth. In the backdrop of such scenario, small hydropower plants are believed very suitable measures for more green environment and power sustainable option for the development of such regions. Aim of this study is to estimate hydropower potential sites for small hydropower plants and stream distribution as per steam network available in the available basins in the study area. The proposed methodology will focus on features to meet the objectives i.e. site selection of maximum hydropower potential for hydroelectric generation using well emerging GIS tool SWAT as hydrological run-off model on the Neelum, Kunhar and the Dor Rivers’ basins. For validation of the results, NDWI will be computed to show water concentration in the study area while overlaying on geospatial enhanced DEM. This study will represent analysis of basins, watershed, stream links, and flow directions with slope elevation for hydropower potential to produce increasing demand of electricity by installing small hydropower stations. Later on, this study will be benefitted for other adjacent regions for further estimation of site selection for installation of such small power plants as well.

Keywords: energy, stream network, basins, SWAT, evapotranspiration

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71 Investigating the Behavior of Water Shortage Indices for Performance Evaluation of a Water Resources System

Authors: Frederick N. F. Chou, Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh

Abstract:

The impact of water shortages has been increasingly severe as a consequence of population growth, urbanization, economic development, and climate change. The need for improvements in reliable water supply systems is urgent with the increasing living standards of regions. In this study, a suitable shortage index capable of multi-aspect description - frequency, magnitude, and duration - is adopted to more accurately describe the characteristics of a shortage situation. The values of the index were determined to cope with the increasing need for reliability. There are four reservoirs in series located on the Be River of the Dong Nai River Basin in Southern Vietnam. The primary purpose of the three upstream reservoirs is hydropower generation while the primary purpose of the fourth is water supply. A compromise between hydropower generation and water supply can be negotiated for these four reservoirs to reduce the severity of water shortages. A generalized water allocation model was applied to simulate the water supply, and hydropower generation of various management alternatives and the system’s reliability was evaluated using the adopted multiple shortage indices. Modifying management policies of water resources using data-based indexes can improve the reliability of water supply.

Keywords: cascade reservoirs, hydropower, shortage index, water supply

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70 A Review of Energy in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Authors: Kanzumba Kusakana

Abstract:

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is currently experiencing a general energy crisis due to lack of proper investment and management in the energy sector. 93, 6% of the country is highly dependent on wood fuels as main source of energy having severe impacts such as deforestation and general degradation of the environment. On the other hand, the major share of the electricity produced mainly from ill-conditioned hydro and thermal power stations is principally used to supply the industrial sector as well as very few urban areas. Nevertheless, DRC possesses huge potential in renewable resources such as hydropower, biomass, methane gas, solar geothermal and moderate wind potential that can be used for energy generation. Recently the country has initiated projects to build decentralized micro hydropower station to supply remotes and isolated areas; to rehabilitate its existent main hydropower plants and transmission lines as well as to extend its current generation capacity by building new hydropower stations able to respond to a major part of the African continent energy needs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of current energy resources as well as of the electricity situation in DRC. Recent energy projects, the energy policy as well as the energy challenges in the DRC are also presented.

Keywords: energy, biomass, hydro power, renewable energy, energy policy, Democratic Republic of Congo

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
69 Application of Computational Flow Dynamics (CFD) Analysis for Surge Inception and Propagation for Low Head Hydropower Projects

Authors: M. Mohsin Munir, Taimoor Ahmad, Javed Munir, Usman Rashid

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Determination of maximum elevation of a flowing fluid due to sudden rejection of load in a hydropower facility is of great interest to hydraulic engineers to ensure safety of the hydraulic structures. Several mathematical models exist that employ one-dimensional modeling for the determination of surge but none of these perfectly simulate real-time circumstances. The paper envisages investigation of surge inception and propagation for a Low Head Hydropower project using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis on FLOW-3D software package. The fluid dynamic model utilizes its analysis for surge by employing Reynolds’ Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANSE). The CFD model is designed for a case study at Taunsa hydropower Project in Pakistan. Various scenarios have run through the model keeping in view upstream boundary conditions. The prototype results were then compared with the results of physical model testing for the same scenarios. The results of the numerical model proved quite accurate coherence with the physical model testing and offers insight into phenomenon which are not apparent in physical model and shall be adopted in future for the similar low head projects limiting delays and cost incurred in the physical model testing.

Keywords: surge, FLOW-3D, numerical model, Taunsa, RANSE

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68 Risk Aversion and Dynamic Games between Hydroelectric Operators under Uncertainty

Authors: Abdessalem Abbassi, Ahlem Dakhlaoui, Lota D. Tamini

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This article analyses management of hydropower dams within two different industrial structures: monopolistic and oligopolistic; when hydroelectricity producers are risk averse and face demand uncertainty. In each type of market structure we determine the water release path in closed-loop equilibrium. We show how a monopoly can manage its hydropower dams by additional pumping or storage depending on the relative abundance of water between different regions to smooth the effect of uncertainty on electricity prices. In the oligopolistic case with symmetric rates of risk aversion, we determine the conditions under which the relative scarcity (abundance) of water in the dam of a hydroelectric operator can favor additional strategic pumping (storage) in its competitor’s dams. When there is asymmetry of the risk aversion coefficient, the firm’s hydroelectricity production increases as its competitor’s risk aversion increases, if and only if the average recharge speed of the competitor’s dam exceeds a certain threshold, which is an increasing function of its average water inflows.

Keywords: asymmetric risk aversion, closed-loop Cournot competition, electricity wholesale market, hydropower dams

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67 Feasibility of Small Hydropower Plants Odisha

Authors: Sanoj Sahu, Ramakar Jha

Abstract:

Odisha (India) is in need of reliable, cost-effective power generation. A prolonged electricity crisis and increasing power demand have left over thousands of citizens without access to electricity, and much of the population suffers from sporadic outages. The purpose of this project is to build a methodology to evaluate small hydropower potential, which can be used to alleviate the Odisha’s energy problem among rural communities. This project has three major tasks: the design of a simple SHEP for a single location along a river in the Odisha; the development of water flow prediction equations through a linear regression analysis; and the design of an ArcGIS toolset to estimate the flow duration curves (FDCs) at locations where data do not exist. An explanation of the inputs to the tool, as well has how it produces a suitable output for SHEP evaluation will be presented. The paper also gives an explanation of hydroelectric power generation in the Odisha, SHEPs, and the technical and practical aspects of hydroelectric power. Till now, based on topographical and rainfall analysis we have located hundreds of sites. Further work on more number of site location and accuracy of location is to be done.

Keywords: small hydropower, ArcGIS, rainfall analysis, Odisha’s energy problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
66 Multi-Objective Optimization of Run-of-River Small-Hydropower Plants Considering Both Investment Cost and Annual Energy Generation

Authors: Amèdédjihundé H. J. Hounnou, Frédéric Dubas, François-Xavier Fifatin, Didier Chamagne, Antoine Vianou

Abstract:

This paper presents the techno-economic evaluation of run-of-river small-hydropower plants. In this regard, a multi-objective optimization procedure is proposed for the optimal sizing of the hydropower plants, and NSGAII is employed as the optimization algorithm. Annual generated energy and investment cost are considered as the objective functions, and number of generator units (n) and nominal turbine flow rate (QT) constitute the decision variables. Site of Yeripao in Benin is considered as the case study. We have categorized the river of this site using its environmental characteristics: gross head, and first quartile, median, third quartile and mean of flow. Effects of each decision variable on the objective functions are analysed. The results gave Pareto Front which represents the trade-offs between annual energy generation and the investment cost of hydropower plants, as well as the recommended optimal solutions. We noted that with the increase of the annual energy generation, the investment cost rises. Thus, maximizing energy generation is contradictory with minimizing the investment cost. Moreover, we have noted that the solutions of Pareto Front are grouped according to the number of generator units (n). The results also illustrate that the costs per kWh are grouped according to the n and rise with the increase of the nominal turbine flow rate. The lowest investment costs per kWh are obtained for n equal to one and are between 0.065 and 0.180 €/kWh. Following the values of n (equal to 1, 2, 3 or 4), the investment cost and investment cost per kWh increase almost linearly with increasing the nominal turbine flowrate while annual generated. Energy increases logarithmically with increasing of the nominal turbine flowrate. This study made for the Yeripao river can be applied to other rivers with their own characteristics.

Keywords: hydropower plant, investment cost, multi-objective optimization, number of generator units

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65 Technical, Environmental and Financial Assessment for Optimal Sizing of Run-of-River Small Hydropower Project: Case Study in Colombia

Authors: David Calderon Villegas, Thomas Kaltizky

Abstract:

Run-of-river (RoR) hydropower projects represent a viable, clean, and cost-effective alternative to dam-based plants and provide decentralized power production. However, RoR schemes cost-effectiveness depends on the proper selection of site and design flow, which is a challenging task because it requires multivariate analysis. In this respect, this study presents the development of an investment decision support tool for assessing the optimal size of an RoR scheme considering the technical, environmental, and cost constraints. The net present value (NPV) from a project perspective is used as an objective function for supporting the investment decision. The tool has been tested by applying it to an actual RoR project recently proposed in Colombia. The obtained results show that the optimum point in financial terms does not match the flow that maximizes energy generation from exploiting the river's available flow. For the case study, the flow that maximizes energy corresponds to a value of 5.1 m3/s. In comparison, an amount of 2.1 m3/s maximizes the investors NPV. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the NPV as a function of the debt rate changes and the electricity prices and the CapEx. Even for the worst-case scenario, the optimal size represents a positive business case with an NPV of 2.2 USD million and an IRR 1.5 times higher than the discount rate.

Keywords: small hydropower, renewable energy, RoR schemes, optimal sizing, objective function

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64 Electrolysis Ship for Green Hydrogen Production and Possible Applications

Authors: Julian David Hunt, Andreas Nascimento

Abstract:

Green hydrogen is the most environmental, renewable alternative to produce hydrogen. However, an important challenge to make hydrogen a competitive energy carrier is a constant supply of renewable energy, such as solar, wind and hydropower. Given that the electricity generation potential of these sources vary seasonally and interannually, this paper proposes installing an electrolysis hydrogen production plant in a ship and move the ship to the locations where electricity is cheap, or where the seasonal potential for renewable generation is high. An example of electrolysis ship application is to produce green hydrogen with hydropower from the North region of Brazil and then sail to the Northeast region of Brazil and generate hydrogen using excess electricity from offshore wind power. The electrolysis ship concept is interesting because it has the flexibility to produce green hydrogen using the cheapest renewable electricity available in the market.

Keywords: green hydrogen, electrolysis ship, renewable energies, seasonal variations

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63 Optimal Tracking Control of a Hydroelectric Power Plant Incorporating Neural Forecasting for Uncertain Input Disturbances

Authors: Marlene Perez Villalpando, Kelly Joel Gurubel Tun

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In this paper, we propose an optimal control strategy for a hydroelectric power plant subject to input disturbances like meteorological phenomena. The engineering characteristics of the system are described by a nonlinear model. The random availability of renewable sources is predicted by a high-order neural network trained with an extended Kalman filter, whereas the power generation is regulated by the optimal control law. The main advantage of the system is the stabilization of the amount of power generated in the plant. A control supervisor maintains stability and availability in hydropower reservoirs water levels for power generation. The proposed approach demonstrated a good performance to stabilize the reservoir level and the power generation along their desired trajectories in the presence of disturbances.

Keywords: hydropower, high order neural network, Kalman filter, optimal control

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62 Offline High Voltage Diagnostic Test Findings on 15MVA Generator of Basochhu Hydropower Plant

Authors: Suprit Pradhan, Tshering Yangzom

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Even with availability of the modern day online insulation diagnostic technologies like partial discharge monitoring, the measurements like Dissipation Factor (tanδ), DC High Voltage Insulation Currents, Polarization Index (PI) and Insulation Resistance Measurements are still widely used as a diagnostic tools to assess the condition of stator insulation in hydro power plants. To evaluate the condition of stator winding insulation in one of the generators that have been operated since 1999, diagnostic tests were performed on the stator bars of 15 MVA generators of Basochhu Hydropower Plant. This paper presents diagnostic study done on the data gathered from the measurements which were performed in 2015 and 2016 as part of regular maintenance as since its commissioning no proper aging data were maintained. Measurement results of Dissipation Factor, DC High Potential tests and Polarization Index are discussed with regard to their effectiveness in assessing the ageing condition of the stator insulation. After a brief review of the theoretical background, the strengths of each diagnostic method in detecting symptoms of insulation deterioration are identified. The interesting results observed from Basochhu Hydropower Plant is taken into consideration to conclude that Polarization Index and DC High Voltage Insulation current measurements are best suited for the detection of humidity and contamination problems and Dissipation Factor measurement is a robust indicator of long-term ageing caused by oxidative degradation.

Keywords: dissipation Factor (tanδ), polarization Index (PI), DC High Voltage Insulation Current, insulation resistance (IR), Tan Delta Tip-Up, dielectric absorption ratio

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61 A Feasibility and Implementation Model of Small-Scale Hydropower Development for Rural Electrification in South Africa: Design Chart Development

Authors: Gideon J. Bonthuys, Marco van Dijk, Jay N. Bhagwan

Abstract:

Small scale hydropower used to play a very important role in the provision of energy to urban and rural areas of South Africa. The national electricity grid, however, expanded and offered cheap, coal generated electricity and a large number of hydropower systems were decommissioned. Unfortunately, large numbers of households and communities will not be connected to the national electricity grid for the foreseeable future due to high cost of transmission and distribution systems to remote communities due to the relatively low electricity demand within rural communities and the allocation of current expenditure on upgrading and constructing of new coal fired power stations. This necessitates the development of feasible alternative power generation technologies. A feasibility and implementation model was developed to assist in designing and financially evaluating small-scale hydropower (SSHP) plants. Several sites were identified using the model. The SSHP plants were designed for the selected sites and the designs for the different selected sites were priced using pricing models (civil, mechanical and electrical aspects). Following feasibility studies done on the designed and priced SSHP plants, a feasibility analysis was done and a design chart developed for future similar potential SSHP plant projects. The methodology followed in conducting the feasibility analysis for other potential sites consisted of developing cost and income/saving formulae, developing net present value (NPV) formulae, Capital Cost Comparison Ratio (CCCR) and levelised cost formulae for SSHP projects for the different types of plant installations. It included setting up a model for the development of a design chart for a SSHP, calculating the NPV, CCCR and levelised cost for the different scenarios within the model by varying different parameters within the developed formulae, setting up the design chart for the different scenarios within the model and analyzing and interpreting results. From the interpretation of the develop design charts for feasible SSHP in can be seen that turbine and distribution line cost are the major influences on the cost and feasibility of SSHP. High head, short transmission line and islanded mini-grid SSHP installations are the most feasible and that the levelised cost of SSHP is high for low power generation sites. The main conclusion from the study is that the levelised cost of SSHP projects indicate that the cost of SSHP for low energy generation is high compared to the levelised cost of grid connected electricity supply; however, the remoteness of SSHP for rural electrification and the cost of infrastructure to connect remote rural communities to the local or national electricity grid provides a low CCCR and renders SSHP for rural electrification feasible on this basis.

Keywords: cost, feasibility, rural electrification, small-scale hydropower

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60 Changing the Dynamics of the Regional Water Security in the Mekong River Basin: An Explorative Study Understanding the Cooperation and Conflict from Critical Hydropolitical Perspective

Authors: Richard GrüNwald, Wenling Wang, Yan Feng

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The presented paper explores the changing dynamics of regional water security in the Mekong River Basin and examines the contemporary water-related challenges from a critical hydropolitical perspective. By drawing on the Lancang-Mekong Cooperation and Conflict Database (LMCCD) recording more than 3000 water-related events within the basin in the last 30 years, we identified several trends changing the dynamics of the regional water security in the Mekong River Basin. Firstly, there is growing politicization of water that is no longer interpreted as abundant. While some scientists blame the rapid basin development, particularly in upstream countries, other researchers consider climate change and cumulative environmental impacts of various water projects as the main culprit for changing the water flow. Secondly, there is an increasing securitization of large-scale hydropower dams with questionable outcomes. Despite hydropower dams raise many controversies, many riparian states push the development at all cost. Such water security dilemma can be especially traced to Laos and Cambodia, which highly invest in the hydropower sector even at the expense of the local environment and good relations with neighbouring countries situated lower on the river. Thirdly, there is a lack of accountable transboundary water governance that will effectively face a looming water crisis. To date, most of the existing cooperation mechanisms are undermined by the geopolitical interests of foreign donors and increasing mistrust to scientific approaches dealing with water insecurity. Our findings are beneficial for the policy-makers and other water experts who want to grasp the broader hydropolitical context in the Mekong River Basin and better understand the new water security threats, including misinterpretation of the hydrological data and legitimization of the pro-development narratives.

Keywords: critical hydropolitics, mekong river, politicization of science, water governance, water security

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59 Optimization of Pumping Power of Water between Reservoir Using Ant Colony System

Authors: Thiago Ribeiro De Alencar, Jacyro Gramulia Junior, Patricia Teixeira Leite Asano

Abstract:

The area of the electricity sector that deals with energy needs by the hydropower and thermoelectric in a coordinated way is called Planning Operating Hydrothermal Power Systems. The aim of this area is to find a political operative to provide electrical power to the system in a specified period with minimization of operating cost. This article proposes a computational tool for solving the planning problem. In addition, this article will be introducing a methodology to find new transfer points between reservoirs increasing energy production in hydroelectric power plants cascade systems. The computational tool proposed in this article applies: i) genetic algorithms to optimize the water transfer and operation of hydroelectric plants systems; and ii) Ant Colony algorithm to find the trajectory with the least energy pumping for the construction of pipes transfer between reservoirs considering the topography of the region. The computational tool has a database consisting of 35 hydropower plants and 41 reservoirs, which are part of the southeastern Brazilian system, which has been implemented in an individualized way.

Keywords: ant colony system, genetic algorithms, hydroelectric, hydrothermal systems, optimization, water transfer between rivers

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58 Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant: Experimental-Parametric Design of a Hydraulic Structure Capable of Inducing the Artificial Formation of a Gravitational Water Vortex Appropriate for Hydroelectric Generation

Authors: Henrry Vicente Rojas Asuero, Holger Manuel Benavides Muñoz

Abstract:

Approximately 80% of the energy consumed worldwide is generated from fossil sources, which are responsible for the emission of a large volume of greenhouse gases. For this reason, the global trend, at present, is the widespread use of energy produced from renewable sources. This seeks safety and diversification of energy supply, based on social cohesion, economic feasibility and environmental protection. In this scenario, small hydropower systems (P ≤ 10MW) stand out due to their high efficiency, economic competitiveness and low environmental impact. Small hydropower systems, along with wind and solar energy, are expected to represent a significant percentage of the world's energy matrix in the near term. Among the various technologies present in the state of the art, relating to small hydropower systems, is the Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant, a recent technology that excels because of its versatility of operation, since it can operate with jumps in the range of 0.70 m-2.00 m and flow rates from 1 m3/s to 20 m3/s. Its operating system is based on the utilization of the energy of rotation contained within a large water vortex artificially induced. This paper presents the study and experimental design of an optimal hydraulic structure with the capacity to induce the artificial formation of a gravitational water vortex trough a system of easy application and high efficiency, able to operate in conditions of very low head and minimum flow. The proposed structure consists of a channel, with variable base, vortex inductor, tangential flow generator, coupled to a circular tank with a conical transition bottom hole. In the laboratory test, the angular velocity of the water vortex was related to the geometric characteristics of the inductor channel, as well as the influence of the conical transition bottom hole on the physical characteristics of the water vortex. The results show angular velocity values of greater magnitude as a function of depth, in addition the presence of the conical transition in the bottom hole of the circular tank improves the water vortex formation conditions while increasing the angular velocity values. Thus, the proposed system is a sustainable solution for the energy supply of rural areas near to watercourses.

Keywords: experimental model, gravitational water vortex power plant, renewable energy, small hydropower

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57 Gariep Dam Basin Management for Satisfying Ecological Flow Requirements

Authors: Dimeji Abe, Nonso Okoye, Gideon Ikpimi, Prince Idemudia

Abstract:

Multi-reservoir optimization operation has been a critical issue for river basin management. Water, as a scarce resource, is in high demand and the problems associated with the reservoir as its storage facility are enormous. The complexity in balancing the supply and demand of this prime resource has created the need to examine the best way to solve the problem using optimization techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the multi-objective meta-heuristic algorithm for the operation of Gariep Dam for satisfying ecological flow requirements. This study uses an evolutionary algorithm called backtrack search algorithm (BSA) to determine the best way to optimise the dam operations of hydropower production, flood control, and water supply without affecting the environmental flow requirement for the survival of aquatic bodies and sustain life downstream of the dam. To achieve this objective, the operations of the dam that corresponds to different tradeoffs between the objectives are optimized. The results indicate the best model from the algorithm that satisfies all the objectives without any constraint violation. It is expected that hydropower generation will be improved and more water will be available for ecological flow requirements with the use of the algorithm. This algorithm also provides farmers with more irrigation water as well to improve their business.

Keywords: BSA evolutionary algorithm, metaheuristics, optimization, river basin management

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56 Development of Numerical Model to Compute Water Hammer Transients in Pipe Flow

Authors: Jae-Young Lee, Woo-Young Jung, Myeong-Jun Nam

Abstract:

Water hammer is a hydraulic transient problem which is commonly encountered in the penstocks of hydropower plants. The numerical model was developed to estimate the transient behavior of pressure waves in pipe systems. The computational algorithm was proposed to model the water hammer phenomenon in a pipe system with pump shutdown at midstream and sudden valve closure at downstream. To predict the pressure head and flow velocity as a function of time as a result of rapidly closing a valve and pump shutdown, two boundary conditions at the ends considering pump operation and valve control can be implemented as specified equations of the pressure head and flow velocity based on the characteristics method. It was shown that the effects of transient flow make it determine the needs for protection devices, such as surge tanks, surge relief valves, or air valves, at various points in the system against overpressure and low pressure. It produced reasonably good performance with the results of the proposed transient model for pipeline systems. The proposed numerical model can be used as an efficient tool for the safety assessment of hydropower plants due to water hammer.

Keywords: water hammer, hydraulic transient, pipe systems, characteristics method

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
55 A Comparative Asessment of Some Algorithms for Modeling and Forecasting Horizontal Displacement of Ialy Dam, Vietnam

Authors: Kien-Trinh Thi Bui, Cuong Manh Nguyen

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In order to simulate and reproduce the operational characteristics of a dam visually, it is necessary to capture the displacement at different measurement points and analyze the observed movement data promptly to forecast the dam safety. The accuracy of forecasts is further improved by applying machine learning methods to data analysis progress. In this study, the horizontal displacement monitoring data of the Ialy hydroelectric dam was applied to machine learning algorithms: Gaussian processes, multi-layer perceptron neural networks, and the M5-rules algorithm for modelling and forecasting of horizontal displacement of the Ialy hydropower dam (Vietnam), respectively, for analysing. The database which used in this research was built by collecting time series of data from 2006 to 2021 and divided into two parts: training dataset and validating dataset. The final results show all three algorithms have high performance for both training and model validation, but the MLPs is the best model. The usability of them are further investigated by comparison with a benchmark models created by multi-linear regression. The result show the performance which obtained from all the GP model, the MLPs model and the M5-Rules model are much better, therefore these three models should be used to analyze and predict the horizontal displacement of the dam.

Keywords: Gaussian processes, horizontal displacement, hydropower dam, Ialy dam, M5-Rules, multi-layer perception neural networks

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54 Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation and Hydropower Potential: A Case of Upper Blue Nile Basin in Western Ethiopia

Authors: Elias Jemal Abdella

Abstract:

The Blue Nile River is an important shared resource of Ethiopia, Sudan and also, because it is the major contributor of water to the main Nile River, Egypt. Despite the potential benefits of regional cooperation and integrated joint basin management, all three countries continue to pursue unilateral plans for development. Besides, there is great uncertainty about the likely impacts of climate change in water availability for existing as well as proposed irrigation and hydropower projects in the Blue Nile Basin. The main objective of this study is to quantitatively assess the impact of climate change on the hydrological regime of the upper Blue Nile basin, western Ethiopia. Three models were combined, a dynamic Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) regional climate model (RCM) that is used to determine climate projections for the Upper Blue Nile basin for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 greenhouse gas emissions scenarios for the period 2021-2050. The outputs generated from multimodel ensemble of four (4) CORDEX-RCMs (i.e., rainfall and temperature) were used as input to a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model which was setup, calibrated and validated with observed climate and hydrological data. The outputs from the SWAT model (i.e., projections in river flow) were used as input to a Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) water resources model which was used to determine the water resources implications of the changes in climate. The WEAP model was set-up to simulate three development scenarios. Current Development scenario was the existing water resource development situation, Medium-term Development scenario was planned water resource development that is expected to be commissioned (i.e. before 2025) and Long-term full Development scenario were all planned water resource development likely to be commissioned (i.e. before 2050). The projected change of mean annual temperature for period (2021 – 2050) in most of the basin are warmer than the baseline (1982 -2005) average in the range of 1 to 1.4oC, implying that an increase in evapotranspiration loss. Subbasins which already distressed from drought may endure to face even greater challenges in the future. Projected mean annual precipitation varies from subbasin to subbasin; in the Eastern, North Eastern and South western highland of the basin a likely increase of mean annual precipitation up to 7% whereas in the western lowland part of the basin mean annual precipitation projected to decrease by 3%. The water use simulation indicates that currently irrigation demand in the basin is 1.29 Bm3y-1 for 122,765 ha of irrigation area. By 2025, with new schemes being developed, irrigation demand is estimated to increase to 2.5 Bm3y-1 for 277,779 ha. By 2050, irrigation demand in the basin is estimated to increase to 3.4 Bm3y-1 for 372,779 ha. The hydropower generation simulation indicates that 98 % of hydroelectricity potential could be produced if all planned dams are constructed.

Keywords: Blue Nile River, climate change, hydropower, SWAT, WEAP

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53 A Case Study of Alkali-Silica Reaction Induced Consistent Damage and Strength Degradation Evaluation in a Textile Mill Building Due to Slow-Reactive Aggregates

Authors: Ahsan R. Khokhar, Fizza Hassan

Abstract:

Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) has been recognized as a potential cause of concrete degradation in the world since the 1940s. In Pakistan, mega hydropower structures like dams, weirs constructed from aggregates extracted from a local riverbed exhibited different levels of alkali-silica reactivity over an extended service period. The concrete expansion potential due to such aggregates has been categorized as slow-reactive. Apart from hydropower structures, ASR existence has been identified in the concrete structural elements of a Textile Mill building which used aggregates extracted from the nearby riverbed. The original structure of the Textile Mill was erected in the 80s with the addition of a textile ‘sizing and wrapping’ hall constructed in the 90s. In the years to follow, intensive spalling was observed in the structural members of the subject hall; enough to threat to the overall stability of the building. Limitations such as incomplete building data posed hurdles during the detailed structural investigation. The paper lists observations made while assessing the extent of damage and its effect on the building hall structure. Core testing and Petrographic tests were carried out as per the ASTM standards for strength degradation analysis followed by the identifying its root cause. Results confirmed significant structural strength reduction because of ASR which necessitated the formulation of an immediate re-strengthening solution. The paper also discusses the possible tracks of rehabilitative measures which are being adapted to stabilize the structure and seize further concrete expansion.

Keywords: Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR), concrete strength degradation, damage assessment, damage evaluation

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52 Wind Energy Status in Turkey

Authors: Mustafa Engin Başoğlu, Bekir Çakir

Abstract:

Since large part of electricity generation is provided by using fossil based resources, energy is an important agenda for countries. Depletion of fossil resources, increasing awareness of climate change and global warming concerns are the major reasons for turning to alternative energy resources. Solar, wind and hydropower energy are the main renewable energy sources. Among of them, wind energy is promising for Turkey whose installed power capacity increases approximately eight times between 2008 - seventh month of 2014. Signing of Kyoto Protocol can be accepted as a milestone for Turkey's energy policy. Turkish government has announced 2023 Vision (2023 targets) in 2010-2014 Strategic Plan prepared by Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR). 2023 Energy targets can be summarized as follows: Share of renewable energy sources in electricity generation is 30% of total electricity generation by 2023. Installed capacity of wind energy will be 20 GW by 2023. Other renewable energy sources such as solar, hydropower and geothermal are encouraged with new incentive mechanisms. Share of nuclear power plants in electricity generation will be 10% of total electricity generation by 2023. Dependence on foreign energy is reduced for sustainability and energy security. As of seventh month of 2014, total installed capacity of wind power plants is 3.42 GW and a lot of wind power plants are under construction with capacity 1.16 GW. Turkish government also encourages the locally manufactured equipments. MILRES is an important project aimed to promote the use of renewable sources in electricity generation. A 500 kW wind turbine will be produced in the first phase of project. Then 2.5 MW wind turbine will be manufactured domestically within this project

Keywords: wind energy, wind speed, 2023 vision, MILRES, wind energy potential in TURKEY

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51 Stability Evaluation on Accumulation Body of Reservoir Slope in Rumei Hydropower Station, China

Authors: Yaofei Jiang, Liangqing Wang, Yanjun Xu

Abstract:

In recent years, geological explorations have been carried out on the Rumei hydropower station, China. After preliminary analysis of results, the mainly problem of slope in reservoir area is about the stability of accumulation body. It is found that there are 23 accumulations in various sizes in the reservoir area, and most of them are unfavorable geological bodies. Three typical (No. 1, 7, 17) accumulation body slopes were selected as subjects to investigate the stability of the slopes. Take No. 1 accumulation body slope as an example and basic geological condition investigation and formation mechanism analysis were carried out to study the stability and geological analysis of engineering influence of the slope. The accumulation body in the research area distributes along the river with natural slope of 32° ~ 37° which is the natural angle of repose of gravel. The formation mechanism is analyzed based on the composition and structure of the accumulation body. The middle and lower part of the body is dense full of gravel soil mixed with a small amount of sand gravel which is stable. In the upper part, gravel soil is interbedded with bad cemented gravel which as a weak surface is not conducive to slope stability. Under the natural condition before storing water, the underground water level is deep buried, mainly distributed in the bedrock, and the surface and groundwater discharge conditions of the accumulation body are good, which is beneficial to the stability of slope. The safety coefficient calculated by the limit equilibrium method is 1.14, which indicates the slope is basically stable. However, the safety coefficient drops to 1.02 when the normal storage level is 2895m, which is in a dangerous state. The accumulation body will be destabilized by a small-area instability to large-scale or overall instability.

Keywords: accumulation body slope, stability evaluation, geological engineering investigation, effect of storing water

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50 Improving the Efficiency of Pelton Wheel and Cross-Flow Micro Hydro Power Plants

Authors: Loice K. Gudukeya, Charles Mbohwa

Abstract:

The research investigates hydropower plant efficiency with a view to improving the power output while keeping the overall project cost per kilowatt produced within an acceptable range. It reviews the commonly used Pelton and Cross-flow turbines which are employed in the region for micro-hydro power plants. Turbine parameters such as surface texture, material used and fabrication processes are dealt with the intention of increasing the efficiency by 20 to 25 percent for the micro hydro-power plants.

Keywords: hydro, power plant, efficiency, manufacture

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49 Gilgel Gibe III: Dam-Induced Displacement in Ethiopia and Kenya

Authors: Jonny Beirne

Abstract:

Hydropower developments have come to assume an important role within the Ethiopian government's overall development strategy for the country during the last ten years. The Gilgel Gibe III on the Omo river, due to become operational in September 2014, represents the most ambitious, and controversial, of these projects to date. Further aspects of the government's national development strategy include leasing vast areas of designated 'unused' land for large-scale commercial agricultural projects and 'voluntarily' villagizing scattered, semi-nomadic agro-pastoralist groups to centralized settlements so as to use land and water more efficiently and to better provide essential social services such as education and healthcare. The Lower Omo valley, along the Omo River, is one of the sites of this villagization programme as well as of these large-scale commercial agricultural projects which are made possible owing to the regulation of the river's flow by Gibe III. Though the Ethiopian government cite many positive aspects of these agricultural and hydropower developments there are still expected to be serious regional and transnational effects, including on migration flows, in an area already characterized by increasing climatic vulnerability with attendant population movements and conflicts over scarce resources. The following paper is an attempt to track actual and anticipated migration flows resulting from the construction of Gibe III in the immediate vicinity of the dam, downstream in the Lower Omo Valley and across the border in Kenya around Lake Turkana. In the case of those displaced in the Lower Omo Valley, this will be considered in view of the distinction between voluntary villagization and forced resettlement. The research presented is not primary-source material. Instead, it is drawn from the reports and assessments of the Ethiopian government, rights-based groups, and academic researchers as well as media articles. It is hoped that this will serve to draw greater attention to the issue and encourage further methodological research on the dynamics of dam constructions (and associated large-scale irrigation schemes) on migration flows and on the ultimate experience of displacement and resettlement for environmental migrants in the region.

Keywords: forced displacement, voluntary resettlement, migration, human rights, human security, land grabs, dams, commercial agriculture, pastoralism, ecosystem modification, natural resource conflict, livelihoods, development

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48 Research Trends in High Voltage Power Transmission

Authors: Tlotlollo Sidwell Hlalele, Shengzhi Du

Abstract:

High voltage transmission is the most pivotal process in the electrical power industry. It requires a robust infrastructure that can last for decades without causing impairment in human life. Due to the so-called global warming, power transmission system has started to experience some challenges which could presumably escalate more in future. These challenges are earthquake resistance, transmission power losses, and high electromagnetic field. In this paper, research efforts aim to address these challenges are discussed. We focus in particular on the research in regenerative electric energy such as: wind, hydropower, biomass and sea-waves based on the energy storage and transmission possibility. We conclude by drawing attention to specific areas that we believe need more research.

Keywords: power transmission, regenerative energy, power quality, energy storage

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